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Political geography is the field of human geography that is concerned with the study of both the spatially uneven outcomes of political processes and the ways in which political processes are themselves affected by spatial structures. Conventionally political geography adopts a three-scale structure for the purposes of analysis with the study of the state at the centre, above this is the study of international relations (or geopolitics), and below it is the study of localities. The primary concerns of the sub-discipline can be summarised as the inter-relationships between people, state, and territory.
The origins of political geography lie in the origins of human geography itself and the early practitioners were concerned mainly with the military and political consequences of the relationships between physical geography, state territories, and state power. In particular there was a close association with regional geography, with its focus on the unique characteristics of regions, and environmental determinism with its emphasis on the influence of the physical environment on human activities. This association found expression in the work of the German geographer Friedrich Ratzel who, in 1897 in his book Politische Geographie, developed the concept of Lebensraum (living space) which explicitly linked the cultural growth of a nation with territorial expansion, and which was later used to provide academic legitimation for the imperialist expansion of the German Third Reich in the 1930s. The British geographer Halford Mackinder was also heavily influenced by environmental determinism and in developing his concept of the 'geopolitical pivot of history' or heartland (first developed in 1904) he argued that the era of sea power was coming to an end and that land based powers were in the ascendant, and, in particular, that whoever controlled the heartland of 'EuroAsia' would control the world. This theory involved concepts diametrically opposed to the ideas of Alfred Thayer Mahan about the significance of sea power in world conflict. The heartland theory hypothesized the possibility of a huge empire being created which didn't need to use coastal or transoceanic transport to supply its military industrial complex, and that this empire could not be defeated by the rest of the world coalitioned against it. This perspective proved influential throughout the period of the Cold War, underpinning military thinking about the creation of buffer states between East and West in central Europe. The heartland theory depicted a world divided into a Heartland (Eastern Europe/Western Russia); World Island (Eurasia and Africa); Peripheral Islands (British Isles, Japan, Indonesia and Australia) and New World (The Americas). Mackinder claimed that whoever controlled the Heartland would have control of the world. He used this warning to politically influence events such as the Treaty of Versailles, where buffer states were created between the USSR and Germany, to prevent either of the them controlling the Heartland. At the same time, Ratzel was creating a theory of states based around the concepts of Lebensraum and Social Darwinism. He argued that states were analogous to 'organisms' that needed sufficient room in which to live. Both of these writers created the idea of a political and geographical science, with an objective
view of the world. Pre-World War II political geography was concerned largely with these issues of global power struggles and influencing state policy, and the above theories were taken on board by German geopoliticians (see Geopolitik) such as Karl Haushofer who - perhaps inadvertently - greatly influenced Nazi political theory. A form of politics legitimated by 'scientific' theories such as a 'neutral' requirement for state expansion was very influential at this time. The close association with environmental determinism and the freezing of political boundaries during the Cold War led to a considerable decline in the importance of political geography which was described by Brian Berry in 1968 as 'a moribund backwater'. Although in other areas of human geography a number of new approaches were invigorating research, including quantitative spatial science, behavioural studies, and structural Marxism, these were largely ignored by political geographers whose main point of reference continued to be the regional approach. As a result much political geography of this period was descriptive with little attempt to produce generalisations from the data collected. It was not until 1976 that Richard Muir could argue that political geography might not be a dead duck but could in fact be a phoenix.
2. Areas of Study
The Brandenburg Gate of the Berlin Wall in 1961. From the late-1970s onwards political geography has undergone a renaissance, and could fairly be described as one of the most dynamic of the sub-disciplines today. The revival was underpinned by the launch of the journal Political Geography Quarterly (and its expansion to bimonthly production as Political Geography). In part this growth has been associated with the adoption by political geographers of the approaches taken up earlier in other areas of human geography, for example, Ron J. Johnston's (1979) work on electoral geography relied heavily on the adoption of quantitative spatial science, Robert Sack's (1986) work on territoriality was based on the behavioural approach, and Peter Taylor's (e.g. 2007) work on World Systems Theory owes much to developments within structural Marxism. However the recent growth in the
the European Union) and informally (e.g. Alongside related concerns such as Queer theory and Youth studies Postcolonial theories which recognise the Imperialistic. poststructural and postcolonial theories. for example through neo-colonialism The relationship between a government and its people The relationships between states including international trades and treaties The functions. modern political geography often considers: y y y y y y y y How and why states are organized into regional groupings. with those of social and cultural geography in relation to the study of the politics of place (see. both formally (e. too. universalising nature of much political geography. demarcations and policings of boundaries How imagined geographies have political implications The influence of political power on geographical space The study of election results (electoral geography) 2.vitality and importance of the sub-discipline is also related to changes in the world as a result of the end of the Cold War. for example. including the geopolitics of environmental protest. the books by David Harvey (1996) and Joe Painter (1995)). and the development of new research agendas. Political geography has extended the scope of traditional political science approaches by acknowledging that the exercise of power is not restricted to states and bureaucracies. and how these are propagated over time. David Pepper's (1996) work). Although contemporary political geography maintains many of its traditional concerns (see below) the multi-disciplinary expansion into related areas is part of a general process within human geography which involves the blurring of boundaries between formerly discrete areas of study. then. especially in Development geography . In particular. for example.g. particularly. the Third World) The relationship between states and former colonies. This has resulted in the concerns of political geography increasingly overlapping with those of other human geography sub-disciplines such as economic geography. which argues for a recognition of the power relations as patriarchal and attempts to theorise alternative conceptions of identity and identity politics. 1. Critical Political Geography (See also: Critical geopolitics) Critical political geography is mainly concerned with the criticism of traditional political geographies. but is part of everyday life. Examples include: y y Feminist geography. and. and in the capacity of our existing state apparatus and wider political institutions to address contemporary and future environmental problems competently. and through which the discipline as a whole is enriched. Recently. including the emergence of a new world order (which as yet is only poorly defined). there has been increasing interest in the geography of green politics (see. As with much of the move towards 'Critical geographies'. such as the more recent focus on social movements and political struggles going beyond the study of nationalism with its explicit territorial basis. the arguments have drawn largely from postmodern.
