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PWNS CRy
Structures
Vol. II
Theory, Design & Details of Structures
Prof. V.N. Vazirani
Dr. M.M. Ratwani
Dr. S.K. DaggalAnalysis of Structures
(THEORY, DESIGN & DETAILS OF STRUCTURES)
« (Vol. 11)
KHANNA PUBLISHERS
2-B, NATH MARKET, NAI SARAK,
DELHI-110006Other Related Books on Civil Engineering :
Advanced Theory of Structures and Matrix Method by Vazirani
and Ratwani
Analysis of Structures Vol. I. by Vazirani and Ratwani
Building Construction by J. Jha and Sinha
Building Science and Planning by S.V. Deodhar
Civil Engineering Estimating and Costing by Vazirani & Chandola
Civil Engineering Materials by'S:V.Deodhar
Computer Methods of Structures by Dr. Mukherjee and Som
Concrete Structures by Vazirani and Ratwani
Construction Equipment and its Management by S.C. Sharma
Construction Management and Accounts by Vazirani & Chandola
Databook in Civil Engineering by Vazirani & Chandola
Design of Concrete Bridges by Vazirani, Ratwani and Aswani
Design & Analysis of Steel Structures (Including Timber & Plas-
tic) by Vazirani & Ratwani
Elements of Matrix Analysis of Structures & Stability by V.K.
Manickaseluam
Fluid Mechanics including Hydraulic Machines by Dr. A.K. Jain
Fundamentals of PERT/CPM & Project Management by
Bhattacharjee
Geology—Physical and Engineering by S.K. Garg
Handbook of Civil Engineering (Vol. I, II, IID by Vazirani and
Chandola
Highway Engineering—(Including Expressways & Airport Engi-
neering) by Dr. L.R. Kadyali & Dr. N.B. Lal
Hydrology and Water Resources Engineering by S.K. Garg
Irrigation Engineering and Hydraulic Structures by S.K. Garg
Limit State Design (IS : 456-2000) by H. Mehra & V.N. Vazirani
Maintenance Engineering (Repair & Maintenance of Civil Works
and Structures) by Nayak
Services in Building Complex and High Rise Building by V.K. Jain
Sewage Waste Disposal and Air Pollution Engineering by S.K. Garg
Soil Mechanics & Foundation Engineering by S.K. Garg
Surveying and Levelling by-R: “Agor
Traffic Engineering and: Transport Planning by L.R. Kadyali
Transportation Engineering (Vol. I and II) by Vazirani and
Chandola
Water Supply, Waste Disposal and Enyironmental Pollution Engg.
(incl: Odour, Noise and: Air Pollution) by A-K. Chatterjee
Water Supply. Engineering by:S.K: GargANALYSIS OF STRUCTURES
(THEORY, DESIGN & DETAILS OF STRUCTURES)
(Vol. ID
[A TEXTBOOK FOR ENGINEERING STUDENTS]
Prof. V.N. VAZIRANTI, M.Se. (Struct.)
Formerly, Dept. of Civil Engg.,
Delhi College of Engineering
Dethi
Dr. M.M. RATWANI, M.Sc. (Struct.)
Formerly, Dept. of Civil Engg.,
Indian Institute of Technology,
Dethi
Corrected & Revised by
Dr. S.K. DUGGAL
Dept. of Civil Engg.,
Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology,
Allahabad
KHANNA PUBLISHERS :
2-B, NATH MARKET, NAI SARAK,
DELHI-110006
Phones : 2391 23 80 ; 2722 41 79 @ Fax : 2398 03 11Published by : ,
Romesh Chander‘ Khanna
For, KHANNA PUBLISHERS
2-B, Nath Market, Nai Sarak,
Delhi-110006.
All Rights Reserved
(This book or ‘part thereof cannot be translated or reproduced.
in any form (except for review or criticism) without the written
permission of the Authors and the Publishers.)
Sixteenth Edition : 2005
Price : Rs. 250.00
‘Typesetting at : Goswami Printers; Delhi.
