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# MSC Nastran 2007 r1

User’s Guide for Topology Optimization

Main Index

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User Documentation: Copyright © 2007 MSC.Software Corporation. Printed in U.S.A. All Rights Reserved. This document, and the software described in it, are furnished under license and may be used or copied only in accordance with the terms of such license. Any reproduction or distribution of this document, in whole or in part, without the prior written authorization of MSC.Software Corporation is strictly prohibited. MSC.Software Corporation reserves the right to make changes in specifications and other information contained in this document without prior notice. The concepts, methods, and examples presented in this document are for illustrative and educational purposes only and are not intended to be exhaustive or to apply to any particular engineering problem or design. THIS DOCUMENT IS PROVIDED ON AN “AS-IS” BASIS AND ALL EXPRESS AND IMPLIED CONDITIONS, REPRESENTATIONS AND WARRANTIES, INCLUDING ANY IMPLIED WARRANTY OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, ARE DISCLAIMED, EXCEPT TO THE EXTENT THAT SUCH DISCLAIMERS ARE HELD TO BE LEGALLY INVALID. MSC.Software logo, MSC, MSC., MD, MD Nastran, MSC Nastran, Adams, Dytran, Marc, Mentat, and Patran are trademarks or registered trademarks of MSC.Software Corporation or its subsidiaries in the United States and/or other countries. NASTRAN is a registered trademark of NASA. LS-DYNA is a trademark of Livermore Software Technology Corporation. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners. Use, duplication, or disclosure by the U.S. Government is subject to restrictions as set forth in FAR 12.212 (Commercial Computer Software) and DFARS 227.7202 (Commercial Computer Software and Commercial Computer Software Documentation), as applicable.

Revision 0. August 17, 2007 NA:2007R1:Z:TOP:Z:DC-USR-PDF

Main Index

Contents

User’s Guide for Topology Optimization

1 Introduction

Introduction 2 Features and Benefits 2 Purpose of User's Guide 3 History of Capability 3 Organization of the Guide 3

2

Theory

Theory 6 Brief Literature Review MSC Nastran Methods 6 7

3

Design Modeling

Design Modeling 10 Features and Benefits 10 Bulk Data and Parameters 12 Output Specific to Topology Optimization 17 Optimizers (Licensing) 19 Modeling Guidelines and Limitations 21

4

**Patran User Interface
**

Patran User Interface Patran Preprocessing Patran Postprocessing 26 26 35

5

Application Examples

Application Examples 40 Bridge Example 40 Mirror Symmetric Constraints (Patran Tutorial 1) MBB Beam with Variations 57

43

Main Index

iv User’s Guide for Topology Optimization Torsion Beam with Variations 62 Engine Mount 68 Optimization Solution (Patran Tutorial 2) 70 Hub for Cyclic Symmetry 90 Combine Size/Topology Optimization 93 6 References References Bibliography 100 100 Main Index .

Ch. 1: Introduction MSC User’s Guide for Topology Optimization 1 Introduction Introduction 2 Main Index .

acceleration. The most common difficulties with Topology Optimization have been checkerboard effects. and force. and flutter analyses. buckling. sizing parameters (the dimension of cross-section of beam elements like the height and width. stress. and large computational cost with increasing variables. and force. The minimum member size constraint offers the user tremendous control over the complexity of the design in terms of quantity of members. eigenvalues. To respond to these needs. Topology optimization is good at dealing with global design responses (such as structural compliance. In contrast to sizing and shape optimization for detail design. stress. Main Index . especially Topology Optimization. in which a structure can be optimized considering simultaneous static. such as symmetry constraints including cyclic symmetry.) and Topology parameters (normalized density values distributed element-wise over a designable region) can be used as design variables. stress. extrusion constraints for uniform thickness along draw direction. shape parameters (grid coordinates related). transient response. buckling load factor. a number of attractive features are available which increase the flexibility for the designer. frequency response displacement. Additionally. Topology Optimization can also be used to obtain rib patterns and weld distribution patterns. or the thickness of shell elements). static displacement. eigenvalue. stress and strain). frequency response. introduction of large number of smaller members especially with mesh refinement. combined size/shape and topology variables in a single job. large number of small voids. fractional mass. trim and stability derivative responses for static aeroelastic analysis. the layout and load-path study in the initial. Among these include setting multiple mass targets to different subdomains. material property parameters (such as Young's modulus. It is recommended that topology optimization is used to generate a conceptual design proposal with emphasis on global design responses. single and two die casting constraints for preventing cavities along die movement. then a sizing and/or shape optimization is performed based on the topology design proposal with emphasis on local design responses. normal modes. Poisson's ratio. transient response displacement. The default filtering option helps overcome checkerboard effects. acceleration.2 MSC User’s Guide for Topology Optimization Introduction Introduction In recent years there has been an increasing demand in the area of structural design using computer hardware and software systems as practical tools for design optimization. velocity. strain and element force. In SOL 200. velocity. mass density and thermal expansion coefficient. aeroelastic. design proposals difficult to manufacture. compliance. Features and Benefits A number of features have been incorporated in SOL 200 for Topology Optimization as a continual effort to meet industry demands. The possible analysis response types that can be used as either design objective function or design constraints include: weight. and displacements) but not local design responses (such element responses. SOL 200. A large number of manufacturing constraints are available to ensure manufacturability. MSC Nastran has incorporated various functions for design sensitivity and optimization analyses into one solution sequence. volume. etc. SOL 200 provides answers to each of these difficulties. damping level in a flutter analysis. conceptual design stage uses the Topology Optimization function.

