ORGANIZED CRIME (Latino Gangs) OVERVIEW Drug Cartels and Drug Trafficking Organizations PRISON GANGS Mexican Mafia (La EME) La EME Oath and MO Nuestra Familia Nuestra Familia Oath and Structure Texas Syndicate Texas Syndicate Growth and Development Street and Prison Operations Mexikanemi Mexikanemi MO, Structure, and Schooling Street and Prison Wars Border Brothers and Paisas STREET GANGS Surenos 18th Street Gang Mara Salvatrucha Nortenos-Nuestra Raza-Northern Structure Fresno Bulldogs Netas Almighty Latin King Nation – Motherland Connecticut Latin king Charter ALKQN New York Florida Latin Kings Maniac Latin Disciples / Spanish Ganster Disciple Nation REGIONAL THREAT ASSESSMENTS NORTHEAST Washington Idaho Montana Oregon Utah Wyoming SOUTHWEST California Nevada Colorado Arizona New Mexico Texas 3 3 7 7 8 9 10 11 12 12 13 13 14 14 16 16 17 18 19 19 20 22 23 24 24 24 27 27 27 28 28 29 29 29 30 30 34 34 35 36 37

MID WEST Illinois Wisconsin Indiana

40 40 41 43

EAST COAST Rhode Island Massachusetts New York New Jersey Pennsylvania Maryland/DC/Virginia SOUTHEAST Tennessee North Carolina Georgia Florida CANADA LATIN AMERICA Mexico Central America Puerto Rico GENERAL TRENDS INDEX ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

44 44 44 45 45 48 49

51 52 52 53 54

55 56 56

57 59 77


ORGANIZED CRIME OVERVIEW The Drug Cartels and Drug Trafficking Organizations In order to understand the current state and power of the outlaw Drug Cartels, one must look back at a time when many drugs were legal in the United States. The euphoric effects of coca leaves have been known for thousands of years. Coca was grown in South America and later became a money source for the Columbians and other Drug Cartels. The first epidemic of cocaine use in America occurred during the late 19th century. Initially, there were no laws restricting the consumption or sale of cocaine. It became a key ingredient in “Coca-Cola.” In fact, cocaine was freely available in drug stores, saloons, from mail-order vendors, and even in grocery stores. It is reported that one drug manufacturer, in 1885, was selling cocaine in 15 different forms, including cigarettes, cheroots, inhalants, cordials, crystals, and solutions. In 1914, the U.S. Congress passed the “Harrison Act”, which tightly regulated the distribution and sale of cocaine. Although made illegal, there still was a “black market” for cocaine users. Powdered Cocaine was popular in the 1970s and Crack Cocaine in the 1980s, much of it sold by street gangs. Morphine was used to kill pain during the American Civil War and many soldiers on both sides soon became addicted to the drug. Beginning in the late 1800s opium was fairly popular. There were opium dens scattered throughout the “Wild West.” It arrived via Chinese immigrants who came to work on the railroads. Cowboys like “Wild Bill” Hickock and Kit Carson are said to have used the drug. Instead of walking up to a bar to drink whiskey, a cowhand was more likely in a prone position of a candlelit dim room smoking opium. It was not uncommon for Cowboys to spend days and nights at a den, often in the company of a prostitute, eventually becoming physically addicted to the drug. The semisynthetic drug Heroin was invented by the same makers of Bayer Aspirin and marketed as so-called “safe substitute” for Morphine in 1884. In 1914, the Harrison Act outlawed Heroin use in the United States but the drug trafficking organizations, including those in Mexico and South America, continued moving the drug into the United States. Usually, this was in the form of “Black Tar Heroin” as opposed to Asian “China White”. A German chemist first synthesized the drug Amphetamine, in 1887. By 1919, Methamphetamine, which was more potent and easier to make, was discovered in Japan. During World War II both the German Nazis and American forces distributed Amphetamine to soldiers to help them keep them awake and fighting. Amphetamine became illegal in the U.S. with the passage of the “U.S. Drug Abuse Regulation and Control Act of 1970”. However, many people in the 1970s continued to use “Speed”. Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs were known to distribute Methamphetamine in the 1970s and 1980s. When crackdowns on many precursor ingredients for ephedrine and pseudo-ephedrine began by law enforcement in the 1990s, many of the Mexican Drug Trafficking Organizations stepped in to supply “super-labs”. Marijuana, or Cannabis, is one of the oldest psychoactive plants known. The first recorded use of cannabis as a medicinal drug was in Chinese culture in 2727 B.C. It was later grown in Latin America and when it started to be outlawed by some states in 1915, drug trafficking organizations filled the void. By 1937, strong public reaction coupled with a campaign in the


public press and the movie “Reefer Madness” led to a federal anti-marijuana law. American’s drug appetite did not always end with this law. Today, marijuana is considered the most widely-used illegal drug in the United States. Canada has very strict laws governing the transport and possession of firearms. Visitors, including law enforcement officers, bringing firearms into the country must declare them in writing to a Customs Officer, and all firearms must be registered. United States citizens may bring “sporting” rifles and shotguns into Canada after first obtaining a Non-Resident Firearms Declaration Form and getting it approved. Some criminals in Canada do not want to go through the hassle of these laws and will introduce firearms illegally. Some organized crime groups trade B.C. Bud for firearms, or Cocaine for B.C. Bud, etc. Firearms in Mexico are severely restricted. Mexico allows two sporting rifles or shotguns of an acceptable caliber and 50 rounds for each for hunting, but a tourist permit must be obtained from a local Mexican Consulate. Mexican immigration officials place a firearms stamp on this permit at the point of entry. Since guns are so tightly controlled, Mexican Organized Crime Groups and Drug Cartels often seek out firearms from private U.S. dealers. These firearms are often used in drug related crimes, to assassinate rivals or kill police officials who do not take “la mordida” (bribes) from the Cartels. Mexican Drug Lords began appearing as soon as drugs in the U.S. were first outlawed. To them it was a matter of supply and demand and a good way to make a living. The life and death of Jesus Malverde has not been historically verified, but according to local legend in Culiacan, Sinaloa, Mexico, he was a “Robin Hood” type of bandit who was hanged by the authorities in 1909. This was just prior to the Mexican Revolution of 1910-1925. Since Malverde's “death”, he has been considered a hero to many of Sinaloa's poor highland residents. Many of them have earned a living through drug trafficking. The outlaw image has caused Malverde to be adopted as the patron saint of the region's drug trafficking business, and he was dubbed a “Narco-Santo”. Malverde even has a shrine in Culiacan, Mexico, that attracts thousands of people each year. The Catholic Church does not recognize him as a saint but many of the people do. It is from legends and real life drug traffickers like Malverde that the Mexican Drug Lords have tried to portray themselves not as villains but as heroes today. In the early 1980s, Miguel Angel Felix-Gallardo, along with Ernesto Fonesca-Carrillo and Rafael Caro-Quintero, ran the Mexican Federation (also known as the Golden Triangle). They were arrested in 1989 and split their empire after the torture and death of DEA Agent Enrique Camarena. In December 2001, Rafael’s brother Miguel CaroQuintero, who ran the Sonora Cartel, was arrested. Amado Carillo Fuentes, also known as “Lord of the Skies” was the leader of the Juarez Cartel, but died in 1997 during a plastic surgery operation in a fatal attempt to elude law enforcement and capture. The ArellanoFelix brothers organization (AFO) maintained control of Tijuana, Mexico, and Joaquin “Chapo” Guzman-Loera maintained control most of Sinaloa, Mexico. The Sinaloan Cartel is still run by “Chapo” Guzman-Loera, Ismael “Mayo” Zambada, and Hector “Guero” Palma-Salazar, all of whom are greatly feared by other cartels. “Guero” was arrested in June 1995 in Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico, at the home of a police commander. Over 30


federal police officers were arrested for providing him protection. He was sentenced to almost twenty years but has beaten other cases. “Chapo” was arrested but escaped from a Mexican prison, with inside help; he is still on the run as of 2006. The Drug Enforcement Administration lists “El Mayo” as Drug Lord #1. (1 DEA) The Arellano-Felix Organization (AFO) Cartel, also known as the Tijuana Cartel, was headed by brothers Benjamin, Ramon, Eduardo, Francisco, and Javier who helped run operations that they inherited from their Uncle Miguel Angel Gallardo-Felix in 1989. Benjamin was known as the brains of the AFO and Ramon as the muscle. They dominated drug delivery routes to California and spent approximately one million dollars per week in bribes to police and government! The AFO supplies approximately 50-100 tons of cocaine to the United States per year and they were responsible for well over 500 murders in Mexico and in the States to retain control; severe torture was their trademark! (2 CA-DOJ-SD) At times, the drug cartels will contract work out to street gangs. In May, 1993, a Tijuana Cartel hired hit squad drove around Guadalajara in search for rival drug lord “El Chapo” Guzman. Totally frustrated in their efforts, they left the area and were headed back to Tijuana by plane, when they spotted what they mistakenly thought was their target at the airport. A wild shoot-out ensued and seven people were killed, including Roman Catholic Cardinal Juan Jesus Posadas-Ocampo. The hit men were “30th Street Gang” members from San Diego. The drug cartels also use CA Mexican Mafia members from the U.S. as enforcers. Another hired gunman from San Diego Logan Heights Gang, David “PopeyeC.H.” Barron-Corona had a dozen skulls, all believed to be hits, and the letter “M” for Mexican Mafia tattooed on his body. He was killed in 1997 by ricocheting bullets after an attempt to assassinate Tijuana news editor Jesus Blancornelas who was critical of the Arellanos. (3 Alarma, Zeta) In 1994, Tijuana drug lord Javier Arellano-Felix was being transported by Federal State Police when other officers on the Tijuana Cartel payroll fired at them. There were casualties on both sides. Javier’s bodyguards quickly rushed him to safety. His brother Francisco was already in prison running family operations from the inside of a Mexican prison. Ramon was on the run and on the FBI’s “10 Most Wanted” list until his death in early 2002 in Mazatlan, Mexico, while gunning for rival Sinaloan drug lord Joaquin “Chapo” GuzmanLoera. Benjamin was captured shortly afterwards in Puebla, Mexico. An altar had been set up for his brother Ramon, leading credence to Ramon’s actual demise amidst rumors that he had faked his death. (4 Alarma, Zeta) The cartels have even corrupted a few American law enforcement workers and have been very accomplished at corrupting Mexican government officials. They have a saying, “Plata o Bala” (silver/money or lead/bullets). There have been dozens of murders of law enforcement officials by the cartels and they have increased their violence over the last few years. Tijuana Police Chief Jose Fredrico Benitez was killed after he promised to make reforms. The body of Jorge Garcia Vargas, a Commander of the National Anti-Narcotics Institute, was found along with three of his bodyguards in September 1996. On January 3, 1997, Hodin Gutierrez, a young prosecutor who had investigated the Benitez killing, was shot 120 times by four men carrying AK-47s. On February 27, 2000, there was a cartel ambush killing of Tijuana Police Chief Alfredo de la Torre. On March 15, 2000, there was a


murder in Mexico City of a lawyer for Jesus Labra Avila. Labra was the reputed financial wizard for the Arellano-Felix Cartel. In July 2003, eleven upper echelon members of the AFO were indicted by a Federal grand jury for multiple crimes under the (RICO) Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act. (5 US-DOJ) Marcos “Pato” Quinones was arrested in Mexico in April, 2003. He was a Logan Heights Treinta gang member from San Diego who rose through the ranks and became trusted by the AFO. He also just happened to be the brother-in-law of deceased EME member David Barron-Corona. In November, 2003, Mexican Mafia member and assassin, Jose Alberto “Bat’ Marquez was arrested in Mexico. Many of the AFO leaders were killed or arrested; they are down, but not out! In 2006, Benjamin Felix-Arellano still calls shots from behind bars. There are AFO replacements and they’ve made alliances to survive. They continue to intimidate government officials thought the use of threats, bribery, and murder. The Gulf Cartel was headed up by Juan Garcia-Abrego, currently doing a life sentence in the U.S. and housed at the ADX (#09935-000). The Gulf Cartel was based out of Tamaulipas, Mexico. They are currently allied with the AFO of Tijuana, MX. After Abrego was incarcerated, Angel “Chava” Gomez took over. Shortly after, Osiel Cardenas-Guillen took over the cartel. He was arrested in March, 2003, by the Mexican government and locked up but he still has a hand in operations from behind prison walls. Another key Gulf Cartel enforcer is Humberto Lazcano Lazcano who is considered an enforcer for Arturo Beltran Leyva in Nuevo Leon and Tamaulipas according to the National Center for Planning, Analysis and Information to Combat Crime. The center is an intelligence-gathering unit of the Mexico attorney general's office. The Gulf Cartel finally decided to hire a renegade elite Mexican military unit called “Zetas” to act as enforcers and to assassinate rivals. The Zetas are said to have received training by a Guatemalan commando unit called “Kabiles”. They have also received training, as part of an international agreement, by the US Special Forces at Ft. Benning Georgia. These military trained units pose a definite safety hazard for law enforcement, but so far most of the violence has been across the border in cities like Nuevo Laredo, Mexico. Intelligence does indicate they are operating inside the United States securing drug loads across the border and executing hits. Meanwhile, rival “Chapo” Guzman hired his own gunmen with names like “Los Lobos” and “Los Negros”; they are often recruited in the U.S. to fight Zetas in areas they protect. Edgar Valdez Villareal, also known as "La Barbie", quickly became a legend like “El Chapo”. He is known as a ladies' man with a fondness for Versace clothes, luxury automobiles, and has been known to hang out at fancy Mexican nightclubs. He is also a ruthless enforcer for the Sinaloan Cartel. “Barbie” has been a key player in the bloody turf war being waged in Nuevo Laredo for control of the Interstate 35 smuggling route into the United States. He is also believed to be behind much of the recent violence in central and southern Mexico, including the State of Guerrero, in the resort of Acapulco. While many of the major cartel leaders were locked up under the Fox Administration, they are still capable of communicating and operating. In January, 2005, “Chapo” Guzman’s brother, Arturo “El Pollo” Guzman was executed at La Palma prison in Mexico. This was


for revenge against the earlier death of Rodolfo Carillo-Fuentes of the Juarez Cartel. Carillo-Fuentes was the brother of Juarez Cartel Leader Vicente Carillo-Fuentes. The shooting was ordered by Gulf Cartel leader Osiel Cardenas-Guillen using a shooter aligned with the Arellanos (AFO). A couple of weeks later an attorney for CardenasGuillen was executed as revenge for the killing of Guzman. On January 20, 2005, six staff of a Mexican prison, including a Commander, were executed right outside the gates of the prison. It is suspected this was for the unwanted transfer of Miguel Caro-Quintero, brother of Rafael Caro-Quintero, involved in ordering the death of DEA Agent Enrique Camarena back in 1985. (6) PRISON GANGS Since prisons were founded, there have always been offenders who have banded together to attempt to control their prison environment. Many of these groups were made up of offenders from the same hometown or were of the same race. Offenders involved in these groups were not expected, nor did they remain loyal to these groups, as they moved throughout the prison system or when they were released. However, in the late 1950s and early 1960s, a new phenomenon began to take hold throughout many prisons. Groups of offenders began to band together and take an oath of complete loyalty to the group no matter what their location was in or out of prison. Regardless of their physical location, this oath committed them to these new “Prison Gangs.” Membership was for “Life,” so “Death” was the only way out! These prison gangs, or as they are now referred to by many correctional and law enforcement agencies as “Security Threat Groups” or “Disruptive Groups”, are much more violent than their street gang counterparts, especially as it relates to prisons and other incarcerated offenders per ratio. Prison gangs are more sophisticated than most street gangs. Prison gang members also have a higher propensity for violence. Many prison gang members are willing to, or have already, killed for their gang. Between 1970 and 1980, 189 inmates were killed behind prison walls in the California Department of Corrections, the majority of them by prison gang members. Street gangs and prison gangs are closely intertwined today with the “revolving door” of corrections. Often, street gang members are groomed by prison gang members to “put in work, earn their stripes, and make their bones.” If a street gang member is a prospect, he will have to prove himself out on the prison yard. Prison gang members once released usually return to the street and are expected to “collect taxes” for the prison gangs and kick back money or drugs to their brothers behind bars. (7 CDCR) Mexican Mafia Also known as “La EME,” this prison gang began at the Deuel Vocational Institute in Tracy, California, in late 1957. The group was initially called the “Baby Mafia” by some staff in the California Department of Corrections, and built its infrastructure based on their admiration of “La Cosa Nostra,” also known as the “Italian Mafia.” The objective of this group was to protect Chicano inmates from other predatory groups, to control criminal enterprises within the prison, and later to control the action in the barrios out on the street. One symbol for la


EME is the “Black Hand” patterned after La Cosa Nostra. Eventually, la EME began using the number “13” as a symbol for their organization. This symbolized the thirteenth letter of the alphabet (M) and the official color used by the group is blue. While there were EME members from Northern California from the very beginning, the main recruitment area for this group was Southern Californian (Sureños). By the mid-1960s, La EME had made many enemies of former Mexican Mafia members and Hispanic street gang members from rural Northern California (Norteños) referred to as “Farmeros” by EME members. By 1968, “La Nuestra Familia” (Our Family) had emerged a result of disdain of the Mexican Mafia for their victimizing and taxing of Hispanic inmates who were not EME members. These victims were primarily from Northern California and the resentment grew even stronger after a bloody dispute arose at San Quentin Prison in September 1968 over a pair of shoes called the “Shoe War.” Many violent assaults occurred between the Nuestra Familia and La EME during 19681972 in prison and on the street as both struggled for power. In December 1971, there were three hits made in Southern California. This was the first time law enforcement had dealt with these prison gangs on the street. La EME made their move for “he who runs the inside, runs the outside.” A very short truce occurred and a meeting was organized in December, 1972, at Chino Prison’s Palm Hall with the assistance of California Department of Corrections officials. At this meeting EME leader Rodolfo “Cheyenne” Cadena was killed, which resulted in a violent war that has continued to this date. (8) La EME Oath and Modus Operandi Under general rules, nobody is actually in charge of the entire gang. Some EME defense attorneys have even labeled the group “disorganized crime.” A convict named Joe Morgan was selected as the “Honorary Godfather” of La EME and died in 1994. Almost everything is subject to a vote, but there are “shotcallers” who have influence within the group. Members are called “carnales,” or brothers of the family. In La EME, a carnal is “to share everything and never snitch. The EME comes before all, even your family!” Gang discipline is enforced through “reglas” or rules “holding of court.” If determined guilty of a major violation, the violating individual is put on a hit list. (9 LACJ) Gangs that participate in EME politics and put in work for the prison gang on and off the streets are given a “red light.” They are not to be assaulted. The introduction of contraband into the prison system and dealing of drugs is a major gang activity. La EME tries to control the lockdown units with the power of fear. Gang members who do not kick back drug profits to the gang or do not take care of business are given a “green light” and their names are “put into the hat” to be assaulted on the streets, in jail or in prison. Originally, the EME was a “Blood in, Blood out” organization, meaning you had to kill to get in and die to get out. Some gang experts note that this rule has changed somewhat, as well as the caliber of prison gang members today. In-house discipline and violence keeps many would-be defectors, or those who do not kick back money or drugs, in check. For instance, three advisors to the movie “American Me”


from the Hazard barrio were executed in the early 1990s. The EME felt the movie was shown incorrectly and was a great disrespect. They did not like the way the movie depicted them as sodomists, plus, at the end it showed their leader killed by their own members when in actuality it was the Nuestra Familia who killed him. In 1995, a former EME member, along with his wife and children and a family friend, were massacred by EME hired hitmen from a Sureño street gang called “Sangra.” This former member was killed because he left the prison gang, but the killers also violated rules against killing children. One of the gunmen was himself shanked to death later at San Quentin’s Death Row by La EME. Loyalty to the group is a must! Other EME members have been killed just after their prison release, upon placement on parole in the California Department of Corrections. Not all Sureños in the United States, 18th Street, Mara Salvatrucha, etc., join this prison gang, but La EME continues to have an ample number of Sureño prospects in California barrios ready to join and pay allegiance to the feared group. In 1993, the EME’s Godfather Joe Morgan gave an “EME Edict” to Sureño street gangs in the LA area by threatening Sureños to stop doing drive-bys and do walk-ups to ensure they hit their target and not innocent civilians which was bad for business. La EME’s power was evident by the February 2000 Riot at Pelican Bay State Prison when Sur 13 inmates, loyal to La EME, attacked black inmates at one of the United State’s most secure prisons. One inmate was killed, over one dozen inmates were stabbed, and forty inmates were injured. Several RICO trials against EME members have caused instability, as there have been many power struggles between the different EME factions. La EME remains very violent and poses an officer safety concern. Recently, there have been documented instances where La EME has targeted law enforcement for retaliation due to suppression efforts. In San Diego, CA, Operation Mano Negra was started to address many security threat concerns. Nuestra Familia La EME began preying on weaker Chicano inmates in the mid-1960s, which some felt was against the “Chicano Pinto Power” and inmate protection organization they started out as. Problems had been brewing for quite awhile between Mexican Mafia and the Nuestra Familia members, but the big event that really started it was a dispute over a pair of shoes. These shoes belonged to none other than Hector “Mad Dog” Padilla of San Jose. Padilla fought with Robert “Robot” Salas who was from Hazard over the shoes. Padilla survived and dropped out of the Nuestra Familia by the mid-1970s. Salas (deceased November, 2004) was later sent to federal prison for other acts he committed on behalf of La EME. Many Los Angeles inmates had already been treating the Northern inmates bad and by disrespecting them like they were “Farmers” and a bunch of “Busters.” Nuestra Familia and Norteños call La EME and the Southerners “SURats” and “Scrapas.” (Some Maravillas also use this term now). Norteños often describe themselves today as “114% Buster” as a “badge of pride.” The Nuestra Familia was started by a few former EME members and inmates from Northern California who were opposed to EME tactics of preying on their own. Several groups mentioned at the time are the Blooming Flower (that was taking root), Familia Cinco, and La Nuestra Familia Mexicana. It was to be a cultural, revolutionary, and


military organization. One of the EME members who was against attacking fellow Chicano inmates helped write the Nuestra Familia Constitution between the lines of legal work in California Department of Corrections. It had ranks of El Padre, El Hijo, El Hermano Mayor, Hermano Menor, and Hijitos as ranks. Even early on, Nuestra Familia leaders like Juan Valdez had a close relationship to the Black Guerilla Family. Robert “Babo” Sosa, ran the San Diego Regiment of Nuestra Familia for easier drug trafficking, and also ran things in Santa Barbara, California. He had the NF Constitution reformatted and eventually became the sole Nuestra Familia General (Nuestro General). Babo was impeached along with his sidekick Nuestra Familia Captain “Death Row Joe” Gonzales. In a bloody war with Sosa, “Black Bob” Vasquez from Gilroy wrested control to become a NF General with fellow General “Brown Bob” Viramontes on “La Mesa.” The theme song for the Nuestra Familia was “El Corrido de Nuestra Familia.” After La Nuestra Familia came to power in the late 1960s, Norteño inmates began to use the letter “N” by the late 1970s to symbolize their allegiance to the North. “N” is also the 14th letter of the alphabet. Years before the Crips and the Bloods, the state prison system gave out either blue or red bandanas. The Nuestra Familia chose red since La EME and Sureños had adopted the color blue. Some will now say that red is for “the color their enemies shed.” The Norteños took the red ones, and “stole the color and symbols of the United Farm Workers” (huelga bird) used by Cesar Chavez who was a revered union organizer in Delano during that timeframe. However, there are no direct official ties between the Nuestra Familia and the United Farm Workers. The Nuestra Familia have their own banks. They robbed banks, dealt drugs, and taxed other gangs to fund their cause. When Nuestra Familia members were locked down in the early 1980s, they created another “Northern Structure” prison gang that came to be known as “Nuestra Raza.” Later, the Nuestra Raza was disbanded by the Nuestra Familia after many Nuestra Raza members thought they could run it alone without them. Some people say the Norte-Sur line is now roughly drawn across from Delano to the Bay Area, with the greater Fresno area separate of both. Other observers have noted that the line of demarcation does not really hold at all anymore with Northern California fast approaching 50 percent ratio of Norte14 to Sur13 members in many areas. Nuestra Familia Oath and Structure When a Nuestra Familia member is released from prison, he is expected to work twice as hard to see that his Familia is taken care of on the outside and works in conjunction with the organization on the inside. A Nuestra Familia member is a member until death as their oath states: • If I lead, follow me • If I hesitate, push me • If they (EME/SUR) kill me, avenge me • If I am a traitor, kill me! A Norteño Unity kite came out of Pelican Bay on September 16, 1996, (the anniversary date of the Shoe War and Mexican Independence Day) with orders for the end of red vs. red