Printed at : Bright Printers, Phari Bhojala, Delhi-110006 |Preface
———
The authors are very much heartened by such a warm response
received from the readers to the ‘Fifteen Editions’ of this book, that we
are delighed to present this ‘Sixteenth Edition’, in up-dated and re-
organised format. This edition is being presented after extensively
revising the book as per the suggestions received from the teachers
_ and students alike.
This is perhaps the only comprehensive book on “Theory of
Structures” covering a very wide range of topics keeping in view the
curriculum followed and practices adopted in the field.
The philosphy of the book is to empasize the physical under-
standing of the basic concepts of structures by developing the theory
into analysis and detailing of the structures. Clarity of presentation is
further augmented by the appropriate use of figures and wide variety
of typical worked examples.
The book begins with the indepth coverage on the general
concepts of Structural Analysis. It is followed by analysis of
Indeterminate Beams by the force method, compatibility method or
displacement method also known as stiffness method. Chapter 3
discusses the Elastic Theorems and Principles of Energy to analyse
indeterminate structure. Before discussing the theorems the energy
principles have been given. Chapter 4 on, Deflection of Statically
Determinate Structures highlights the deflection of beams, frar-7s and
all other structures by strain energy method. It is followed ipter:
5 giving insight into Strain Energy Method. Chapter 6, Slop wection.
Method analyzes beams and rigid frames whether it is‘ ,atically
determinate or indeterminate. Chapter 7, Moment Disifibution
Method, a displacement method of analysis that is easy to apply in
indeterminate beams and frames discusses this method in detail
followed by Chapters on Column Analogy Method and Elastic Centre
Method which analyses Columns, fixed Frames and fixed Arches in
particular. Chapter 10 and 11 are on Redundant Frames and Analysis
of Multi-Storey Frames, giving analysis of building frames winds loads.
and seismic forces. Chapter 12 deals with Influence lines for Statically
Indeterminate Beams which depicts the variations of the response
functions while the unit load moves on the structure. Chapters 13 and14 discusses Hinged Arch and Fixed Arches followed by Chapter on
Cables and Suspension Bridges. Chapter 16 is on Dams, Retaining
Walls and Chimneys which are yet another major part in structures.
Chapter 17 deals with Plastic Analysis of Structures highlighting all
the assumptions, theorems and analysing from the point of view on
designing of any type of structure. The chapter also lists the
mechanisms of all types of beams, frames and columns with practical
designs. Chapter 18 deals with Statically Determinate Pin-Jointed
Space Structures and Chapter 19 gives an overview of Statically
Indeterminate Pin-Jointed Space Structures which is an important
part of structural design and analysis. While Chapter 20 is on Curved
Beams, Chapter 21 deals with details on Structural Dynamics. This
chapter is simplified by theories, principles and analytical solutions
without going into rigorous mathematical solutions for problems, with
lots of solved problems. Chapter 22 highlights basics of Fatigue with
regards to structures like aircrafts, ships etc.
Towards the end-a separate section consisting of important
multichoice questions with answers selected from various examina-
tions like Civil Services, GATE, etc. are given to enrich the skills of
students on the subjects.
The another feature of this book is strong Appendices in form
of important definitions, formulas, tables and data practical in nature
which will be useful as ready reference for certain utilities.
Lastly it can be said that this book is designed as a text for the
students ‘persuing degree in engineering on one hand and as a tool of
reference for engineers in field.
It is hoped that the book in its new format will enjoy its ever
increasing utility.
In end authors and the publishers would like to thank numer-
ous readers in India and abroad for their suggestions and comments,
we hope that readers will still send in their valuable comments, sug-
gestions and point out any mistake, omissions or errors so that they
can be implemented in future editions.
