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PWNS CRy Structures Vol. II Theory, Design & Details of Structures Prof. V.N. Vazirani Dr. M.M. Ratwani Dr. S.K. Daggal Analysis of Structures (THEORY, DESIGN & DETAILS OF STRUCTURES) « (Vol. 11) KHANNA PUBLISHERS 2-B, NATH MARKET, NAI SARAK, DELHI-110006 Other Related Books on Civil Engineering : Advanced Theory of Structures and Matrix Method by Vazirani and Ratwani Analysis of Structures Vol. I. by Vazirani and Ratwani Building Construction by J. Jha and Sinha Building Science and Planning by S.V. Deodhar Civil Engineering Estimating and Costing by Vazirani & Chandola Civil Engineering Materials by'S:V.Deodhar Computer Methods of Structures by Dr. Mukherjee and Som Concrete Structures by Vazirani and Ratwani Construction Equipment and its Management by S.C. Sharma Construction Management and Accounts by Vazirani & Chandola Databook in Civil Engineering by Vazirani & Chandola Design of Concrete Bridges by Vazirani, Ratwani and Aswani Design & Analysis of Steel Structures (Including Timber & Plas- tic) by Vazirani & Ratwani Elements of Matrix Analysis of Structures & Stability by V.K. Manickaseluam Fluid Mechanics including Hydraulic Machines by Dr. A.K. Jain Fundamentals of PERT/CPM & Project Management by Bhattacharjee Geology—Physical and Engineering by S.K. Garg Handbook of Civil Engineering (Vol. I, II, IID by Vazirani and Chandola Highway Engineering—(Including Expressways & Airport Engi- neering) by Dr. L.R. Kadyali & Dr. N.B. Lal Hydrology and Water Resources Engineering by S.K. Garg Irrigation Engineering and Hydraulic Structures by S.K. Garg Limit State Design (IS : 456-2000) by H. Mehra & V.N. Vazirani Maintenance Engineering (Repair & Maintenance of Civil Works and Structures) by Nayak Services in Building Complex and High Rise Building by V.K. Jain Sewage Waste Disposal and Air Pollution Engineering by S.K. Garg Soil Mechanics & Foundation Engineering by S.K. Garg Surveying and Levelling by-R: “Agor Traffic Engineering and: Transport Planning by L.R. Kadyali Transportation Engineering (Vol. I and II) by Vazirani and Chandola Water Supply, Waste Disposal and Enyironmental Pollution Engg. (incl: Odour, Noise and: Air Pollution) by A-K. Chatterjee Water Supply. Engineering by:S.K: Garg ANALYSIS OF STRUCTURES (THEORY, DESIGN & DETAILS OF STRUCTURES) (Vol. ID [A TEXTBOOK FOR ENGINEERING STUDENTS] Prof. V.N. VAZIRANTI, M.Se. (Struct.) Formerly, Dept. of Civil Engg., Delhi College of Engineering Dethi Dr. M.M. RATWANI, M.Sc. (Struct.) Formerly, Dept. of Civil Engg., Indian Institute of Technology, Dethi Corrected & Revised by Dr. S.K. DUGGAL Dept. of Civil Engg., Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology, Allahabad KHANNA PUBLISHERS : 2-B, NATH MARKET, NAI SARAK, DELHI-110006 Phones : 2391 23 80 ; 2722 41 79 @ Fax : 2398 03 11 Published by : , Romesh Chander‘ Khanna For, KHANNA PUBLISHERS 2-B, Nath Market, Nai Sarak, Delhi-110006. All Rights Reserved (This book or ‘part thereof cannot be translated or reproduced. in any form (except for review or criticism) without the written permission of the Authors and the Publishers.) Sixteenth Edition : 2005 Price : Rs. 250.00 ‘Typesetting at : Goswami Printers; Delhi. Printed at : Bright Printers, Phari Bhojala, Delhi-110006 | Preface ——— The authors are very much heartened by such a warm response received from the readers to the ‘Fifteen Editions’ of this book, that we are delighed to present this ‘Sixteenth Edition’, in up-dated and re- organised format. This edition is being presented after extensively revising the book as per the suggestions received from the teachers _ and students alike. This is perhaps the only comprehensive book on “Theory of Structures” covering a very wide range of topics keeping in view the curriculum followed and practices adopted in the field. The philosphy of the book is to empasize the physical under- standing of the basic concepts of structures by developing the theory into analysis and detailing of the structures. Clarity of presentation is further augmented by the appropriate use of figures and wide variety of typical worked examples. The book begins with the indepth coverage on the general concepts of