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violence in the different Northern California barrios. In March 1997, a Nuestra Raza member, Sal “Lil Man” Castaneda, was killed execution-style near Castroville. His hands were arranged to show the 1-4 so everybody would know that it was serious business! The orders were believed to come down from Pelican Bay State Prison because he refused orders to kill his brother who was a Nuestra Raza drop out. He also refused to kill a gang outreach worker from Salinas who was criticizing the NF. Former General “Brown Bob” Viramontes was also soon killed by the Nuestra Familia in 1999 (he forgot the oath). “Mikio” Castillo, a longtime Nuestra Familia member from the mid-1970s who had the official Nuestra Familia symbol on his back, was shot in the head execution style when he got released to the streets. He was killed for not taking care of business by a couple of Nuestra Familia soldiers who wanted to move up the ladder. Nuestra Familia leaders also renamed La Mesa as the “Overall Governing Body or OGB” The Nuestra Familia are pulling bigger and bigger jobs, such as when Henry “Happy” Cervantes was schooling the younger Norteños on the street how to do cowboy operation bank robberies.” Cervantes was finally caught in Seattle, Washington. Practically the entire Nuestra Familia Overall Governing Body including Upper Council members James “Tibbs” Morado, Cornelio “Corny” Tristan, and Joseph “Pinky” Hernandez and Lower Council members Sheldon “Skip” Villanueva, and Gerald “Cuete/Shotgun” Ruvalcaba were implicated. David “Sir Dyno” Rocha from the late Dark Room Familia rap label and others, were also indicted on a RICO in early 2001. They were accused of ordering murders of individuals on the Nuestra Familia’s “green light” list in crackdowns on Sureño encroachment in areas like Santa Rosa, California. The RICO case had far reaching implications with the old leadership now incarcerated in the BOP at the ADXFlorence; however, La Nuestra Familia is projected by many analysts to rebound as it has many times before. Texas Syndicate The Texas Syndicate (TS) formed at San Quentin and Folsom Prison during the early 1970s. The nucleus was made up of inmates from Texas who were incarcerated in the California Department of Corrections (CDC). These inmates often came from the El Paso Tip (EPT), “Tip” referring to their hometown, not necessarily a group. According to Sgt. Bill Hankins who worked with the Prison Gang Task Force in the early 1970’s, while the Texas Syndicate was small in numbers, they were the most feared on the yard because of their propensity for violence and serious assaults. The TS did not officially call themselves Texas Syndicate until 1984. The founder of the TS, “Panchito” Gonzales, is currently housed at Pelican Bay State Prison and still serves as an advisor; however, all official orders presently come from Texas and have for many years. During the 1970s, the Texas Syndicate recruited heavily to build numbers within CDC. (19 CDCR) When the Southern vs. Northern California War heated up in all CDC institutions during the 1980s, some Texas Syndicate members picked sides and aligned themselves with the North, others aligned with the South. Those that did not go with the South and La EME, aligned themselves with the Nuestra Familia and could not get along with the Southern

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Texas Syndicate faction. The formal alliance was later broken with the Nuestra Familia and Norteño due to a lack of cooperation by both sides. At this time in 2006, it is “respect for respect” between the NF and TS. Some TS members were sent back to Texas institutions or paroled there after their California Corrections terms were over. Texas Syndicate Growth and Development The Texas Syndicate grew rapidly in the Texas Department of Criminal Justice (TDCJ) after the Estelle vs. Ruiz lawsuit dismantled the state’s inmate “building tender” system. Between 1980 and 1983, the Texas Syndicate was responsible for four homicides and numerous assaults. Between 1984 and 1985, there were fifty-two gang related killings, many attributed to the Texas Syndicate in their war with the Mexikanemi or Texas Mexican Mafia. In 1992, the Texas Syndicate signed a peace treaty with the Mexikanemi, which created a split in the organization. The TS went to war with the Raza Unida in 1995 and there is a “yellow light” (caution) between the two in 2006. TS went to war with the Texas Chicano Brotherhood 1998-1999, and with the Barrio Azteca 1995-1996. In late 1994, the TS declared war with the Barrio Azteca over a homicide that happened in the El Paso County Jail. They have been at odds with the Hermanos de Pistoleros Latinos (HPL) in the BOP. They have also had problems with the Tango Blasters, especially Houston Tangos. Today, the Texas Syndicate remains a serious security threat and appears to be broken up into three different factions: • Texas Syndicate Originals (Old School Chafas), • Texas Syndicate United • New Breed TS. • Street and Prison Operations Nearly a dozen slayings and attacks occurred on the streets of the Austin, Texas area in the late 1990s. The crimes remained unsolved but were eventually traced back to the state’s most feared prison gang: the Texas Syndicate. The TS schemed to collect a ten percent “tax” from every known drug dealer in town, even those who did not sell for the prison gang. Texas Syndicate members conduct their own investigations of prospects. They will ask to check inmate’s paperwork and will also verify members by group photographs. An FBI led multi-agency investigation was implemented, dubbed “Operation Texas Style.” Eventually, prosecutors indicted twenty-two Texas Syndicate members on a RICO statute, including a shotcaller named Hector Soto, as well as other members and associates on drug charges. Most of the men, facing overwhelming evidence caught on tape, pled guilty in federal court. They were sentenced from ten years to life in prison. ( San Antonio Express News) Some believed the convictions finished the Texas Syndicate, ending its high-profile era of drug dealing, but prison officials still have to deal with the TS inside Texas facilities. It is important to remember that suspected Security Threat Group members are housed in facilities around the state and are found in all custody levels. Whenever a Texas Syndicate member is released from a Texas, California, or federal prison, they are given a name of a TS member in charge of the city or area where they are going. Members must report to that

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person as soon as they arrive. The Texas Syndicate is not as powerful as it once was, but they are still a serious Security Threat Group to contend with. Mexikanemi Also known as “Texas Mexican Mafia” or “EME”, the Mexikanemi is not to be confused with the California Mexican Mafia. The Mexikanemi was started by inmates opposed to the leadership style and ideas of the intensely hated Texas Syndicate. Their Constitution was written by founder Heriberto “Herb/Muelas” Huerta and states, “In being with a criminal organization, we will function in any respect or criminal interest for the benefit or advancement of Mexikanemi. We will traffic in drugs, contracts of assassinations, prostitution, robbery of high magnitude, and anything we can imagine.” The Mexikanemi (Mexican Mafia of Texas) originated within the Texas Department of Criminal Justice and has a profound impact on the safety and security of staff and offenders in prison and on the streets of Texas. The Mexikanemi, both confirmed and suspected members, continues to be the largest Security Threat Group within TDCJ. They continue to participate in extortion, narcotics trafficking and murder, both inside and outside the confines of prison walls. The capital of the Mexikanemi is San Antonio, Texas (also known as Aztlan). The city is also called “La Oreja” (the ear), and its members “Orejones.” The Mexikanemi have used different tactics, including attempting to use religion as a cover for criminal practices under the guise of the “Mexikanemi Science Temple of Aztlan Inc.” Mexikanemi Modus Operandi, Schooling, and Structure In the early years of the Mexikanemi, members were required to be “schooled”. Members were taught Aztec culture, Nauatl language, Mexican Revolutionary History, the Mexikanemi Constitution, rules and regulations. Mexikanemi members commonly refer to each other as “Merecidos” (The Deserved Ones) and “Mexikanos.” In the mid-1990s, the Mexikanemi experienced a decline of cultural tradition amongst the younger members. The “New Wave” members lacked education in the “Ways of the Merecidos,” which created internal conflicts within the organization. These internal conflicts are ongoing; however, current trends reveal a “revival of the old ways.” In particular, old school leader, Rey Ramirez has been receiving letters from all over the BOP, Texas, and other areas. He has been trying to get members to settle their differences and stay unified. The prison gang Mexikanemi is structurally reorganizing and returning to their original practices. Their new goals include expansion, networking, and creating new alliances with other organized crime groups. The Mexikanemi continues to be structured along para-military lines: a President, VicePresident and Generals (inside and out) in key decision-making positions. Captains, Lieutenants, Sergeants, and Soldiers continue to be the backbone of the group. Similar to the Texas Syndicate, the largest source of revenue for the organization is a “street tax,” or money extorted from drug dealers. Sellers who refused to pay ten percent, also known as “the Dime,” are robbed, beaten, or killed by prison gang members. Gang associates sell heroin, cocaine and marijuana throughout San Antonio and parts of Texas.

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Street and Prison Wars The shotgun slayings of five people in a San Antonio residence in August 1997, known as the “French Street Massacre,” came on the orders of Mexikanemi General Robert “Beaver” Perez. In the French Street Massacre case, the gang was after drugs and a large sum of money it believed was at the residence. The bodies of five people were discovered, all shot in the head execution-style. Later, Perez allegedly ordered Captain Robert “Robe” Herrera and several other Mexikanemi members to execute one of the killers, Roberto De Los Santos, and also Adam Tenorio for bragging about the crime to non-members. De Los Santos was choked, beaten, and run over with a car. Tenorio’s eyes were gouged, his throat slit, and his body bounded with barbwire. Nine other killings over the prior three years were also blamed on this notorious prison gang. A RICO indictment accused the Mexikanemi of routinely dealing drugs, robbing, extorting and assaulting. There have been several recent cases of in-fighting and executions of Mexikanemi leaders as they vie for power. ( San Antonio Express) Border Brothers and Paisas Two Security Threat Groups that often go unnoticed are the “Border Brothers” (BB) and “Paisas.” At one time, “border brother” was just a term that a Chicano or MexicanAmerican might give a Mexican National whom he was friends with or was his drug connection. These “Border Brothers” would also often call each other “Paisa,” meaning “countrymen.” At this time; however, there are two distinct and rival groups: “Border Brothers” and “Paisas”. Many times, undocumented Mexican Nationals who are incarcerated will band together under one of these two groups. Border Brothers became formally organized in the California prison system in the mid-1980s. Their goal was to protect Mexican Nationals from other gangs. There were riots going on at Folsom Prison and other institutions and the Border Brothers were pressured by the Mexican Mafia and Surenos to carry drugs and weapons for them. They are usually an independent group of Mexican Nationals and South Americans that do not want to get caught up in Sureño and Norteño rivalries. Not all have Border Brother or Paisa tattoos. Many are currently booked in on a Violation Under the Controlled Substance Act. Intelligence suggests they may “code” drug dealing by wearing gold emblems of El Gallo (Rooster) = Marijuana, La Chiva (Goat) = Heroin, and El Perico (Parrot) = Cocaine. They may even refer to all as “Tres Animales” from a narco-corrido or song about drugs. Border Brothers or Paisas work as runners, or low men on the totem pole, for Drug Trafficking Organizations. They arrived in Arizona in the early 1990s, and like in California, they organized to protect themselves from the Arizona Mexican Mafia. When the BBs arrived in Arizona, new rules were established and a new tattoo and rank structure/governing board was adopted. They recruited many Mexican Nationals but criteria was lax compared some other Security Threat Groups. At this time, Border Brothers usually come from California or Arizona in the federal system, while Paisas come from all over. These are groups have been much misunderstood.

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The Border Brothers in AZ have eight written rules. Members are referred to as “Carnalitos”. Border Brothers are a bona fide Security Threat Group in some states and would sometimes wear “Hermanos de La Frontera”, “Union 22”, “Wetback” or “Mojado Power” (also a Phoenix-based street gang) tattoos as a badge of honor. At the current time, most “Wetback Power” are no longer joining the BBs. They feel they are strong enough as a group to hold their own and there is now friction between WBP and BBs. Los Tigres del Norte, a popular Mexican band, made a song “Que Viva Los Mojados,” which signifies pride in a term that in the past has been considered a putdown. Tattoos seen most often are: the letters “BB,” Border Brothers, Paisa, and Mojado (wetback). Also seen are tattoos of the names of their home states in Mexico, Nayarit, Durango, etc. The words, “Orgullo Mexicano” (Mexican Pride) may be seen. The Patron Saint of Mexico, La Virgen de Guadalupe, may also be seen. This is meant as a symbol of protection and may be tattooed on the back, neck, or over the heart. Aztec warriors, the snake and eagle from the Mexican flag are other common tattoos, but one must use caution as the California or Texas EME may also use these. In Arizona, Border Brothers are fairly well organized and have a distinctive tattoo: a circle with a radiating outer flame, an Aztec lion in the center along with “BB” or “22”. (AZ DOC-STG Website) Not all undocumented immigrants can be classified as Border Brothers, only those who identify themselves with this name (BB). They will usually have a building or unit representative who they’ll go to with their problems. That individual will then go to the representative of the other group to hash things out. Border Brothers are relatively low key compared to other groups, but will swiftly shank someone without regard for personal safety whether out on the street at a bar, at a cock-fight at a migrant camp, or in prison or jail if pushed hard enough. They will also band together for prison drug sales and other rackets. They have strong contacts on the streets, which stretch back to Mexico, the homeland of most. Nearly all Border Brothers are Mexican immigrants, some documented, but the majority of whom are undocumented. They share a common culture, homeland, language, and purpose to make a great deal of money and eventually return to Mexico. They have strong drug contacts in Mexico, especially black tar heroin and methamphetamine. The drug cartels have a working relationship with some Mexican Mafia members and they can provide safe housing in Mexico for Chicanos on the lam in the States. Border Brothers provide drugs and safe housing for “mules” and may act as “coyotes” for illegals. Violence has increased with immigrant smugglers on the Mexican border. (AZ Republic 11/03) In some Federal Bureau of Prisons, Border Brothers are now large enough in numbers to stand up to other gangs. These two different Security Threat Group factions of Mexican Nationals, Border Brothers and Paisas will also fight each other in the federal system. The Paisas developed in recent years as a protection group from Border Brothers. Paisas were thought to be neutral and get along with everyone unless preyed upon. In the federal system, Paisas could walk most yards, whereas the Border Brothers could not, as the BB’s had problems with Barrio Aztecas (2004) and Texas Syndicate (2005) and still do in

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2006. Recently, however, it appears Paisas are also having problems with BAs and TS. Paisas have their own separate by-laws. For instance Paisa Rule #8 states, “Whenever there is a problem in the yard report to your own states” (Michoacan, Oaxaca, Sinaloa, etc). Both groups use slang or code words for the different Mexican States: Tijuana = Tijuas, Mexicali = Chicali, Chijuajua = Chijuas, Juarez = Juaritos, etc. Paisas are generally considered good workers and cooperate; however, staff should be aware that with more freedom of movement of inmate trustees, there may be safety and security concerns. Paisas also have rules such as, “If something should happen with other races, and one Paisa is injured, the Paisas who are closest to the individual will help him out, or you yourself will be assaulted.” The peer pressure of this group demands that they back each other up. Recently, in Arizona, they have had problems with Native-Americans. On the street, both groups tend to drive four-wheelers, SUVs, and trucks versus the lowriders that many Chicano gang members drive. They may have Mexican State decals, Brahma Bulls, or horseshoe decals on the vehicle. They are known to wear a significant amount of gold jewelry, cowboy gear, and own guns. Their numbers nationwide are unknown at this time as they are not always easy to identify. These Mexican National Security Threat Groups are expected to grow and are becoming more violent, having already gone from protection groups to predatory groups. STREET GANGS Sureños “Sureño” means Southerner in Spanish. When you are dealing with Mexican-American or Chicano gangs, this term refers to Hispanic gangs in Southern California. It also refers to those gangs who have copied the Sureño style outside of Southern California or are part of the “Sureño Movement.” These gangs differ in size, tradition and sophistication. In Southern California, the gang structure is very loose; the make-up is more horizontal than the vertical hierarchy of many Mid-West and East Coast gangs. There are no Generals or Presidents, but there are Veteranos and “shotcallers” who have influence within their gang. Most Sureños do not personally know any Mexican Mafia (EME) members, but will still put “13” for the 13th letter “M” after their name as a matter of respect (Sur 13). Sureños are not so much foot soldiers for La EME, but are more like a pool from which La EME will recruit the best and most feared ones. 18th Street, Mara Salvatrucha 13, Florencia 13, 38th Street, and hundreds of other gangs originating in Southern California are all Sureño gangs. These Sur 13 gangs often have established themselves in large cities to small towns all across the country and war for control of drug trafficking with other local gangs. Law enforcement in these small towns often do not initially recognize these gangs as Sureños. Sur 13 gangs are often rivals on the streets and usually have few links to each other. They seldom wear unified colors in Los Angeles as they do not want to bring attention onto themselves by law enforcement or their enemies. Outside of Southern California, Sureños may wear blue to signify a unified group especially at parties or funerals. Sureños from different and sometimes warring gangs in Los Angeles may come together in other parts of

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the country. They may make truces with other gangs, but when they grow large enough, will often declare war on them. In the California Department of Corrections, Los Angeles County Jail, and on the street they are often at war with African-American gangs. (Sureño gangs in Los Angeles, California, will often use their area code, such as 213, in gang graffiti. Sureños in and out of Los Angeles may also adorn blue L.A. Dodgers baseball caps as another identifier. There are also Sureño gangs in other Southern California counties. Again, not all Surenos or Sur 13 gangs get along in California, but when they go to prison they are forced to band together on orders of La EME and because of the higher threat from other gangs such as Crips, Bloods, 415, and Norteños. Sureño migration has continued at a very fast pace throughout the United States and even across international borders. There may be local Sureño 13 gangs with no direct connection to Southern California. Many were developed by Mexican immigrants on the East Coast who spent little to no time in Los Angeles. Also, the Sureños or Sur 13 gangs may have non-Hispanics as members. It is not uncommon to see Native-American, Caucasian, or other races in Sureño gangs. Sureños are widespread, can be very violent, and are a very complex group to deal with. 18th Street This gang started on the West Side of Los Angeles around 1965. It was originally made up largely of 2nd generation Hispanic immigrants. As the 18th Street gang began to battle with more established Chicano gangs, they began to recruit outside of the Hispanic community. ILGIA estimates their size in 2006 to be 20,000+ members in over 120 U.S. cities. They are also big in Latin America. According to the Department of Justice, an estimated 60% were illegal immigrants. Colors are often Black & Grey (Raider Colors), Dark Blue (to show support for SUR13), but they may wear Red on the East Coast and beads as well. Common hand signs are forming an “18” or thrown sideways “E” (for Eighteen). Common 18th St. tats include: 18, XV3, XVIII, Diesocho, 666 (=18). The 18th Street gang now has chapters on the North (Hollywood area), in East L.A./County, and in South Central Los Angeles where their traditional enemies are the Florencia 13 gang. They also fight Black P-Stones (R20’s) in South Central and in jail. They now have cliques in San Diego, Las Vegas, Inland Empire, the Bay Area, Chicago, Texas Florida, and even a clique in New York. They are big in Portland, Oregon, and in Washington State where they have a web site. They are big in New Jersey where they fall under La Raza Unida umbrella. They have whole towns claiming allegiance to them in El Salvador, Guatemala, and Mexico with large cliques in Mexico City DF and Tijuana. They even show a clique from Australia on their main 18th Street website. In August of 1998, 26 year old LAPD officer Filbert Cuesta Jr., a member of the now defunct Community Resources Against Street Hoodlums (CRASH) unit, was sitting in his patrol car when an 18th Streeter walked up to his patrol car and shot him in the back of the head. It was a cowardly murder of a cop. While recent attention has focused on MS, 18th Street is actually larger in the U.S. and continues to be a serious security risk.