Finally. A major performance enhancement of module DOPR1 has been made to speed up minimum member size control and sizing optimization with many thousands. Topology Optimization capability along with the BIGDOT optimizer was introduced with the MSC Nastran 2005 r2 release (beta version available in MSC Nastran 2005 r1 release). there have been eight additional releases and each has had some enhancement in the Design Sensitivity and Optimization capability (SOL 200). or even millions. Chapter V (Application Examples) contains a number of examples to illustrate the input requirements. Since the Version 67 release. of variables. and shape optimization. It also contains the various available optimizers. With these enhancements SOL 200 is also able to support combined topology.Ch. In MSC Nastran 2005 r3 release. Chapter III (Design Modeling) contains all the MSC Nastran inputs. especially the MSC Nastran concepts and methods. the output interpretation and the Topology Optimization capabilities. extrusion constraints. and methods developed and adopted for. Additionally Patran Tutorials for step-by-step guidance for problem setup and the powerful Postprocessing of results through Patran are provided. casting constraints and minimum member size constraints. Chapter IV (Patran User Interface) provides detailed information on Patran's pre and postprocessing support for SOL 200 (with the focus on Topology Optimization). and outputs specific to Topology Optimization. Main Index . Topology Optimization. and adjoint design sensitivity analysis for inertia relief in static analyses. Chapter II (Theory) contains a brief literature review on the concept of. optimization and output control parameters. History of Capability New versions of MSC Nastran are released periodically. it contains remarks and useful tips on problem formulation and selection of control parameters to effect good results and states the limitations in the current capabilities. manufacturing constraints. cyclical symmetry constraints. Organization of the Guide The guide is organized into six chapters. The purpose of this guide is to provide information on the Topology Optimization capabilities. multiple mass reduction targets in a single job. inputs and outputs specific to Topology Optimization and the limitations and guidelines pertaining to the use of Topology Optimization capabilities. their default applications and their licensing issues. 1: Introduction 3 Introduction Purpose of User's Guide The focus of this guide is on the Topology Optimization capability. A number of examples are provided to illustrate the use of Topology Optimization in MSC Nastran. A parallel objective of this guide is to empower the user with specific and sufficient tutorials to completely define a Topology Optimization problem in Patran and also to visualize the results with the advanced Postprocessor provided by Patran. Chapter I (Introduction) contains the features of MSC Nastran SOL 200 for Topology Optimization. Purpose of this Guide and History of development of the Topology Optimization capability in MSC Nastran. such as symmetry constraints. were added for the topology optimizer. New features have been added to MSC Nastran 2007 r1 release based on feedback from clients. sizing.