—AutiiorsCONTENTS
Chapter
1, GENERAL CONCEPTS
1.1. Introduction
1.2. Idealized Structure
1.3. Equations of Equilibrium
1.4, Free Body Diagram
1.5. Equations of Condition
1.6, Static Determinacy
1.7. Stability
1.8. Advantages and Disadvantages of Indeterminate
Structures 7
1.9. Analysis of Indeterminate Structures
1.10. Kinematic Indeterminacy
2. ANALYSIS OF INTERMINATE BEAMS
2.1. Introduction
2.2, Propped Cantilevers
2.2.1, Analysis of Propped Cantilevers
2.3. Fixed Beams .
2.3.1. Fixing Moment for a Fixed Beam of Uniform
Section
2.3.2. Effect of Sinking of Support Effect of. Rotation of a
Support “
2.3.3, Slope and Deflection at a Point, by Moment
Area Method
2.4.1, Reactions at the Supports
2.4.2. Effects of Sinking of Supports
EXERCISES
3. ELASTIC THEOREMS AND ENERGY PRINCIPLES
3.1. Introduction
3.2. Potential Energy
3.4, Principle of Superposition
3.5. Reciprocal Deflection Theorem
3.6. Betti’s Theorem
85
86
100
113
127
136
136
187
141
144
149Chapter
. Castigliano’s Theorems
. The Muller-Breslau Principle
. Complementary Energy
. First Theorem of Complementary Bnerey
EXERCISES
4. DEFLECTION OF STATICALLY DETERMINATE
STRUCTURES
4.1,
. Deflection by Strain Energy
. Deflection and Slope of Beams and Frames
. Deflection of Pin-jointed Frames
. Effect of Temperature Change
. Graphical Method of Deflection for Frames.
Introduction
EXERCISES
5. STRAIN ENERGY METHOD |
5.1.
5.2.
Introduction.
Solved Examples
EXERCISES
6. SLOPE DEFLECTION METHOD. -,
6.1.
. Basic Concepts and Definitions
. Slope Deflection Equations
. Procedure for Analysis
. Analysis of Indeterminate Beams,
. Portal Frames
. Multistorey Frames . .
. Portal Frames with Inclined Legs
. Gable Frames. ‘
Introduction
7. MOMENT DISTRIBUTION METHOD
. Introduction
. Basic Concepts and Definitions
. Stiffness-Factor Modifications
. Procedure For Analysis ;
. Analysis of Indeterminate Beams
. Portal Frames
. Frames with Sloping Leges
. Multi-Storey Frames
Page
150
155
159
159
163
165
165
165
166
176
117
196
209
212
212
213
259
262
262Chapter
79.
7.10.
TAL
. Box-type Frames
. Short-cut Method of Moment Distribution
. Gable Frames
EXERCISES
8, COLUMN ANALOGY METHOD
8.1,
. Introduction
8.2. Short Columns
8.3.
. Bending of Curved Bars
8.4. Theory of Column Analogy
8.5.
. Stiffness and Carry-over Factors by Method of
Column Analogy
8.6. Fixed end Moments due to Settlement of Support
8.7.
. Moment of Inertia about any Axis
8.8. Moment of Inertia of Thin Strip about any Axis
EXERCISES
9. ELASTIC CENTRE METHOD
9.1.
. Introduction
9.2. Analysis
EXERCISES
10. REDUNDANT FRAMES
10.1,
10.2.
10.3,
10.4.
10.5,
10.6.
10.7.
10.8.
. Introduction
. Analysis of Frames Redundant to First Degree
. Deflection of Statically Indeterminate Structures
. Frames with more than One Degree of Redundancy
. Lack of Fit in the Members of Indeterminate Frame
. Temperature Stresses in Redundant Frames
. General Equation for Redundant Frames
. Composite Structures
EXERCISES
11. APPROXIMATE ANALYSIS OF MULTI-STOREY
1L.1.
11.2.
11.2.
11.3.
FRAMES
. Introduction
. Approximate Analysis for Vertical Loads
. Analysis of Building Frames under Wind Loads and
Seismic Forces
Kani’s Method
EXERCISES
Page
429
431
437
468
470
470
470
472
473
475
476
492
494
520
522
522
522.