Agnew Simon Dalby Klaus Dodds Derek Gregory Richard Hartshorne Karl Haushofer Yves Lacoste Halford Mackinder Doreen Massey Gearóid Ó Tuathail Joe Painter Friedrich Ratzel Ellen Churchill Semple Peter J. Taylor Rudolf Kjellen 4. Notable Political Geographers y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y John A. nation-state and locality Harlow: Pearson Education Lim. ISBN 0131960121 . nature and the geography of difference Oxford: Blackwell ISBN 1557866805 Johnston RJ 1979 Political. electoral and spatial systems Oxford: Clarendon Press ISBN 0198740727 Painter J 1995 Politics. geography and 'political geography': a critical perspective London: Arnold ISBN 034056735X Pepper D 1996 Modern environmentalism London: Routledge ISBN 0415057442 Sack RD 1986 Human territoriality: its theory and history Cambridge: Cambridge University Press ISBN 0521266149 Taylor PJ & Flint C 2007 Political geography: world-economy. References y y y y y y Harvey D 1996 Justice.3.
Friedrich Ratzel Friedrich Ratzel (August 30. Switzerland. where he began to study the classics. most .August 9. According to Ratzel. 1844. he spent a short time at the high school in Karlsruhe and became a student of zoology at the universities of Heidelberg. He produced a written work of his account in 1876. Baden . publishing Sein und Werden der organischen Welt on Darwin. In 1863. cities are the best place to study people because life is "blended. He studied the influence of people of German origin in America. compressed. He attended high school in Karlsruhe for six years before being apprenticed at age 15 to apothecaries . and Mexico. These letters led to a job as a traveling reporter for the Kölnische Zeitung ("Cologne Journal"). writing letters of his experiences. finishing in 1868. the lengthiest and most important being his 1874-1875 trip to North America. Ratzel began a period of travels that see him transform from zoologist/biologist to geographer. and accelerated" in cities. best. Jena and Berlin. which would help establish the field of cultural geography. notable for first using the term Lebensraum ("living space") in the sense that the National Socialists later would. He began field work in the Mediterranean. Life Ratzel's father was the head of the household staff of the Grand Duke of Baden. especially in the Midwest. Friedrich Ratzel's photograph from the University of Leipzig 1. He studied zoology in 1869. Ammerland) was a German geographer and ethnographer. Städte-und Kulturbilder aus Nordamerika (Profile of Cities and Cultures in North America). as well as other ethnic groups in North America. 1904. which provided him the means for further travel. Ratzel embarked on several expeditions. After a further year as an apothecary at Mörs near Krefeld in the Ruhr area (1865-1866). he went to Rapperswil on the Lake of Zurich. This trip was a turning point in Ratzel¶s career. and they bring out the "greatest. Karlsruhe. Cuba. After the completion of his schooling.
without a static conception of borders. Ratzel¶s key contribution to geopolitik was the expansion on the biological conception of geography. Richmond. Ratzel became a lecturer in geography at the Technical High School in Munich. He published his work on political geography. for Ratzel. Upon his return in 1875. In 1886. In 1876. His writings served as welcome justification for imperial expansion. Charleston. Ratzel produced the foundations of human geography in his two-volume Anthropogeographie in 1882 and 1891. States are instead organic and growing. It was in this work that Ratzel introduced concepts that contributed to Lebensraum and Social Darwinism. Ratzel¶s writings coincided with the growth of German industrialism after the Franco-Prussian war and the subsequent search for markets that brought it into competition with England. His lectures were widely attended. a scholar of versatile academic interest. and San Francisco. as the profit from trade would pay for the merchant marine. he published several papers.typical aspects of people". Ratzel¶s idea of Raum (space) would grow out of his organic state conception. creating a number of environmental determinists. but spiritual and racial nationalist expansion. Ratzel produced several books and established his career as an academic. It is not the state proper that is the organism. While at Munich. Space. Boston. he was promoted to assistant professor. 2. 1904 in Ammerland. with borders representing only a temporary stop in their movement. His three volume work The History of Mankind  was published in English in 1896 and contained over 1100 excellent engravings and remarkable chromolithography. agreeing that sea power was self-sustaining. Ratzel continued his work at Leipzig until his sudden death on August 9. Ratzel had traveled to cities such as New York. unlike land power. The expanse of a state¶s borders is a reflection of the health of the nation. was a vague concept. Writings Influenced by thinkers like Darwin and zoologist Ernst Heinrich Haeckel. he joined the Prussian army and was wounded twice during the war. but the land in its spiritual bond with the people who draw sustenance from it. During the outbreak of Franco-Prussian war in 1870. theoretically unbounded. where other weaker states could serve to support German peoples . Ratzel. New Orleans. This early concept of lebensraum was not political or economic. Among them is the essay Lebensraum (1901) concerning biogeography. creating a foundation for the uniquely German variant of geopolitics: geopolitik. in 1897. he accepted an appointment at Leipzig. Germany. Philadelphia. This work was misinterpreted by many of his students. then rose to full professor in 1880. Washington. The Raum-motiv is a historically driving force. pushing peoples with great Kultur to naturally expand. notably by the influential American geographer Ellen Churchill Semple. Influenced by the American geostrategist Alfred Thayer Mahan. Politische Geographie. was a staunch German. Raum was defined by where German peoples live. Ratzel wrote of aspirations for German naval reach.