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MARA SALVATRUCHA Mara Salvatrucha (“MS-13”) has become one of the fastest growing and most violent street gangs in the U.S. The origins of MS-13 date back to Salvadorans escaping the El Salvador civil war and immigrating to the U.S. during the 1970’s and 1980’s. They settled in southern California where they integrated with other Hispanic immigrants. Some of these individuals had been members of paramilitary groups like the Farabundo Marti National Liberation Front (FMNL) during the civil war. FMNL was made up of Salvadorian peasants who were trained as guerilla fighters. A quote from Ernesto “Smokey” Miranda, co-founder of MS-13, illustrates the violent backgrounds many of these MS-13 immigrants had: “In our Country, we were taught to kill our own people, no matter if they were from your own blood. If your father was the enemy, you had to kill him. So the training we got during the war in our country served to make us one of the most violent gangs in the U.S. After being constantly victimized by the dominant Hispanic gangs, El Salvadoran immigrants banded together for self-protection and called themselves Mara Salvatrucha, or MS. The term “mara” means gang and the term “truchas” means trustee, or a look-out person. The “13” in MS-13 was adopted after MS aligned under the “Sureño” (meaning southern in Spanish) umbrella to demonstrate its allegiance to the “Mexican Mafia” (also known as “La EME”). “Eme” (the letter “M” in Spanish) is the 13th letter of the alphabet and several gangs use the number 13 in support of La EME. Gangs such as MS-13 aligned themselves with La EME in southern California correctional facilities primarily for protection.2 When the MS first started out many of their members were called “MS Stoners”. They had long hair and would listen to loud heavy metal music and would drive souped-up muscle cars. A common MS handsign is the index finger and pinky finger held up. Some of the members were also into Satanism and were involved with a Salvadoran National Guard Unit called "Santanas". There is another MS clique called "Sailor's" allegedly started by former military members. Allegedly many MS were initially members of soccer teams. Later, they evolved into a full-fledged gang, in part, to protect themselves from the Eighteen Street gang that was nearby and victimizing them. The MS did not consider themselves Surenos for approximately 15 years. Many of the older MS do not have any "13" markings, just "MS" tattoos. Finally the Mara Salvatrucha joined the Surenos back in 1994, during the Black vs. Brown riots in the Los Angeles County Jail system. Several Mexican Mafia RICO suspects had strong ties to MS and it is now common to see MS13. Their original colors were black from their Santanas roots, but they will also wear blue and white colors, which match the Salvadorian flag. On the East Coast they often wear blue and white beads. The MS have started taxing street vendors, prostitutes, small businesses, and street level drug dealers working in their turf. Failure to pay will most likely result in some type of violence. Mexicans, Guatemalans, Hondurans, and other Central Americans may join MS, but not exclusively. ILGIA puts their numbers in 2006 at just over 6,000 in the U.S. and between 25-50,000 worldwide. The reason for the wide margin of error is there may be over-reporting in Central America for political reasons. Intelligence from MS members on the street is that MS operates on seniority; usually the oldest is the leader or shotcaller. They quickly set up a

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system where the next oldest would take control if the oldest was arrested. The MS is active in several cities across the United States and has been spotted in New York, New Jersey, Washington D.C., Texas, Oregon, Washington, and even in Vancouver, BC. We have found that they often ride the trains from El Salvador, Honduras, through Guatemala, and across Chiapas, Mexico, and into the United States. They then travel to the Northern Border to try and escape detection. When they get to Vancouver, B.C. they often will deal in crack cocaine and some cases will trade for B.C. bud. One reason they might resist law enforcement is because back at home (in El Salvador) a pedestrian stop could result in torture or a .38 bullet to the back of the head. For example, in Los Angeles in the early nineties Los Angeles Police Department C.R.A.S.H. would routinely make subjects kneel with their hands on back of their heads until back-up arrived. Just remember that back home in El Salvador some cops can be just as bad as the crooks. Their only history was with the cops in Central America and they decided rather than die on their knees they would die fighting. Another officer safety issue is MS are more likely to be well versed in edged weapons and zip guns alike. They are also probably addicted to "banados" marijuana cigarettes laced with crack. They may also huff paint or glue which is often used to kill hunger and due to boredom. They might not have a “full deck” so officers should use caution when dealing with MS. (42) Northern Structure -Nuestra Raza-Norteños As previously stated, Norteño inmates began to use the letter “N” and the number “14” by the mid to late 1970s to symbolize their allegiance to the North, since “N” is the 14th letter of the alphabet. There has been a “Structure of the Nuestra Familia” since the mid1970s, but when the Nuestra Familia leadership was locked up in Administrative Segregation after RICO trials, they created the Nuestra Raza. Once the Nuestra Raza was disbanded; instead of Nuestra Familia, Northern Structure-Nuestra Raza, and Norteño, you now officially have just two levels: NF and Nortenos in 2006. All others are just considered Northerners. Norteños will rarely fight other Norteños and have spread to other parts of the Mid-West and even to the East Coast and Florida. They are being overrun by Sureños in many parts of Northern California. Norteños may not always wear red; for instance, several departments have observed them wearing the light blue colors of North Carolina to signify Northern California. Nuestra Familia and Norteño groups are not as large as La EME or Sureños, but may make up for it with a lot of violence. To add to the confusion some NR are now claiming “Northern Ryders” and some former NF (Drop-Outs) are calling themselves “New flowers”.

The Fresno War and the Bulldogs The Fresno Bulldogs (F-14) have operated in Central California for approximately fifteen years. The group was first started at San Quentin Prison, among inmates from the “Fresno Car.” Fresno was a large Nuestra Familia regiment and stronghold, but all the power and

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NF headquarters was in San Jose, California. They took on the mascot name of the Fresno State University Bulldogs. Their main area of activity on the streets was on the Eastside of Fresno and spread out to other parts of Fresno County. Fresno was one of the many burgeoning towns along Highway 99 in California’s San Joaquin Valley. The Bulldogs (BDS) had little local competition at first being the biggest gang in the area and rapidly expanded to other barrios. Later, they did at times battle with the growing Southeast Asian street gangs in Fresno. They usually wore red and bulldog symbols with spiked collars or just the bulldog head as tattoos. The Bulldogs will often greet each other and say good-bye by “barking” as their call sign. When the F-14 Bulldogs initially went to prison, they usually joined with the Nuestra Familia prison gang. Due to many killings by Nuestra Familia of Fresneros in the late 1970s and early 1980s, they later split from the Nuestra Familia. They felt disrespected by the Nuestra Familia so they broke away and became what is commonly known today as the “Fresno Bulldogs” (BDS). Later, there was a movement to align with Sureños as the Bull Dog Nation (BDN). This was soon turned down by the majority who vowed that the F-14 Bulldogs remain independent. BDN Leader Armando “Mousie” Morales tried to make amends with Nortenos in the BOP, but was assaulted by them in 2005 and is no longer considered a major player. Bulldogs will fight Bulldogs. (FPD, CDCR, BOP) Ñetas The Ñetas’ traditional enemies are the G-27 (Group 27 of June 1980) who originated from the Manuel A. Perez Housing Projects in the city of Rio Piedras, Puerto Rico. Meanwhile, Ñetas originated from the Barrio Monacillo area in Rio Piedras, Puerto Rico. They were formed in the penal system to defend themselves from inmates of the Manuel A. Perez Housing Projects (the G-27 predators). G-27 inmates are derogatorily called “Insectos” (insects) by Ñetas because the G-27 were known to have sexually assaulted, robbed, and killed weaker inmates in the Puerto Rican prison system. During the late 1970s and early 1980s, prison riots and killings caused a great deal of tension for the Puerto Rico Administration of Corrections. Over fifty deaths occurred as a result. These riots were due to the fact that Monacillo inmates (Ñetas) and adjacent barrios would no longer accept the rapes, torture, and stealing from the inmates of Manuel A. Perez Housing Projects (G-27). The riots escalated at the Bayamon Regional Jail after Monacillo inmates killed two Manuel A. Perez inmates who were well known rapist on June 27, 1980. This resulted in an on-going feud that continues to this day. An inmate named Carlos “La Sombra” Torres-Iriarte formed and became the recognized leader of the “Pro-Inmate Rights Association”, also known as Ñetas. Meanwhile, La Manota and two others formed the “Committee Pro-Quality of Life for Inmates,” also known as the G-27 Group in honor of the two inmates previously killed in Bayamon. Because of “La Sombra’s” growing influence within the Puerto Rican prison system inmates, the G-27’s executed him on March 30, 1981 by stabbing him many times and shooting him with a 22-caliber gun. “La Sombra” had been transferred to a G-27 prison stronghold where his life ended. Because of this transfer and execution, Ñetas to this day

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allege that the Puerto Rico Administration of Corrections was involved. In retaliation, Ñetas brutally executed G-27 leader “La Manota,” breaking into D-Unit where he was housed, and stabbing him over 400 times. After this, the Puerto Rico Administration of Correction separated Ñetas and G-27. They gave the Ñetas seven prisons in San Juan and Ponce and one prison in San Juan, Guayama, and the West Coast to G-27. This separation ended the war but to this day these two groups cannot live together in any one prison. Although all groups in the Puerto Rico Prison system tend to do the same crimes inside facilities, Ñetas try to emphasize their “Robin Hood” image of protecting the weaker inmates. They also portray themselves as active nationalist and freedom fighters. Ñetas regardless of the image they try to portray are killers, extortionist, drug traffickers who control 75 percent of the drugs in the Puerto Rican prison system. They are also very well politically connected. Inmates in the Puerto Rican prison system continue to have the right to vote. Ñetas use this lobby very effectively to get what they want. There are approximately 16,000 inmates in the Puerto Rican prison system and 68 percent are Ñetas. Those are a lot of votes. Together, with their family members, the Ñetas leadership holds a powerful voting lobby. Today, the Ñetas are more powerful in the Puerto Rican prison system than they were even during the late 1990s. They continue to hold the largest membership of any Security Threat Group to control drug trafficking and continue to influence Puerto Rican politics. It is important to note that Puerto Rican prison gangs do not claim their groups while in free society, they claim their barrios. They will, however, send money and drugs back to prison to the leadership as insurance in case of future incarceration. There are some differences in Ñetas from the Island and those in the United States. For instance, they do not use “red” because it is a G-27 color. In the United States, colors are red, white, and blue of the flag of Puerto Rican flag. Sometimes the color black substitutes for blue. They will say “Soy Boricua” for Borinquen, the original name of Puerto Rico as the Taino Indians referred to it. “150, 1.5, and 150%” are commonly used symbols in the United States and Puerto Rican system by Ñeta members. The index and middle finger crossed are a reflection of 1.50 meaning 150%. Some Stateside Ñetas refer to this hand sign as follows: The middle finger over the index finger means Ñetas protecting the weak and the thumb over the two fingers that are left is Carlos “La Sombra” holding back the G27. They hold a minute of silence on the 30th of every month and every March 30th praying for five minutes in memory of their fallen leader “La Sombra.” Stateside Puerto Ricans, especially from the East Coast, have a much stronger patriotic sense of pride even than those on the Island do. An example is the recent release of Machetero (Puerto Rican terrorist group) affiliates from the federal Bureau of Prisons. Most were born or raised Stateside. Ñetas have been very visible in Puerto Rican Day Parades in the United States. Ñetas consider themselves to be a higher quality inmate and are more commonly seen in the U.S. than the G-27. They can usually get along with Latin Kings who they refer to as “Primos” or cousins. They are enemies with Los Solidos, 20 Luv, and Elm City Boys (ECBs). Ñetas are involved in drug distribution, extortion, intimidation, and other crimes. Recent information shows that they are now involved in

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performing “hits” for other gangs. Ñetas can be found in many correctional facilities including New York, Connecticut, Florida, and many federal institutions.

Mid-West Almighty Latin King Nation Chicago: The Motherland The Latin Kings grew out of the Chicago street gang wars of the 1940s and 1950s. They developed a philosophy of “Kingism” and became a part of the “People Nation” during the 1960s polarization of Chicago gangs. Latin Kings have an established “Charter” and have well documented rules which members must strictly adhere to. Most members will have “King” in front of their name, i.e. King Carlos, King Luis, King Beto, etc. They will also use the slogan “Amor De Rey” or ADR, which means “King Love.” At one time, the Latin Kings and Maniac Latin Disciples joined forces to fight Vice Lords after they learned that a Vice Lord raped a Puerto Rican girl. The Latin Kings would show respect to the Maniac Latin Disciples by taking off their gang sweaters and carrying them over their arm when they walked through Maniac Latin Disciple neighborhoods. But on one occasion, a couple of Latin Kings refused, and when confronted by their leader “Hitler” and other Maniac Latin Disciples, a fight broke out. Hitler was fatally stabbed by a Latin King, thus, a war is on to this date. During the 1970s, North and South Chicago Latin King factions developed with each choosing their own President, or “Incas” or the “Supreme Crown.” “The Motherland” is located around the Humbolt Park area in the north and is predominately Puerto Rican. One of their leaders, Gustavo “Lord Gino” Colon, ordered a Corrections Officer to be killed in 1989 from behind prison walls. Colon was ultimately charged with the conspiracy while housed at the Menard, Illinois facility. He was convicted in 1998 along with his wife Marisol and two others. In May, 2000, Colon was sentenced to life in federal prison for masterminding a one million dollar cocaine ring and is presently incarcerated at the Florence-ADX Supermax prison in Colorado. ( Chicago Times) Another Latin King leader, Raul “Baby King” Gonzales, is a convicted murderer, and also has a large following. The South Side Kings are predominately Mexican. Tattoos typically include a 3- or 5-pointed crown, five dots, five-pointed star, cross, or the head of a king wearing a crown. Most Mexican factions of the Kings will utilize a five-pointed crown, while most Puerto Rican factions of the gang use a 3-pointed crown. Recently, Latin Kings and other gangs in Chicago have started wearing surgical gloves to prevent any gun residue from being used as evidence. Narcotics and firearms are not the only realms of activity that Latin Kings deal in. The gang has also cashed in on the fraudulent documents trade. The Chicago based Latin Kings have been seen collecting “street taxes” from vendors who sell the fake papers. All across the country, gangs are using violence and intimidation to garner leverage in the booming illegal documents trade, according to published reports. ( Nat’l Alliance of Gang Investigator Assoc.)

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In September 2000, a two- year undercover investigation resulted in drug charges against nineteen suspected suburban members of the Latin Kings street gang. The long-running probe by several suburban police departments and the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms (ATF) targeted mostly street-level dealers whose drug-sale profits help fund the gang’s operation. Gang members and associates have faced an array of drug-related charges, including felony counts of unlawful delivery of cocaine and marijuana. The investigation began in Glendale Heights, Illinois, when police there received a tip about drug dealing by gang members and associates. The probe later spread to West Chicago and focused largely on Latin King activities in those towns, although not all the drug sales occurred in just those towns. (Chicago Tribune) One mistake many people have is the idea of females being in the Almighty Latin King and Queen Nation (ALKQN) in Chicago. There are no official “Latin Queens” of any rank in the Humboldt Park sections, including “The Motherland.” Allegedly, the Latin Kings got rid of them because of the trouble they were causing. It seems to be a trend among the gangs in Chicago that the younger ones are the ones doing the shootings, while the older ones are more into making money. The older ones complain about the younger ones betraying gang alliances and traditions. Similar to the Mob years ago, when they could not control the “Young Turks.” Lord Gino is not happy that the Kings appear to be losing Spaulding (The Motherland) and is said to be sending a King from the South Side to straighten things out. Far North Side Kings are actually hooked up with South Side Kings and fought in the Motherland.

Connecticut Latin King Charter The Latin King Manifesto appeared in Connecticut in the late 1980s at Somers State Prison. The CT “Charter” is a term that originated in Connecticut as a result of a major disagreement in the early 1990s between CT Latin King co-founders Nelson Millet and Pedro Millan after they were housed in the BOP-Lompoc, CA. In 1992, Millet began to distrust Millan after he was transferred out and ordered a commando style shooting from a prison in Raybrook, NY, of non-conforming Latin Kings in Meriden, CT. Millan was convicted and given 12 years for this crime and his followers were identified as “Black Beads”. This resulted in the formation by Millet of the ALKQ Charter Nation and the “Manifesto” was replaced with a "Charter" that had a few fundamental changes and additions. The state was then broken down into five regions vs. tribes. The Charter Nation Kings remained aligned to the People Nation. During 1994-1995, the Connecticut Latin Kings and Los Solidos had a major war which resulted in many deaths on both sides, as well as numerous disturbances in correctional facilities. In the mid 1990s many of the Charter Nation leadership under Millet were convicted under RICO and sentenced to both state and federal prison systems. Recent intelligence from federal agencies shows that the Almighty Latin King & Queen Charter Nation is showing up in some of the mid-Atlantic States, as well in VT, NH, and Maine. This is believed to be a

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result of active recruiting within the state and federal prison systems were these members are now incarcerated. Presently, Los Solidos and Latin Kings can get along in CT. ( CT-DOC) Almighty Latin King/Queen Nation - New York City, New York Two of the biggest leaders in the history of the New York-style Latin Kings were Luis “King Blood” Felipe and Antonio “King Tone” Fernandez. These two individuals helped shape the “Bloodline” Latin Kings as they are today in New York. Regularly, the New York Police Department’s Gang Division arrests Latin Kings for firearms, narcotics distribution, murders, and other felony crimes. Recently, New York City Latin Kings (ALKQN) have been recruiting and reestablishing themselves in the drug trade and forming new chapters. While they are less cohesive than in previous years, they are still the most organized and second largest gang in New York City with approximately 2,500 members (the largest gang in NYC being the Bloods). Outside of New York City, in the suburbs (Nassau County, Suffolk County, Westchester County, Rockland County, etc.), are approximately 1,000 additional members. Gangster Killer Kings (GKK) is a tribe of Latin Kings who were from the Brushwich area of Brooklyn, New York. There has been noted intelligence that Chicago has attempted to entice some upstate and Bronx Kings to join up with them and follow the ways of the Motherland, mostly Lord Gino’s chapters. In August, 2003, HBO showed a documentary about the New York Latin Kings and King Tone. The Motherland (Chicago) was not pleased and recently, efforts have been made by “King Tone” himself for more Bloodline Kings to follow the Motherland. His projected release is in 2010. Latin Kings in Florida The “recognized” New York Kings Inca for Florida in 2004 was Jose “King Joey” Rosado. King Joey was recently convicted on Armed Trafficking of Heroin charges. The Chicago Latin Kings “recognized” Inca for Florida was Felix “King Speedy” Cuevas. Cuevas is currently incarcerated in the Florida Department of Corrections. The Westside Latin Kings in Polk County are not affiliated with Chicago or New York Latin Kings and will wear red; this is because they were Latin Bloods before they were Latin Kings. Latin Kings continue to be a serious Security Threat Group within the state. Maniac Latin Disciples and Spanish Gangster Disciple Nation The Spanish Gangster Disciple Nation (SGDN) was supposed to be an alliance of “Folks.” It was to stand for “Spanish Growth & Development,” but the idea was short lived. One of the most violent gangs in the Chicago area is the Maniac Latin Disciples. The Maniac Latin Disciples grew strong around Rockwell and Potomac, now called the “Twilight Zone.” Their hated enemies are the Latin Kings. The Latin Disciples started out in the 1960s as a baseball team with Victor Gonzales as their leader. An individual named

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“King Hitler” later turned the Latin Disciples into a street gang. Hitler was killed in the early 1970s by members of the Latin Kings. To this day, the Maniac Latin Disciples use a swastika to commemorate his death, but the symbol is usually backwards so as not to be confused with Aryan groups. They will also use hooded monk figures and the letter “D.” The crossed pitchforks of the Disciples are also usually included in Maniac Latin Disciples tattoos and graffiti. Their colors are black and light blue. Maniac Latin Disciples have recently taken to identifying themselves by sporting University of North Carolina jackets. Some Disciples wear Duke University jackets and claim “Duke” means “Disciples Utilizing Knowledge Everyday.” A Maniac Latin Disciple named “Pete the Burner” coined the phrase “Maniac” when in open court the judge added years on to his sentence because he escaped from police custody after being arrested for shooting at the police. He stated, “Go ahead give me the time. I’m a Maniac!” and the phrase stuck. The Maniac Latin Disciples took over the “Scorpions” gang’s clubhouse and some of the Scorpions later joined a Puerto Rican Motorcycle gang called the “Hells Stompers,” but MLDs never started out as Scorpions. A past Maniac Latin Disciple leader Fernando “Fernie” Zayas remains incarcerated in the Illinois Department of Corrections. Many of the younger Maniac Latin Disciples (MLD) do not even know him, and he is no longer in control of the gang. It was Fernie who stopped the Spanish Gangster Disciple Nation concept. Gangster Disciple leader Larry Hoover carried out “Growth & Development” for Black Folk gang members anyway which is now called “Our Continued Growth.” The current MLD leader is Francisco “Pimp Daddy” Garcia who is the brother of Enrique “Rick Dog” Garcia, “Prince” of the MLDs until he was murdered. The Maniac Latin Disciples have 32 sets in and around Chicago. This street gang can also be found in Michigan; Milwaukee, Wisconsin; Elgin, Waukegan, and Cicero, Illinois; Florida; and in parts of the East Coast. In April, 2001, a leader of the Maniac Latin Disciples drug organization and nine other gang members or associates were convicted in federal court on drug conspiracy charges. MLD leader Thomas “Outlaw” Ross and his “Outlawz” crew ran a massive crack cocaine operation that sold mainly in the Wicker Park and Bucktown areas, which spanned more than a decade. The trial offered an inside look at how the gang ran its drug business and offered wiretapped telephone conversations from Ross and testimony from former gang members. A ledger showed that Ross was bringing in hundreds of thousands of dollars within six months in 1999. Three other high-ranking members of the gang were also convicted, along with six lesser players in the drug ring. (Chicago Sun Times) The Spanish Cobras were originally Maniac Latin Disciples and broke off later. The Maniac Latin Disciples allowed Spanish Cobras to set up sections around Potomac and Artesian and Campbell, just east of Rockwell and Potomac. They did this because they would be a gang buffer zone. When Latin Kings would roll down Rockwell westbound from Leavitt, they would have to pass through Spanish Cobras before they ever got to the Maniac Latin Disciples. Spanish Cobras are another group who have been successful at drug dealing and are also known for being very violent wherever they ran it.

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Chicago police have had many dealings with this gang including the recent investigation into the murder of a 12-year-old kid Miguel DeLaRosa, who was shot July 2000 while riding on his bicycle in the Humboldt Park area. Several member of this gang were also arrested in January 2004, for their involvement in numerous counts of armed robberies, home invasion robberies, and kidnapping. The robbery operation was well organized, with suspects using two-way radios to communicate with each other during some of the crimes, in which they entered the businesses wearing masks and robbed both employees and patrons at gunpoint. The Spanish Cobras are closely associated with the Insane Family and will sometimes wear Boston Celtics hats for the “C,” which stands for Cobras. Their colors are also black and green and they also use a diamond shaped spear. The Latin Eagles are also aligned with Folks. Their colors are gray and black. The Latin Eagle handsign are arms across the chest with fingers extended as wings of the thumb, index and middle fingers to make an “E” very similar to the 18th Street gang’s handsign, but in this case the “E” is for eagle. The Spanish Cobras have been at war with the Latin Eagles now for some time, and also recently, the Maniac Latin Disciples have gone to war with the Latin Eagles. The Spanish Cobras and Maniac Latin Disciples are also at war with each other. So they are not much of a so-called Folk alliance. (56)

REGIONAL THREAT ASSESSMENTS Northwest Washington 18th Street is also heavily represented in Eastern Washington and has just under 200 members in Washington State. Florencia also has about 200 members in Washington and F13 continues to migrate into Washington and foster alliances with other Sureño gangs.