4 MSC User’s Guide for Topology Optimization Introduction Main Index .

2: Theory MSC User’s Guide for Topology Optimization 2 Theory Theory 6 Main Index .Ch.

such that the variables defining the dimensions of the hole can vary between 0 to 1. the manifold configuration is variable. thickness and complexity of the paths are the design variables (Tai and Chee [4]). The Density Method approach. relate the macroscopic material properties of the composite to its microstructure. In a procedure called relaxation (Kohn and Strang [5]) checkerboard designs are accommodated by extending the design space to include materials with periodic. thus covering the complete range of relative densities from zero (void) to one (solid). however. a composite material of a solid material and void is used instead of pure solid material.6 MSC User’s Guide for Topology Optimization Theory Theory There are mainly three broad parameterizations for design description . The density of the artificial material can vary between 0 and 1. the section properties are the variables. Whatever the representation scheme. This suggests that the design will not generally converge to an optimum as the mesh is refined. Another scheme is the connected domain scheme in which the load and support regions are connected with a number of paths and the number. In shape optimization. In sizing optimization. the connectivity itself is variable. but the solutions are hazy. in a procedure called restriction. it is possible to achieve significant improvements in performance if the topology of the structure is allowed to vary. The microstructure of the composite can vary from one element in the mesh to the next. in this way. perforated microstructures and then using homogenization theory to compute effective material properties. The existence of a solution is guaranteed in this approach. the design space is restricted to exclude checkerboard designs by imposing perimeter constraint (Ambrosio and Buttazzo [6]) or mesh independent filtering methods (Sigmund [7]). The theory of homogenization is used to replace the composite with a kind of equivalent homogeneous material and. but the connectivity is fixed. This representation scheme. This way the Topology Optimization problem is converted from a 1-0 material distribution problem to a sizing problem. is not complete. Here. and to treat designs with same number of holes as topologically equivalent. A convenient scheme for representing topology is to use the number of holes as variable (Schoenauer [3]). In general. Example of a composite material is one composed of unit square cells with rectangular holes (Bendsoe and Kikuchi [8]). The underlying manifold that defines the geometry of the structure is fixed. there is degeneracy in this representation. The common scheme to represent topology is based on an indicator function of a spatial variable which takes on a value or either 1 or 0 depending on whether the spatial variable is in a solid or a void region. alternatively called the Power Law approach or Artificial Material approach (Bendsoe [9]). In Topology Optimization. Alternatively. is based on the idea of convexification where an artificial material is used which is homogeneous. The generalized material Main Index . However. There are two alternative ways for generating a well-posed Topology Optimization problem. the solution to the Topology Optimization problem is ill-posed in the sense that the design tends to a configuration with an unbounded number of microscopic holes rather than a small number of macroscopic holes. An overview of Topology Optimization can be found in a book by Bendsoe and Sigmund [1] and a review article by Rozvany et al [2]. shape and topology. the domain is discretized into elements such that the indicator function is constant within an element but can discretely change from one element to the next. Brief Literature Review In the homogenization-based approach.sizing.

Evolutionary Structural Optimization (Xie and Steven [10]) is based on the intuitive concept that if understressed material is gradually removed from the design domain. where lowly stressed material is assumed to be under utilized and is to be removed. The power law penalization on Young's Modulus E is used to achieve a 0-1 density distribution. This approach has fewer design variables compared to the homogenization approach and is more general. Optimality Criteria (OC) methods or Evolutionary Structural Optimization method. Mathematical Programming methods are general and efficient with provided gradients. i. Whatever the approach. The penalty factor p usually takes values between 2 and 4. This concept leads to a rejection criteria based on local stress level. and for general objective functions they do not work at all. inclusion of more constraints slows down the process. Mathematical Programming methods are able to deal with many thousands of design variables and numerous constraints. which directly optimize the objective function. Optimality Criteria methods are indirect methods of optimization. Starting from a feasible point in the design space and using an iterative scheme based on an OC derived from Kuhn-Tucker conditions. As described earlier. in a brief note (Thou and Rozvany [11]) it has been shown that ESO's rejection criteria may result in a highly non-optimal design. The common methods are Mathematical Programming methods. 2: Theory 7 Theory parameters are simply taken to be proportional to the relative density. an optimal. the design variables are updated at each iteration so that the design gradually moves towards the optimum point. However. MSC Nastran Methods The Density method is used in MSC Nastran for Topology Optimization. the design variables are the normalized material density of each designed element.0. A power law is used to relate the density with the material property. but there is no suppression of local optima. unlike Mathematical Programming methods. This approach is simple and the optimum design consists of clear solid and void.Ch. Main Index . The advantages of the density method are that it is more general and requires fewer design variables than the homogenization approach.e. once the problem is formulated. OC methods attempt to satisfy a set of criteria related to the behavior of the structure. least weight topology will be reached. ρ Z ρ x 0 E Z E0 x p where ρ and E0 are respectively the fully solid density and Young's modulus. A penalty factor p is 0 introduced to enforce the design variable to be close to a 0-1 solution when p>1. Though these methods are efficient for problems with a large number of design variables and few constraints. an optimization method has to be employed to solve for the optimum design. The homogenization approach has the advantage that the design can form rapidly along the lines of the force transmission path.