and where German culture could fertilize other cultures." y . The main focus of this monumental work is on the effects of different physical features and locations on the style and life of the people. but theorized simply as the natural expansion of strong states into areas controlled by weaker states. Haushofer also adopted the view that borders are largely insignificant. 4.economically. Haushofer would adopt Ratzel's conception of Raum as the central program for German geopolitik." "Culture grows in places that can adaquately [sic] support dense labor populations. However. who was friends with Haushofer¶s father. It was completed between 1872 to 1899. 3. Further. worthy of its name. The book for which Ratzel is acknowledged all over the world is 'Anthropogeographie'. it ought to be noted that Ratzel's concept of raum was not overtly aggressive. must begin with the heavens and descend to the earth. The German geostrategist General Karl Haushofer was exposed to Ratzel. must be charged with the conviction that all existence is one²a single conception sustained from beginning to end upon one identical law. Influence Rudolf Kjellén was Ratzel¶s Swedish student who would further elaborate on organic state theory and who coined the term ³geopolitics´. especially as the nation ought to be in a frequent state of struggle with those around it. In his writings. saying that only a country with both could overcome this conflict. and would integrate Ratzel¶s ideas on the division between sea and land powers into his theories. Quotations y "A philosophy of the history of the human race.
founding moment of Geopolitics as a field of study.  He was a member of the Coefficients dining club.  A few months later. he was one of the founders of the London School of Economics. although Mackinder did not use the term.6 March 1947) was an English geographer and is considered one of the founding fathers of both geopolitics and geostrategy. where he introduced the teaching of the subject. At Oxford. he published "On the Scope and Methods of Geography". As Mackinder himself put it.  In 1902 he published Britain and The British Seas. in which he formulated the Heartland Theory. he concentrated on advocating the cause of imperial unity and lectured only part-time.  This is often considered as a. a manifesto for the New Geography. he was appointed as Reader in Geography at the University of Oxford.  In 1904 Mackinder gave a paper on "The Geographical Pivot of History" at the Royal Geographical Society." This was arguably at the time the most prestigious academic position for a British geographer. he was one of the founders of the Geographical Association. Reading. In 1892. which included the first comprehensive geomorphology of the British Isles and which became a classic in regional geography. Whilst the Heartland Theory initially received little attention outside geography.  He was elected to Parliament in January 1910 as Unionist Party member for the Glasgow Camlachie constituency and was defeated in 1922. Mackinder was the driving force behind the creation of a School of Geography in 1899.  In the same year. In 1895. which promoted (and promotes) the teaching of geography in schools.  .Sir Halford John Mackinder PC (15 February 1861 . he led an expedition which was the first to climb Mount Kenya. He was knighted in the 1920 New Year Honours for his services as an MP. "a platform has been given to a geographer.  The following year. In 1887. set up in 1902 by the Fabian campaigners Sidney and Beatrice Webb. which brought together social reformers and advocates of national efficiency. if not the. this theory would later exerce some influence on the foreign policies of world powers. After 1908. he was the first Principal of University Extension College.  Possibly disappointed at not getting a full Chair. Mackinder left Oxford and became director of the London School of Economics between 1903 and 1908. He later became chairman of the GA from 1913 to 1946 and served as its President from 1916. He was allergic to peanuts. which later became the University of Reading.
 It presented his theory of the Heartland and made a case for fully taking into account geopolitical factors at the Paris Peace conference and contrasted (geographical) reality with Woodrow Wilson's idealism. Aberystwyth established professorial chairs in Geography in 1917. 3. 2. he stressed the need for Britain to continue her support to the White Russian forces. later statesmen during the interbellum). Whilst Oxford did not appoint a professor of Geography until 1934. Democratic ideals and reality: a study in the politics of reconstruction. "heartland". Who rules the Heartland commands the World Island. in particular by its main proponent Karl Haushofer. 3. The principal concern of his work was to warn of the possibility of another major war (a warning also given by economist John Maynard Keynes)." This message was composed to convince the world statesmen at the Paris Peace conference of the crucial importance of Eastern Europe as the strategic route to the Heartland was interpreted as requiring a strip of buffer state to separate Germany and Russia. appeared in 1919. His role in fostering the teaching of geography is probably greater than that of any other single British geographer. both the University of Liverpool and University of Wales. Mackinder was always extremely critical of the German exploitation of his ideas. which he attempted to unite. Mackinder himself became a full professor in Geography in the University of London (London School of Economics) in 1923. Who rules the World Island commands the World. Significance of Mackinder Mackinder's work paved the way for the establishment of geography as a distinct discipline in the United Kingdom. 3. the second of Frank Capra's Why We Fight series of American World War II propaganda films. The book's most famous quote was: "Who rules East Europe commands the Heartland. The German interpretation of the Heartland Theory is referred to explicitly (without mentioning the connection to Mackinder) in The Nazis Strike. and as British High Commissioner in Southern Russia in late 1919 and early 1920. Influence on later academics . Mackinder was anti-Bolshevik. 1. Influence on American strategy The Heartland theory and more generally classical geopolitics and geostrategy were extremely influential in the making of US strategic policy during the period of the Cold War. Influence on Nazi strategy The Heartland Theory was enthusiastically taken up by the German school of Geopolitik. These were created by the peace negotiators but proved to be ineffective bulwarks in 1939 (although this may be seen as a failure of other.His next major work.  3.  3. Whilst Geopolitik was later embraced by the German Nazi regime in the 1930s. Mackinder is often credited with introducing two new terms into the English language : "manpower".
