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SEE 3423

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Q1.

Answer all following sub-questions by considering only the relevant aspects only

within a suitable examination time.

(a)

Compare and contrast DC system promoted by Thomas Edison with AC supply

 

system.

[5 marks]

 

(b)

What is the effect on impedance diagram if the transformer windings nominal

 

voltage is not used as the base voltage? Prove your answer by giving an example

or by deriving a general formula.

[5 marks]

 

(c)

Why does the electricity tariff consist of energy charge, peak demand charge and

 

penalty for power factor below a specified limit?

[5 marks]

 

(d)

Compare and contrast overhead line and underground cable from the aspects of

 

material, construction and equivalent circuit.

[5 marks]

 

(e)

Explain briefly but clearly the principle of wind energy and photovoltaic cell

 

electricity generations.

[5 marks]

Q2.

(a)

Describe the term “grid network” in power system. Give two (2) reasons for all

 

power systems are being connected as grid network.

[7 marks]

 

(b)

Explain briefly the three types of prime movers and energy sources for

 

generating electrical energy in Malaysia.

[6 marks]

 

(c)

Give 3 (three) reasons why electrical energy is superior to all other forms of

 

energy in modern society.

[6 marks]

 

(d)

Describe clearly the functions of following entities in relation to electric power

industry in Malaysia.

(i) Energy Commision (Suruhanjaya Tenaga).

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(ii)

Tenaga Nasional Berhad.

(iii)

Independent Power Producers.

[6 marks]

Q3.

(a)

Why does the per-unit system being used in power system analysis even though

 

the manufacturers such as the transformer manufacturer and generator

manufacturer give the impedance value in percent?

[3 marks]

 

(b)

Derive the new value of p.u impedance Z, in terms of old Zp.u, old and new base

 

voltage and old and new base VA.

[5 marks]

 

(c)

A single line diagram is given in Figure Q3(c) below:

(c) A single line diagram is given in Figure Q3(c) below: Figure Q3(c) (i) Construct the
(c) A single line diagram is given in Figure Q3(c) below: Figure Q3(c) (i) Construct the
(c) A single line diagram is given in Figure Q3(c) below: Figure Q3(c) (i) Construct the
(c) A single line diagram is given in Figure Q3(c) below: Figure Q3(c) (i) Construct the
(c) A single line diagram is given in Figure Q3(c) below: Figure Q3(c) (i) Construct the
(c) A single line diagram is given in Figure Q3(c) below: Figure Q3(c) (i) Construct the
(c) A single line diagram is given in Figure Q3(c) below: Figure Q3(c) (i) Construct the
(c) A single line diagram is given in Figure Q3(c) below: Figure Q3(c) (i) Construct the

Figure Q3(c)

(i)

Construct the impedance diagram from the given single line diagram.

Take ratings of generator G1 as bases in your calculation. All reactances

in per unit are referred to their respective component’s ratings.

[5 marks]

(ii)

Calculate the voltage at bus bar 1 and what is the real power and reactive

power of the generator G1.

[12 marks]

SEE 3423

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Q4.

(a)

State main components and explain operating principles for any of the following

 

generating station:

(i)

Thermal turbine generating station, or

(ii)

Hydro generating station, or

(iii)

Gas turbine generating station.

 

[6 marks]

 

(b)

Discuss in general the two constraints in implementing electrical generation using renewable energy sources.

 

[4 marks]

 

(c)

A 100 MW steam turbine generator rotates at 3000 revolution per minute, 50Hz,

 

is supplying 70MW at synchronous frequency. Another 20MW load is suddenly

applied to the generator and the steam valve is opened only after 0.2 second.

Calculate the lowest frequency if the stored energy in the rotating parts moving at

rated speed of 3000rpm is 400 MJ.

 

[5 marks]

 

(d)

The dam catchment area for a hydroelectric station covers an area of 2 square km

 

with water capacity of 5 million cubic meter. Water head for the dam is 50 m.

The turbine and generator efficiencies 85% and 95% respectively.

(i)

Calculate total electrical energy in kWh that can be generated by the station.

 

[4 marks]

 

(ii)

If an electrical load of 15000 kW is connected to the station for a duration

 

of 4 hours, obtain the drop in water level of the dam.

[6 marks]

Q5.

(a)

State a factor that determines the selection for transmission line model in power

system analysis. List the types of transmission lines base on the given factor.

[4 marks]

(b) Explain how inductance and capacitance can be made equal for all phases in a 150 km, three phase, horizontally-arranged transmission line.

[3 markah]

(c) The cross-sectional view of an overhead three phase, 132 kV, 50 Hz transmission

line is shown in Figure Q5(c). The length of the line is 150 km. Each phase

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consists of two bundled conductors, each with a resistance of 0.001 / km and a

radius r is 1 cm.

10 cm
10 cm
r
r
r
r
r r

Fasa R

1

meter

1 meter
r
r
r
r

Fasa Y

1

meter

r r Fasa B Figure Q5(c)
r
r
Fasa B
Figure Q5(c)

(i)

Given that the conductors are made of aluminum and the line is properly

transposed, obtain resistance, inductance, and capacitance per km per phase

for the line.(Note: µ o = 4π x 10 -7 H/m, ε o = 8.854 x 10 -12 F/m)

[7 marks]

(ii)

The line is transmitting power to a three phase 250 MW load with power

factor of 0.9 lagging at line voltage of 132 kV. Using nominal π line model

and bases of 250 MVA and 132 kV, calculate the following values in per

unit:

(a)

Sending end voltage and current.

(b)

Voltage regulation.

[11 marks]

SEE 3423

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Q6.

(a)

Describe two type of loads where the sum of the two loads exceeds 50% of the

 

energy usage in Malaysia presently, from the aspect of energy conversion and

power factor.

[2 marks]

 

b)

Discuss the means to improve the energy efficiency of both loads in section (a)

 

above, respectively.

[4 marks]

 

c)

Figure Q6(c) below gives the daily load curve and the weekend load curve of a

power supply company. Plot the estimated load duration curve for the year.

Plot the estimated load duration curve for the year. [5 marks] Figure Q6(c) d) From Figure

[5 marks]

the estimated load duration curve for the year. [5 marks] Figure Q6(c) d) From Figure Q6(c)
the estimated load duration curve for the year. [5 marks] Figure Q6(c) d) From Figure Q6(c)

Figure Q6(c)

d) From Figure Q6(c) and from other relevant aspect, explain why the cost of

generation at the peak period is very expensive compared with cost of generation

from generators that generate at a fixed output continuously.

[6 marks]

e) A factory has a load which is the same daily and the load is as given in Table

Q6(e-i). Table Q6(e-ii) is the Tenaga Nasional Berhad’s Industrial Tariff for

2008.

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Table Q6(e-i)

Hours

Load in kW

0800

– 1800

2000

1800

– 2200

1500

2200

– 0800

1000

Table Q6(e-ii)

Industrial Tariff TNB 2008

 

E1 (Medium

E2 (Medium Voltage General Industrial Tariff)

Voltage General

Industrial Tariff)

Maximum demand charge

RM24.60

RM30.80/kW

Cost /kWhr within peak hour

Nil

RM0.296/kWhr

Cost per kWhr outside peak hour

Nil

RM0.182/kWhr

Cost per kWhr at any time

RM0.28

Nil

Peak time is between 0800 to 2200.

Calculate the montly bill of the factory above by using tariff E1 and E2. Compare and

contrast those tariffs by using the factory as an example. If 60% of the load is thermal

load, discuss a way to save energy which is suitable for the factory.

[8 marks]