531
532
532
533
536
550
5B
556
557
562
575
580
580
580
589
596
621Chapter
12, INFLUENCE LINES FOR STATICALLY
INDETERMINATE BEAMS : . wi
12.1. Introduction
12.2. Influence line for Bending Moment at any Point in
Propped Cantilever
12.8. Influence Line for Shear at any Point in Propped
Cantilever
12.4, Influence Line for Fixing Moment at the Fixed End
of a Propped Cantilever
12.5. Influence Line for Reaction at the Fixed End of a
Propped Cantilever ve
12.6. Influence Line for Reaction at the Simply Supported
End of a Propped Cantilever ae
12.7. Influence Line for Bending Moment at any Point ina
Fixed Beam
12.8. Influence Line for Shear Force at any Point in a
Fixed Beam
12.9.. Influence Line for Fixing Moment at Support of
Fixed End
12.10. Influence Line for Reaction at the Support of the
Fixed Beam
12.11. Influence Line for Bending Moment at any Section
of a Continuous Beam
12.12. Influence Line for Shear Force at any Pointin
Continuous Beam
12.13. Influence Line for Support Moment of Continuous
Beam :
12.14. Influence Line for Reaction in Continuous Beam
12,15, Influence Lines can be Drawn by, Conjugate Beam .
EXERCISES a
13, TWO HINGED ARCH ”
18.1. Introduction
13.2. Analysis of Two-hinged Arches
13.3. Shear Force and Normal Thrust on
13.4. Effect of Rib-shortening oe
13.5. Parabolic Arch Subjected to Concentrated Load on
13.6. Parabolic Arch Loaded with Uniformly Distributed
Load
13.7, Temperature Stresses -
18.8. Tied Arches
Page
623
623
624
626
628
628
629
631
633
636
637
" 638
639
+639
667
669
669
670
673
673
675
677
686
691Chapter
13.9.
13.10.
13.11.
13.12.
13.13.
Symmetrical Circular Arches
Graphical Integration Method of Calculating
Horizontal Thrust
Reaction Locus
Two Hinged Spandrel Arch
Influence Lines for B.M., S.F. and Nofmal Thrust for
Parabolic Arches
“EXERCISES
14, FIXED ARCHES
14.1.
14.2.
14.3.
14.4,
14.5.
14.6.
Introduction
Analysis of Fixed Arches
Analysis of Fixed Arches by Elastic Centre Method
Effect of Temperature Change
Effect of Yielding of Supports
Analysis of Fixed Arches by Column Analogy
EXERCISES
15. CABLES AND SUSPENSION BRIDGES
15.1.
15.2.
15.3.
15.4.
15.5.
15.6.
15.7.
15.8.
15.9.
15.10.
15.11.
15.12.
Introduction
Analysis of Cables Under Concentrated Loads
Analysis of Cables under Uniformly Distributed Loads ...
Shape of Cable under Self-weight.
Stresses in suspended Wires due to Self-weight
Effect of Temperature change in Suspended Wires
Anchorage of Suspension Cables
Stiffened Bridges
Bending Moment and Shear Force in Three Hinged
Stiffening Girders
Influence Lines for B.M. and S.F. in Three-Hinged
Stiffening Girders
Suspension Bridges with Two-hinged Stiffening Girders
Temperature Stresses in Stiffening Girder
EXERCISES
16. DAMS, RETAINING WALLS AND CHIMNEYS
16.1.
16.2.
16.3.
16.4.
16.5.
Masonry Dams
Causes of Failures of Dams
Rectangular and Trapezoidal Dam Sections
Retaining Walls .