. particularly in his geopolitical model "Intermediate Region". Mackinder on geography ". 4.the science whose main function is to trace the interaction of man in society and so much of his environment as varies locally." . which traces the arrangement of things in general on the Earth's surface." "The science of distribution. that is..Evidence of Mackinder¶s Heartland Theory can be found in the works of geopolitician Dimitri Kitsikis. The science.
For his first year on the faculty. the pair maintaining this relationship through correspondence and visits when Mahan was in London.December 1. Mahan struck up a friendship with pioneering British naval historian Sir John Knox Laughton.. in 1887. and Sea Power in Relation to the War of 1812 (2 vols.Alfred Thayer Mahan Alfred Thayer Mahan (September 27. 2. 1892). Criticisms of the work focused on Mahan's handling of Nelson's love affair with Lady Emma Hamilton. and historian."  His concept of "sea power" was based on the idea that the most powerful navy will control the globe. he met and befriended Theodore Roosevelt. including the lead vessel of a class of destroyers. 1886 to January 12. he was to succeed Luce as President of the Naval War College from June 22. he remained at his home in New York City researching and writing his lectures. College President Rear Admiral Stephen B. 1914) was a United States Navy flag officer. Before entering on his duties. 1889 and again from July 22. His ideas still permeate the U. courage. Luce pointed Mahan in the direction of writing his future studies on the influence of sea power. Mahan plunged into the library and wrote lectures that drew heavily on standard classics and the ideas of work of Henri Jomini. Mahan sought to resurrect Horatio Nelson as a national hero in Britain and used the book as a platform for expressing his views on naval strategy and tactics. 1793-1812 (2 vols.  There. he was appointed lecturer in naval history and tactics at the Naval War College.. then a young visiting lecturer.  . The lectures became his sea-power studies: The Influence of Sea Power upon History. it was most famously presented in The Influence of Sea Power Upon History. 1660-1783 (1890). 1897) supplemented the series. 1893. geostrategist. and extols the traditional values of loyalty. 1892 to May 10. Mahan stresses the importance of the individual in shaping history. Mahan was later described as a 'disciple' of Laughton. Japan and Britain. especially in the United States. The Influence of Sea Power upon the French Revolution and Empire. Upon being published. Germany. which were closely read by policy makers. 1840 . In addition to these works. and service to the state. Navy. who would later become president of the United States. Mahan wrote more than a hundred articles on international politics and related topics.S. Naval War College and writings In 1885.. Several ships were named USS Mahan. The Life of Nelson: The Embodiment of the Sea Power of Great Britain (2 vols. but it remains the standard biography. Upon completion of this research period. 1660-1783 (1890). who has been called "the most important American strategist of the nineteenth century. 1905). although the two men were always at pains to distinguish between each other's line of work. Laughton seeing Mahan as a theorist while Mahan called Laughton 'the historian'. The concept had an enormous influence in shaping the strategic thought of navies across the world.
By the 1930s the U. His theoretical framework came from Jomini. even if local and temporary. His theories²written before the submarine became a factor in warfare against shipping²delayed the introduction of convoys as a defense against German U-Boats in World War I. naval operations in support of land forces can be of decisive importance and that naval supremacy can be exercised by a transnational consortium acting in defense of a multinational system of free trade. Navy was building long-range submarines to raid Japanese shipping. France and Spain. as a pool of examples that exemplified his theories. England. provided the means for close supervision of neutral trade. if necessary. Second.  However. and by the nineteenth century naval wars between France and Britain. To a modern reader. The primary mission of a navy was to secure the command of the sea. well manned with crews thoroughly trained. as the Royal Navy's blockade of the German Empire was a critical direct and indirect factor in the eventual German collapse. with its commercial usage in peace and its control in war. 4. where British naval superiority eventually defeated France. This not only permitted the maintenance of sea communications for one's own ships while denying their use to the enemy but also. Mahan's theories were vindicated by the First World War. designed their submarines as ancillaries to the fleet and failed to attack American supply lines in the pacific in World War II  . Strategic views Mahan's views were shaped by the seventeenth century conflicts between Holland. Mahan contended that with command of the sea.3. the notion was radical. the emphasis on controlling seaborne commerce is a commonplace. as well as quantifiable levels of fighting power in a fleet. This called for concentration of naval forces composed of capital ships. with an emphasis on strategic locations (such as chokepoints. On the other hand. in the nineteenth century. canals. but. (see Napoleonic war: Battle of Trafalgar and Continental System). and operating under the principle that the best defense is an aggressive offense  . especially in a nation entirely obsessed with expansion on to the continent's western land. This control of the sea could not be achieved by destruction of commerce but only by destroying or neutralizing the enemy fleet. consistently preventing invasion and blockade. such as Bismarckian Germany. and coaling stations). Sea Power Mahan used history as a stock of lessons to be learned²or more exactly.S. not overly large but numerous. and therefore a rigorous study of history should be the basis of naval officer education. but the Japanese. Mahan argued that radical technological change does not eliminate uncertainty from the conduct of war. his unit of political analysis insofar as sea power was concerned was a transnational consortium rather than . Sumida (2000) argues Mahan believed that good political and naval leadership was no less important than geography when it came to the development of sea power. Mahan's theories could not explain the success of terrestrial empires. Mahan believed that national greatness was inextricably associated with the sea. His goal was to discover the laws of history that determined who controlled the seas. still tied to Mahan. Mahan's emphasis of sea power as the crucial fact behind Britain's ascension neglected the well-documented roles of diplomacy and armies.