Rayleigh Quotients are used as intermediate design responses for eigenvalues. MSCADS(method=4 SUMT) or DOT.8 MSC User’s Guide for Topology Optimization Theory The original optimization problem is solved by solving a series of explicit approximate problems. and flutter) are supported. static aeroelasticity. Main Index . normal modes. The optimization algorithm used is BIGDOT. Density and Young's Modulus are used as intermediate design variables. adjoint method is available to compute efficiently the gradients of the topology objective and constraints with respect to topology design variables. frequency response. complex eigenvalue. buckling. For topology design sensitivity analysis. All existing analysis types (statics.

3: Design Modeling MSC User’s Guide for Topology Optimization 3 Design Modeling Design Modeling 10 Main Index .Ch.

and shape optimization. boundary conditions. MSC Nastran 2007 r1 SOL 200 is able to support: combined topology. This latter capability requires that both the Topology Optimization and the Design Optimization options be available (see Section Optimizers (Licensing) ). and current limitations. a Main Index . By using symmetry constraints in Topology Optimization. Topology Optimization can also be to used to obtain rib patterns and weld distribution patterns. and loads are symmetric. Features and Benefits Topology Optimization can generate more efficient design concepts in the early design stage. Minimum member size is more like quality control than quantity control. The output control parameters and output specific to Topology Optimization are then described. However. Compare figures Figure 5-19 and Figure 5-20 to appreciate the feature. sizing. responses and design optimization parameters exclusively for Topology Optimization. regular Topology Optimization cannot guarantee a perfect symmetric design. and to control and interpret the output. especially for load paths. Features Topology Optimization capability was first released in MSC Nastran 2005 r2 and a number of manufacturability constraints were added to MSC Nastran 2005 r3. The chapter ends with a number of useful tips for design modeling. A major performance enhancement of module DOPR1 has been made to speed up minimum member size control and sizing optimization with many thousands variables. a brief description of the various Optimizer options and optimization methods along with their default applications and methods to override those defaults is given. Next. It then discusses the bulk data entries that have been provided for the creation of the design variables. multiple mass reduction targets. The MSCADS optimizer provides numerous options for performing small and large design optimization that can be explored. even if the design space. Avoiding thin members enhances the simplicity of the design and hence its manufacturability. Symmetry Constraints It is often desirable to design a symmetric component or system.10 MSC User’s Guide for Topology Optimization Design Modeling Design Modeling This chapter is aimed at enabling the user to create and run a MSC Nastran Topology Optimization job. The chapter first introduces the various features and capabilities of MSC Nastran Topology Optimization. Benefits Minimum Member Size (Constraints) The minimum member size constraint is mainly used to control the size of members in topology optimal designs. The BIGDOT optimizer is available to solve problems with a large number of design variables and constraints that DOT struggles with due to computer memory requirements and efficiency. cyclical symmetry constraints. and adjoint design sensitivity analysis for inertia relief of static analyses. With these enhancements. The BIGDOT optimizer not only enables performing practical Topology Optimization tasks but can also be used to perform standard shape and sizing optimization for design tasks with many thousands of design variables.