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Varrio Locos 13 (VL13) number about 350 members and are involved marijuana sales and auto theft. Southside Locos 13 (SSL13) number about 150 members and have been quiet since the takedown arrest of a SSL13 leader. Gangster Sureños Clica of South Park had been very quiet due to one of its leaders being in custody and another fleeing out of state, but they now appear to be reemerging with a few younger hard-core followers. An MS member was armed and arrested in L.A. in late 2004 for the homicide of a Seattle VL13 member. Before his arrest, this MS member got into a shootout with Federal Agents in Federal Way, WA. He is suspected of involvement in several other shootings. Local MS members were targeted during “Operation Community Shield”, but a local shot caller, Yani “Lazy” Gonzales, only spent a couple of weeks in jail before he was out on the street again. Mara Salvatrucha has been an up and down problem in the Seattle/King County, Washington and currently number about 30 active members and associates. As soon as law enforcement thinks they have combated the problem, additional Mara Salvatrucha gang members come up from Los Angeles and El Salvador and commit additional violent crimes. (ICE, State of Washington vs. Cisneros 2000) There was a disturbance in late April, 2005, at the Washington State Pen between inmates affiliated with the Black Gangster Disciples and Bloods versus Hispanic inmates affiliated with Sur 13 or suspected associate members over disrespect issues by a BGD from Seattle. The disturbance started out as two on one assault and escalated to approximately two dozen inmates. Officers fired three sponge rounds to help quell the disturbance. The Seattle, WA, area is starting to see more Black & Brown violence, in particular Sur 13 vs. Bloods. The Yakima County Jail has also seen an upsurge in violence between Black inmates from Seattle (206), who have been sent to YCJ because of overcrowding issues, and local Sur 13 (509) inmates. Two Sur 13 inmates attacked prison staff over new feeding policies at the WA State Penitentiary in March, 2006, prompting a lock-down of part of the facility. (Seattle P-I) Sureño gangs in Toppenish, Washington have continued to battle each other. East Side Longos 13 and West Side Pomona 13 have been engaged in a war with Florencia 13. Gang violence in the city of Yakima is down largely due to the Yakima P.D. Gang Unit. Sureños continue recruiting and moving to Eastern Washington via I-90/87. There are an additional 350+ Sureños who have been identified in Yakima County, with the biggest cliques being Sur13 (generic), Lil Valley Locos, and Varrio Sur Locos. Many gang members were in prison or moved away, but many prisoners and shotcallers are also getting released from prison and this can cause an upsurge in violence. Yakima, Washington was traditionally a heavy Norteño area so this creates on-going friction. An estimated 400+ Norteños have been identified in Yakima County over the past five years. The biggest cliques are Norteños (generic), Varrio Campo Vida 21, and North Side Villains. In September, 2003, Nuestra Familia Captain “Skip” Villanueva was involved in a stabbing incident at the BOP-Sheridan in Oregon. Some of the Norteños involved were from the Yakima Valley. Mexican Nationals, Sureños, and Norteños are involved in local drug rip-offs. Yakima Norteños have been involved in trafficking and large

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sales of methamphetamine in Montana. Networking by ILGIA has helped reduce the Hispanic gang problem in the area. Idaho In Idaho, both Sureños and Norteños are still present and very active. Sureños continue to migrate up the I-5 Corridor and over the I-90 Corridor. There has also been a large amount of new recruits coming into the state from Texas and California. Many of Idaho’s problems are from gang members infiltrating from bordering states like Oregon, Utah, and Washington. Idaho has a few documented Brown Magic Clique, Brown Pride, and Mexican Pride members. In February, 2005, a Nampa Police Officer was shot fives times by a Brown Magic Clique gang member from the Nyssa, OR, area. The dominant Hispanic gangs in the Treasure Valley of Idaho are mainly North Side Tiny Toons-Norteños, East Side Locos, and West Side Lomas. There has been a large amount of activity between the North Side Locos and West Side Lomas recently, including several shootings, a homicide, and more graffiti than has been seen in years. Montana Mexican Drug Trafficking Organizations (DTOs) are responsible for distributing most of the methamphetamine, marijuana, cocaine and heroin in Montana. These organizations have sources of supply in Colorado, the southwest border, the Pacific Northwest, and in Mexico. Methamphetamine production and use remains the primary drug issue faced by law enforcement. Sureño gangs, and a even Norteños, travel to Montana and are involved in the Meth trade. A Varrio Loco 13 member from Seattle, was arrested for murder charges in MT. Lil’ Valley Locos have also been identified in MT. ( DEA/AP)

Oregon 18th Street continues to have a large number of members in Oregon; however, some of the main shot callers of one 18th Street faction were recently convicted for a gang homicide of a rival Sureño and are no longer in favor. There are 18th Street members from Shatto Park Locos, Tiny Winos, King Blvd., and 54th Street Tiny Locos in Oregon. Currently, an alleged Sureño shotcaller at SRCI, hails from Rancho San Pedro in California. Norteños are represented in Oregon also, but in far fewer numbers than Sureños.

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Norteños at TRCI are currently "cleaning house" amongst their own. There have been several incidents involving Norteño vs. Norteño. There are a few "old school" Fresno Bulldogs from California in OR-DOC that follow California politics of being neutral, but there are some from Fresno that still consider themselves Norteños. Utah Sureños have in excess 35 different cliques identified in the state of Utah including: 18th Street in fairly large numbers, Florencia 13, and MS13 have been documented in the state. There is also a female clique called (sp) Sureños Por Vida (SPV). Many parts of the state are rural and Nortenos have in excess of 13 different cliques identified in Utah, including Barrio Santa Rosa (BSR). Independent gangs include Brown Pride some which associate with Surenos and other that associate with Nortenos. King Mafia Disciples were a Chicago-style hybrid group that is pretty much defunct after some of the leadership was targeted in a RICO case. “Murder-1” is an alliance of Nortenos and Independents that joined forces to fight the growing Sureño invasion. Q-VO was the biggest independent Utah gang, but has had problems in recent years when one of the middle aged Q-VO members killed an older Veterano. This caused a split in the group. It is unknown if the Pee-Wees coming up with remain loyal to the older faction of Q-VO or the new faction. Wyoming On February 22, 2004, officials from the U.S. Attorney's Office for the District of Wyoming and the Wyoming Division of Criminal Investigation (DCI) announced the results of a 5-year investigation of members of a Mexican criminal group allegedly responsible for transporting more than 1,000 pounds of methamphetamine from Yakima (WA) to the Big Horn Basin in northern Wyoming. The investigation began in 1999 following a Wyoming Highway Patrol traffic stop that resulted in the seizure of approximately one-half gram of methamphetamine and documents that revealed the existence of the Yakima-based criminal group led by two brothers. Several of the members of this group were also affiliated with the Varrio Campo Vida 21 Norteños gang. Investigators determined that since 1996 the group used private vehicles to transport more than 1,000 pounds of methamphetamine into the Big Horn Basin. At least 65 members or associates of the group co-conspirators, distributors, or abusers have either pled guilty or been convicted of various methamphetamine-related offenses. The two brothers who led the organization were convicted in April 2003 for conspiracy to deliver methamphetamine and attempting to deliver methamphetamine. ( AP) SOUTHWEST California In Sacramento, California, Hispanic gang members have taken over the majority of methamphetamine sales and production once controlled by Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs. There has been a continuation of Hispanic gang members attacking non-gang affiliated

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Black families. These are often hate crimes associated with changing demographics. The main concern in the Los Angeles area has been the frequency of violent acts toward law enforcement, especially Sureño assaults and homicides of officers. The enactment of the Three Strikes Law has had a major influence on the upswing in attacks on officers, but it is just one of many factors. Both Sureños and Norteños continue to voice their violent messages via the “Gangster Rap” business. (IPD, LAPD, LASO) Before 2004, the Mongols MC and 18th Street were beefing and the EME declared war on the Mongols. The disputes were allegedly over the Mongols recruiting street gang members and over drug disputes. The Mongols in the San Fernando Chapter were eventually infiltrated by ATF Agent Billy Queen. The Mongols, are strongest in California, but are also active in Mexico have also been dealing with a resurgence in their war with Hells Angels. In 2002, members of the Mongols and Hells Angels got into a deadly brawl in Laughlin, NV, that left three people dead and dozens hurt. (ATF) In April, 2004, a Pomona 12th Street Gang member killed a CHP Officer in order to impress older members of the gang. Valentino Mitchell Arenas pled guilty to first-degree murder of Officer Thomas Steiner and admitted the special circumstances of murder of a police officer, lying in wait, and murder during a drive-by shooting, said Deputy District Attorney Linda Loftfield. The P12 Sharkies are a very old clique and has been responsible for a lot of violence, including multiple murders over the past 50 years. It claims its turf as much of south Pomona. The gang, which has close ties to the Mexican Mafia, uses a shark as its symbol. Since this shooting, there have been multiple efforts to target gang members in the area, in particular, P12. ( L.A. District Attys. Office) In August, 2004, an injunction was put in place targeting one of the L.A.'s oldest street gangs. The preliminary injunction against the 38th Street Gang, which dates back to the 1920s, was approved by Superior Court Judge David Yaffe. The gang has about 350 members who are known for drug dealing, street muggings, extortion of local businesses and an auto theft ring, officials said. The injunction bans some named individuals from the Alameda Swap Meet without the owner's written permission and from having replica guns that allegedly have been used to terrorize residents. “The 38th Street gang is destroying the legitimate businesses here at the swap meet”, said a government official. ( L.A. Times) In February of 2005, Evil Klan gang members were involved in a vehicular pursuit with LAPD 77th Division. During the pursuit Evil Klan engaged LAPD officers in a shoot out, fortunately no officers were hurt. Most recently, On April 11, 2005, an Inglewood 13 gang member along with another gangster from Rascals Maravilla (an East LA Hispanic gang), was responsible for the shooing of two La Habra Police Officers (Orange County) during a traffic stop. Apparently the officers were unaware that the suspects had just committed a robbery in the area. In March, 2006, Hector Marroquin Sr., the founder of an anti-gang center called "No Guns" was arrested after police found a gun in his home. His son, "Junior/Little Weasel," was taken into custody in connection with a home-invasion robbery. They have prior ties to the 18th Street Gang and the Mexican Mafia.

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In March, 2005, an MS gang member on trial for two slayings spat a razor blade out of his mouth and used it to slash his attorney's arm in a San Fernando courtroom. Erik Morales inflicted a 2½-inch gash on Linda Wieder's right bicep, authorities said. Wieder, a deputy alternate public defender, was treated at local hospital, where she received five stitches. Los Angeles County Sheriff Lee Baca, who is responsible for courtroom security said, "We have to stop this from happening again. You can only make this mistake once. The question is, how could the system break down?" He said Morales was a "K-10"the highest security level defendant possible. Baca said Morales was wearing a "stealth belt," which is designed to secure his wrists to his waist. But during the trial, the belt had been loosened so that the restraints were less visible to jurors. Morales was arrested in Oregon and had ties to MS shotcaller Nelson Comandari. This is not the first time such a risk has happened, previously it has been documented that a Compton Tortilla Flats did a similar thing and slashed his lawyer in court with a razor hidden under his eye lid. (LASD) In June, 2005, the Ventura County D.A. made a permanent injunction against the Colonia Chiques gang in Oxnard, California. Authorities contend the Chiques, including parolees who joined the Mexican Mafia in prison, are the county's most violent gang and were involved in multiple homicides in Oxnard before the injunction was first announced in March, 2004. The injunction prohibits them from assembling in public, flashing gang signs, wearing Dallas Cowboys attire and staying out past 10 pm within the designated safety zone, which covers roughly half of the populated area of the city. (L.A. Times) In late June, 2005, police arrested a suspect in the case of Los Angeles County Deputy Jerry Ortiz, who was fatally shot in Hawaiian Gardens, CA. Hawaiian Gardens is the same neighborhood that EME founder Louis “Huero” Flores was from. "This was an assassination of a deputy," Sheriff Lee Baca said. "It was a sudden attack that gave the deputy no chance." Deputies identified the suspect as Jose Luis Orozco, 27, a parolee wanted on suspicion of attempted murder in another case. Deputy Ortiz, hoped to become a detective soon, had worked for the Sheriff's Department for fifteen years and was known as an extremely hard worker whose job was to penetrate the inner workings of local gangs. (LASD) In mid-June, 2005, longtime EME member Pete “Sana” Ojeda was arrested in Orange County, CA. In 1992, he gained recognition across the state when he allegedly tried to broker peace among Orange County's warring street gangs. His profile rose a short time later when the truce collapsed in a new round of violence after he was arrested and sent to federal prison for seven years for being a felon in possession of a gun. Ojeda stayed out of the news after his parole in 2000 until June 15, when his mug shot appeared at the top of an organizational pyramid of men rounded up in the RICO sweep. The indictment alleged that 16 of the defendants participated in a conspiracy to violate the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act (RICO). The RICO charge alleges dozens of overt acts that members of the organization committed to expand the power and control of the enterprise. Detailing conduct in 2004 and early 2005, the RICO count accuses

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Ojeda and others of demanding taxes from numerous street gangs and others who wanted to distribute drugs in Orange County, coordinating the collection of taxes from Orange County Jail inmates who were selling drugs, and ordering assaults for failing to pay taxes or for showing disrespect to the Ojeda Organization. Assaults were conducted when a "green light" was placed on the offending gang or gang member, meaning the gang or gang member would be assaulted by members of the Ojeda Organization or those doing its bidding. (Orange County Register) According to the reorganized CA Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation (CDCR) the Mexican Mafia uses Pelican Bay inmate trust accounts to launder money. Officials froze the inmate trust accounts of fourteen Mexican Mafia members and investigated if the prison gang is laundering drug money through the most secure prison in the state. In a Sept. 1 audit, corrections investigators discovered that two Mexican Mafia members in Pelican Bay State Prison's Security Housing Unit (SHU) each had more than $20,000 in their accounts. Two others had more than $10,000 and seven other members of the “La EME" had accounts ranging from $1,700 to $5,200, prison officials said. Raul “Huero Sherm” Leon from San Diego still has a lot of clout in the prison gang. (CDCR) In July, 2005, police raided the Vineland Boyz Gang just north of L.A. in Antelope, Santa Clarita, and San Fernando Valleys in a another bid to break a street gang responsible for the deaths of two police officers. The Vineland Boyz, a tight-knit gang that grew out of a football team in the late 1980s, was one of the most violent street gangs in the San Fernando Valley, but it operated primarily as a business, trading in narcotics and high end illegal weapons and stealing big-ticket appliances from construction sites, according recent federal indictments. The gang became the focus of law enforcement in November 2003, when reputed member David Garcia allegedly fatally shot Burbank Police Officer Matthew Pavelka near the Bob Hope Airport and fled across the Mexican border. In 1988, a 16-year old Vineland member shot rookie Los Angeles PO James Beyea during an arrest in North Hollywood. ( L.A. Times) Currently in 2006, the Eighteen Street (106 clique) is still battling Inglewood Trece and they have been going back and forth with multiple shootings. This war is expected to continue. Inglewood 13 is currently fighting with Bloods and other traditional Hispanic gangs. Most recently, Inglewood 13 has being battling 18 Street, and Queen Street Bloods/Neighborhood Piru Bloods. This is not to mention their traditional nemesis Lennox 13 and Culver City Boys. As a result of the most recent shoot outs between Bloods and Inglewood 13, there have been several shooting victims and homicides. The 20th St MS13 clique in San Francisco formed in the Mission District in the early 1990s. They will align with SF 19th Street Surenos against SF Nortenos in custody. The majority of the 20th St MS13 clique are Salvadorans, but recently there has been a trend of Southern Mexican Mayan Indians joining the clique. These are mostly from the State of Chiapas or Yucatan Peninsula. Because they know many SFPD speak Spanish, they will often communicate in Mayan which may cause an officer safety issue. The Sureño invasion of Northern California continues. There has been an increase of North-South violence in the Bay Area. Nuestra Familia members and associates,

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including Robert "Bubba" Hanrahan, were arrested in late August 2004 for running a drug house. The last of the NF Generals and Captains were sent to the BOP ADX at Florence, CO in late 2005. There has been some dissention in the NF over who has the power to tax who. While there was some confusion and disruption to their operations, most analysts expect the group to come back as it has so many times before. Right now, it appears the sole NF General is David “D.C.” Cervantes. The NF RICO trial did disrupt the balance of power shared by Norteños on the street. There have been recent sightings of Aryan Peckerwoods associating with Nortenos in Central California. There have also been disputes between Nortenos and Black gangs at San Quentin State Prison. This may signal a shifting in traditional alliances? Law Enforcement Agencies in Central California are also reporting signs of Latin Kings in the area. At this time the Nortenos and the Latin Kings have an alliance. California has had a few Latin Kings over the years, but to date have posed little threat. Norteños are very active in the Central California Joaquin Valley. On January 12, 2005, the U.S. Attorney's Office for the Eastern District of California announced the arrests of 44 individuals, twenty of whom were identified as members or associates of the Norteños street gang based in Modesto on federal and state drug and firearms related charges. The sweep was conducted in an effort to reduce violent gang-related activity in the city stemming from criminal and drug trafficking activities of the Norteños street gang and affiliated gangs. The arrests culminated a 10-month investigation targeting suspected trafficking of illegal drugs and firearms in and around Modesto. The Stanislaus County Gang Task Force has helped reduce much of the possession of illegal firearms, drug trafficking, and gang violence in the area including nearby Merced, CA. In 2005, the West Sacramento Police Department has obtained a court order barring a known gang from engaging in a wide variety of activities within a three-square mile area of the town. The injunction affects approximately 350 members of the Broderick Boys gang. West Sacramento police obtained the injunction on the argument that certain "public nuisance" activities on the part of the Broderick Boys have historically led to more serious and violent criminal conduct. Police want to head off criminal activity in a town whose demographics are rapidly changing with a booming population and several new housing developments and businesses. (Sacramento Bee) A new prison gang that is being monitored is called the Northern Riders (NR). Evidently, they started at DVI in 2000 and spread to San Quentin Prison. The Northern Riders are known to use the following codes: “7-Step Huelga Bird”, “Total 14. 714'R”, “7N14er”, “7 Ryder Wayz”, and the “712.” which is an unknown code. Law enforcement sources say the name “Nueva Flores”, grammatically incorrect Spanish for "New Flowers," began as a joke to mock the Nuestra Familia. Nueva Flores first appeared in prisons after Nuestra Familia members in Pelican Bay State Prison began to drop out of the gang in the late 1990s. After they were "debriefed" by prison gang investigators, the inmates were sent to special protective yards. Although they had left the Nuestra Familia gang, not all of them left their gangster ways, a law enforcement official said. "Initially 100 or so were put on those yards, and (the prisons) brought in brand-new releases from county jails, in the hope

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that would keep them out of the prison gangs. But the new kids didn't know those guys were dropouts. They thought they were big-time gangsters," the official said. "New Flowers was born. So they had to revalidate them as gang members and get them out of there." The gang is now much more prevalent on the streets than in prisons. The California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation considers New Flowers a "disruptive group," the designation it gives street gangs who are disruptive. (CA-DOJ, CDCR) The majority of Hispanic gang problems in California are still Surenos, Nortenos, and Bulldogs. Within the Fresno area, Law Enforcement officials continue to target the “Bulldogs” with gang injunctions with the latest emphasis on the “Parkside Bulldogs”. Fresno Bulldogs are a major housing problem for the California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation, as they seldom get along with anybody. The F-14 (Fresno Bulldogs) have also caused major disturbances at the Fresno County Jail. Fresno Bulldogs are involved in methamphetamine sales and are expanding out of the area. Different Bulldog groups will even fight among themselves. Nevada Sureños continue to invade parts of the Southwestern United States. Las Vegas and Reno, Nevada, have huge gaming industries. Sureños, and to a lessor extent Norteños, have parents who work in hotels, restaurants, gaming or other businesses. The parents are often Hispanic immigrants who work long hours and may not be aware that their children are into gang activities. The Sureño influence in the Incline Village, NV area has declined but they are still very active in Reno around Montello Street and other parts of Reno and Sparks. In NV-DOC Sureños are a major security threat and Mi Raza Unida (MRU) prison gang is no longer the threat they once were. Colorado Since the Federal Bureau of Prisons ADX-Supermax is in Florence, Colorado, the state is of interest to California EME. A Colorado shotcaller named Anthony “Chappy” Chapparo is said to be in direct contact with Adolph “Champ” Reynoso, longtime EME shotcaller from California. There have been riots between Norteños who number about 300 and Sureños who number about 900 in CO-DOC. The Gallant Knights Insane (GKI) now have a shaky truce with Sureños on the West Side of Denver. They are the most active and went to war in 2001. There is also a gang called Los Primeros Padres (LPP or The First Fathers) which is a minor threat at this time. Longmont, Colorado and a few other areas have reported Norteños and there have been small confrontations from time to time. In July, 2004, inmates from WA State (many gang affiliated) rioted at a Colorado CCA facility in Crowley County causing extensive damage. On August 2, 2005, federal indictments were unsealed and law enforcement officials began arresting gang members known as the GKI-Gallant Knights Insane. The GKI are a home grown Denver Based gang which got started in the mid-80s on Denver’s west side. The investigation took about two years to complete and as a result when the gang members

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were arrested large quantities of drugs, cash, securities and weapons were confiscated. The GKI have a strong foothold in the correctional system and at times have been very problematic. Sureños have flourished in Colorado. Some of the cliques represented are 18th Street, Florencia 13, and generic Sur 13. Sureño activity continues to be a problem in many Colorado communities in 2006 and Sur 13 graffiti is on the rise in some areas of Colorado. The conflict between California and Colorado Sureños in the prison system has leveled off to some degree. This can partially be attributed to zero tolerance policy and shot callers being administratively segregated in CO-DOC. Arizona The Arizona area is experiencing a growing local threat from the street gang Mara Salvatrucha. MS13 contacts with local agencies have been consistently on the rise, and we are noticing a growing number of these members incarcerated in our facilities. Crimes associated in Arizona so far with Mara Salvatrucha have been primarily linked to the smuggling of illegal immigrants into the U.S. and narcotics distribution. Intelligence officers from the Maricopa County Sheriff’s Office first began tracking MS 13 movement in the state of Arizona about 2002. This proactive monitoring of the gang has enabled MCSO to be on top of much of the movement and trends before the gang hit the local and national news. So far, the number of MS members documented in the state have been low compared to other groups in Arizona but the number of MS arrested is growing slightly. Most have admitted being picked up in Arizona while en route to somewhere else. Maricopa County SO has dealt with career criminals who threaten the community by sending them to state and federal facilities for long terms. Other Sureños numbers are growing in the state as well. Arizona continues to have problems between Mexican National inmates (Paisas) and the prison gang "Border Brothers", as well as problems between Mexican Nationals and Surenos. The problems are mainly due to the high number of Paisas in inmate populations compared to the low number of other races. This gives the Paisas a sense of empowerment which they take advantage of while being held in Arizona facilities. There have been a few Latin Kings identified in Arizona per the BOP, but pose no major threat at this time. A major trial against New Mexican Mafia members in Arizona resulted in many convictions with some going to the BOP. Monitoring this Security Threat Group while in custody will be important. The Cisneros crime family were Sureños from Phoenix. They were used by the AZ EME as drug suppliers and did mutual business for each other, i.e. murder for hire. They had issues with some of the AZ EME members even though they had this "business relationship." They may even be on "green light" status with the AZ EME. However, in the Federal BOP they will surely enjoy their status as Sureños. Meanwhile, the AZ EME still has issues with California EME due to the split of AZ Old EME and AZ New EME. They also have major problems with Sureños housed in AZ-DOC due to this ongoing feud. The AZ EME also objected to a lot of Intel Federal Probation put in their pre-sentence reports