Other countries attended in order to mollify various peace groups. 5. Mahan concluded that the British would attempt to blockade the eastern ports. thereby seriously weakening the British ability to engage in naval operations off the American coast. Mahan represented the U. preferably New York with its two widely separated exits. Although his history was relatively thin (he relied on secondary sources). and Admiral Alfred von Tirpitz (1849-1930) used Mahan's reputation to finance a powerful surface fleet. A proposal on neutral trade rights was debated but ruled out of order by the Russians.S. and if the British were to weaken their blockade force off New York to attack another American port. as Kaiser William II ordered his officers to read Mahan. Mahan and British admiral John Fisher (1841-1920) faced the problem of how to dominate home waters and distant seas with naval forces not strong enough to do both. In the 1890s he argues that the United States should concentrate its naval fleet and obtain Hawaii as a hedge against Japanese eastward expansion and that the U. so the American Navy should be concentrated in one of these ports. No significant arms limitations agreements were reached.the single nation-state.S. This contingency plan is a clear example of the application of Mahan's principles of naval war. his recognition of the influence of geography on strategy was tempered by a strong appreciation of the power of contingency to affect outcomes  . with a clear reliance on Jomini's principle of controlling strategic points.S. The only significant result of the conference was the establishment of an ineffective Permanent Court of Arbitration at the Hague. Between 1890 and 1915. should help maintain a balance of power in the region in order to advance the principle of the Open Door policy both commercially and culturally. Third.. fleet would force the British to tie down such a large proportion of their navy to watch the New York exits that the other American ports would be relatively safe. ordnance (with better fire directors. at the first international conference on arms control was initiated by Russia in 1899. the vigorous style and clear theory won widespread acceptance of navalists across the world. This concentration of the U. Impact on naval thought Timeliness contributed no small part to the widespread acceptance and resultant influence of Mahan's views. Mahan's name became a household word in the German navy. from boilers to turbines). . fleet should seize the opportunity to escort an invasion fleet to capture the British coaling ports in Nova Scotia. Russia sought a "freeze" to keep from falling behind in Europe's arms race. Given the very rapid technological changes underway in propulsion (from coal to oil. Fourth.S. Mahan prepared a secret contingency plan of 1890 in case war should break out between Britain and the United States. his economic ideal was free trade rather than autarchy. Detached American cruisers should wage "constant offensive action" against the enemy's exposed positions. strategic and diplomatic affairs. while torpedo boats should defend the other harbors. Mahan's emphasis on the capital ship and the command of the sea came at an opportune moment  . and new high explosives) and armor and emergence of new craft such as destroyers and submarines.  Mahan was a frequent commentator on world naval. the concentrated U. Sea power supported the new colonialism which was asserting itself in Africa and Asia.
Mahan's concept of sea power extended beyond naval superiority. geography.  Although Mahan's influence on foreign powers has been generally recognized. the rise of the new American navy. He died in Washington a few months after the outbreak of World War I. who synthesized in his five-volume Théories Stratégiques the classical and materialist schools of naval theory. public opinion. the Dardanelles expedition of 1915. and the Atlantic.  Ideologically. not to drain too many resources from the mother country. the development of submarine warfare.Mahan argued for a universal principle of concentration of powerful ships in home waters and minimized strength in distant seas. and the organization of convoys all showed the navy's new role in combined operations with the army. and closely studied in Britain and Imperial Germany. His books were greatly acclaimed. Mahan argued that only a fleet of armored battleships might be decisive in a modern war. the United States Navy initially opposed replacing its sailing ships with steampowered ships after the Civil War. acquire overseas possessions ² either colonies or privileged access to foreign markets² yet stressed that the number of coal fuel stations and strategic bases should be few. His work influenced the doctrines of every major navy in the interwar period. states should increase production and shipping capacities. from 1927 to 1935. Jutland. influencing the build up of their forces prior to the First World War. French naval doctrine in 1914 was dominated by Mahan's theory of sea power and therefore geared toward winning decisive battles and gaining mastery of the seas. According to the decisive-battle doctrine. He reversed Mahan's theory that command of the sea precedes maritime communications and foresaw the enlarged roles of aircraft and submarines in naval warfare. But the course of World War I changed ideas about the place of the navy. The navy's part in securing victory was not fully understood by French public opinion in 1918. operational plans. morale. Mahan influenced the naval portion of the Spanish-American War. but that domination of the seas dictated the necessity of the speed and predictability of the steam engine. and the adoption of the strategic principles upon which it operated. but a synthesis of old and new ideas arose from the lessons of the war. . and constraints) and internal factors (economy of force. Mahan's work encouraged technological improvement in convincing opponents that naval knowledge and strategy remained necessary. as the refusal of the German fleet to engage in a decisive battle. and the battles of Tsushima. coalitions. communications. that in peace time. Castex enlarged strategic theory to include nonmilitary factors (policy. offense and defense. while Fisher reversed Mahan by utilizing technological change to propose submarines for defense of home waters and mobile battle cruisers for protection of distant imperial interests. especially by admiral Raoul Castex (1878-1968).  The French were less susceptible to Mahan's theories. a fleet must not be divided. and command) to conceive a general strategy to attain final victory. only rather recently have scholars called attention to his role as significant in the growth of American overseas possessions.