This cyclic symmetric constraint can also be used for irregular finite element meshes. The use of topology. See Figure 5-24. Multiple Mass Target The type one response FRMASS (DRESP1=FRMASS) was originally the total fraction mass of topological designed properties. Combined Topology. sizing. and finite element mesh. 3: Design Modeling 11 Design Modeling symmetric design can be obtained regardless of the boundary conditions or loads (see Figure 5-21). and shape optimization simultaneously may find possible better design since the interaction of sizing and/or shape variables with Topology Optimization is considered during a single design optimization process. By using the extrusion manufacturing constraints in Topology Optimization. Figure 5-23. Feedback from users indicated that it is desirable to set up different mass reduction targets on multiple designed parts for built-up structures. By using cyclic symmetry constraints in Topology Optimization. a rotational symmetric design can be obtained regardless of the boundary conditions or loads (see Figure 5-47). These symmetric constraints can also be used for irregular finite element meshes. loads. Figure 5-25 and Figure 5-26 illustrate this feature. This constraint is particularly essential for a design manufactured through an extrusion process. This enhancement reflects this requirement.Ch. Sizing. The direct method is not affordable computationally for Topology Optimization since many thousands of variables are often involved. Casting Constraints (Draw Direction Constraints) Topology optimized designs can present cavities that are not achievable by casting or some machining processes. The adjoint design sensitivity analysis method has been developed in MSC Nastran 2007 r1 to benefit not only inertia relief Topology Optimization but also inertia relief sizing optimization with many design variables. Extrusion Constraints It is often desirable to produce a design with a constant cross-section along a given direction. The adjoint method is automatically selected when it is more efficient computationally. Cyclic Symmetry Constraints A mirror symmetry constraint was added to MSC Nastran 2005 r3. Casting constraints allow users to impose die draw direction constraints and prevent hollow profiles so that the die can slide in a given direction. Adjoint Design Sensitivity Support for Inertia Relief The direct design sensitivity analysis method was only available for inertia relief of static analyses in previous versions. It is also desirable to design a rotational symmetric component or system. and Shape Optimization It is often recommend that Topology Optimization is first used to find efficient design concepts at the early design stage whereas sizing and/or shape optimization is used for detail design based on the topology design proposals at a later design stage. constant cross-section designs can be obtained for solid models regardless of the boundary conditions. Main Index .

The MSC Nastran 2005 r3 User's Guide for Design Sensitivity and Optimization provides a broad overview the optimization capability with a brief (and now obsolete) description of Topology Optimization.Topological Design Variables To select a topologically designable region. All elements referencing a given property ID are made topologically designable with the Bulk Data entry TOPVAR referencing that property ID. In particular. The following is a description of the various Bulk data and Parameters unique to Topology Optimization. Topology design variables are automatically generated with one design variable per designable element. Bulk Data Entry TOPVAR . The basic format of TOPVAR is: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 TOPVAR ID "SYM" "CAST" "EXT" "TDMIN" LABEL PTYPE CID CID CID TV MSi DDi EDi XINIT MSi DIE XLB MSi DELXV POWER PID CS NCS Main Index . The manufacturability constraints are then applied on all elements referencing the given property ID. the design objective and constraints are defined in an identical manner for topology and sizing/shape optimization.12 MSC User’s Guide for Topology Optimization Design Modeling Bulk Data and Parameters Topology Optimization in MSC Nastran borrows heavily from the user interface developed for sizing and shape optimization. the user needs to specify a group of elements.

Default = 3. then it is recommended XINIT=0.6 PSOLID XY X 0. 3: Design Modeling 13 Design Modeling Example: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 TOPVAR 2 SYM CAST TDMIN Field ID LABEL PTYPE XINIT PS1 5 5 0. Y-. See Remark . XINIT is defined to match the mass target constraint. . Used with PID to identify the elements to be designed.001) Fractional change allowed for the design variable during approximate optimization. See Remark . Draw Direction. (Integer > 0) Indicates that this line defines symmetry constraints.2. Z or X-. This PID must be unique for PIDs referenced by other TOPVAR. Lower bound to prevent the singularity of the stiffness matrix. Z. (Real. (Real. See Remark .Ch. Z).0 is recommended. (Integer > 0) User-supplied name for printing purpose. See Remark . (character X. 'XY'. and Z respectively. etc.0. Y-.) A penalty factor used in the relation between topology design variables and element Young's modulus. Default = 0. Default = blank) Mirror symmetry plane. and . See Remarks . (Blank or Integer > 0.3 ZX 2 10 Contents: Unique topology design region identification number. Rectangular coordinate system ID used for specifying manufacturing constraints.e. 2. DDi=X.0 < =POWER <= 5. or 'ZX') Cyclic symmetry axis. (Character) Property entry name. Topology and sizing variables cannot share the same properties. Default = 0.indicates the opposite direction of X. (Real > 0.0.) Initial value. Y. "PSHELL". Y. 'YZ'. For example. if the mass target is 30% on DRESP1=FRMASS.. DDi=X. . Y. DVPREL1 and DVPREL2 entries.3. Property entry identifier.for a single die option (DIE=1) where X-. Indicates that this line defines casting constraints (i.0). die draw direction constraints). and Z for two die option (DIE =2) (Character) XLB DELXV POWER PID "SYM" CID MSi CS NCS "CAST" DD Main Index . Y. 'PSOLID". (Character. XLB < XINIT). See Remark & . so the initial design does not have violated constraints. Number of cyclic symmetric segments in 360 degrees (Integer > 0). Typically. (Character: "PBAR". (Real > 1. Z.