Types of Retaining Walls
Page
693
695
702
706
714
716
719
719
719
725
740
741
744
153
755
755
155
760
765
767
767
769
172
7713
T17
789
793
197
800
800
801
801
814
815Chapter Page
16.6. State of Equilibrium in Soil : oe 818
16.7. Theories of Earth Pressure ws, 820.
16.8. Coloumb’s Theory of Earth Pressure : a 826
16.9. Graphical Representation of Coloumb’s Theory— ;
Rebhann’s Construction a 828
. Earth Pressure due to Submerged Soil _ oe 829
. Minimum Depthi of Foundation on 830
. Masonry Chimneys : ve 847
. Stresses in Masonry Chimneys re 847
EXERCISES Toth dl eee 856
17. PLASTIC ANALYSIS OF STRUCTURES 859
17.1, Introduction so 859
17.2. Maximum Strength of Elementary. Structures bot 860
17.3. Assumptions in Bending beyond Yield Point © 863
17.4. Plastic. Moment of a Section Peay 863
17,5. Moment Curvature Relationship aren ape 865
17.6. Shape Factor . 867
17.7. Plastic Hinges 1 " ia 870
17.8. General Theorems for Determination of Collapse
Loads ae 877
17.9. Effect of Uniformly Distributed. Loads on 878
17.10. Statical and Mechanism Methods of. ‘Analysis of.
Continuous Beams . cote B84
. Portal Frames and Gable Frames mea ws 894
. Plastic Moment Distribution Method 904
. Upper and Lower Bounds 907
14. Design Steps 920
. Effects of Axial Force 921
. Effect of Shear 924
. Local Buckling of Flanges and Webs 925
. Minimum Weight Design . 925
19. Minimum Weight Design by Heyman and Prager 932
. Practical Design 937
. Fourior-Motzkin Elimination Method 943
EXERCISES navel 945
18. STATICALLY DETERMINATE PIN-JOINTED SPACE, .
STRUCTURES en 948
18.1. Concurrent Fortes in’ Space rn
18.2. Moment of a Force feet an 949
18.3. Constraint ofa PointinSpace == = w 950Chapter
18.4.
18.5.
18.6.
18.7.
18.8.
Tension Coefficient Method
Simple Space Trusses
Method of Sections
Compound Space Trusses
Complex Trusses
EXERCISES
19. STATICALLY INDETERMINATE PIN-JOINTED SPACE
STRUCTURES
1.1.
Introduction
EXERCISES
20. BEAMS CURVED IN PLAN
20.1.
20.2.
20.3.
20.4.
Introduction
Circular Beam Loaded Uniformly and Supported on
Symmetrically Placed Columns
Semi-circular Beam Simply Supported on Three
Supports Equally Spaced
Quarter Circle Beam Fixed at One End and Free at
Other Carrying a Load ‘P’ at the Free End
20.50. Transversely Loaded Circular Beam
EXERCISES
21, STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS
21.1.
21.2,
21.3.
21.4.
21.5.
21.6.
21.7.
21.8.
21.9.
21.10.
21.11,
21,12.
21,13.
21.14.
21.15.
21.16.
Introduction
Terms used in the Vibration Analysis
Simple Harmonic Motion
Free or Natural Vibrations
Damping
Damping Coefficient
Mass Moment of Inertia
Torsional Vibrations
Energy
Energy Methods of Vibration Analysis
Rayleigh’s Method
Equivalent Spring Stiffness of Combination of Springs ...
d’Alembert’s Principle
Newton’s Law of Motion
Mathematical Modeling
Application of the Principle of Virtual Displacement
to Lumped-parameter Models
Page
951
958
963
964
966
968
970
970
975
978
978
981
984
996
1008
1009
1009
1009
1012
1014
1015
1020
1021
1026
1027
1027
1029
1030
1031 *
1032
1033
1054Chapter
21.17.
21.18.
21.20.
21.21.
21.22.
21.23.
21.24,
21.25.
21.26.
21.27.
21.28.
Two-Degree Freedom System Undamped Case
. Forced Vibrations under Harmonic Loading
21.19.