he initially engaged in the cause of Great Britain. Yale.   and so rendered obsolete the doctrine of the decisive battle between fleets. This strongly affected the IJN's Pacific War conduct.  However. Cambridge. and as such sealed their own defeat. which he used in the article "The Persian Gulf and International Relations". but an order of President Woodrow Wilson prohibited all active and retired officers from publishing comments on the war. 1660-1783 was translated to Japanese  and used as a textbook in the Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN). In 1902 Mahan invented the term "Middle East". returning briefly to duty in 1898 to consult on naval strategy for the Spanish-American War. as they did divide their main force from time to time. particularly the extensive division of warships in a complicated battle plan that led to the disaster at Midway. Japan The Influence of Seapower Upon History. in 1896. where he was received and feted. one could argue that the IJN did not adhere entirely to Mahan's doctrine. He returned to lecture at the War College and then. and in 1893 he was appointed to command the powerful new protected cruiser Chicago on a visit to Europe. published in September in the National Review. Later career Between 1889 and 1892 Mahan was engaged in special service for the Bureau of Navigation. Harvard.5. 1914. because of the development of the submarine and the aircraft carrier. The IJN's pursuit of the "decisive battle" was such that it contributed to Imperial Japan's defeat in 1945.  He became Rear Admiral in 1906 by an act of Congress promoting all retired captains who had served in the Civil War. Columbia. Mahan continued to write voluminously and received honorary degrees from Oxford. Dartmouth. 1. . emphasising the "decisive battle" doctrine ² even at the expense of protecting trade. and McGill. he retired from active service. Mahan died of heart failure on December 1. At the outbreak of World War I.
to Max Haushofer. He became disillusioned after Germany's loss and severe sanctioning. From 1911 . Haushofer contemplated an academic career. as an instructor in military academies and on the general staff.March 10. In 1887. Artillerieschule and War Academy (Kingdom of Bavaria). 1. By World War I he had attained the rank of General. He travelled with his wife via India and South East Asia and arrived in February 1909. In autumn 1909 he travelled with his wife for a month to Korea and Manchuria on the occasion of a railway construction. Germany. he forged a friendship with the young Rudolf Hess who would become his scientific assistant. In 1896. Betrachtungen über Groß-Japans Wehrkraft. retiring with the rank of Major General in 1919. a professor of economics. and commanded a brigade on the western front. Through his student Rudolf Hess. Haushofer's ideas may have influenced the development of Adolf Hitler's expansionist strategies. 1946) was a German general. At this time. service with the Bavarian army proved so interesting that he stayed to work. and Frau Adele Haushofer (née Fraas). geographer and geopolitician. Albrecht Haushofer and Heinz Haushofer. On his graduation from the Munich Gymnasium (high school). In 1903 he began teaching at the Bavarian War Academy. although Haushofer denied direct influence on the Nazi regime. He was born in Munich. Biography Haushofer belonged to a family of artists and scholars. Haushofer was received by the Japanese emperor and got to know many important people in politics and armed forces. and rising through the Staff Corp by 1899. They had two sons. . Shortly afterwards he began to suffer from several severe diseases and was given a leave from the army for three years. with great success. Weltstellung und Zukunft (Reflections on Greater Japan's Military Strength. In June 1910 they returned to Germany via Russia and arrived one month later. he married Martha Mayer-Doss (1877-1946) whose father was Jewish. and Future). serving in the army of Imperial Germany. In November 1908 the army sent him to Tokyo to study the Japanese army and to advise it as an artillery instructor. World Position.1913 Haushofer would work on his doctorate of philosophy from Munich University for a thesis on Japan entitled: Dai Nihon. Haushofer continued his career as a professional soldier. However.Karl Ernst Haushofer Karl Ernst Haushofer (August 27. 1869 . he entered the 1st Field Artillery regiment "Prinzregent Luitpold" and completed Kriegsschule.
On the night of March 10-11. including Pauwels.General Haushofer and Rudolf Hess Haushofer entered academia with the aim of restoring and regenerating Germany. After the July 20 Plot to assassinate Hitler Haushofer's son Albrecht (1903-1945) went into hiding but was arrested on December 7. Walsh on behalf of the Allied forces to determine if he should stand trial at Nuremberg for war crimes. 1945 on Karl Haushofer was informally interrogated by Father Edmund A. Others. said that Haushofer created a Vril society. After the establishment of the Nazi regime. Pauwels later recanted many things from it. 1944 and put into the Moabit prison in Berlin. in his book "Monsieur Gurdjieff". which deemed her a "halfJew". During the pre-war years Haushofer was instrumental in linking Japan to the axis powers. and that he was a secret member of the Thule Society. However. he was determined by Walsh not to have committed war crimes. In 1919 Haushofer became Privatdozent for political geography at Munich University and in 1933 professor. Haushofer believed the Germans' lack of geographical knowledge and geopolitical awareness to be a major cause of Germany¶s defeat in World War I. acting in accordance with the theories of his book "Geopolitics of the Pacific Ocean". describes Haushofer as a former student of George Gurdjieff  .  which is equally dubious. who protected Haushofer and his wife from the racial laws of the Nazis. During the night of April 22-23. From September 24. 1946 he and his wife . 1945 he and other selected prisoners like Klaus Bonhoeffer were walked out of the prison by an SS-squad and shot. The fields of political and geographical science thus became his areas of specialty. Louis Pauwels. Haushofer remained friendly with Rudolf Hess. as Germany had found itself with a poor alignment of allies and enemies.
