SEE 3423
2
Q1. 
Answer all following subquestions by considering only the relevant aspects only 

within a suitable examination time. 

(a) 
Compare and contrast DC system promoted by Thomas Edison with AC supply 

system. 

[5 marks] 

(b) 
What is the effect on impedance diagram if the transformer windings nominal 

voltage is not used as the base voltage? Prove your answer by giving an example 

or by deriving a general formula. 

[5 marks] 

(c) 
Why does the electricity tariff consist of energy charge, peak demand charge and 

penalty for power factor below a specified limit? 

[5 marks] 

(d) 
Compare and contrast overhead line and underground cable from the aspects of 

material, construction and equivalent circuit. 

[5 marks] 

(e) 
Explain briefly but clearly the principle of wind energy and photovoltaic cell 

electricity generations. 

[5 marks] 

Q2. 
(a) 
Describe the term “grid network” in power system. Give two (2) reasons for all 
power systems are being connected as grid network. 

[7 marks] 

(b) 
Explain briefly the three types of prime movers and energy sources for 

generating electrical energy in Malaysia. 

[6 marks] 

(c) 
Give 3 (three) reasons why electrical energy is superior to all other forms of 

energy in modern society. 

[6 marks] 

(d) 
Describe clearly the functions of following entities in relation to electric power 
industry in Malaysia.
(i) Energy Commision (Suruhanjaya Tenaga).
SEE 3423
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(ii) 
Tenaga Nasional Berhad. 
(iii) 
Independent Power Producers. 
[6 marks]
Q3. 
(a) 
Why does the perunit system being used in power system analysis even though 
the manufacturers such as the transformer manufacturer and generator 

manufacturer give the impedance value in percent? 

[3 marks] 

(b) 
Derive the new value of p.u impedance Z, in terms of old Zp.u, old and new base 

voltage and old and new base VA. 

[5 marks] 

(c) 
A single line diagram is given in Figure Q3(c) below: 
Figure Q3(c)
(i) 
Construct the impedance diagram from the given single line diagram. 
Take ratings of generator G1 as bases in your calculation. All reactances 

in per unit are referred to their respective component’s ratings. 

[5 marks] 

(ii) 
Calculate the voltage at bus bar 1 and what is the real power and reactive 
power of the generator G1.
[12 marks]
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Q4. 
(a) 
State main components and explain operating principles for any of the following 

generating station: 

(i) 
Thermal turbine generating station, or 

(ii) 
Hydro generating station, or 

(iii) 
Gas turbine generating station. 

[6 marks] 

(b) 
Discuss in general the two constraints in implementing electrical generation using renewable energy sources. 

[4 marks] 

(c) 
A 100 MW steam turbine generator rotates at 3000 revolution per minute, 50Hz, 

is supplying 70MW at synchronous frequency. Another 20MW load is suddenly 

applied to the generator and the steam valve is opened only after 0.2 second. 

Calculate the lowest frequency if the stored energy in the rotating parts moving at 

rated speed of 3000rpm is 400 MJ. 

[5 marks] 

(d) 
The dam catchment area for a hydroelectric station covers an area of 2 square km 

with water capacity of 5 million cubic meter. Water head for the dam is 50 m. 

The turbine and generator efficiencies 85% and 95% respectively. 

(i) 
Calculate total electrical energy in kWh that can be generated by the station. 

[4 marks] 

(ii) 
If an electrical load of 15000 kW is connected to the station for a duration 

of 4 hours, obtain the drop in water level of the dam. 

[6 marks] 

Q5. 
(a) 
State a factor that determines the selection for transmission line model in power 
system analysis. List the types of transmission lines base on the given factor.
[4 marks]
(b) Explain how inductance and capacitance can be made equal for all phases in a 150 km, three phase, horizontallyarranged transmission line.
[3 markah]
(c) The crosssectional view of an overhead three phase, 132 kV, 50 Hz transmission
line is shown in Figure Q5(c). The length of the line is 150 km. Each phase
SEE 3423
5
consists of two bundled conductors, each with a resistance of 0.001 Ω / km and a
radius r is 1 cm.
r

r



Fasa R 

1 meter 

r

r


Fasa Y 

1 
meter 
(i) 
Given that the conductors are made of aluminum and the line is properly 
transposed, obtain resistance, inductance, and capacitance per km per phase 

for the line.(Note: µ _{o} = 4π x 10 ^{}^{7} H/m, ε _{o} = 8.854 x 10 ^{}^{1}^{2} F/m) 

[7 marks] 

(ii) 
The line is transmitting power to a three phase 250 MW load with power 
factor of 0.9 lagging at line voltage of 132 kV. Using nominal π line model
and bases of 250 MVA and 132 kV, calculate the following values in per
unit: 

(a) 
Sending end voltage and current. 
(b) 
Voltage regulation. 
[11 marks]
SEE 3423
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Q6. 
(a) 
Describe two type of loads where the sum of the two loads exceeds 50% of the 
energy usage in Malaysia presently, from the aspect of energy conversion and 

power factor. 

[2 marks] 

b) 
Discuss the means to improve the energy efficiency of both loads in section (a) 

above, respectively. 

[4 marks] 

c) 
Figure Q6(c) below gives the daily load curve and the weekend load curve of a 
power supply company. Plot the estimated load duration curve for the year.
[5 marks]
Figure Q6(c)
d) From Figure Q6(c) and from other relevant aspect, explain why the cost of
generation at the peak period is very expensive compared with cost of generation
from generators that generate at a fixed output continuously.
[6 marks]
e) A factory has a load which is the same daily and the load is as given in Table
Q6(ei). Table Q6(eii) is the Tenaga Nasional Berhad’s Industrial Tariff for
2008.
SEE 3423
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Table Q6(ei)
Hours 
Load in kW 

0800 
– 1800 
2000 
1800 
– 2200 
1500 
2200 
– 0800 
1000 
Table Q6(eii)
Industrial Tariff TNB 2008
E1 (Medium 
E2 (Medium Voltage General Industrial Tariff) 

Voltage General 

Industrial Tariff) 

Maximum demand charge 
RM24.60 
RM30.80/kW 
Cost /kWhr within peak hour 
Nil 
RM0.296/kWhr 
Cost per kWhr outside peak hour 
Nil 
RM0.182/kWhr 
Cost per kWhr at any time 
RM0.28 
Nil 
Peak time is between 0800 to 2200.
Calculate the montly bill of the factory above by using tariff E1 and E2. Compare and
contrast those tariffs by using the factory as an example. If 60% of the load is thermal
load, discuss a way to save energy which is suitable for the factory.
[8 marks]
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