Structural Analysis. It is followed by analysis of Indeterminate Beams by the force method, compatibility method or displacement method also known as stiffness method. Chapter 3 discusses the Elastic Theorems and Principles of Energy to analyse indeterminate structure. Before discussing the theorems the energy principles have been given. Chapter 4 on, Deflection of Statically Determinate Structures highlights the deflection of beams, frar-7s and all other structures by strain energy method. It is followed ipter: 5 giving insight into Strain Energy Method. Chapter 6, Slop wection. Method analyzes beams and rigid frames whether it is‘ ,atically determinate or indeterminate. Chapter 7, Moment Disifibution Method, a displacement method of analysis that is easy to apply in indeterminate beams and frames discusses this method in detail followed by Chapters on Column Analogy Method and Elastic Centre Method which analyses Columns, fixed Frames and fixed Arches in particular. Chapter 10 and 11 are on Redundant Frames and Analysis of Multi-Storey Frames, giving analysis of building frames winds loads. and seismic forces. Chapter 12 deals with Influence lines for Statically Indeterminate Beams which depicts the variations of the response functions while the unit load moves on the structure. Chapters 13 and 14 discusses Hinged Arch and Fixed Arches followed by Chapter on Cables and Suspension Bridges. Chapter 16 is on Dams, Retaining Walls and Chimneys which are yet another major part in structures. Chapter 17 deals with Plastic Analysis of Structures highlighting all the assumptions, theorems and analysing from the point of view on designing of any type of structure. The chapter also lists the mechanisms of all types of beams, frames and columns with practical designs. Chapter 18 deals with Statically Determinate Pin-Jointed Space Structures and Chapter 19 gives an overview of Statically Indeterminate Pin-Jointed Space Structures which is an important part of structural design and analysis. While Chapter 20 is on Curved Beams, Chapter 21 deals with details on Structural Dynamics. This chapter is simplified by theories, principles and analytical solutions without going into rigorous mathematical solutions for problems, with lots of solved problems. Chapter 22 highlights basics of Fatigue with regards to structures like aircrafts, ships etc. Towards the end-a separate section consisting of important multichoice questions with answers selected from various examina- tions like Civil Services, GATE, etc. are given to enrich the skills of students on the subjects. The another feature of this book is strong Appendices in form of important definitions, formulas, tables and data practical in nature which will be useful as ready reference for certain utilities. Lastly it can be said that this book is designed as a text for the students ‘persuing degree in engineering on one hand and as a tool of reference for engineers in field. It is hoped that the book in its new format will enjoy its ever increasing utility. In end authors and the publishers would like to thank numer- ous readers in India and abroad for their suggestions and comments, we hope that readers will still send in their valuable comments, sug- gestions and point out any mistake, omissions or errors so that they can be implemented in future editions. —Autiiors CONTENTS Chapter 1, GENERAL CONCEPTS 1.1. Introduction 1.2. Idealized Structure 1.3. Equations of Equilibrium 1.4, Free Body Diagram 1.5. Equations of Condition 1.6, Static Determinacy 1.7. Stability 1.8. Advantages and Disadvantages of Indeterminate Structures 7 1.9. Analysis of Indeterminate Structures 1.10. Kinematic Indeterminacy 2. ANALYSIS OF INTERMINATE BEAMS 2.1. Introduction 2.2, Propped Cantilevers 2.2.1, Analysis of Propped Cantilevers 2.3. Fixed Beams . 