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which will be sent to BOP. They particularly wanted references to their obstruction of justice charges where they plotted to kill an ILGIA member and his partner. Through legal wrangling they were able to have some of the Intel about them removed. The AZ EME are dangerous and will continue to be dangerous no matter where they land. Phoenix, Arizona, is also experiencing an increase in Hispanic gang involvement in local narcotics sales, particularly with methamphetamine. New Mexico In New Mexico, Cuban criminal groups, street gangs, and local independent dealers purchase powdered cocaine from Mexican drug trafficking organizations and Mexican criminal groups within the state and convert it to crack for retail distribution. Prison gangs like Los Padilla, Los Carnales, and the Sindicato Nuevo Mexico (SNM) are still very active but being impacted by the growth of Sureños in the state. The founder of the SNM died in November, 2003, and there has been a power struggle within the SNM. The New Mexico Corrections Department (NMCD) has experienced a big increase in Sureños 13 activity. The NMCD Security Threat Intelligence Unit recently conducted statewide proactive assessments based on-going violence between Sureno 13 members and the Sindicato Nuevo Mexico (SNM). Over the past 22 years, the SNM has been the most prominent group in the NMCD, and has orchestrated many violent acts against other inmates and street gang members. The SNM maintains an ongoing rivalry with the Los Carnales prison gang, the second most prominent group in the NMCD. Through the 1980s and 90s, SNM and Los Carnales were at war with ongoing retaliatory hits and murders. The SNM has burnt bridges with all other Security Threat Groups, Disruptive Groups, and street gangs represented in the NMCD. Some of which include Barrio Azteca, Aryan Brotherhood, Nevada Aryan Warriors, Utah Aryan Nation, Natural Black Family, California and New Mexico Sureño 13 Factions, Crazy Town Roswell, Los Padilla's street gang, and Las Cruces area street gangs . Members of these groups now have exhibited informal and formal alignment with Los Carnales. In 1998, the NMCD formed the Security Threat Intelligence Unit and began to proactively address the gang problem that was in full effect. Many SNM and Los Carnales leaders were segregated in accordance with a level system classification, reflecting on behavioral based segregation. The SNM and Los Carnales maintain the ongoing rivalry which has been stabilized in regards to the reduction of violent confrontations through the unified efforts of the Classification System and the Security Threat Intelligence Unit. Intelligence attained through the recent statewide assessments has revealed that California original Sureño 13 members recognize and align themselves with only one particular group of New Mexico Sureños. This group has been identified as the Tortilla Flats Sureño 13 action that set up shop in Deming, New Mexico in 1995. An individual with California ties by the name of Cesar Rodriguez, (aka Crazy Bird) imported the Tortilla Flats ideologies and began recruiting NM Sureños from Deming, NM. Crazy Bird and a few other California Sureños incorporated the Deming Tortilla Flats to coincide with California Sureños ideologies. At this time, no other NM Sureños factions are recognized or accepted.

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Other New Mexico Sureños are now exhibiting a high disregard for the California Sureños and the Deming Tortilla Flats Sureños based on their recent exhibitions of inflated egos, and their blatant attempts to direct criminal activities of assaults, control of the drug trade, and checking of other inmates. California Sureños 13 and Deming Tortilla Flats Sureños have targeted SNM members in methodical and violent fashions. Since the onset of the war between the SNM and Sureños which was initially sparked in November of 2004, there have been large scale violent confrontations at the Southern New Mexico Correctional Facility, Lea County Correctional Facility, Guadalupe County Correctional Facility, and the Penitentiary of New Mexico Level Five Facility. SNM members and Sureño 13 members have now been separated in regards to housing assignments. The Sureños 13 factions presently have not shown any indication of coordinated leadership, or coordinated measures to directly target staff for assault. Their primary target continues to be undercover SNM members and SNM associates. Intelligence indicates that the SNM is focused on targeting Sureño 13 factions on an opportunistic basis. Intelligence indicates that the segregated leadership of the SNM are attempting to clean house in their own backyard based on the failure of some SNM members and associates to carry out assaults on Sureño 13 and Los Carnales members. Sureño 13 activity continues to pose a threat based on the on-going assaults of SNM members and SNM associates, and, continues to pose a threat based on the exhibition of attempting to gain control of illegal activities. SNM and Los Carnales concerns are ongoing due to the methodical efforts to carry out assaults on each other, assault of members on bad terms, assaults on other inmates, and the ongoing targeting of staff for assault. The New Mexico Gang and Terrorism Task Force, member agencies, and other law enforcement agencies are currently providing testimony in support of gang legislation contained House Bills 60 and 65 during the legislative session in 2006. Texas Currently the Texas Syndicate has a shaky “peace treaty” with the Mexikanemi in the Bureau of Prisons, but do not trust them. Texas Syndicate are also engaged in a war with Border Brothers and Paisas in Texas and in the Bureau of Prisons. There have been problems with the Houston Tangos and some indication that some Texas Syndicate members from Dallas are now aligned with the Dallas Tango or homeboy clique, and are disassociating from Texas Syndicate. Tangos from different Texas cities will still back up Texas Syndicate and other Tejano gangs to fight the Sureño invasion. It appears that any Texas Syndicate Sur faction is no more, in spite of recent attempts to sign a treaty in the Bureau of Prisons. There have been recent assaults on Texas Syndicate on Southern Hispanic yards in the California Department of Corrections and the Texas Department of Criminal Justice. Nuestra Familia members have recently asked Texas Syndicate members for peace and were given permission to co-exist with them in the BOP. Many TS now go to leader Arnulfo “Popo” Nino in the BOP who appears to have won against the TS pro-Sur13 faction on any efforts for the TS to make peace with CA EME. The TS continue to communicate with

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each other even in high security units. Based on an investigation by Austin FBI Gang Task Force, several telephone calls were intercepted from Texas Syndicate members, namely Pete “Pajaro” Diaz, an influential TS leader, in the Darrington prison near Houston. When investigators raided his cell, he flushed the cell phone down the toilet. But the prison traps its sewers, so when officials checked the traps, they found the phone and several others. ( BOP, TDCJ) Two major RICO operations in the 1990s, executed on the streets by law enforcement with the help of Texas Department of Criminal Justice, played a major impact on Texas Mexican Mafia operations. As a result, key ranking EME members are incarcerated in the Bureau of Prisons. However, others will pick up and continue on. Currently the Mexikanemi also has a large presence in the federal system, and shows no signs of stopping, recruitment and illegal activities, both inside and outside of prison. There was some disagreement in the organization over elections, but Reynaldo “Rey” Ramirez is now the Mexikanemi General in the BOP. “Blackie” Angiano is still a General in TDCJ. The Mexikanemi continues to pose a serious threat within Texas Department of Criminal Justice where there are over 1,600 validated members in prison and on the streets there are many more supporters. Currently, the Mexikanemi and California Mexican Mafia can get along due to their “very close past ties.” This could be a major concern if they consolidate their power in “Aztlan” as they call San Antonio and also refer to the entire Southwest United States. Internal murders continue for control and positions of power. Traditionally, Mexikanemi criminal activities have been centered in large urban areas. However, since 1997, an expansion of their criminal activities was detected in rural areas. This trend is generally attributed to two main factors: An increase of members from smaller communities during the TDCJ inmate explosion in the 1990s, and their migration into virgin territory where less law enforcement monitoring of prison gang’s activities existed. Most rural law enforcement is completely unaware of the culture and dynamics of prison gangs. Unlike street gangs, prison gangs are often under the “radar screen” of law enforcement. Rural law enforcement does not have the resources or the experience involved in conducting this type of organized criminal investigations. Unchecked, this group can flood a small community with drugs and increase the local violence. Ideally, federal task forces are best suited for this kind of complex and multi-jurisdictional investigation. In 1999, the Texas Governor’s Office conducted a study of gangs in Texas and found that the Mexikanemi controlled about 75% of the heroin trade in the State. Traditionally, the group’s “choice of poison” has been heroin, but over the years, they have expanded their trade into other drug markets. The Mexikanemi has become a “gatekeeper” and “mercenaries” for the Mexican Drug Cartel along the border. The Mexikanemi continues to be targeted by law enforcement. Federal agents raided several homes across San Antonio in August 2004, and arrested 28 members of the Texas Mexican Mafia. Among those arrested was Mexikanemi General Daniel "Gumby" Leza. Amid a period of internal strife, incarcerated leaders of the Texas Mexican Mafia chose Daniel "Gumby" Leza to head its drug rackets in San Antonio, the government alleges. The choice did not please everyone, authorities said, particularly those gangsters faithful to his predecessor, Carlos "Wero"

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Rodriguez, who was killed in a daring noontime shooting in June 2003. He was killed in front of a rehab clinic and was wearing lots of expensive jewelry when he was riddled with bullets in his white Corvette. About a year after Rodriguez's death, someone tried but failed to take the life of Leza by slashing his throat. On November 1, 2004, (the day after Halloween) Rodriguez’ brother Antonio Rodriguez was found in the trunk of a car. He was said to have been at a drug house the previous night and was shot to death even though he was wearing a protective vest. The Barrio Aztecas and Mexikanemi control heroin and Rohypnol in El Paso, Texas. Rohypnol and other illegal prescription drugs are increasingly being transported across the border from Mexico. These prescription drugs are readily available in Mexico and are becoming more popular to traffic because there is no need for a production laboratory and they are relatively low-cost. Additionally, law enforcement officials in El Paso are seeing a new generation of heroin users among gang members. In Houston, Texas, paint and glue sniffing is still very common. Barrio Aztecas and Partido Revolucion Mexicano (PRM) are having a power struggle within TDCJ and other Mexican National prison gangs such as the Mexicas, Mexicles in the Juarez, Mexico, and El Paso, Texas area. There is also growing concern over the violent activities of the Zetas of the Gulf Cartel and rival groups armed by “Chapo” Guzman across the Texas border in Nuevo Laredo. Recently, drug traffickers posing as Mexican Army have ventured into U.S. territory. 18th Street and MS13 are usually rival group and both groups are present in TX. In separate cases, two prominent MS leaders were caught in 2005 by Law Enforcement. ILGIA received confirmation that Nelson Comandari-Varela, DOB 8/29/77, #16587-179, was popped by the DEA in the Houston area. He is both feared by all MS cliques, respected by guys like "Homies Unidos" Alex Sanchez, and hated by many MS for his power and money yet he did not come up the hard way like many MS Soldados did. Comandari was a shotcaller with the Hollywood Locos clique. Comandari had ties all over the U.S., in Los Angeles, California, Washington State, Texas, and New York. He was housed 2005-06 in the New York Metropolitan Correctional Center of the BOP. Also arrested near Falfurrias, Texas, was Ever Anibal Rivera Paz, aka “El Culiche” (The Tapeworm), DOB 10/08/1975, Honduran ID#: 0508-1975-00366. He was identified as the #1 MS13 in Honduras per ILGIA contacts. Long before he became known to federal authorities as a Honduran gang lord, “Culiche” was regularly picked up by San Francisco police, largely for drug- related crimes, government officials said. He was in the country illegally, but wasn't deported until 1996, two years after his first arrest, records show. Immigration officials aren't sure why, but they say it may be because he was classified as a juvenile, making it harder to deport him. He was sentenced to seven months in prison for illegally re-entering the country and was expected to be deported after his sentence, U.S. Attorney Chuck Rosenberg announced. He is accused of masterminding a December, 2004, bus massacre of twenty-eight people in Honduras, most of them women and children. Mid-West Illinois

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California-based Norteños and Sureños are now being identified in suburban Chicago and are involved in conflicts stemming from rivalries in California. In recent years, California gang members have been fingered in shootings or stabbings in Elgin, Joliet, West Chicago, Addison, Franklin Park, and Bensenville, Illinois. Norteños have been found in North Chicago, West Chicago, Aurora, Cary, Crystal Lake, Elgin, Palatine, Schaumburg, Streamwood and Woodstock, Illinois. 18th Street has been found in West Chicago, Aurora, Woodridge, Downers Grove and Naperville, Illinois. Sureño gangs or members are scattered around the greater Chicago area. Mara Salvatrucha is in virtually every major U.S. city and the Chicago area is no different. There have been alliances shown between California-style gangs and Chicago-style gangs on Internet websites. Latin Kings continue to be involved in forging documents. A set of bogus documents can fetch more than $100 from immigrants who use the papers to find work. The counterfeits are used to circumvent a 1986 law requiring employees to show proof they can legally work in this country. The Latin Kings entered the phony documents trade through an association with Mexico-based organizations that need access to gang territories to make sales. In recent years, authorities have made several seizures of counterfeit documents in Chicago that have been linked to the Castorena family of Guadalajara, Mexico reputedly headed by Alfonso Castorena. Documents in Chicago’s Little Village neighborhood, an area mostly populated by Mexicans, had an estimated street value at $2 million dollars. The slaying of Latin Kings gangster Rudy “Kato” Rangel Jr., was immortalized by New York rapper DMX in his song “Yo Kato.” Rangel was wearing $350,000 in gold and diamonds when he was shot several times in June, 2003. Word on the street is some of the younger Kings think “Lord Gino” is making too much money from the proceeds of their operations. Currently, there is a big inner-King beef between The Motherland, (Spaulding) and K/C Kings, (Kedzie/Cortez Kings), over selling rock cocaine as opposed to marijuana. Intelligence suggests there may be a Latin Kings power struggle in the future. Violence may extend to the community and demand more officer involvement. Mid-West gangs are an officer safety hazard. An Ambrose gang member, Hector “He-Man” Delgado, killed Chicago Police Department Officer Brian Strouse in June 2001. Jose Padilla, arrested after 9/11 as the “Dirty Bomber,” was identified in the newspapers as a Latin King. Padilla was actually a Maniac Latin Disciple while he was in Chicago. In spite of the media’s error, it is true this case shows how street gang members can be more sophisticated, organized, and radicalized during their incarceration.

Wisconsin Madison, WI, has both L.A. and Chicago based gangs. South Side Locos (SSL 13) tend to be Mexican Nationals some connection to Juarez, MX. The Sureño based gang from L.A., Clantones 14 also has connections with Milwaukee C-14. The Mexican Syndicate Locos (MSLS), also known as 8-Ball, have more of the Mexican-American/Chicano kids. Younger off-shoots of this gang are Chicano Pride Association (CPA) and Mexican

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Brown Pride (MBP). Madison has a gang calling themselves Ojos Rojos, they are Mexican Nationals out of Puebla, MX, and it a group of kids all related to each other. Although their color is red they are not Norteños. They call themselves Ojos Rojos after the color of fighting bull’s eyes. There are some Maniac Latin Disciples (MLD) in the Madison area. The Latin Kings are mostly located outside of Madison, in the Sun Prairie and DeForest areas of Dane County. According to sources in Beloit, WI, the Latin Kings and Folk gangs are having problems in that area. On October 12, 2005, members of the Milwaukee HIDTA Drug/Gang Task Force arrested fifty-two members of the Latin Kings street gang. The Latin Kings were indicted on racketeering charges in the largest RICO prosecution ever done in the state of Wisconsin to date. The investigation was dubbed ‘Operation Royal Flush’, and was the result of a two and a half year investigation into the activities of the Latin Kings. The 38 count indictment charged the Latin Kings with 7 murders, 38 attempted murders, kidnapping, distribution of cocaine, crack cocaine, and marijuana. If convicted, the defendants face up to life imprisonment on the racketeering charges and from 10 years to life on the drug conspiracy charge. Some of those indicted are from Chicago chapters of the Latin Kings who were controlling the Milwaukee chapters. The Milwaukee L/K’s were considered part of the Northwest Region which is controlled by the Chicago Latin Kings. Milwaukee was previously controlled by the Little Village Region from Chicago. In 1998, after being prosecuted on RICO charges, 34 Latin Kings in Milwaukee were convicted and sentenced to lengthy jail terms. Recently, a state and federal investigation into the Latin Kings on the Lac Courte Oreilles (LCO) Indian Reservation near Hayward, Wisconsin resulted in the convictions of 36 Latin Kings members on murder and drug conspiracy charges. Four of the defendants in the LCO Reservation indictment were also indicted in the recent Milwaukee RICO prosecution. The LCO Latin Kings operated under the direction, although independently, of the Milwaukee Latin Kings. These indictments have significantly impacted gang activity in the Milwaukee area and the entire state of Wisconsin. The Latin Kings, a People Nation affiliated gang, was the largest Hispanic gang in Milwaukee prior to the indictments. In Milwaukee, the Latin Kings allow all races and ethnicities in the gang, as long as they have some Latin ethnicity. They could be referred to as an “equal opportunity gang”. The Milwaukee HIDTA also dismantled the local chapter of the Maniac Latin Disciples street gang through the arrest and prosecution of 21 members of the Milwaukee MLD’s. The MLD’s no longer control any turf, and have no leadership in place. Perhaps the best tell-tale sign of success is that rival gang members say ‘the MLD’s are done in Milwaukee’. The MLD’s are a Folk Nation affiliated gang. The south-side of Milwaukee is populated primarily with Hispanic gangs. Since the Latin Kings RICO, the Mexican Posse (MP) gang is poised to be the largest Hispanic gang in the city. The Mexican Posse street gang is a home grown gang with its origin on the south side of Milwaukee, and has been in existence for about ten years. They have aligned themselves nationally and internationally with the Surenos and La EME prison gangs that identifies with the Sur 13 label, and operates primarily under the veterano system of hierarchy. They have

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gained a majority of control in such a short time by implementing two main philosophies. First, by establishing a large scale drug distribution in Milwaukee through many of its members’ family connections directly to Mexico. Second, by using extreme violence (Homicides and shootings) to enforce the gang’s code and their drug trade, and to enhance the reputation of the organization. The organization also uses intimidation of its own members and their families to keep order and to influence witnesses against the members. Many of the gang’s members are first or second generation immigrants from three distinct regions in Mexico: Leon, Morelia, and Guanajuato. Due to the gang members close ties to family and friends still in Mexico many of the members have their own connection to receive drugs into the Milwaukee area. Because of this, the gang in the past has been able to continue to operate even if one of its high level drug distributors is arrested and imprisoned. The Mexican Posse, through several of its members, distributes 30-50 kilograms of cocaine (powder) per month, 200-300 pounds of marijuana per month, and 500-1,000 pills of MDMA (ecstasy) per month. There are two other Sureño affiliated gangs in Milwaukee. One is the C-14 (Clantones) street gang, and the other is the Brown Pride street gang. The Clantone14 gang originated in Los Angeles, California, and members migrated to the Milwaukee and Madison, WI areas and established themselves. They are a Surenos gang and were allowed to keep the 14 in their name by La EME because they were around before La EME. C14 is made up almost entirely of Mexican-American ethnicity, and are a minor level gang. Although comparatively small in number of members, the C14s main rival is the Mexican Posse gang. The C14s co-existed peacefully with the Latin Kings until about two years ago when some shootings occurred between the two gangs. The Brown Pride gang is also a rival of the Clantones in Milwaukee. Brown Pride in Milwaukee is a home grown street gang that is not affiliated with any of the many other gangs in the United States that use the same name. They exist primarily as an ethnic pride type gang. They are rivals of the other two previously mentioned Sureño affiliated gangs in Milwaukee, although they use the banner of ‘Sur 13’. They do have a leader, although all members have a say in their activities. They are considered a minor level street gang. The Spanish Cobras street gang has been operating in Milwaukee since the 1960s, and was the only Hispanic gang in Milwaukee until the arrival of the Latin Kings in the late 1970s. Several of the Cobras flipped to the Kings in the early 1980s which caused a permanent rivalry. The Spanish Cobras are a Folk Nation affiliated gang that is involved in illegal narcotics distribution, armed robbery, homicide, and drive-by shootings. Like the Latin Kings, the Spanish Cobras came to Milwaukee via Chicago. Some other minor Hispanic street gangs in Milwaukee are: “La Familia” gang, who in Milwaukee are unaffiliated with any nationally aligned gangs, and identify more closely with People Nation gangs. They were created by some former members of the Spanish Cobras. La Familia are engaged in street level sales of cocaine, crack cocaine, heroin, and marijuana. The “21st Street Gangsters” (2-1’s) are another Folk Nation gang that engages in low level street sales of narcotics, and are a rival of the Latin Kings. The ‘2-1s’

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are a home grown gang that allows anyone to join, regardless of race or ethnicity. They operate in a two block area on the south-side. The present strategy for attacking the gang problem in Milwaukee is to use all resources available to law enforcement on the municipal, state, and federal levels. The current Chief of Police in Milwaukee is committed to zero tolerance of gang activity, and has assembled a Gang Crimes Intelligence Division (Gang Squad) that is top notch and staffed with highly trained and professional law enforcement officers. The Milwaukee HIDTA Drug/Gang Task Force is made up of Officers, Detectives, and Special Agents representing all municipal, state, and federal agencies operating in Milwaukee County, and south-eastern Wisconsin. A Ñeta has been identified as an enforcer in Wisconsin Department of Corrections. This Security Threat Group member was born in Milwaukee and maintains close ties to Puerto Rico, New Jersey, and Connecticut. He, and those are working under him, are said to be obtaining firearms and narcotics, and heading to the south side of Milwaukee to take care business. This member communicates with Latin King shotcallers in three different institutions. He has put out the word for them not to send him anything related to “the literature”. All Latin Kings in that unit have put in to be on the same range as he is. He receives a lot of mail from elsewhere in the system from Latin Kings or sympathizing factions. ILGIA has been a great resource to deal with these security threats. Minnesota In Minnesota, Mexican traffickers control the transportation, distribution, and bulk sales of cocaine, marijuana, methamphetamine, and small amounts of black-tar heroin. Numerous Mexican groups and street gangs such as the Latin Kings are operating in the state. As a general rule, the upper echelon Mexican distributors in Minnesota transport the majority of their proceeds back to family members residing in Mexico. The Minnesota Gang Strike Force was created to identify, investigate, arrest and prosecute gang members engaged in "criminal activity" in the State of Minnesota. Some of the Latino gangs identified in the state are: MS13, SUR13, Latin Locos, Latin Kings, Vatos Locos, Logan Heights Gang (San Diego), and Insane Nation Vikings. (DEA) Indiana Mexican criminal groups are the primary wholesale distributors of marijuana, powdered cocaine, and methamphetamine within Indiana. MS13 is active in Indiana, but very small, and are found in the company of SUR13 members. 18th Street is the most criminally active group in Central Indiana. Sureno gangs are the largest group in the state, but are very disorganized. There are a few Vatos Locos. There are few problems with Folk and People gangs in Indiana, except for the Lake County area where they are called "Little Chicago". In this area there are most of the same gangs that you have active in Chicago. Some Latin Kings moved into Indianapolis, and smaller communities in the state. EAST COAST

