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Advance energy meter Power Factor correction system

Abstract:
Power factor (PF) is a measurement by which we can measure the efficiency of the electrical
equipments as well as ac electric power system on the basis of electrical energy consumption. It determines
power quality. Due to inductive loads, the apparent power becomes greater than the real power that increases the
phase difference between voltage and current. So, the power factor drops below unity and the system becomes
less efficient. Our project deals with correcting the power factor to make it closer to unity. Power factor
correction is the term given to a technology that has been used since the turn of the 20th century to restore the
power factor to as close to unity as is economically viable. This is normally achieved by the addition of
capacitors to the electrical network which compensate for the reactive power demand of the inductive load and
thus reduce the burden on the supply. There should be no effect on the operation of the equipment. To reduce
losses in the distribution system, and to reduce the electricity bill, power factor correction, usually in the form of
capacitors, is added to neutralize as much of the magnetizing current as possible. Capacitors contained in most
power factor correction equipment draw current that leads the voltage, thus producing a leading power factor.

Block Diagram.

Why improve power factor?


The benefits that can be achieved by applying the correct power factor correction are: Environmental benefit.
Reduction of power consumption due to improved energy efficiency. Reduced power consumption means less
greenhouse gas emissions and fossil fuel depletion by power stations. Reduction of electricity bills Extra kVA
available from the existing supply Reduction of I2 R losses in transformers and distribution equipment
Reduction of voltage drop in long cables. Extended equipment life – Reduced electrical burden on cables and
electrical components.
Electricity Theft detection

The main use of our system is that if the load demand increases beyond the predetermined limits it will give an
alarm by sending a message on the monitor of our LCD display, which indicates that the present energy
consumption is 90% of the maximum allowable consumption . If within few minutes the consumer does not
give a check on the energy consumption it might lead to relay operating from normally close to normally open
condition and these results in cut-off of mains supply. The supply will not be restored till the time load demand
decreases below the maximum allowable load.

GSM technology

An open, digital cellular technology used for transmitting mobile voice and data services. GSM is
fast becoming the most popular way to deliver information, communication and entertainment services to people
worldwide. The ability for a customer to make and receive calls, sends and receives data, or accesses other
services when travelling outside the coverage area of their home network. The GSM family of technologies has
provided the world with mobile communications since 1991. In over twenty years of development, GSM has
been continually enhanced to provide platforms that deliver an increasingly broad range of mobile services as
demand grows.

The GSM module is a specialized type of modem which accepts a SIM card and operated on a
subscriber’s mobile number over a network just like a cellular phone> Basically it is a cellphone without
display Modem SIM300 is trainband GSM/GPRS engine that works on EGSM 900MHz DCS 1800MHZ and
PDC 1900MHz frequencies GSM modem is RS232-logic-level compatible i.e. it takes 3V to =-15 as logic’ high
and +3V to-15V as logic ‘low’ MAX 232 is used to convent TTL into RS232 logic level and vice versa Hence
MAX232 is a voltage-level converter used between the microcontroller and the GSM board.

The signal at pin 11 of the microcontroller is sent to the GSM modem through pin 11 of MAX 232 this signal is
received at pin 2 (RX) of the GSM modem the GSM modem transmits the signal from pin3 (TX) to the
microcontroller through MAX232 which is received at pin 10 of IC1.

Need of correction
A high power factor is generally desirable in a transmission system to reduce transmission losses. Generally
power factor correction is for two type of loads: linear load, Non linear load. Power factor correction brings the
power factor of an AC power circuit closer to 1 by supplying reactive power.

Circuit diagram
Circuit diagram of PIC 16F877A
Working:-
“Advance energy meter Power Factor correction device is developed basing on a PIC 16F877A.The voltage and
current sampled is converted in to square wave using a zero cross detector. The V and I sample signals are feed
to the micro controller at INT0 and INT1 and the difference between the arrival of wave forms indicate the phase
angle difference. The difference is measured with high accuracy by using internal timer. This time value is
calibrated as phase angle and corresponding power factor. The values are displayed in the 2x16 LCD modules
after converting suitably. The capacitor banks are switched as per the calibration

Advantages:
1) It is accurate.
2) Cost is less.
3) Construction is very simple and Suitable.
4) Smooth steeples variation in the output voltage

5) Good voltage regulation.

Disadvantages
When mobile network loss that time we cannot detect data.

Application:-
1) In educational organization.
2) In industries.
3) It is used an electrical substations.
4) It is use MESEB control room.

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