Response of Viscous-Damped SDOF Systems to
Harmonic Excitation
Response to Support Motion
Force Transmitted to Foundation
Seismic Instruments on Vibrometers :
Response to General Dyanmic Loading, Impulsive
Loading.and Duhamel’s Integral
Response of Undamped Oscillator Under
Constant Force
Response of Unstamped Oscillator under Rectangular
Load
Response of an Undamped Oscillator under, ‘Triangular.
Load
Numerical Evaluation of Duhamel’s Integral. ‘Undamiped
System
Numerical Evaluation of Duhamel’s Integral: damped
System
EXERCISES
“22. FATIGUE
22.1
22.2,
22.3.
“OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS
Introduction
Fatigue Life Prediction
Fracture Mechanics Approach to Life-Prediction.,
‘Answers
APPENDICES By sriek
“CON aapone
. Definitions
. SF. and B.M. Diagrams of Simple Beams”
. Moment of Inertia
. Propped Cantilever
Fixed Beams
. Propped Cantilever
Continuous Beam of Two Equal Spans ©
Symuietrical Portal Frames with Hinged Supports
Symmetrical Portal Frames with Fixed | Supports
Page
1060
1062
1068
1077
1080
1083
1094
1095
1096
1099
1103
1112
111s
1117
‘1117
1120
lige
1125
1173
1177
1186
1194
1197
1200
1203
1206
‘1207
1215Chapter
10.
1.
12.
13.
14,
15.
16.
17.
18.
19,
20.
21.
22,
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29,
INDEX
- Symmetrical Portal Frames with Inclined Legs and
Hinged Supports
Symmetrical Portal Frames with Inclined Legs and
Fixed Supports
Symmetrical Gable Frames with Hinged Bases
Symmetrical Gable Frames with Fixed Supports
Symmetrical Parabolic Two Hinged Arch
Symmetrical Parabolic Fixed Arch
Natural Frequencies of Vibration for Continuous
Members
Properties of Sections
Properties of Sections of Thickness ‘?
Cantilever Beams, B.M. and Shear Force Diagrams
and Deflected Forms B.M. Diagram Drawn on Tension
Side
Fixed End Moments
Built-in Beams of Constant Cross-section
Propped Cantilevers of Constant Cross-section
Formulae for Rigid Frames
Conversion Co-efficients for Symmetrical Loads
Cantilevers
Geometrical Properties of Plane Sections
Equal Span Continuous Beams Uniformly
Distributed Loads
Equal Span Continuous Beams Central Point Loads
Equal Span Continuous Beams Point Loads at
Third Points of Spans
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Page
1226"
1230
1236
1250
1267
1273
1279
1285
1295
1298
1301
1307
1310
1312
1313
1314
1316
1323
1324
1825
1327
1335,1
General Concepts
4.1. INTRODUCTION
A structure consists of a series of connected parts used to sup-
port a load. Some of the elements composing a structure are tie rods,
beams and columns. The combination of structural elements and the
materials from which they are composed is referred to as a struc-
tural system. Each system is constructed of one or more of four basic
types of structures. Ranked in order of complexity of their force analy-
sis, they are trusses, cables and arches, Frames, and surface struc-
tures (folded plates and shells) made of rigid materials such as R.C.C.,
and air-inflated structures made of flexible materials.
This chapter provides a general introduction to the subject of
structural analysis. Structural analysis may be defined as the pre-
diction of performance of a given structure under stipulated loads
and/or other external effects, such as support movements and tem-
perature changes. The performance characteristics of interest are
stresses and stress resultants, such as axial forces, shear forces, and
bending moments ; deflections ; and support reactions. Thus, the
analysis of a structure involves determination of these quantities for
a structure under given loading conditions. These unknown quanti-
ties may be obtained by formulating a suitable number of independ-
ent equations which are obtained from the three following types of
relations or combinations which govern the behaviour of the struc-
ture :
1. Conditions for static equilibrium of the internal and exter-
nal forces (and couples) acting on the structure.
2. Stress strain relation of the material involved.
8. Geometrical relations between strains and displacement of
points on the structure.