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Rhode Island MS-13 is active in the Providence, Rhode Island metropolitan area, as well as Massachusetts. Maine and New Hampshire reported no MS activity. They consider their MS to be unsophisticated and involved mostly in street crimes and crimes of opportunity. They have localized leadership and limited ties to larger cliques throughout the U.S. Rhode Island, predominantly Providence, has an estimated membership at about 125. They come from primarily two cliques: Providence Salvatrucha Locos and the Salvatrucha Locos Trece. Many members have been involved in violence in and around the schools. Providence MS members seem to have close ties to Charlotte, North Carolina. Their primary enemies appear to be the 18th Street Gang and the Original Crips Gang. They have identified no known ties to Al Qaeda. Massachusetts The following cities and towns in Massachusetts have reported MS activity: Boston, Chelsea, Everett, Framingham, Lynn, Malden, Revere, and Somerville. These cliques include: East Boston Locos Salvatruchos, East Side Locos Salvatruchos, Chelsea Locos Salvatruchos, and Trece Locos Salvatruchos. The Chelsea and East Boston cliques may have developed from and been influenced by members who migrated, from the Los Angeles area. Boston MS members have been traced to Providence Rhode Island, Maryland, New York, Virginia, Washington D.C., Florida, and Texas and have also noted activity from Chelsea MS members. Within the Massachusetts Department of Corrections, Latin Kings are the largest Security Threat Group and the most organized. They have welldefined hierarchies and there is constant communication between leaders in prison and leaders on the streets. There are Latin King chapters in most of the larger cities within Massachusetts. There appears to be two factions within Latin Kings in Massachusetts Department of Corrections, the “Bloodline” which follows the New York City line and a local faction that follows Leader Anthony "Chino" Collazo: M.C.I. Cedar Junction, 2nd Michael "Merlyn" Checchetelli, 3rd - Luis "Detroit" Ayala: M.C.I. Cedar Junction. Checchetelli and Ayala allied to remove Collazo and have moved up in rank. A faction called "Tiniebla 30/30” appears to be "Bloodlines". The group’s leader is identified as Benjamin Feliciano. Benjamin’s brother is Jose Feliciano, who is incarcerated. This group is a rival to the Massachusetts ALKQN. United Federation of Kings and Queens/ALKQN leader is inmate Alex Delgado: MCI Cedar Junction. Delgado was the former leader of the Massachusetts ALKQN. The Latin Kings and La Familia appear to be at war on the streets in western Massachusetts with the recent murders by Latin Kings of two men affiliated with La Familia. Mara Salvatrucha and 18th Street are present in the Boston area and appear on their web sites; however, few have been incarcerated to date. Latin Kings and Ñetas have become more involved in political causes in order to appear legitimate and to shield their criminal operations from law enforcement scrutiny. Major gangs, including Latin Kings, Los Solidos, La Familia, and Ñetas are well organized and their formalized hierarchies are a strength that gives them increased influence in correctional facilities and on the streets. Some gangs, particularly the

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Latin Kings and Ñetas, claim the status of civic groups to promote ethnic pride and claim to exist to help the community. Dominican gangs like Dominicans Don’t Play are involved in narcotics distribution and trafficking. There is an influx of Hispanic gang members into New England states from the New York City area. (Massachusetts-DOC) New York Latin Kings fought East Coast Bloods for years but recently there have been some signs of a truce. New York is also the home of the Bloodline. The security threat level of the Kings has been high. The wife of a Latin King gang member was arrested for conspiracy to commit murder. She allegedly conspired to kill a potential witness in her husband’s trial. The woman was accused of leaving $500 for an undercover officer in an attempt to have the witness and his wife killed. Latin Kings are involved in political activities and assist in voter registration, distributes campaign fliers for their chosen candidates, and are often accused of intimidating voters to favor their candidates. The biggest Hispanic gang in New York City is the Latin Kings with some 2,500+ members and associates. There are over 1,000 Ñetas documented in the city. Various Mexican gangs from both La Gran Familia and La Raza Unida number about 1,000 also. Mara Salvatrucha is estimated to at 500+ members in NYC, and Dominicans Don’t Play have an equal number. New Jersey The Trenton, New Jersey, area has experienced a well-established Latin King and Ñeta presence for many years. In the early 1990s, the Latin Kings and Ñetas were the only true organized gangs in the area. This changed with the influx of Bloods around 1999. In the New Jersey area, Bloods and Latin Kings were enemies, and Ñetas would back the Kings when conflicts occurred. The rapid growth of the Bloods usurped power from the Latin Kings and forced them to go low-key with their representation. The Ñetas followed suit. At this time, it is rare to see Latin Kings and Ñetas openly displaying colors in the street or in the jail. Latin Kings still hold their monthly universals, which sometimes attract Kings from Camden and North Jersey. Overall, most Latin King and Ñeta activity is in direct response to attacks and infringements by Bloods. The area has also recently begun producing Black Gangster Disciples, which are also fierce enemies of the Latin Kings. No clashes between Kings and Disciples have been documented in our area at this time. Northern New Jersey has seen a recent upsurge in Latin King activity. It appears that the activity is due to a change in hierarchy in both the cities of Paterson and Passaic in Passaic County. The recent homicide of “King Beast”, a well liked member of the Latin Kings, has given rise to an attempted drive-by shooting that took place around 5 PM without any regard to innocent bystanders. The Latin Kings are also beefing with an area Dominican gang known as MSD or “Market Street Dominicans”. Apparently two members of the Latin Kings were jumped by members of MSD at an after hours club. Intelligence from the

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Passaic County Jail indicates that Latinos are grouping together to combat against the Bloods who are currently the dominant Security Threat Group in this facility. Members of the Latin Kings, various Mexican, and Dominican gangs were involved in altercation in a dayroom where the Bloods were trying to exercise control of the recreation and commissary. As far as alignments between Latin Kings and Bloods in Passaic County, it appears that certain sets choose to rival or ally themselves according to the sharing or protecting of drug territory. Morris County has documented gang graffiti that shows unification between both organizations. Essex and Mercer County intelligence also indicates alliances within certain regions. The alliances are based on their People Nation affiliation, but past truces have failed to be maintained. However, pictures of the 2005 PR Day Parade showed Latin Kings and Bloods alliance. In 2001, graffiti attributed to the Sureno “Alley Tiny Criminals” (ATC13) gang began to surface in several sections of Trenton. Information sharing through ILGIA confirmed the existence of ATC13 in Los Angeles, California; Eugene, Oregon; and reports of ATC13 members arrested in Inglewood, California with a carload of weapons. To date, no ATC13 have been identified in Mercer County Jail in Trenton, New Jersey, but the graffiti still surfaces from time to time in the city. For some time, graffiti from Mara Salvatrucha (MS 13) has appeared in Trenton, and in the neighboring suburb of Lawrence Township. Recently, several members of MS13 have been identified in the jail. Most identified MS members from the Trenton area are Guatemalans, and most are not sporting the traditional MS 13 tattoos. One subject from El Salvador expressed extreme fear as his reason for not having MS tattoos, stating that if he returned to his country with those tattoos, he would be killed because of the war on gangs there. Several subjects from Guatemala have echoed that sentiment. This has hampered identification efforts. In late 2000, “18th St.” graffiti appeared in the affluent Princeton, New Jersey area. This graffiti was attributed to 18th Streeters from New Brunswick, New Jersey, coming down to show disrespect to a rival faction of “Los Primos,” also in the Princeton area. To date, only a couple of 18th Street members have been identified in jail from the Mercer County area, and no members of “Los Primos” have been identified. No graffiti from either group has appeared in the area since this incident was reported in the newspapers. Morris County and Sussex County have also reported an increase of Latin King criminal activity. Latin Kings are the biggest Hispanic gang within Morris County followed by Ñetas. These counties have identified the Kings to be running Bloodline from NYC. MS13 is the third largest Hispanic gang in Morris County and activity has been on the increase with the MS cliques of Normandie Locotes Salvatrucha and Coronados Locototes Salvatrucha. These two cliques are currently running without a "Voice" as the MS within Morristown, NJ are currently of Honduran origin, but seem to be recruiting those of Colombian, Guatemalan, and Puerto Rican origin. Members of the MS13 have been identified as coming from the Somerset County, Union County, and Hunterdon County, New Jersey, along with members from Long Island, New York. Tres Puntos (3PX) have been active within the Morris County region as this group has been identified within Passaic County and

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Bergen County. There has also been Hispanic gang activity in Atlantic City and Wildwood, New Jersey. Morris County has seen subtle signs of 18th Street, Hollywood Gangster Clica (HGC) and Sur 13, also called South Side Clica (SSC). Federal, state, and local arrests, along with gang graffiti and tagging tracking, helps document the criminal activity of these groups. Many New Jersey municipalities are still in denial and refuse to accept the growing increase of these groups within their communities even when shown pictures. MS13 Normandie Locotes and Coronados remain the most active of all Latino street gangs in Morris County, followed by the ALKQN which have drawn a “5 Point Truce” with the United Blood Nation within the NJ/NY regions and also with the Asociación Ñeta. Latino gangs are also active in Mercer County, NJ The Northeast is experiencing a large migration of Mexican gangs who are independent of Sur 13 or Norte 14 rivalries. Many of these gangs originate from the Mexican states of Puebla, Oaxaca, Guerrero, and Districto Federal, Mexico. These Mexican gangs are hybrid and form to protect themselves from other gangs. On the East Coast, Mexican gangs for the most part, fall under two umbrella groups identified as “La Gran Familia Mexicana” and “La Gran Raza.” Some groups such as MS13 or Sur 13 claim independent status depending on their geographical location. Some of the groups that fall under La Gran Familia Mexicana are: TMB (The Mexican Boys), LA 13, Niños Malos, Los Cuatro Inquietos, Los Primos, Los Palomos, Los Pitufos and La Mugre to name a few. Some of the gangs that fall under La Gran Raza are: 18th Street, Los Cafeteros, 13 Locos, Los Chacas, La Onda and Esquadron. These two groups are bitter rivals of each other and continually battle over turf and business territory. MS- 13 has been known to align itself with the La Gran Familia structure gangs depending on location and resources available. These gangs are not totally embraced by MS13, but may align for the purpose of criminal enterprises that benefit both groups. MS13 clicas in New Jersey can hail from El Salvador, Honduras, and Guatemala. Los Playeros gang is aligned with Mara Salvatrucha. New Jersey is recently experiencing a significant amount of Mexican gang members migrating from the West Coast. On several occasions New Jersey officers have encountered previously deported illegal aliens from West Coast areas. Many Mexican and Central American gangs are also transient between New Jersey, New York, Massachusetts, Philadelphia, Maryland, Virginia, and North Carolina. Mexican gangs on the East Coast are involved in the following criminal activities: alien smuggling, drug distribution, prostitution, manufacturing of illegal documents, vandalism, numerous aggravated assaults, and homicides. Alien smuggling seems to be one of the most profitable operations. Illegal aliens from Mexico are paying approximately $2,000 to $2,800 to be brought across the border. These aliens are brought to safe houses in bordering states in the U.S and then delivered to their final destinations once the fees are paid in full. Pennsylvania

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Latin Kings and Ñetas in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, are increasing in size at a faster rate than in the last few years. They are also wearing colors and beads in public for the first time since approximately 1999. The Latin King who has caused this push in recruitment and endorsing the public gang displays is originally from Philadelphia and was recently released from federal prison. The Latin Kings are primarily distributing heroin, which is Dominican supplied. There are Ñetas who claim to have recently come to Philadelphia from Puerto Rico. They are wearing their beads out in the open on the street. Most are in their early teens and involved in the distribution of crack-cocaine and heroin. In February, 2003, ten members of the “Red Alert” criminal organization were arrested by the Philadelphia Police Department’s Organized Crime Intelligence Unit and the F.B.I.’s Squad 3 (Philadelphia) on federal indictments. The investigation into this organization covered approximately three years and was conducted by the Philadelphia Police Department’s OCIU and the Federal Bureau of Investigation. This group was indicted for narcotics and under the Hobbs Act (violent crime). The organization was known to be distributing several kilograms of powder cocaine, crack-cocaine, and heroin per year within less then a 1,000 feet of an elementary school, selling firearms (by convicted felons), and committing several armed home invasion robberies. This organization was unique in that its leading members claimed to be Latin Kings, but never showed allegiance to New York or Chicago, even shunning New York, when they attempted to bring them into their fold. The organization also had members that claimed Ñeta, NG-25, and non- gang members. The organization’s narcotics were supplied by Dominican drug traffickers, who were also their primary targets for home invasion robberies, though not exclusively. They had females involved in the organization, playing roles involving the home invasion robberies and supervising narcotics sales. In January, 2005, the leadership of Pennsylvania and Philadelphia's "Almighty Latin King Queen Nation" gang's "Lion Tribe" were federally indicted (17 members- RICO Conspiracy) and two were arrested on local charges, by the Philadelphia Police Department Criminal Intelligence Unit and F.B.I. Philadelphia/Squad 3. The "Lion Tribe was active in Bethlehem and Allentown, Pennsylvania. The "Lion Tribe" followed "Motherland" (Chicago). These arrests seem to have stopped a coordinated state chapter (for the time being) in PA. The "Lion Tribe" is reorganizing and holding meetings, in Philly. They claim to be authorized and in contact with a "King Havoc" from Chicago. The "Lion Tribe" is very “anti-Blood Line Kings” (New York). It will allow "Blood Line Kings" to join the "Lion Tribe" as long as they claim their allegiance to the "Motherland". If they don't, there is a "Terminate On Site" (T.O.S.) order put out, on the "Blood Line" members. The "Lion Tribe" in Philadelphia has often had problems with their traditional ally, the " Ñetas". This has even led to some violence, though it seems calm at the moment. One of the leading members, Neftali Colon, of "Bethlehem’s "Lion Tribe" was put on trial for murdering another "Latin King". Colon fell under the indicted members of the "Lion Tribe" and was part of a "Lion Tribe" hit on the leadership of New Jersey's "Latin Kings", which occurred in Vineland, New Jersey, in March, 2004. This hit included members of the State hierarchy, Allentown's Hierarchy, and Philadelphia's. Another Latin King Inca on trial, William “King Homicide” Sosa, oversaw an underworld reign of terror that included murder, kidnappings, brutal beatings, torture and rape. He went

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on trial in early 2006, along with seven top associates and was convicted in March, 2006 in a multiple count racketeering indictment handed up against him and 16 other codefendants. Several of those defendants subsequently pleaded guilty and agreed to testify against him. Co-defendants Alex “King AM” Melendez and “King Elvis” Ortiz were also convicted of the broad racketeering offense and several related charges including an assault on Rafael "King Sun" Guzman. Guzman, the one-time leader of the Vineland, N.J., branch of the Latin Kings, testified that he had been abducted at gunpoint from his home and taken to the basement of a house in North Philadelphia where Sosa and the others beat him for hours. Guzman said he escaped before other members were able to carry out Sosa's order that they cut off his hands with a machete. The fastest growing Latino group in Philadelphia, and possibly the fastest growing group in Philadelphia period, is the Mexican population. There are also Mexican gangs, but to date, there is not any identified coordinated Mexican gang activity in Philadelphia. However, Mexican Nationals have been identified as becoming more involved in the supplying of narcotics (marijuana, cocaine, and heroin) to Philadelphia. They are primarily supplying from Arizona and Texas. In some cases, they are replacing the Dominicans or even supplying the Dominican wholesalers. In the coming years, Latino gangs are expected to continue to be a major problem all along the East Coast. Law enforcement and corrections continue to monitor these groups very closely. Maryland/Washington D.C./Virginia Carnalitos, Traviesos, SUR 13, 18th Street, and MS13 have also been identified in Baltimore, Maryland, and these gangs have been identified in other areas. Aztecas have been identified in Anne Arundel County, MD. MS13 appears to be in the beginning stages of organizing itself as a force within the Department of Corrections as well. They are not claiming any umbrella organization other than MS13 at this time. The primary gang in Maryland is MS 13. Some of the main cliques are SLSW-Sailors Locotes Salvatruchos Westside, LPS-Langley Park Salvatruchos, TLS-Teclas Locotes Salvatruchos, FLS/NLS-Fulton Locotes Salvatruchos/Northside Locotes Salvatruchos (they go by both), PVLS-Parkview Locotes Salvatruchos (Parvies). There are other cliques as well, some of which are WLS-Western, PLS-Pinos, CLS-Centrales, CLCS Coronados, AMLSAcres Malditos, HPS-Highland Park, HLS-Hempstead, PBS-Playboys, BGLS-Big Gangsters, and BCLS- Big Criminals. MS is evolving and now have more money and firearms than ever before. They are more involved in extortion and robbery of Latino businesses, both illegal and legal, minimal narcotics involvement, and a high level of violence. A direct connection has been seen to the following areas: Phoenix, Houston, Miami, Atlanta, New York (Long Island), Los Angeles, Baltimore, and Washington D.C. The historical enemy of MS is 18th Street, but there is not a large population of documented 18th St in MD. There are other groups, some which are rumored to be aligned with 18 but this is unconfirmed. The biggest rival of MS in Maryland is Vatos Locos of which there are three different factions. VL-Maryland, VL-D.C., and VL-Virginia as they describe themselves.

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There is an offshoot or minor league of VL which is LVL or Little Vatos Locos. There are at least several hundred VL members in the area. They have allies such as El Palo, Brown Union, LDC-Lewisdale Crew, and others. BPL-Brown Pride Locos is a primarily Mexican group that is growing in numbers and activity. The MD population of Mexican immigrants, legal and illegal, come primarily from the Puebla, Mexico area. They often represent with blue colors and Sureño 13, but also represent with brown colors. There are approximately 100 BPL in Maryland. They are aligned with Sur 13, YH-Young Hoodlums, and some smaller groups. There are a few other smaller gangs which include RL-Raza Locos, ML-Mexican Locos, LD-Latin Devils, TLB- Toca La Bandera, ML-Mara Locos, Tha Woods, La Raza, and STC-Street Thug Criminals. Mara Salvatrucha did wreak a lot of havoc and violence in northern part of Virginia and in Washington, D.C. areas. There were approximately 3,000 MS members and associates previously identified in those areas. Most MS13 in northern Virginia have now gone "underground" and are trying to restructure. Their leadership took some big hits. MS members executed a police informant, Brenda “Smiley” Paz in 2003. This witness intimidation homicide posed a threat to other witnesses who might be thinking about cooperating with police. The Paz Case and two very aggressive ICE agents helped deported approximately 300 MS13 members in the past 2 years. When they return, which they do, they usually do not come back to the same area as they know law enforcement is already on to them. In the Washington D.C. area, MS13 continues to be a security threat. There is an increase in South Side Locos activities, which may be partly due to Mara Salvatrucha receiving a lot of media attention lately. Gang graffiti has been on the rise. There has been an increase in the number of Bloods in Virginia. In the Virginia Department of Corrections, the Bloods have been observed trying to take over. They are trying to show the Sureno population that the Surenos aren't as tough as they think they are. Though enemies on the street, it has been reported that Mara Salvatrucha and South Side Locos are banding together in D.O.C. Brown Union is another group located primarily in the Washington D.C. area and there colors are brown. Street Thug Criminals (STC) normally represent with red and black, but don’t often fly colors like most other Latino Gangs in the area. STC are primarily Latino, however, there is a mix of other races in the gang of approx. 20 members, 3-5 female members. They, like all other gangs in this area, are enemies of MS-13. The gang was supposedly formed for protection from MS-13. STC were formed out of Roosevelt High School and hang out on 14th street in D.C. They have links or allies with some of the smaller gangs in the area and are suspected of being tied to 18th Street as well. They are allied up with some smaller gangs in the area such as MC-Migo Crew and LC-Latin Crew or Little Crew. They are also enemies of Vatos Locos.