2.3.1. Fixing Moment for a Fixed Beam of Uniform Section 2.3.2. Effect of Sinking of Support Effect of. Rotation of a Support “ 2.3.3, Slope and Deflection at a Point, by Moment Area Method 2.4.1, Reactions at the Supports 2.4.2. Effects of Sinking of Supports EXERCISES 3. ELASTIC THEOREMS AND ENERGY PRINCIPLES 3.1. Introduction 3.2. Potential Energy 3.4, Principle of Superposition 3.5. Reciprocal Deflection Theorem 3.6. Betti’s Theorem 85 86 100 113 127 136 136 187 141 144 149 Chapter . Castigliano’s Theorems . The Muller-Breslau Principle . Complementary Energy . First Theorem of Complementary Bnerey EXERCISES 4. DEFLECTION OF STATICALLY DETERMINATE STRUCTURES 4.1, . Deflection by Strain Energy . Deflection and Slope of Beams and Frames . Deflection of Pin-jointed Frames . Effect of Temperature Change . Graphical Method of Deflection for Frames. Introduction EXERCISES 5. STRAIN ENERGY METHOD | 5.1. 5.2. Introduction. Solved Examples EXERCISES 6. SLOPE DEFLECTION METHOD. -, 6.1. . Basic Concepts and Definitions . Slope Deflection Equations . Procedure for Analysis . Analysis of Indeterminate Beams, . Portal Frames . Multistorey Frames . . . Portal Frames with Inclined Legs . Gable Frames. ‘ Introduction 7. MOMENT DISTRIBUTION METHOD . Introduction . Basic Concepts and Definitions . Stiffness-Factor Modifications . Procedure For Analysis ; . Analysis of Indeterminate Beams . Portal Frames . Frames with Sloping Leges . Multi-Storey Frames Page 150 155 159 159 163 165 165 165 166 176 117 196 209 212 212 213 259 262 262 Chapter 79. 7.10. TAL . Box-type Frames . Short-cut Method of Moment Distribution . Gable Frames EXERCISES 8, COLUMN ANALOGY METHOD 8.1, . Introduction 8.2. Short Columns 8.3. . Bending of Curved Bars 8.4. Theory of Column Analogy 8.5. . Stiffness and Carry-over Factors by Method of Column Analogy 8.6. Fixed end Moments due to Settlement of Support 8.7. . Moment of Inertia about any Axis 8.8. Moment of Inertia of Thin Strip about any Axis EXERCISES 9. ELASTIC CENTRE METHOD 9.1. . Introduction 9.2. Analysis EXERCISES 10. REDUNDANT FRAMES 10.1, 10.2. 10.3, 10.4. 10.5, 10.6. 10.7. 10.8. . Introduction . Analysis of Frames Redundant to First Degree . Deflection of Statically Indeterminate Structures . Frames with more than One Degree of Redundancy . Lack of Fit in the Members of Indeterminate Frame . Temperature Stresses in Redundant Frames . General Equation for Redundant Frames . Composite Structures EXERCISES 11. APPROXIMATE ANALYSIS OF MULTI-STOREY 1L.1. 11.2. 11.2. 11.3. FRAMES . Introduction . Approximate Analysis for Vertical Loads . Analysis of Building Frames under Wind Loads and Seismic Forces Kani’s Method EXERCISES Page 429 431 437 468 470 470 470 472 473 475 476 492 494 520 522 522 522. 531 532 532 533 536 550 5B 556 557 562 575 580 580 580 589 596 621 Chapter 12, INFLUENCE LINES FOR STATICALLY INDETERMINATE BEAMS : . wi 12.1. Introduction 12.2. Influence line for Bending Moment at any Point in Propped Cantilever 12.8. Influence Line for Shear at any Point in Propped Cantilever 12.4, Influence Line for Fixing Moment at the Fixed End of a Propped Cantilever 12.5. Influence Line for Reaction at the Fixed End of a Propped Cantilever ve 12.6. Influence Line for Reaction at the Simply Supported End of a Propped Cantilever ae 12.7. Influence Line for Bending Moment at any Point ina Fixed Beam 12.8. Influence Line for Shear Force at any Point in a Fixed Beam 12.9.. Influence Line for Fixing Moment at Support of Fixed End 12.10. Influence Line for Reaction at the Support of the Fixed Beam 12.11. Influence Line for Bending Moment at any Section of a Continuous Beam 12.12. Influence Line for Shear Force at any Pointin Continuous Beam 12.13. Influence Line for Support Moment of Continuous Beam : 12.14. Influence Line for Reaction in Continuous Beam 12,15, Influence Lines can be Drawn by, Conjugate Beam . EXERCISES a 13, TWO HINGED ARCH ” 18.1. Introduction 13.2. Analysis of Two-hinged Arches 13.3. Shear Force and Normal Thrust on 13.4. Effect of Rib-shortening oe 13.5. Parabolic Arch Subjected to Concentrated Load on 13.6. Parabolic Arch Loaded with Uniformly Distributed Load 13.7, Temperature Stresses - 18.8. Tied Arches Page 623 623 624 626 628 628 629 631 633 636 637 " 638 639 +639 667 669 669 670 673 673 675 677 686 691 Chapter 13.9. 13.10. 13.11. 13.12. 13.13. Symmetrical Circular Arches Graphical Integration Method of Calculating Horizontal Thrust Reaction Locus Two Hinged Spandrel Arch Influence Lines for B.M., S.F. and Nofmal Thrust for Parabolic Arches “EXERCISES 14, FIXED ARCHES 14.1. 14.2. 14.3. 14.4, 14.5. 