Conditions 2 and 3 can be so combined as to eliminate the
strains and obtain thereby direct relation between the stresses (in-
12 ANALYSIS OF STRUCTURES
ternal forces) and displacements. To formulate the solution of the
problem any of two basic approaches, the force-method and the dis-
placement-method may be used. These approaches are described in a
generalized fashion in sec. 1.9 etc,
A real structure, in general, is three dimensional or space
structure. The analysis of planar, or two-dimensional structures is
considerably simple and less time consuming than the analysis of
space, or three-dimensional structures. Fortunately, many actual
three-dimensional ‘structures can be subdivided into planar struc-
tures for analysis. Thus the most common form of structure that the
engineer will have to analyze is. one that lies in a plane and is.sub-
jected to.a force system that lies in the same plane:
4.2, IDEALIZED STRUCTURE
In the real sense it is impossible to'carryout an exact analysis
of a structure since stipulations are always made of the loadings and
the strength of materials composing the structure. Furthermore,
points of application for loadizigs must also be estimated. It is impor-
tant, therefore, that the structural engineer develop the ability to
model or idealize a structure so that a'practical force analysis of'the
members can be performed. An analytical model:is a simplified rep-
resentation, or an ideal, of a real structure for the purpose of analy-
sis. The object of modelling is to simplify the analysis of:a.compli-
cated ‘structure. The analytical model represents, as accurately as
possible, the behavioural characteristics of the structure, while dis-
carding much of the detail about the members, connections, etc.,
.that is expected to have little effect on the desired characteristics.
Development of the analytical model involves consideration:of the
factors such as representation of structure. by a line diagram, con-
nections, and type of structure-planar or space.:)
Line Diagram
The analytical model of the structure selected for analysis i is
represented by a line diagram. On this diagram, each member of the
structure is represented by. a line coinciding with its centroidal axis.
The dimensions of the cross-section of the members and the size of
connections are not shown on the diagram. Fig. 1.1 shows the line
diagrams for beam and column of the frame, Fig. 1.1 and members of
a truss, Fig. 1.2.GENERAL CONCEPTS 3
Symbol
representing
rigid joint
Anchorage
detail
Fig. 1.2
Connections
Structural members are jointed together by rigid, or fixed,
connections, and flexible or hinged, connections. A rigid connection
or joint prevents relative translations and rotations of the member
ends connected to it. The original angles between the members
intersecting at a rigid joint are maintained after the structure has
deformed under the action of loads. Such joints are capable of
transmitting forces as well as moments between the connected
members. These are represented by a point at the intersection of
members or by a filled triangle [Fig. 1.3 (a)]. A hinged connection or
joint prevents only relative translations of member ends connected to
it. Such joints are capable of transmitting only forces. These are
usually depicted by small circles at the intersections of members on
line diagrams [Fig. 1.3 (6)]. In reality, howeyer, all connections exhibit4 ANALYSIS. OF. STRUCTURES
some stiffness toward joint rotations, owing to friction and metal
behaviour. In this case a more appropriate model for a support or
joint might be that shown in Fig. 1.3 (c). If the torsional spring
constant & = 0, the joint is a pin or hinge, and if k > «, the joint is
fixed,
-—f = |.
Fixed support Fixed-connected joint Pin support Pin connected joint
@ ©
S Ff
Torsional spring support Torsional spring joint
©
Fig. 1.3
When selecting a particular model for each support or joint,
the engineer must be aware of how the assumptions will affect the
actual performance of the member and whether the assumptions are
reasonable for the structural design. For example, consider the beam
shown in Fig. 1.4 (a). The angle connection at the support A may be
jdealized as a typical hinge support. Furthermore, the support at B
provides an approximate point of smooth contact and so it can be
idealized as a roller. The idealized model of the beam is shown in
Fig. 1.4 (6).
P
A
__{|
-—F 3—i
Actual beam
@
P
ee
L
Idealized beam
(6)
Fig. L4

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