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Tennessee is a unique state because it is bordered by eight other states. There are many highway systems that cross four of Tennessee's major cities. These highways carry a lot of traffic and are a primary means of moving drugs. As a result, the drug problems in neighboring states have an impact on the drug situation in Tennessee. Sureños and Mara Salvatrucha have been very active in Tennessee dealing narcotics. There have also been rumors of “Zetitas” operating in the state via Dallas-Little Rock-Memphis but that has yet to be physically proven. Two Cartels are very prominent in Memphis: The Juarez Cartel (El Paso, TX connections) and the Gulf Cartel (Rio Grande Valley Area). At this time no major physical cartel confrontations have been documented by law enforcement. Suerenos have been active in the Memphis/Shelby County Area for about eight years. The birth of local Latino gang activity started in the north area of Memphis on Jackson Ave. This area is called “Little Mexico”. It first started with SUR 13, with a little tagging here and there, mainly around the “Latino Market” and a couple of local Mexican restaurants. Reports taken by law enforcement and conversations with business owners indicated that SUR 13 gangs were forcing extortion money for protection of their goods or business owners would suffer the wrath of the gang. The first documented Sur XIII came from the Los Angeles area when Surenos tags were found written in black or blue. We also saw that Undocumented Mexican Nationals were coming to Memphis to do construction work and found they could not get license registration for their vehicles and drivers licenses. Mississippi was a lot easier on the illegal Mexicans getting these documents. The Hickory Hill, TN, area is only several miles from the Mississippi border so a lot of them went there for documents. There were instances where Mexican gang members were coordinating robberies and killing Mexican workers since they could not use banks in the Memphis area because they did not have proper identification to open an account. The rise in Latino gang activity became more frequent in recent years, as well as the influx of Black gangs, mainly the Gangster Disciples. Robberies and Murders became more frequent, but in Memphis there have been no gang wars to date between the Blacks and Latinos. The common ground, as in any gang is monetary, and cocaine sale proceeds between the two groups made it profitable for both sides to work together. Memphis and Atlanta have very strong ties. Mexican Organized Prostitution Rings have also been a problem. Mara Salvatrucha did make a short presence in the North Memphis area with some MS taggings being found. Surenos 13 being the larger gang, as street sources state, told the MS that Memphis was Sureno 13 territory period and it now appears that the MS have stopped their activity. MS 13 members in Memphis seem to have moved to Nashville with other MS to help coordinate drug trafficking to the East Coast. Nashville shows prominent MS13 taggings in many areas of the city and it is believed that some MS helped build the Tennessee Titans football stadium. A combined effort with City, County and Federal Law enforcement officials in the Shelby County, TN, area is making great strides to identify Latino gang activity and drug trafficking in our area. North Carolina

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Mara Salvatrucha 13, 18th Street Sickos, and 42nd Lil Criminals are all active in North Carolina. Durham, NC, has several MS cliques that have been identified such as Hollywood, Venice, Coronados, Los Angeles, and local Durham clicas. There has even been one MS14-Norte identified out of Oakland, CA. Other Surenos in Durham have been, Brown Pride Locos 13, Brown Pride Aztecas, Vatos Locos, 38th Street Gang, Orphans, Very Dangerous Mexicanos, and Night Crawlers. Durham also has Sureños and Latin Kings that work together, so contrary to the trend in the rest of the country, there are Latin King 13s. They can still work together as a means of survival against the larger United Blood Nation. There are Latin Kings (Lion Tribe) and Latin Kings out of Florida and there are been indication of drug and gun running between the two states. There have even been Latino Crips identified in the Under Ground Crips. On the streets NC gangs normally fight among themselves so there aren’t many, if any, alliances between gangs. Latino gangs have only been fighting Black gangs in two known turf rivalries. These are: MS13 Durham LS vs. Insane Gangster Disciples and Brown Pride Locos (aligned with Under Ground Crips) vs. the 83 Crips and sometimes 9Trey Bloods. Word on the street in NC is that the beef between ALKQN and UBN is over. Many gangsters heard a myth that OG Mack and King Tone met and called a peace treaty now they are aligned cause both "Ride the 5 (point star)". Durham does have the Sureño-Latin King hybrid created by some of the Lion Tribe that fights anyone they feel like. There have also been reports of gang conflicts on area military bases involving Sureños and Fresno Bulldogs. Various street gangs can be found on military bases in North Carolina, including Latino gangs. The brass has mostly been in denial about this problem in the past. New efforts are being made to investigate gangs in the military and remove them from the ranks Georgia Georgia has seen a huge increase in Hispanic gang activity. 40% of gangs in Georgia are Latino, many fall under the “13” and “14” umbrellas, but very few know what the true meaning of the numbers is. Some girls are beginning to join gangs, they see movies and start to believe that “sex in” is a cool way of getting into gangs. The unique thing about some of the Georgia Latino Gangs is you at times will find association between 13 and 14. For instance, North Side Locos 14 and Mara Salvatrucha 13. Most recently, some Georgia homegrown Latino gangs are beginning to use a local area name or streets like Traymore, Riverside, etc. but many times still add a 13 or 14 at the end to show affiliation with one side or the other. Los Primos and 18th Street have battled in Athens, Georgia. A major trial in Georgia involved several members of La Gran Familia.

Florida The main Latino gangs in Florida are the Latin Kings, Imperial Gangsters, Maniac Latin Disciples, APK (Apopka Killers) and Sur 13. Up and coming and fast growing gangs are

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Norteños and Ñetas. The Latin Kings can be found all through Florida, while the Norteños, Sureños, and La Raza are reported mostly out of the southwest part (south of Naples) and central area of Florida (Tampa across to the northeast part of Orlando). Polk County is documenting a larger number of Norteños than Sureños due to the farming in the county. Volusia County has Sur 13, Brown Pride, and Vatos Locos. The Latin Kings are very active with narcotic and weapon offenses between Tampa and Orlando. The Inca is now reportedly Michael Victor Lugo, aka “King Dragon”. He is originally out of Indiana and has his former Indiana address on his FL/DL. The Latin Kings can be found in the Latino Night Clubs in the Orlando area. One incident involved two Agents being recognized and then surrounded inside a nightclub where several Latin Kings were having a night out. The Agents were able to leave without incident, while security (Orlando Police Officers) handled the group. Within the group who were yelling “We are Kings!” was former boxer, Hector Luis “Macho” Camacho. The Latin Kings have also placed a “KOS” (Kill on Sight) on the former leader of the Imperial Gangsters, William “Will Kill” Lopez. It is reported that the Latin King that had the order failed to carry it out and he too has a “KOS”. Another on-going drug investigation which Agents thought may involve members of the Latin Kings turned up with a member of the Spanish Cobras out of Chicago. That investigation continues. A Ñeta who claimed to be a “Prima” was identified in Florida and made some threats to officers to include drawings with tombstones with their names on it, bullets with their names on it. Since 2001, documented Latin King gang members from Chicago and cities of northeastern states have been contacted and identified on a regular basis in the Orange County, Florida, area. On September 9, 2003, the Orlando Metropolitan Bureau of Investigation made a buy bust on a and found another 150 tablets, 5 documented Latin King of over 500 tablets of ecstasy, cocaine, and a firearm inside the vehicle. The 600 tablets of alleged ecstasy was found to be pure PCP the other 50 was found to be MDA and methamphetamine. The main Imperial Gangster is out of Chicago. Allegedly, he has told the gangs on Orlando’s eastside to align with Imperial Gangsters and Maniac Latin Disciples or move out of the area. These gangs include Gangster Disciples, Black Gangster Disciples, Outlawz and Rolling 60’s Crips. Outlawz are a new gang consisting mainly of Latinos that are controlled by a Maniac Latin Disciple out of Chicago. In southwest Florida, the largest and also very active Latino street gang is “La Raza.” The northwest area of Orange County, Florida is mainly controlled by Latino gangs: Sur 13, Apopka Killers, and Westside. Within recent months, there have been several drive-by shootings involving Sur 13 and APK. During an arrest of a Sur 13 member at his residence, Orange County Sheriff’s Officers observed and contacted over 20 additional Sur 13 members hanging out at the residence. The Seminole County Jail is seeing a large number of Latin Kings, and now, Sur 13 members and graffiti are being identified in Seminole County, Florida as well. Criminal activity of the listed gangs in the State of Florida range from murder, robbery, home invasion, burglary, weapon offences, drug offenses, kidnapping, battery and criminal mischief.

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Canada Recently, there has been a very significant influx of Cuban Nationals and other criminals, particularly from the Albuquerque, New Mexico area. There are signs of confrontations and assaults taking place between Honduran Nationals and Cubans. Hondurans dominate the street level crack cocaine with more than 300 dealers identified. Cubans may be trying to get a share of this market. Salvadorans are becoming more prominent as well. Since 1997, there has been a significant increase in the number of Hispanic individuals entering Canada illegally and claiming refugee status. Over 1500 have entered that we are aware of. Likely many, many more have crossed into Canada from the U.S. who have not been documented. The vast majority of them are from Honduras(600+). Others are predominately from El Salvador, Guatemala and Mexico. CBSA (Canadian Immigration) has targeted Latino gang members with success described under the Canadian Immigration Act as Organized Crime members. At this time, Vancouver Police began to observe and document tattoos that were specific to a particular established street gang, MS-13. The gang member’s activities in Vancouver were overwhelmingly drugrelated. There are 25 documented MS-13 gang members within the city of Vancouver, B.C., Canada. Unconfirmed source information indicates that there is a large number more that have not been identified yet. VPD and CBSA recently co-operated with the Seattle Police Department and the Bureau of Immigration and Customs Enforcement to apprehend a wanted MS13 gang member from the Seattle Locos (SLS) clique who had fled to Vancouver to avoid prosecution. Unlike the activity that has been experienced in the U.S., these gang members have engaged in predominately street level drug trafficking and low-level violence here, usually involving knives or machetes. However, if we can draw upon experiences of other U.S. cities, particularly Seattle, the level of violence exhibited by these individuals quickly escalates if they feel their ‘territory’ is threatened by other criminals. Some believe Mara Salvatrucha is expanding in Vancouver, British Columbia. Mexican and Latin American nationals to exchange cocaine for B.C. bud. Border Brothers/Paisas find the country attractive in order to deal narcotics. Sureños, Florencia 13, and 18th Street have also moved into Canada.


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Mexican President Vicente Fox has done a better job cracking down on drug cartels than his predecessors have in such efforts as Operation Trifecta, which resulted in 240 arrests. The drug cartels have been busted up, but somebody always seems to fill the vacuum. Of great concern, is a band of Mexican deserters formerly belonging to a military group called “Zetas,” an elite paratroop and intelligence battalion posted in Tamaulipas, Mexico in the 1990s. They have now joined forces with the drug traffickers. In January 2004, the Mexican government announced that deserters from its army were involved in a raid on a prison that freed drug traffickers and helped them escape. The Mexican attorney general’s office is also said to be launching an investigation of possible foreign terrorists who might want to target the U.S. from Mexico. In light of 9/11, this is of great concern to safety and security as Mexico has relatively easy illegal ports of entry. (DEA July 2003, Washington Post January 30, 2004) Mexican Drug Trafficking Organizations (DTOs) and Mexican criminal groups are directly or indirectly responsible for producing, smuggling, transporting, and distributing many of the illicit drugs available in the United States. The money generated from these drug transactions are often laundered through “Casas de Cambio” (exchange houses). The resulting health costs of drug abusers has a negative effect on the U.S. economy. By controlling the supply and wholesale distribution of illegal drugs, Mexican DTO’s and their criminal groups (who are often gang members or associates) are responsible for the high level of violence associated with the illegal drug business. (NDIC March 2003) Barrio Aztecas (BA) have had a working relationship with the Juarez Cartel for years. There was a riot March, 2006, in Cuidad Juarez that left nine prisoners dead and 43 injured. Allegedly the Aztecas attacked and killed their leader, Alejandro Ferrer Perez. aka “El Veneno” (Poison). He only had nine days left before he was set to be released after serving time for murder. It appears some of his underlings suspected him of betrayal. The latest clash came on the heels of a previous riot between the BA and the Mexicles prison gang that left seven dead at the same prison in December, 2005. Hispanic street gangs from the U.S. are active in parts of Mexico. 18th Street has a large number of members in Mexico, according to their website. MS is present in the State of Chiapas. The wave of escaping gang members from Central America has also wreaked havoc in Mexico, reaching as far north as the U.S. border. Gang members in border towns rob and kill fellow Central American migrants, recruit Mexican youths, and ally themselves with Mexican drug traffickers. Mexican police have rounded up gang members in Nuevo Laredo, Mexico, just south of Laredo, Texas, and also along their southern Guatemalan border, deporting hundreds, but many are already believed to have made their way into the United States. Central America Mara Salvatrucha, and to a lessor extent M18 or 18th Street, continue to be problematic in El Salvador, Honduras, and Guatemala. In April 2003, there was a major riot that allegedly

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began with a fist fight between members of the rival Mara Salvatrucha and Mara 18 street gangs. It was said to have escalated when other gang members set fire to mattresses and furniture in their cells at the 1,600-inmate El Porvenir prison in La Ceiba, Honduras. According to prison officials, sixty-nine people were burned to death, died of smoke inhalation, or were killed by inmates wielding homemade weapons. Honduras’ 26 prisons were built to house 5,500 inmates but are crammed with 13,000 prisoners, according to government statistics. Central America’s crackdown on street gangs has drawn a bloody response as some gangs have dismembered young women and children to send police a message of defiance. Others are fleeing to Mexico and neighboring countries, bringing their deadly violence with them. Honduran President Ricardo Maduro, elected in 2001, had a “zero tolerance policy” in his anti-crime platform. Estimates are that thousands of gang members have fled Honduras since August, 2003, when the government outlawed street gangs and started rounding up members. El Salvador soon followed suit in October 2003. According to Honduran authorities, 104 MS gang members perished in a riot in San Pedro Sula, Honduras in May, 2004. The MS gang members had been segregated and housed in a separate tier of the prison. Apparently an electrical fire started and engulfed the MS tier in fire. As a result, only 78 out of 182 inmates from that tier survived the fire. In 2006, Honduras has a new President, Manuel Zelaya, and he has also vowed to crack down on the Maras but as of yet it is to be seen what policy differences might be set into place. In Guatemala, it appears the “Death Squads” and vigilantism have come back in 2006. (AP) Puerto Rico Ñetas continue to be disruptive in Puerto Rican prisons. The current government of Puerto Rico appears to have a policy of “hands off” when dealing with Ñetas. The Wardens are again required to meet with “El Comite de Dialogo” (The Diologue Committee) at least once a week. This Ñeta controlled committee tells the Warden what they want and expect for the Administration to do along with instructions from the “Comite Central” (Central Committee or Leadership Branch of the Ñetas) out of Rio Piedras Malvinas. The government has also permitted Ñetas to reopen office in Malvinas called the “Comision Para Mejorar La Calidad De Vida en Los Instituciones Penales” (Comission for Better Living Conditions in the Penal Institutions). The commission president is an inmate who was convicted of 1st degree murder for killing a Catholic priest in the late 1980s. The committee was disbanded in 1997, and this inmate was in Ponce Adults Segregation for over a year, but is now back up running again. What does this mean for us as STG Investigators? 1. Security Threat Groups are in control of the whole Puerto Rican prison system; 2. This will re-open the artery of communication we closed in 1997, with State Side chapters; 3. They will open new chapters to expand the so-called association; and 4. 4. Increase prison drug distribution on the Island and Stateside. “El Comite de amigos y familiares de confinados” (Friends and Family Committee of Inmates), political arm of the Ñetas, has more political influence.

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General Trends The National Major Gang Task Force (NMGTF) noted in its “2002 Survey of Prisons and Jails” that Hispanic Security Threat Groups made up 13.7 percent of prison Security Threat Groups and 24.2 percent of jails surveyed, for a total of 16 percent overall. This number is sure to increase as the Hispanic population in the United States increases. The vast majority of Hispanics are law abiding citizens, only a small portion are criminal, but the number of Hispanic inmates will rise in conjunction with population and will prey on that population as they have historically done in the past. Validation of Security Threat Group affiliation can be very time consuming and there are not enough gang investigators in most institutions to keep up. Many times we are two to five years behind the ball. The gangs know this and can manipulate the system. Gangs are migrating from larger cities to medium sized cities and to smaller towns, a move fueled, in part, by an increase in gang involvement in drug trafficking. Most Hispanic gang members are not involved in large quantities of the distribution of narcotics. An exception would be Mexican Nationals (Border Brothers, Paisas, etc.) with ties to drug cartels. The average Hispanic gang member uses a good part of the day figuring out how to get money hustling to purchase drugs and alcohol for recreational use. Some even hold down jobs. Many gangs have certain members who are involved in drug trafficking to some extent, ranging from street- level sales to wholesale distribution. Rival gang members may cooperate for the sake of narcotic sales or other criminal acts. Mexican drug organizations are becoming more involved in the manufacturing and selling of methamphetamine. Meth making materials are easier to get in Mexico. Numerous law enforcement agencies report that some gangs involved in wholesale drug distribution have connections to major international drug cartels in Mexico. Border Brothers, Paisas, and other Mexican National Security Threat Groups will be a growing problem in the future as the “Drug War” intensifies. Sureños are spreading very fast nationwide, in great part, due to their heavy recruitment of Mexican Nationals. Many gangs will adopt a big gang name Sur 13 or Latin Kings, but the farther away from L.A. or Chicago the more hybrid the gang may be and may not follow gang traditions. While the overall violent crime rate has dropped nationwide, many smaller communities have experienced increases, sometimes double-digit increases, due to gang violence. The murder rate may be dropping, in part, due to the fact hospital trauma centers are keeping them alive because of technological advances in this area. Veteran gang members (Veteranos) may be serving longer sentences, which has fueled a breakdown in the so-called “gang traditions.” Violence may increase when the older ones are released from prison and the younger ones do not want to give up power. The hold of prison gangs is not as strong as it once was. This has decreased violence in many correctional facilities, but may have also led to more bloodshed out on the street. Successful RICO trials have caused shifts in power and violent struggles in some states. Witness intimidation is still affecting the prosecution of violent gang offenders. Gangs are disruptive

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at many schools. This also has an effect on non-gang kids as they may fear for their safety going to, from, and at school. Gangs have infiltrated legitimate businesses, security firms, prisons, jails, and even law enforcement agencies on occasion. Gangs in the military is a special concerns because of the urban warfare training taught to deal with the problems in Iraq and Afghanistan, these gang members come home and may display these skills against law enforcement (as in the Raya case, Jan. 2005). This is not just a concern with MS, but in all probability even greater with other gangs. The military has been in denial in the past and appears to be finally confronting the problem. Gangs on the West Coast are generally unsophisticated with little or no hierarchical organizational structures; however, some are becoming more highly organized and sophisticated, involved in politics, technology (Internet), and other media. .

SUBJECT 13 14 13 Locos 18 (Tat) 18th Street 18th Street 18th Street 18th Street 18th Street 18th Street 18th Street 18th Street 18th Street 18th Street 18th Street 18th Street 18th Street 18th Street 18th Street 106 Clique PAGE 6 8 45 15 7 15 33 37 38 42 44 45 47 50 52 53 54 28 30

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18th Street Gang 18TH STREET GANG 18TH STREET GANG 18th Street gang 18th Street Sickos 20 Luv 20th Street MS 13 Clique 21st Street Gangsters 3 Point Crown (tat) 30th Street Gang 38th Street Gang 38th Street Gang 38th Street Gang 42nd Lil Criminals 5 Point Crown (tat) 54th Street Tiny Locos 666 (tat) 7 Ryder Wayz 712. 7N14er 7-Step Huelga Bird 83 Crips 8-Ball Albuquerque Alien Smuggling ALKQN Almighty Latin King and Queen Nation (ALKQN) ALMIGHTY LATIN KING AND QUEEN NATION (ALKQN) NY Almighty Latin King Queen Nation Amphetamine ANGIANO, "Blackie" Anne Arundel County Apopka Killers (APK) Area code 213 ARELLANO, Benjamin ARELLANO, Eduardo ARELLANO, Francisco ARELLANO, Javier ARELLANO, Ramon ARELLANO-FELIX Organization (AFO) ARENAS, Valentino Mitchel ARIZONA Arizona Mexican Mafia Aryan Peckerwoods Asociacion Neta Athens, Georgia AYALA, Luis "Detroit" Ayran Brotherhood AZ EME Aztec Lion

14 15 27 42 50 19 30 41 20 3 14 28 50 50 20 27 15 31 31 31 31 50 39 52 45 45 21 22 46 1 36 47 51 15 3 3 3 3 3 2 28 33 12 31 45 50 42 34 34 13

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Aztecas Aztlan Baby Mafia Baltimore Barrio Azteca (BA) Barrio Azteca (BA) Barrio Azteca (BA) Barrio Azteca (BA) Barrio Aztecas Barrio Monacillo Barrio Santa Rosa (BSR) BARRON-Corona, David "Popeye" BC Bud BELTRAN-Leyva, Arturo BENITEZ, Jose Federico Police Chief Tijuana (murdred) Big Gangsters (BGLS) Big Horn Basin Black Beads Black Gangster Disciples Black Gangster Disciples and Bloods Black Gangster Disciples and Bloods Black Guerilla Family Black Hand Black P-Stones Blood Line Kings Bloodline Bloodline Latin Kings Bloods Blooming Flower Blue Border Brothers Border Brothers Border Brothers Border Brothers Border Brothers (BB) BORDER BROTHERS and PAISAS Boston Celtics Hats Brahma Bull Decals Broderick Boys Bronx Kings Brown Magic Clique Brown Pride Brown Pride Brown Pride Brown Pride Brown Pride Aztecas Brown Pride Locos Brown Pride Locos (BPL) Brown Pride Locos 13 Brown union

47 36 5 47 10 13 34 37 53 18 27 3 52 4 3 47 27 21 51 25 43 8 6 15 46 43 22 48 7 8 35 13 52 55 12 12 24 14 31 22 26 26 27 40 51 50 50 48 50 48

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Brown Union Bull Dogs Bulldog (tat) Bulldog Nation C' C-14 CA EME CADENA, Rodolfo "Cheyenne" CALIFORNIA California EME California Mexian Mafia California Surenos CAMACHO, Hector Luis "Macho" (Pro-Boxer aligned with Latin Kings) CAMERENA, Enrique DEA Agent (murdered) CANADA CARDENAS-Guillen, Osiel CARILLO-Fuentes, Rodolfo Carillo-Fuentes, Vicente Carnales Carnalitos Carnalitos CARO-Quintero, Miguel CARO-Quintero, Rafael CARRILLO-Fuentes, Amado Casas de Cambio CASTANEDA, Sal "Lil Man" CASTILLO, "Mikio" CASTORENA Family CASTORENA, Alfonso CENTRAL AMERICA Centrales Locotes Salvatruchos (CLS) CERVANTES, David "D.C." CERVANTES, Henry "Happy" CHAPPARO, Anthony "Chappy" Charter Nation Kings CHECCHETELLI, Michael "Merlyn" Chelsea Locos Salvatruchos Chiapas Chicago Latin Kings Chicago Street Gang Wars Chicano Pride Association (CPA) CISNEROS Crime Family Clantones 14 Cobras Cocaine COLLAZO, Anthony "Chino" COLON, Gustavo "Lord Chino" Colonia Chiques Gang COLORADO COMANDARI, Nelson

48 32 18 18 24 40 36 6 28 34 36 34 51 2 52 4 5 5 6 13 47 5 2 2 53 9 9 38 38 54 47 31 9 32 21 42 42 53 39 20 39 33 39 24 38 42 20 29 32 29

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COMANDARI-Varela, Nelson Committee Pro-Quality of Life for Inmates Compton Tortilla Flats CONNECTICUT LATIN KING CHARTER Coronados Locotes Salvatruchos (CLCS) Coronados Locotes Slavatrucha Coronados Locotes Slavatrucha CRASH Crazy Town Roswell Crossed Pitchforks (tat) CT Latin King Cuban Criminal Groups Cuban Nationals CUESTA, Filbert LAPD Officer (murdered) CUEVAS, Felix "King Speedy" Culver City Boys D' (tat) Dallas Tango Dark Room Familia Rap de la TORRE, Alfredo, Police Chief Tijuana (murdered) DE LOS SANTOS, Roberto DELGADO, Alex DELGADO, Hector "He-Man" Deming Tortilla Flats Deming, NM Denver DIAZ, Pete "Pajaro" Diesocho (tat) Disruptive Groups Dominicans Don't Play Drug Cartels Drug Cartels and Drug Trafficking Organizations Duke University Jackets Durham East Boston Locos Salvatruchos EAST COAST East Coast Bloods East Side Locos East Side Locos Salvatruchos East Side Longos 13 El Comite de Dialogo El Gallo El Palo El Paso, Texas El Perico Elm City Boys (ECB) EME EME Esquadron Estelle vs Ruiz Lawsuit