14.6. Introduction Analysis of Fixed Arches Analysis of Fixed Arches by Elastic Centre Method Effect of Temperature Change Effect of Yielding of Supports Analysis of Fixed Arches by Column Analogy EXERCISES 15. CABLES AND SUSPENSION BRIDGES 15.1. 15.2. 15.3. 15.4. 15.5. 15.6. 15.7. 15.8. 15.9. 15.10. 15.11. 15.12. Introduction Analysis of Cables Under Concentrated Loads Analysis of Cables under Uniformly Distributed Loads ... Shape of Cable under Self-weight. Stresses in suspended Wires due to Self-weight Effect of Temperature change in Suspended Wires Anchorage of Suspension Cables Stiffened Bridges Bending Moment and Shear Force in Three Hinged Stiffening Girders Influence Lines for B.M. and S.F. in Three-Hinged Stiffening Girders Suspension Bridges with Two-hinged Stiffening Girders Temperature Stresses in Stiffening Girder EXERCISES 16. DAMS, RETAINING WALLS AND CHIMNEYS 16.1. 16.2. 16.3. 16.4. 16.5. Masonry Dams Causes of Failures of Dams Rectangular and Trapezoidal Dam Sections Retaining Walls . Types of Retaining Walls Page 693 695 702 706 714 716 719 719 719 725 740 741 744 153 755 755 155 760 765 767 767 769 172 7713 T17 789 793 197 800 800 801 801 814 815 Chapter Page 16.6. State of Equilibrium in Soil : oe 818 16.7. Theories of Earth Pressure ws, 820. 16.8. Coloumb’s Theory of Earth Pressure : a 826 16.9. Graphical Representation of Coloumb’s Theory— ; Rebhann’s Construction a 828 . Earth Pressure due to Submerged Soil _ oe 829 . Minimum Depthi of Foundation on 830 . Masonry Chimneys : ve 847 . Stresses in Masonry Chimneys re 847 EXERCISES Toth dl eee 856 17. PLASTIC ANALYSIS OF STRUCTURES 859 17.1, Introduction so 859 17.2. Maximum Strength of Elementary. Structures bot 860 17.3. Assumptions in Bending beyond Yield Point © 863 17.4. Plastic. Moment of a Section Peay 863 17,5. Moment Curvature Relationship aren ape 865 17.6. Shape Factor . 867 17.7. Plastic Hinges 1 " ia 870 17.8. General Theorems for Determination of Collapse Loads ae 877 17.9. Effect of Uniformly Distributed. Loads on 878 17.10. Statical and Mechanism Methods of. ‘Analysis of. Continuous Beams . cote B84 . Portal Frames and Gable Frames mea ws 894 . Plastic Moment Distribution Method 904 . Upper and Lower Bounds 907 14. Design Steps 920 . Effects of Axial Force 921 . Effect of Shear 924 . Local Buckling of Flanges and Webs 925 . Minimum Weight Design . 925 19. Minimum Weight Design by Heyman and Prager 932 . Practical Design 937 . Fourior-Motzkin Elimination Method 943 EXERCISES navel 945 18. STATICALLY DETERMINATE PIN-JOINTED SPACE, . STRUCTURES en 948 18.1. Concurrent Fortes in’ Space rn 18.2. Moment of a Force feet an 949 18.3. Constraint ofa PointinSpace == = w 950 Chapter 18.4. 18.5. 18.6. 18.7. 18.8. Tension Coefficient Method Simple Space Trusses Method of Sections Compound Space Trusses Complex Trusses EXERCISES 19. STATICALLY INDETERMINATE PIN-JOINTED SPACE STRUCTURES 1.1. Introduction EXERCISES 20. BEAMS CURVED IN PLAN 20.1. 20.2. 20.3. 20.4. Introduction Circular Beam Loaded Uniformly and Supported on Symmetrically Placed Columns Semi-circular Beam Simply Supported on Three Supports Equally Spaced Quarter Circle Beam Fixed at One End and Free at Other Carrying a Load ‘P’ at the Free End 20.50. Transversely Loaded Circular Beam EXERCISES 21, STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS 21.1. 21.2, 21.3. 21.4. 21.5. 21.6. 21.7. 21.8. 21.9. 21.10. 21.11, 21,12. 21,13. 21.14. 21.15. 21.16. Introduction Terms used in the Vibration Analysis Simple Harmonic Motion Free or Natural Vibrations Damping Damping Coefficient Mass Moment of Inertia Torsional Vibrations Energy Energy Methods of Vibration Analysis Rayleigh’s Method Equivalent Spring Stiffness of Combination of Springs ... d’Alembert’s Principle Newton’s Law of Motion Mathematical Modeling Application of the Principle of Virtual Displacement to Lumped-parameter Models Page 951 958 963 964 966 968 970 970 975 978 978 981 984 996 1008 1009 1009 1009 1012 1014 1015 1020 1021 1026 1027 1027 1029 1030 1031 * 1032 1033 1054 Chapter 21.17. 21.18. 21.20. 21.21. 21.22. 21.23. 21.24, 21.25. 21.26. 21.27. 