two or three different mirror symmetry planes can present (such as MS1=XY. MSi=XY and/or ZX or CS=X).e. MSi=ZX and/or YZ or CS=Z). material grows from the bottom in the draw direction) = 2. and/or XY or CS=Y). Two dies will be used and the dies split apart along the draw direction (i. A single die will be used and the die slides in the given draw direction (i. All designed element properties must refer to a MAT1 entry. 7. (Blank or integer 1 or 2. 6. If DELXV is blank. enforce constant cross-section) See Remark and Extrusion direction. The splitting plane is determined by optimization) Indicates that this line defines extrusion constraints (i. Minimum member size. Only CORD1R and CORD2R can be used as a referenced coordinate system to specify topology manufacturing constraints. and MS3=ZX). 4. (DD=Z or Z-. The referenced coordinate system CID must be the same for the combined constraints. Y. (ED=Z. material grows from the splitting plane in opposite direction along the axis specified by the draw direction DDi.0) "EXT" ED "TDMIN" TV Remarks: 1..14 MSC User’s Guide for Topology Optimization Design Modeling Field DIE Contents: Die Options.e. possible combinations are (DD=X or X-. Combined topology. MSi=XY. the default is taken from the specification of DELX parameter on the DOPTPRM entry. PBEAM. and/or YZ or CS=Z). Default = 1) = 1 (or blank). and PWELD. Casting ("CAST") and Extrusion ("EXT") manufacturability constraints can be applied to PTYPE="PSOLID" only. (Character. PBEAML. See Remarks 9. The topologically designable element properties include PROD. • For "CAST" constraints. Only one reference coordinate system CID is allowed for each TOPVAR entry. See Remarks 9. and shape optimization is supported in a single file. (DD=Y or Y-. MSi=ZX . (ED=Y. PSHEAR. (Real > 0. One. PBAR. and 10. MSi=YZ and/or XY or CS=Y). However. a PCOMP cannot be used as designed property in Topology Optimization. 5. 3. Multiple TOPVAR's are allowed in a single file. TOPVAR cannot be used with DVMREL1 and DVMREL2 entries.. and/or ZX or CS=X). PCOMP's can be used as non-designed properties in a Topology Optimization job. and 10. therefore. MSi=YZ. MS2=YZ. possible combinations are (ED=X. sizing. Some possible combinations are: • For "EXT" constraints. PSOLID. X. Some symmetry constraint types can be combined with casting or extrusion constraints. PBARL. Casting constraints cannot be combined with extrusion constraints for the same TOPVAR entry.e. Main Index . 2. or Z) Indicates that this line defines a minimum member size. PSHELL.. PBEND.

and smooth top and bottom surfaces in the draw direction for two die casting constraints.. One cyclic symmetry can be combined with one mirror symmetry constraint as long as the axis of cyclic symmetry is normal to the plane of mirror symmetry. the splitting plane is optimized. This feature can also be used for < 360 degrees but NCS must be given in 360 degrees. minimize the compliance of the structure while limiting the mass to 40% of the mass of the original structure).g. two response types (FRMASS and COMP) are available in RTYPE (field 4) field of Bulk Data Entry DRESP1. 10. exclusively for Topology Optimization. The response attribute table for these two response types is given below: Table 3-1 Response Type (RTYPE) Responses for Topology Optimization Response Attributes ATTA (Integer>0) ATTB (Integer >0 or Real >0. the minimum member size constraint is taken from the specification of TDMIN parameter on the DOPTPRM entry. MSi = XZ and CS = Y. Without a TDMIN continuation line. and at the Y-axis when CS = X). MSi = YZ and CS = X.Response Types FRMASS and COMP While all DRESP1 response type are available for Topology Optimization. The first symmetry segment starts at the X-axis when CS=Z (at Z-axis when CS = Y. It is recommended to use a smooth top surface in the draw direction for one die casting constraints. 9. Bulk Data Entry DRESP1 . This option is applied on 2 and 3 D elements only. and MSi = XY and CS = Z. "CAST". For two dies option (DIE=2). In MSC Nastran's implementation. and "EXT" constraints. 11. (e. It is not associated with a particular analysis type. 12. TDMIN is a dimensional quantity with a guideline that it be set to at least three times a representative element dimension. the parting plane is the bottom surface of the designed part in the draw direction. The COMP and FRMASS response types are provided to facilitate the specification of the classical Topology Optimization task of minimizing the compliance of a loaded structure while limiting the mass to some percentage of the maximum allowable amount. Minimum member size constraints can be used with "SYM".0) ATT1 Main Index .Ch. 3: Design Modeling 15 Design Modeling 8. For a single die DIE=1. The FRMASS response indicates a target mass fraction that typically is used as a constraint in a Topology Optimization task. The COMP response permits the specification of a compliance value as a design response. Compliance is simply the product of the displacement times the applied load and is typically used as an objective in a Topology Optimization design task to maximize structural stiffness in a static design problem. For example. these responses can be applied generally so that the COMP response could lead to a constraint and the minimization of FRMASS could be an objective.