37 19 29 21 47 44 45 15 34 23 21 34 52 15 22 30 23 35 9 3 12 42 38 35 35 33 36 15 5 43 55 1 23 50 42 42 43 26 42 25 54 12 48 37 12 19 28 32 45 10

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Evil Klan Gang F13 F-14 Bulldogs Familia Cinco Far North Side Kings Farabundo Marti National Liberation Front (FMNL) Farmeros FELICIANO, Benjamin FELIPE, Luis "King Blood" FELIX-Gallardo, Miguel FERNANDEZ, Antonio "King Tone" FERRER-Perez, Alejandro "El Veneno" (Poison) Firearms First Fathers Florence, CO Florencia 13 Florencia 13 Florencia 13 Florencia 13 FLORES, Louis "Huero" FLORIDA Foerign Terrorists - Mexico Folk Gangs Folk Nation Folk nation Gang Folsom Prison FONESCA-Carrillo, Ernesto Fraud Documents Fraudulent Documents French Street Massacre Fresno Bulldogs Fresno Bulldogs (BDS) Fresno Bulldogs (BDS) Fresno County Jail FRESNO WAR and the BULLDOGS FT. Benning Georgia Fulton Locotes Salvatruchos (FLS) G-27 G-27 Group Gallant Knights Insane (GKI) GALLARDO-Felix, Miguel Gang Infiltration Gangster Disciples Gangster Killeer Kings (GKK) Gangster Rap Gangster Surenos Clica of Southpark GARCIA, David GARCIA, Enrique "Rick Dog" GARCIA, Francisco "Pimp Daddy" GARCIA-Vargas, Jorge Commander Anti-Narcotics Institute (murdered)

28 25 18 7 21 16 6 42 22 2 22 53 2 32 32 14 27 33 52 29 51 53 39 40 41 9 2 38 20 12 32 18 27 32 17 4 47 18 19 32 3 56 49 22 28 25 30 23 23 3

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GENERAL TRENDS GEORGIA GKI GONZALES, "Death Row Joe" GONZALES, "Panchito" GONZALES, Raul "Baby King" GONZALES, Victor GONZALES, Yani "Lazy" Green Light (contract for murder) Guadalajara Guadalajara Guatemalans Gulf Cartel Gulf Cartel GUTIERREZ, Hodin Mexican Prosecutor (murdered) GUZMAN, "Chapo" GUZMAN, Rafael "King Sun" GUZMAN-Loera, Joaquin "Chapo" HANRAHAN, Robert "Bubba" Harrison Act Hawaiian Gardens Hells Stompers Hermanos de la Frontera Hermanos de Pistoleros Latinos HERNANDEZ, Joseph "Pinky" Heroin HERRERA, Roberto "Robe" Hispanic Trheat Goups Hollywood Gangster Clica (HGC) Hollywood Locos Homicide of Officers Hooded Monk (tat) Horseshoe Decals Houston Tangos Houston Tangos HUERTA, Heriberto "Herb/Muelas" Humbolt Park I-5 I-90 IDAHO Illinois Imperial Gangsters INCA Incline Village INDIANA Inglewood 13 Gang Inglewood Trece (13) Insane Family Insane Gangster Disciples Insane Nation Vikings

55 50 33 8 9 20 22 25 9 2 38 44 4 49 3 37 47 2 31 1 29 23 13 10 9 36 12 55 45 37 28 23 14 10 35 11 21 26 26 26 38 51 20 32 41 28 30 24 50 41

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Juarez Juarez Cartel Juarez Cartel Juarez Cartel Juarez, Mexico Junior/Little Weasel Kabiles Kedzie/Cortez Kings (K/C Kings) King Beast King Blvd Locos King Hitler King Mafia Disciples KOS (Kill on sight) LA 13 La Chiva LA Dodgers La EME La EME La Eme La Familia La Familia La Familia La Gran Familia La Gran Familia La Gran Familia Mexicana La Gran Raza La Manota La Mesa La Mugre La Nuestra Familia La Nuestra Familia Mexicana La Onda La Oreja la Raza La Raza La Raza Unida La Virgin de Guadalupe Langley Park Salvatruchos (LPS) Las Cruces Street Gangs Las Vegas LATIN AMERIC A Latin Bloods Latin Crew (LC) Latin Devils (LD) Latin Disciples Latin Eagles Latin King 13 Latin King Inca Latin King Manifesto Latin Kings

37 5 49 53 39 29 4 38 44 27 22 27 51 45 12 15 5 7 40 41 42 43 43 50 45 45 18 9 45 6 7 45 11 51 51 43 13 47 34 32 53 22 48 48 22 24 50 47 21 19

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Latin Kings Latin Kings Latin Kings Latin Kings Latin Kings Latin Kings Latin Kings Latin Kings Latin Kings Latin Kings Latin Kings Latin Kings Latin Kings latin Kings Latin Kings LATIN KINGS - FLORIDA Latin Kings and Bloods Latin Kings on the Lac Courte Oreilles (LCO) Latin Locos Latin Queens Latino Crips LAZCANO, Humberto Lennox 13 LEON, Raul "Huero Sherm" Lewisdale Crew (LDC) LEZA, Daniel "Gumby" Lil Valley Locos Lil Valley Locos Lion Tribe Lion Tribe Little Mexico Little Vatos Locos (LVL) Logan Heights Gang Longmont, Colorado LOPEZ, William "Will Kill" Lord Gino Lord of the Skies Los Cafeteros Los Carnales Los Chacas Los Cuatro Inquietos Los Padilla Los Palomas Los Pitufos Los Playeros Los Primeros Padres (LPP) Los Primos Los Primos Los Primos Los Solidos

20 31 33 38 38 39 40 41 42 42 43 44 46 50 51 22 44 39 41 21 50 4 30 30 48 37 25 26 46 50 49 48 41 32 51 38 2 45 34 45 45 34 45 45 45 32 44 45 50 19

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Los Solidos Los Tigres del Norte LUGO, Michael Victor "King Dragon" M' M18 Machetero Madison MALVERDE, Jesus Maniac Latin Disciples Maniac Latin Disciples (MLD) Maniac Latin Disciples (MLD) MANIAC LATIN DISCIPLES and SPANISH GANGSTER DISCIPLE NATION Maniacn Latin Disciples Manuel A Perez Housing Project Mara Locos (ML) MARA SALVATRUCHA Mara Salvatrucha Mara Salvatrucha Mara Salvatrucha Mara Salvatrucha Mara Salvatrucha Mara Salvatrucha Mara Salvatrucha 13 Mara Salvatrucha 13 Mara Salvatruchas Maricopa County Sheriff Market Street Dominicans MARQUEZ, Jose Alberto "Bat" MARROQUIN, Hector MARYLAND/WASHINGTON DC/VIRGINIA MASSACHUSETTS Massachusetts ALKQU Massacre Honduras (Tapeworm) Mayan MELENDEZ, Alex "King AM" Memphis Mercenaries Merecidos Methamphetamine Mexican Brown Pride (MBP) Mexican Drug Cartel Mexican Drug Trafficking Organizations Mexican Drug Trafficking Organizations (DTOs) Mexican Drug Trafficking Organizations (DTOs) Mexican Federation (Gloden Triangle) Mexican Gangs Mexican Locos (ML) Mexican Mafia Mexican Mafia Mexican Mafia

43 13 51 6 54 19 39 2 51 23 39 22 51 18 48 16 33 38 43 44 48 54 14 50 49 33 44 4 29 47 42 42 38 31 47 49 37 11 27 39 37 1 26 53 2 45 48 28 29 30

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MEXICAN MAFIA (La EME) Mexican National Inmates Mexican Nationals Mexican population Mexican Posse Mexican Pride Mexican Pride Mexican Prostitution Rings Mexican Syndicate Locos (MSLS) Mexican Traffickers Mexicas Mexicles MEXICO Mexikanemi MEXIKANEMI Mexikanemi Mexikanemi Mexikanemi MEXIKANEMI MODUS OPERANDI, SCHOOLING, STRUCTURE Mexikanemi Science Temple of Aztlan INC Mi Raza Unida (MRU) MID WEST MID-WEST ALMIGHT LATIN KING NATION - CHICAGO Migo Crew (MC) Military Bases Military Gangs MILLAN, Pedro MILLET, Nelson Milwaukee C-14 MINNESOTA MIRANDA, Ernesto "Smokey" Mississippi Mojado Power Money Laundering Mongols Mongols and Hells Angels MONTANA MORADO, James "Tibbs" MORALES, Armando "Mousie" MORALES, Erik MORGAN, Joe Motherland Motherland MS MS 13 MS 13 Honduras MS Soldados MS Stoners MS13 MS13

5 33 55 47 40 13 26 49 39 41 37 53 53 10 11 35 36 37 11 11 32 38 20 48 50 56 21 21 39 41 16 49 13 53 28 28 26 9 18 29 6 20 46 16 37 37 37 16 27 33

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MS13 MS13 MS13 MS13 MS13 MS13 MS13 MS13 Normandie Locotes MSD Murder 1 N Narco-Santo Nashville National Major Gang Task Force Natural Black Family Nauatl Language Neighborhood Piru Bloods Neta NETAS Netas Netas netas Netas NEVADA Nevada Aryan Warriors New Flowers New Flowers NEW JERSY New Mexican Mafia NEW MEXICO New Mexico Corrections Department New Mexico Surenos 13 New Mexico Surenos 13 NEW YORK New York King Inca NG-25 Night Crawlers NINO, Arnulfo "Popo" ninos Malos Normandie Locotes Salvatrucha Nortenos Nortenos Nortenos Nortenos Nortenos Nortenos Nortenos Nortenos Nortenos Nortenos

41 42 45 47 52 53 56 45 44 27 8 2 49 55 34 11 30 41 18 43 46 51 54 32 34 17 32 43 33 34 34 34 35 43 22 46 50 36 45 44 6 26 26 27 27 28 31 32 32 32

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Nortenos Nortenos NORTH CAROLINA North Side Locos North Side Tiny Toons North Side Villains Northern Ryders Northern Ryders (NR) Northside Locotes Salvatruchos (NLS) NORTHWEST Nothern Structure NOTHERN STRUCTURE-Nuestra Raza-Nortenos Nuestra Familia Nuestra Familia Nuestra Familia Nuestra Familia Nuestra Familia Constitution Nuestra Raza Nueva Flores Nuevo Laredo Nuevo Laredo, Mexico OGB (Overall Governing Body) OJEDA Organization OJEDA, Pete "Sana" Ojos Rojos Operation Community Shield Operation Mano Negra Operation Royal Flush Operation Texas Style Operation Trifecta OREGON Orejones ORGANIZED CRIMIE OVERVIEW Orgullo Mexicano Original Crips Gang Orlando OROZCO, Lose Luis Orphans ORTIZ, "King Elvis" ORTIZ, Jerry LACSO Deputy (murdered) Outlawz Outlawz P12 Sharkies PADILLA, Hector "Mad Dog" PADILLA, Jose (9/11 Dirty Bomber-MLD member) Paisas Paisas Paisas Paisas Paisas

38 51 50 50 26 26 17 31 47 25 8 17 7 8 31 32 8 8 32 37 4 9 30 29 39 25 7 39 10 53 27 11 1 13 42 51 29 50 47 29 23 51 28 7 38 12 33 35 52 55

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PALMA-Salazar, Hector "Guero" Parkside Bulldogs Parkview Locotes Salvatruchos (PVLS) Partido Revolucion Mexicano (PRM) Parvies Patron Saint of Mexico PAVELKA, David Burbank PD Officer (murdered) PAZ, Brenda "Smiley" Pee-Wees Pelican Bay PENNSYLVANIA People Nation People Nation People nation People Nation Gangs PEREZ, Robert "Beaver" Pete the Burner Phoenix Pinos Locotes Salvatruchos (PLS) Playboys Salvatruchos (PBS) Pomona 12th Street Gang President Fox President Ricardo Maduro Primos PRISON GANGS Pro-Inmate Rights Association Providence Providence Salvatrucha Locos Puebla, mexico PUERTO RICO Queen Street Bloods QUINOES, Marco "Pato" Q-VO RAMIREZ, Ray RAMIREZ, Reynaldo "Rey" RANGEL, Rudy "Kato" Rascals Maravilla Raza Locos (RL) Raza Unida Red RED ALERT Organization REGIONAL THREAT ASSESSMENTS Reno REYNOSO, Adolph "Champ" RHODE ISLAND RIVERA-Paz, Ever Anibal "El Culiche" (The Tapeworm) ROCHA, David "Sir Dyno" RODRIGUEZ, Carlos "Wero" RODRIGUEZ, Cesar "Crazy Bird" Rollin 60's Crips

2 32 47 37 47 13 30 48 27 30 46 20 39 44 41 12 23 33 47 47 28 53 54 19 5 18 42 42 39 54 30 4 27 11 36 38 29 48 10 8 46 25 32 32 42 37 9 37 35 51

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ROSADO, Jose "King Joey" ROSS, Thomas "Outlaw" RUVALCABA, Gerald "Cuete/Shotgun" Sailors Sailors Locotes Salvatruchos (SLSW) SALAS, Robert "Robot" Salvatrucha Locos Trece San Antonio San Antonio San Francisco SANCHEZ, Alex "Homies Unidos" Sangra Santanas Scorpions Seattle Locos (SLS) Security Threat Groups SF 19th Street Surenos SF Nortenos Shatto Park Locos Shotcallers Shotcallers Sindicato Nuevo Mexico (SNM) Sinoloan Cartel Smuggling Sonora Cartel SOSA, Roberto "Babo" SOSA, William "King Homicide" Sothern vs Northern California War SOTO, Hector South Side Clica (SSC) South Side Kings South Side Locos (SSL 13) South Side Locos (SSL 13) SOUTHEAST Southern Mexican Mayan Southerner Southside Kings Southside Locos 13 (SSL13) SOUTHWEST Spanish Cobras Spanish Cobras Spanish Cobras Spanish Gangster Disciple Nation (SGDN) STEINER, Thomas Officer (murdered) STREET and PRISON OPERATIONS STREET and PRISON WARS STREET GANGS Street Tax Street Thug Criminals (STC) STROUSE, Brian CPD Officer (murdered)

22 23 9 16 47 7 42 11 36 37 37 7 16 23 52 5 30 30 27 6 13 34 4 33 2 8 47 9 10 45 21 39 48 49 31 14 20 25 28 23 40 51 22 28 10 12 14 20 48 38

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Supermax Supreme Crown Sur 13 SUR 13 SUR 13 SUR 13 SUR 13 SUR 13 SUR 13 SUR13 SUR13 Sureno Sureno Sureno 13 Sureno 13 Sureno 13 Sureno 'Alley Tiny Criminals' (ATC13 Sureno gangs Surenos Surenos Surenos Surenos Surenos Surenos Surenos Surenos Surenos Surenos Surenos Surenos Surenos Surenos Surenos Surenos Surenos Surenos Por Vida (SPV) Surgical Gloves Swastika Tango Busters Teclas Locotes Salvatruchos (TLS) TENNESSEE TENORIO, Adam TEXAS Texas Chicano Brotherhood Texas Department of Criminal Justice Texas Mexican Mafia Texas Mexican Mafia Texas Mexican Mafia Texas Syndicate Texas Syndicate

32 20 14 33 40 47 49 51 55 41 45 7 31 34 35 48 44 26 6 28 32 32 33 33 34 38 48 49 50 52 55 14 27 32 40 27 20 22 10 47 49 12 35 10 36 10 36 37 35 36

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TEXAS SYNDICATE (TS) TEXAS SYNDICATE GROWTH and DEVELOPMENT Tha Woods The Mexican Boys (TMB) The Mortherland Tijuana Cartel Tiniebla 30/30 Tiny Winos Toca La Bandera (TLB) TORRES-Iriarte, Carlos "La Sombra" Tortilla Flats Sureno 13 Total 14.714R Traviesos Trece Locos Salavatruchos Trenton Tres Animales Tres Puntos (3PX) TRISTAN, Cornelio "Corny" Under Ground Crips Undocumented Undocumented Mexican Nationals Union 22 United Blood Nation United Blood nation University of North Carolina jackets US Firearm Dealers UTAH Utah Aryan Nation VALDEZ, Juan VALDEZ-Villareal, Edgar "La Barbie" Vancouver Varrio Campo Vida 21 Varrio Campo Vida 21 Nortenos Gang Varrio Locos 13 (VL13) Varrio Sur Locos VASQUEZ, "Black Bob" Vatos Locos Vatos Locos Vatos Locos Vatos Locos Vatos Locos Very Dangerous Mexicanos (VDM) Veteranos VILLANUEVA, Sheldon "Skip" Vineland Boyz Gang VIRAMONTES, "Brown Bob" Volusia County WASHINGTON West Side Lomas West Side Pomona 13

9 10 48 45 38 3 42 27 48 18 35 31 47 42 44 12 45 9 50 13 49 13 45 50 23 27 34 8 4 52 26 27 25 25 8 41 48 48 50 51 50 14 9 30 8 51 25 26 25

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Western Locotes Salvatruchos (WLS) Westside Latin Kings Wetback Wetback Power (WBP) WISCONSIN WYOMING XV3 (Tat) XVIII (tat) Yakima Yellow Light ZAMBADA, Ismael "Mayo" ZAYAS, Fernando "Fernie" ZETAS Zetas Zetas of the Gulf Cartel Zetitas

47 22 13 13 39 27 15 15 26 10 2 23 4 53 37 49

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Acknowledgements Dave Anderson, Ret. Vancouver Police Department, B.C., Canada (118); Nelson Arriaga, Inglewood Police Department, CA (37, 40, 42, 69, 76); Scott Barfield, Ft. Lewis Police Department, WA (57); John Belsha, Milwaukee-HIDTA (98); Justin Bowers, Rhode Island, FBI (102); Sam Buentello, Ret. Texas Department of Criminal Justice, TX (21, 24, 25, 92); Jerry Canon, Indianapolis PD, IN (101); David Carrasquillo, Inglewood Police Department, CA (37); Bruce Champagne, West Valley County SO, UT (84); George Chavez, Madison Police Department, WI ( 97); Francisco Cisneros, Federal Police, Mexico (121); Robert Clark, Philadelphia Police Department, PA (109); Ken Compher, Fairfax County SO, VA (111); Eduardo Cordero, Los Angeles Probation Dept, CA (36, 39); David Cortez, Yakima Police Department, WA (60); Leo Duarte, Ret. CA Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation, CA (11, 12); Steve Duncan, California Dept. of Justice, San Diego, CA (6, 71); John “Rocky” Dyer, San Antonio PD, TX (93); Andy Eways, Maryland State Police, MD (110); Enrique Franco, Ret. Texas Department of Criminal Justice, TX (23, 26, 56, 92, 94); Joe Garza, McAllen, Texas-FBI (6, 96); Rey Garza, Yakima Police Department, WA (60); Erick Gelhaus, Sonoma County Sheriff’s Office, CA (17, 43); Hunter Glass, City of Fayetteville Police Department, NC (114); Juan Gonzales, Memphis Police Department, TN (113); Rick Handel, Santa Clara County Corrections, CA (17, 18, 43, 78); David Harris, Nampa PD, ID (63) Kelly Heim, ATF (38, 52); Ron Huppert, Ret. Pittsburg Police Department, CA (43); Rondo Jackson, Ret. Idaho Department of Corrections, ID (63); Lawrence Jaramillo, New Mexico DOC, NM (91); Daniel Jonas, Lakeland County Sheriff’s Department, FL (53, 117); James Keeble, Orange County Sheriff’s Office, FL (53, 117); Jim Lane, Marin County Sheriff’s Office, CA (43); Ken Lucas, Corrections Corporation of America, AZ (29, 88); Steve Lucero, Colorado Department of Corrections, CO (85); Daryl Macaluso, Durham Police Department, NC (114); Tagaloa Manu, Oregon Department of Corrections, OR (64); Frank Marcell, Maricopa County Jail, AZ (30, 87); Pablo Martinez, New Mexico DOC, NM (90); Mario Molina, San Francisco Police Department, CA (77); Gabe Morales, King County Jail, WA (13, 15, 16, 20, 28, 32);

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Tony Moreno, Los Angeles Police Department, CA (36, 38, 42, 69); Robert Morrill, Ret. Texas Department of Criminal Justice, TX (8, 10, 14, 133); Henry Norris, Prince George’s County Sheriff’s Office, MD; (110) Dianna McLuckie, Dallas Police Department, TX (95); Florencio Oseguera, Honduras PD (41, 95, 122); Rosendo Perez, New Jersey Violent Gang Task Force, NJ (106, 108); Celso Rangel, Ret. Washington Department of Corrections, WA (60); Richard Ramm, Washoe County Sheriff’s Department, NV (83); Clemente Rodriguez, Texas Department of Criminal Justice, TX (24, 92); Juan Rodriguez, El Salvador PD (41, 95, 122); Luis Rosa, Corrections Corporation of America, NM (45, 123); Jesse Ruelas, Fresno Police Department, CA (82); Armando Saldate, Phoenix Police Department, AZ (32, 89); Joe Salinas, Yakima Police Department, WA (60); Edwin Santana, Morris County Jail, NJ (107); Johnny Santana, Texas Department of Criminal Justice, TX (26, 92); David Santitoro, Mercer County Jail, NJ (106); Louis Savelli, Ret. New York Police Department, NY (52, 105); Fred Schramm, Massachusetts Department of Corrections, MA (103); Marcos Silva, Gwinnett Co. PO, GA (115); Joe Sparks, Ret. Chicago Police Department, IL (46, 50, 54, 56, 96); Jeff Stoleson, Wisconsin Department of Corrections, WI (99); Keith Stopko, New Jersey Violent Gang Task Force, NJ (106, 108); Ramon Suarez, Corrections Corporation of America, AZ (30, 34); Henry Telles, New Mexico Department of Corrections, NM (90); Dale Thrush, United States Dept. of Justice, FL (53, 116); Thomas Trinidad, Merced Police Department, CA (79); Kerry Tripp, Inglewood Police Department, CA (37); Ash Vasquez, Maricopa County Jail, AZ (87); Richard Valdemar, Los Angeles Sheriff’s Office, CA (10, 11, 35, 40); Daryl Vigil, Colorado Department of Corrections, CO (86); Russ Wardrop, Vancouver Police Department, B.C., Canada (118); Doug Woelke, Alexandria Police Department, VA (112); Orlando Ybarra, CA Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation, CA (43, 78)

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