The theories contributed five ideas to German foreign policy in the interwar period: y y y y y the organic state lebensraum autarky pan-regions land power/sea power dichotomy. and through his political activities. Haushofer's works served to bring the remaining intellectuals into the fold.  Haushofer's position in the University of Munich served as a platform for the spread of his geopolitical ideas. Alexander Humboldt. but adds a normative element in its strategic prescriptions for national policy. Geopolitik contributed to Nazi foreign policy chiefly in the strategy and justifications for lebensraum. Autarky a new expression of tariff protectionism. from which he proceeded to publicize geopolitical ideas. Geostrategy as a political science is both descriptive and analytical like Political Geography. and Halford J. Haushofer would establish the Zeitschrift für Geopolitik monthly devoted to geopolitik. popularizing his concept of lebensraum. including the writings of Oswald Spengler. Friedrich Ratzel. Both drank arsenic and the wife then hanged herself while Haushofer was obviously too weak to do so too.   2.  As a new and essentialist ideology. German geopolitik adopted an essentialist outlook toward the national interest. Karl Ritter.  Haushofer exercised influence both through his academic teachings.  Geopolitik was in essence a consolidation and codification of older ideas.committed suicide in a secluded hollow on their Hartschimmelhof estate at Pähl/Ammersee. urging his students to think in terms of continents and emphasizing motion in international politics. oversimplifying issues and representing itself as a panacea. Geopolitik Main article: Geopolitik Haushofer developed Geopolitik from widely varied sources. Mackinder. Rudolf Kjellén. His ideas would reach a wider audience with the publication of Volk ohne Raum by Hans Grimm in 1926. By 1924. as the leader of the German geopolitik school of thought.  While some of Haushofer's ideas stem from earlier American and British geostrategy.  While Hitler's speeches would attract the masses. given a scientific gloss: y y Lebensraum was a revised colonial imperialism. geopolitik found itself in a position to prey upon the post-WWI insecurity of the populace. magazine articles. and books. . In 1922 he founded the Institute of Geopolitics in Munich.
The key reorientation in each dyad is that the focus is on land-based empire rather than naval imperialism.  The root of uniquely German geopolitik rests in the writings of Karl Ritter who first developed the organic conception of the state that would later be elaborated upon by Ratzel and accepted by Hausfhofer. agreeing that sea power was self-sustaining. Pan-American Union and hemispheric defense. borders) nor natural placements of races or ethnicities but as being fluid and determined by the will or needs of ethnic/racial groups. His writings served as welcome justification for imperial expansion. even at the cost of other nations' existence because conquest was a biological necessity for a state's growth. i.e.  Influenced by Mahan. whereas projected military or commercial power could not. who was friends with Haushofer's father. He justified lebensraum.  and would integrate Ratzel's ideas on the division between sea and land powers into his theories.  Haushofer defined geopolitik in 1935 as "the duty to safeguard the right to the soil.  The behavioral rules of previous geopoliticians were thus turned into dynamic normative doctrines for action on lebensraum and world power.. Ostensibly based upon the geopolitical theory of American naval officer Alfred Thayer Mahan.e. Haushofer's Munich school specifically studies geography as it relates to war and designs for empire.  Ratzel's writings coincided with the growth of German industrialism after the Franco-Prussian war and the subsequent search for markets that brought it into competition with Britain. to the land in the widest sense. as the profit from trade would pay for the merchant marine. not only the land within the frontiers of the Reich."  Culture itself was seen as the most conducive element to dynamic special expansion. but the right to the more extensive Volk and cultural lands.y y y Strategic control of key geographic territories exhibiting the same thought behind earlier designs on the Suez and Panama canals.  Haushofer even held that urbanization was a symptom of a nation's decline. evidencing a decreasing soil mastery. Ratzel wrote of aspirations for German naval reach.  Haushofer was exposed to Ratzel. It provided a guide as to the best areas for expansion. Enunciated most forcefully by Friedrich Ratzel and his Swedish student Rudolf Kjellén. birthrate and effectiveness of centralized rule.  Haushofer's geopolitik expands upon that of Ratzel and Kjellén.  whereby the world is divided into spheres of influence. and the American Monroe Doctrine. German geopolitik adds older German ideas. they include an organic or anthropomorphized conception of the state. and the need for selfsufficiency through the top-down organization of society..  . While the latter two conceive of geopolitik as the state as an organism in space put to the service of a leader. a teacher of economic geography. a view of controlling the land in the same way as those choke points control the sea Pan-regions (Panideen) based upon the British Empire. and could make expansion safe. Frontiers . and British geographer Halford J. unlike land power. saying that only a country with both could overcome this conflict.His view of barriers between peoples not being political (i. Mackinder.
was a close student of Haushofer's. a proponent of "Eurasianism". Beyond being an economic concept. Portugal.  Rudolf Hess.To Haushofer. The small states surrounding Germany ought to be brought into the vital German order.  After WWII.  These states were seen as being too small to maintain practical.  This was a forward-looking refashioning of the drive for colonies.  Haushofer and the Munich school of geopolitik would eventually expand their conception of lebensraum and autarky well past the borders of 1914 and "a place in the sun" to a New European Order. Greece and the "mutilated alliance" of Austro-Hungary as supporting his assertion. Contacts with Nazi leadership Evidence points to a disconnect between geopoliticians and the Nazi leadership.  Haushofer's version of autarky was based on the quasi-Malthusian idea that the earth would become saturated with people and no longer able to provide food for all. Switzerland.  Allying with Italy and Japan would further augment German strategic control of Eurasia. bringing along a copy of Friedrich Ratzel's Political Geography and Clausewitz's On War. was Haushofer's assertion that the existence of small states was evidence of political regression and disorder in the international system. Haushofer would deny that he had taught Hitler. Haushofer spent six hours visiting the two. Haushofer acknowledges the strategic concept of the Heartland put forward by the British geopolitician Halford Mackinder. the existence of a state depended on living space. something that geopoliticians did not see as an economic necessity. the pursuit of which must serve as the basis for all policies.  If Germany could control Eastern Europe and subsequently Russian territory. whereas the old colonial powers had a much lower density. taken from the American Monroe Doctrine. While Hess and Hitler were imprisoned after the Munich Putsch in 1923. and the idea of national and continental self-sufficiency.  Space was seen as military protection against initial assaults from hostile neighbors with long-range weaponry. it could control a strategic area to which hostile seapower could be denied. and would be better served by protection and organization within Germany. Hitler's secretary who would assist in the writing of Mein Kampf.  This concept became known as a pan-region. A buffer zone of territories or insignificant states on one's borders would serve to protect Germany. pan-regions were a strategic concept as well. There would essentially be no increases in productivity. a virtual mandate for German expansion into resource-rich areas. In Europe. he saw Belgium.  Haushofer was. and claimed that the National Socialist Party perverted Hess's study of geopolitik. but more as a matter of prestige. advocating a policy of German-Russian hegemony and alliance to offset an Anglo-American power structure's potentially dominating influence in Europe. and eventually to a Eurasian Order. The fundamental motivating force would not be economic. the Netherlands. then to a New Afro-European Order. and putting pressure on older colonial powers. what is called today. although their practical tactical goals were nearly indistinguishable.  Closely linked to this need. Denmark. even if they maintained large colonial possessions. He . Germany had a high population density. with those states becoming the naval arms protecting Germany's insular position. but cultural and spiritual.  3.