0 if all topology design variables are 1. 2.0 (no filtering). TCHECK=0 turns off filtering. Note that the value of TDMIN is problem-size dependent but not mesh-size dependent. RTYPE=COMP (compliance of structures = PTu) and FRMASS (mass fraction of designed elements) entries are used for Topology Optimization or combined topology.0 are filtered to ensure they are not small. ATTi=Blank is for total mass fraction. RTYPE=FRMASS is the mass divided by the mass calculated if all topology design variables are 1. is used to achieve mesh independent solutions and control the size of members in the topology optimized design.The descriptions of these parameters are given in Table 3-5. Design Optimization Parameters (DOPTPRM) . Design variable elements that are within a distance of TDMIN from an element with a design variable close to 1. FRMASS is calculated for topologically designed elements only. FRMASS = 1. TDMIN.2) Remarks: Response Attributes BLANK BLANK BLANK BLANK BLANK or Property ID 1.0. The default value of 1 turns on the filtering and is recommended.0. ATTi=PID is the mass fraction for topological designed property PID. to prevent achieving a final design that is characterized by thin disjoint fibers that are impractical from a manufacturing standpoint.TCHECK and TDMIN Two design optimization parameters TCHECK and TDMIN are available on the DOPTPRM Bulk Data entry for overriding default values of parameters used exclusively in Topology Optimization. Parameter TCHECK is used to turn on a filtering parameter that is used to prevent a checkerboard pattern from being produced. Main Index . sizing/shape optimization. The other parameter. that is.16 MSC User’s Guide for Topology Optimization Design Modeling Response COMP (Remark 1) FRMASS (Remark 1. The default for TDMIN is 0.

Table 3-3 Parameter DESMAX DELX DXMIN 5 0. 7. 13 and 15). Since a Topology Optimization task can easily result in thousands of design variables. 5.This option is applied on 2 and 3 D elements only.Ch. For combined sizing/shape and Topology Optimization problems. no minimum member size control). and Default value Topology Filtering options (integer 0 or 1) 1 Filtering algorithm is on for Topology Optimization (default) 0 No filtering algorithm TDMIN Topology minimum member diameter (real >=0. a number of existing DOPTPRM parameters have different default values for Topology Optimization as opposed to Sizing/Shape optimization. 3: Design Modeling 17 Design Modeling Table 3-2 Name TCHECK DOPTPRM Design Optimization Parameters Description. Output for Topology Optimization Output for the two responses. the default values for Topology Optimization are imposed. 3. Default =0. and topology design variables are shown in Figure 3-1. Also in this figure. design variable prints are turned off unless a P2 value greater than 8 (that is 9. compliance and fractional mass. design variables are printed for value of P2 = 1 (or if 1 is included in the sum of the options. For sizing and shape optimization.2 1. Instead.0) in the basic coordinate system. 9.. this would not be a viable option for most problems. the design variable history shows the external element ID associated with the internal design variable ID Main Index . 11. that is. the definition of the P2 parameter that controls the amount of print that occurs at design cycles specified by P1 has a different meaning in a Topology Optimization context.05 Default Values for DOPTPRM Design Optimization Parameters Sizing/Shape 30 0.0E-5 Topology Output Specific to Topology Optimization As a final comment on DOPTPRM parameters described in the previous section. In addition.5 0. type. It is recommended at least three times a representative element dimension. as shown in Table 3-3. 13 or 15) is specified.0 (i.e. 11. Also the "Comparison between Input Property Variables from Analysis and Design Models" print never occurs in Topology Optimization.