21.28. Two-Degree Freedom System Undamped Case . Forced Vibrations under Harmonic Loading 21.19. Response of Viscous-Damped SDOF Systems to Harmonic Excitation Response to Support Motion Force Transmitted to Foundation Seismic Instruments on Vibrometers : Response to General Dyanmic Loading, Impulsive Loading.and Duhamel’s Integral Response of Undamped Oscillator Under Constant Force Response of Unstamped Oscillator under Rectangular Load Response of an Undamped Oscillator under, ‘Triangular. Load Numerical Evaluation of Duhamel’s Integral. ‘Undamiped System Numerical Evaluation of Duhamel’s Integral: damped System EXERCISES “22. FATIGUE 22.1 22.2, 22.3. “OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS Introduction Fatigue Life Prediction Fracture Mechanics Approach to Life-Prediction., ‘Answers APPENDICES By sriek “CON aapone . Definitions . SF. and B.M. Diagrams of Simple Beams” . Moment of Inertia . Propped Cantilever Fixed Beams . Propped Cantilever Continuous Beam of Two Equal Spans © Symuietrical Portal Frames with Hinged Supports Symmetrical Portal Frames with Fixed | Supports Page 1060 1062 1068 1077 1080 1083 1094 1095 1096 1099 1103 1112 111s 1117 ‘1117 1120 lige 1125 1173 1177 1186 1194 1197 1200 1203 1206 ‘1207 1215 Chapter 10. 1. 12. 13. 14, 15. 16. 17. 18. 19, 20. 21. 22, 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29, INDEX - Symmetrical Portal Frames with Inclined Legs and Hinged Supports Symmetrical Portal Frames with Inclined Legs and Fixed Supports Symmetrical Gable Frames with Hinged Bases Symmetrical Gable Frames with Fixed Supports Symmetrical Parabolic Two Hinged Arch Symmetrical Parabolic Fixed Arch Natural Frequencies of Vibration for Continuous Members Properties of Sections Properties of Sections of Thickness ‘? Cantilever Beams, B.M. and Shear Force Diagrams and Deflected Forms B.M. Diagram Drawn on Tension Side Fixed End Moments Built-in Beams of Constant Cross-section Propped Cantilevers of Constant Cross-section Formulae for Rigid Frames Conversion Co-efficients for Symmetrical Loads Cantilevers Geometrical Properties of Plane Sections Equal Span Continuous Beams Uniformly Distributed Loads Equal Span Continuous Beams Central Point Loads Equal Span Continuous Beams Point Loads at Third Points of Spans BIBLIOGRAPHY Page 1226" 1230 1236 1250 1267 1273 1279 1285 1295 1298 1301 1307 1310 1312 1313 1314 1316 1323 1324 1825 1327 1335, 1 General Concepts 4.1. INTRODUCTION A structure consists of a series of connected parts used to sup- port a load. Some of the elements composing a structure are tie rods, beams and columns. The combination of structural elements and the materials from which they are composed is referred to as a struc- tural system. Each system is constructed of one or more of four basic types of structures. Ranked in order of complexity of their force analy- sis, they are trusses, cables and arches, Frames, and surface struc- tures (folded plates and shells) made of rigid materials such as R.C.C., and air-inflated structures made of flexible materials. This chapter provides a general introduction to the subject of structural analysis. Structural analysis may be defined as the pre- diction of performance of a given structure under stipulated loads and/or other external effects, such as support movements and tem- perature changes. The performance characteristics of interest are stresses and stress resultants, such as axial forces, shear forces, and bending moments ; deflections ; and support reactions. Thus, the analysis of a structure involves determination of these quantities for a structure under given loading conditions. These unknown quanti- ties may be obtained by formulating a suitable number of independ- ent equations which are obtained from the three following types of relations or combinations which govern the behaviour of the struc- ture : 1. Conditions for static equilibrium of the internal and exter- nal forces (and couples) acting on the structure. 2. Stress strain relation of the material involved. 