 He refused to associate himself with antiSemitism as a policy. saying that he only knew of it once it was in print." He did profess loyalty to the Führer and make anti-Semitic remarks on occasion. Even if distorted somewhat.  Furthermore. the Nazi party and government lacked any official organ that was receptive to geopolitik. especially because his wife was half-Jewish. on German policy in Eastern Europe. appeals for natural frontiers.J. leading to selective adoption and poor interpretation of Haushofer's theories. as advocated by Ernst Niekisch.  Haushofer admits that after 1933 much of what he wrote was distorted under duress: his wife had to be protected by Hess's influence (who managed to have her awarded 'honorary German' status). discernible new elements appeared in Mein Kampf. as compared to previous speeches made by Hitler. balancing land and seapower. his son was implicated in the July 20 plot to assassinate Hitler and was executed by the Gestapo. Walsh S. his emphasis was always on space over race. Hess and Konstantin von Neurath. Fr. Ernst Jünger.  Fr. especially those who were influenced by the National Bolshevist philosophy of a German-Russian revolutionary alliance. Haushofer came under suspicion because of his contacts with left wing socialist figures within the Nazi movement (led by Gregor Strasser) and his advocacy of essentially a German-Russian alliance. space for depth of defense.  Haushofer was never a member of the Nazi Party. 1. leading to his brief imprisonment. and never read it. Julius Evola. However.  3. Ultimately.  Father Edmund A. and geographic analysis of military strategy entered Hitler's thought between his imprisonment and publishing of Mein Kampf.  He cites Hitler's speeches declaring that small states have no right to exist. Conspiracy theories . believing in environmental (Social Darwinism) rather than racial determinism. he claimed that Hitler and the Nazis only seized upon half-developed ideas and catchwords. professor of geopolitics and dean at Georgetown University. who interviewed Haushofer after the allied victory in preparation for the Nürnberg trials. Walsh felt that was enough to implicate Haushofer's geopolitik. and the Nazi use of Haushofer's maps. Walsh found that even if Haushofer did not directly assist Hitler.  Haushofer also denied assisting Hitler in writing Mein Kampf. disagreed with Haushofer's assessment that geopolitik was terribly distorted by Hitler and the Nazis.  While Haushofer accompanied Hess on numerous propaganda missions. and participated in consultations between Nazis and Japanese leaders. in particular displays the influence of the materials Haushofer brought Hitler and Hess while they were imprisoned.. Nazi Minister of Foreign Affairs. language and arguments. and Foreign Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop as the principal distorter of geopolitik in Hitler's mind.  Chapter XIV.viewed Hitler as a half-educated man who never correctly understood the principles of geopolitik passed onto him by Hess. This Nazi left wing had some connections to the Communist Party of Germany and some of its leaders. and did voice disagreements with the party. Geopolitical ideas of lebensraum. he himself was imprisoned in Dachau concentration camp for eight months. Hielscher and other figures of the "conservative revolution. were the only officials Haushofer would admit had a proper understanding of geopolitik. and his son and grandson were imprisoned for two-and-a-half months.
p. Col.J. 9... LIFE Magazine September 16. p. 2. Total Power: A Footnote to History.amazon. 40-41. 3. "Introduction. p. 6." The World of General Haushofer. xiii. p. The Johns Hopkins Press. 32.The notion of a contact between Haushofer and the Nazi establishment has been stressed by several authors. Baltimore: 1942. 107-120 5.. although these notions are debated.J. 10. Edmund A.. Johannesm Geopolitik: Doctrine of National Self-Sufficiency and Empire. 11.   These authors have expanded Haushofer's contact with Hitler to a close collaboration while Hitler was writing Mein Kampf and made him one of the 'future Chancellor's many mentors'. 16-17. . Walsh. New York: 1984. Doubleday & Company. and that he had been initiated at the hands of Tibetan lamas. Walsh. 7. Garden City. S.fr. Avon Books. Farrar & Rinehart. Haushofer may have been a short-term student of Gurdjieff. New York: 1984. 4. 1946 Edmund A.The Morning of the Magicians. that he had studied Zen Buddhism. ^ Beukema. 4-5. The World of General Haushofer.fr: Monsieur Gurdjieff: Louis Pauwels: Livres at www. 41. 1. p. Dorpalen. Andreas. 37. Inc. Inc. New York: 1949. 1946 pp. p. Herman. p. Mattern. [Louis Pauwels and Jacques Bergier.. Inc.1973] TIME Magazine March 25. The Mystery of Haushofer. Welsh S. References Amazon. Farrar & Rinehart. 8. Mattern. Mattern.
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