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Answer all following sub-questions by considering only the relevant aspects only within a suitable examination time. (a) Compare and contrast DC system promoted by Thomas Edison with AC supply system. [5 marks] (b) What is the effect on impedance diagram if the transformer windings nominal voltage is not used as the base voltage? Prove your answer by giving an example or by deriving a general formula. [5 marks] (c) Why does the electricity tariff consist of energy charge, peak demand charge and penalty for power factor below a specified limit? [5 marks] (d) Compare and contrast overhead line and underground cable from the aspects of material, construction and equivalent circuit. [5 marks] (e) Explain briefly but clearly the principle of wind energy and photovoltaic cell electricity generations. [5 marks]

Q2. (a)

Describe the term “grid network” in power system. Give two (2) reasons for all power systems are being connected as grid network. [7 marks]

(b)

Explain briefly the three types of prime movers and energy sources for generating electrical energy in Malaysia. [6 marks]

(c)

Give 3 (three) reasons why electrical energy is superior to all other forms of energy in modern society. [6 marks]

(d)

Describe clearly the functions of following entities in relation to electric power industry in Malaysia. (i) Energy Commision (Suruhanjaya Tenaga).

(a) Why does the per-unit system being used in power system analysis even though the manufacturers such as the transformer manufacturer and generator manufacturer give the impedance value in percent? [3 marks] (b) Derive the new value of p. [5 marks] (c) A single line diagram is given in Figure Q3(c) below: Figure Q3(c) (i) Construct the impedance diagram from the given single line diagram. in terms of old Zp.SEE 3423 -3(ii) Tenaga Nasional Berhad. old and new base voltage and old and new base VA. [5 marks] (ii) Calculate the voltage at bus bar 1 and what is the real power and reactive power of the generator G1. [6 marks] Q3. [12 marks] . (iii) Independent Power Producers. Take ratings of generator G1 as bases in your calculation.u.u impedance Z. All reactances in per unit are referred to their respective component’s ratings.

[4 marks] (b) Explain how inductance and capacitance can be made equal for all phases in a 150 km. [5 marks] (d) The dam catchment area for a hydroelectric station covers an area of 2 square km with water capacity of 5 million cubic meter. horizontally-arranged transmission line. three phase. Another 20MW load is suddenly applied to the generator and the steam valve is opened only after 0. 50Hz.SEE 3423 -4Q4. (i) Calculate total electrical energy in kWh that can be generated by the station.2 second. Calculate the lowest frequency if the stored energy in the rotating parts moving at rated speed of 3000rpm is 400 MJ. [6 marks] Q5. or Hydro generating station. [3 markah] (c) The cross-sectional view of an overhead three phase. obtain the drop in water level of the dam. 50 Hz transmission line is shown in Figure Q5(c). or (iii) Gas turbine generating station. [6 marks] (b) Discuss in general the two constraints in implementing electrical generation using renewable energy sources. Water head for the dam is 50 m. The turbine and generator efficiencies 85% and 95% respectively. (a) State main components and explain operating principles for any of the following generating station: (i) (ii) Thermal turbine generating station. [4 marks] (c) A 100 MW steam turbine generator rotates at 3000 revolution per minute. 132 kV. The length of the line is 150 km. (a) State a factor that determines the selection for transmission line model in power system analysis. [4 marks] (ii) If an electrical load of 15000 kW is connected to the station for a duration of 4 hours. Each phase . List the types of transmission lines base on the given factor. is supplying 70MW at synchronous frequency.

(Note: µo = 4π x 10-7 H/m.854 x 10-12 F/m) [7 marks] (ii) The line is transmitting power to a three phase 250 MW load with power factor of 0. obtain resistance.9 lagging at line voltage of 132 kV. 10 cm r r Fasa R 1 meter r r Fasa Y 1 meter r r Fasa B Figure Q5(c) (i) Given that the conductors are made of aluminum and the line is properly transposed. calculate the following values in per unit: (a) (b) Sending end voltage and current. Using nominal π line model and bases of 250 MVA and 132 kV. Voltage regulation. each with a resistance of 0. inductance.001 Ω / km and a radius r is 1 cm. [11 marks] . ε o = 8.SEE 3423 -5consists of two bundled conductors. and capacitance per km per phase for the line.

. explain why the cost of generation at the peak period is very expensive compared with cost of generation from generators that generate at a fixed output continuously. [5 marks] Figure Q6(c) d) From Figure Q6(c) and from other relevant aspect. [2 marks] b) Discuss the means to improve the energy efficiency of both loads in section (a) above. [6 marks] e) A factory has a load which is the same daily and the load is as given in Table Q6(e-i). Table Q6(e-ii) is the Tenaga Nasional Berhad’s Industrial Tariff for 2008.SEE 3423 -6Q6. respectively. Plot the estimated load duration curve for the year. [4 marks] c) Figure Q6(c) below gives the daily load curve and the weekend load curve of a power supply company. from the aspect of energy conversion and power factor. (a) Describe two type of loads where the sum of the two loads exceeds 50% of the energy usage in Malaysia presently.

296/kWhr RM0.80/kW RM0. If 60% of the load is thermal load. Calculate the montly bill of the factory above by using tariff E1 and E2.182/kWhr Nil Peak time is between 0800 to 2200. discuss a way to save energy which is suitable for the factory.60 Nil Nil RM0. [8 marks] .SEE 3423 -7Table Q6(e-i) Hours 0800 – 1800 1800 – 2200 2200 – 0800 Load in kW 2000 1500 1000 Table Q6(e-ii) Industrial Tariff TNB 2008 E1 (Medium Voltage General Industrial Tariff) Maximum demand charge Cost /kWhr within peak hour Cost per kWhr outside peak hour Cost per kWhr at any time RM24.28 E2 (Medium Voltage General Industrial Tariff) RM30. Compare and contrast those tariffs by using the factory as an example.

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