8. Geometrical relations between strains and displacement of points on the structure. Conditions 2 and 3 can be so combined as to eliminate the strains and obtain thereby direct relation between the stresses (in- 1 2 ANALYSIS OF STRUCTURES ternal forces) and displacements. To formulate the solution of the problem any of two basic approaches, the force-method and the dis- placement-method may be used. These approaches are described in a generalized fashion in sec. 1.9 etc, A real structure, in general, is three dimensional or space structure. The analysis of planar, or two-dimensional structures is considerably simple and less time consuming than the analysis of space, or three-dimensional structures. Fortunately, many actual three-dimensional ‘structures can be subdivided into planar struc- tures for analysis. Thus the most common form of structure that the engineer will have to analyze is. one that lies in a plane and is.sub- jected to.a force system that lies in the same plane: 4.2, IDEALIZED STRUCTURE In the real sense it is impossible to'carryout an exact analysis of a structure since stipulations are always made of the loadings and the strength of materials composing the structure. Furthermore, points of application for loadizigs must also be estimated. It is impor- tant, therefore, that the structural engineer develop the ability to model or idealize a structure so that a'practical force analysis of'the members can be performed. An analytical model:is a simplified rep- resentation, or an ideal, of a real structure for the purpose of analy- sis. The object of modelling is to simplify the analysis of:a.compli- cated ‘structure. The analytical model represents, as accurately as possible, the behavioural characteristics of the structure, while dis- carding much of the detail about the members, connections, etc., .that is expected to have little effect on the desired characteristics. Development of the analytical model involves consideration:of the factors such as representation of structure. by a line diagram, con- nections, and type of structure-planar or space.:) Line Diagram The analytical model of the structure selected for analysis i is represented by a line diagram. On this diagram, each member of the structure is represented by. a line coinciding with its centroidal axis. The dimensions of the cross-section of the members and the size of connections are not shown on the diagram. Fig. 1.1 shows the line diagrams for beam and column of the frame, Fig. 1.1 and members of a truss, Fig. 1.2. GENERAL CONCEPTS 3 Symbol representing rigid joint Anchorage detail Fig. 1.2 Connections Structural members are jointed together by rigid, or fixed, connections, and flexible or hinged, connections. A rigid connection or joint prevents relative translations and rotations of the member ends connected to it. The original angles between the members intersecting at a rigid joint are maintained after the structure has deformed under the action of loads. Such joints are capable of transmitting forces as well as moments between the connected members. These are represented by a point at the intersection of members or by a filled triangle [Fig. 1.3 (a)]. A hinged connection or joint prevents only relative translations of member ends connected to it. Such joints are capable of transmitting only forces. These are usually depicted by small circles at the intersections of members on line diagrams [Fig. 1.3 (6)]. In reality, howeyer, all connections exhibit 4 ANALYSIS. OF. STRUCTURES some stiffness toward joint rotations, owing to friction and metal behaviour. In this case a more appropriate model for a support or joint might be that shown in Fig. 1.3 (c). If the torsional spring constant & = 0, the joint is a pin or hinge, and if k > «, the joint is fixed, -—f = |. Fixed support Fixed-connected joint Pin support Pin connected joint @ © S Ff Torsional spring support Torsional spring joint © Fig. 1.3 When selecting a particular model for each support or joint, the engineer must be aware of how the assumptions will affect the actual performance of the member and whether the assumptions are reasonable for the structural design. For example, consider the beam shown in Fig. 1.4 (a). The angle connection at the support A may be jdealized as a typical hinge support. Furthermore, the support at B provides an approximate point of smooth contact and so it can be idealized as a roller. The idealized model of the beam is shown in Fig. 1.4 (6). P A __{| -—F 3—i Actual beam @ P ee L Idealized beam (6) Fig. L4