Figure 3-1 shows the format of an element density history file. DESPCH is used to specify when the topology optimized element density values are written to the topology element density history file jobname. DESPCH < 0 Never Main Index .des.des for all design cycles as a Patran element result format that is able to support postprocessors other than patran: For sizing and shape optimization. the DESPCH parameter specifies when the optimized Bulk Data entries are written to the PUNCH file.f06 Special Punch Considerations for Topology Optimization MSC Nastran topology optimization generates an element density distribution file jobname.18 MSC User’s Guide for Topology Optimization Design Modeling Figure 3-1 Output in jobname. In Topology Optimization. This file can be directly read into Patran to display and animate the Topology Optimization results.

des. then. 3: Design Modeling 19 Design Modeling DESPCH = 0 at the last design cycle only (default) DESPCH > 0 at every design cycle that is a multiple of DESPCH and the last design cycle.des Optimizers (Licensing) Introduction MSC Nastran provides two optimization options: 1. MSCADS is MSC's version of the ADS (Automated Design Synthesis) code.Ch. if n=2 and the maximum number of design cycles is 5 (DESMAX=5 on the DOPTPRM entry). This provides MSC with greater flexibility in maintaining and enhancing the optimization algorithm relative to the DOT optimizer that is licensed from VR&D and has been the mainstay algorithm for many years.des. Design Optimization 2. DOT is still available as an option that requires explicit selection by the user. write all topology designed and non-designed element density values to the topology element density history file jobname. DESPCH1 >= 0 (default=0). DESPCH1 < 0. write all topological designed element density values to the topology element density history file jobname. and 5 are written in the punch file. MSCADS is the default optimizer for the Design Optimization in SOL 200. Topology Optimization Either or both licenses may be procured. 4. Figure 3-2 Element Density History File jobname. For example. Main Index . a public domain FORTRAN program developed by a predecessor of the VR&D Corporation under contract to NASA/Langley and the US Navy. topology element density at design cycle 2.

A preliminary assessment of the Topology Optimization capability can be made using only the Design Optimization option. This code has been shown to be capable of handling tens of thousands of design variables while considering numerous constraints. This latter capability requires that both the Topology Optimization and the Design Optimization licenses be available.MSCADS (Design Optimization Option) and BIGDOT (Topology Optimization Option) 1 . It is necessary in this case to explicitly select the MSCADS SUMT optimizer as outlined in the Input subsection below. It is necessary in this case to explicitly select the MSCADS or DOT optimizer as outlined in the Input subsection below.BIGDOT Optimizer The second way is by a parameter OPTCOD available on the DOPTPRM Bulk Data entry that has options shown in Table 3-5. A preliminary assessment of the Topology Optimization capability on limited sized problems can be made using only the Design Optimization option. also from VR&D. One way is by modifying an executive system parameter OPTCOD in the Runtime Configuration (RC) file as shown in Table 3-4. It must be emphasized that it is not necessary to acquire the Topology Optimization option in order to apply Topology Optimization. The MSCADS (method=4 SUMT) optimizer has been tested on practical topology problems and found to perform well.DOT Optimizer 2 . if the performance is found unsatisfactory then the user may consider acquiring the Topology Optimization option. However. since the default when there are TOPVAR bulk entries is to use BIGDOT.20 MSC User’s Guide for Topology Optimization Design Modeling Topology Optimization problems typically involve thousands of design variables. The MSCADS optimizer provides numerous options for performing design optimization that can be explored. The parameter METHOD is used to select optimization methods. since the default when there are TOPVAR bulk entries is to use BIGDOT. The BIGDOT optimizer not only enables performing practical Topology Optimization tasks but can also be used to perform standard shape and sizing optimization for design tasks with many thousands of design variables. Table 3-4 System Cell Number 413 System Cell Summary System Cell Name OPTCOD Description and Default value Specifies which optimization code to be used in SOL 200 (default = 0) 0 . which contains the BIGDOT optimizer. Input There are two ways to select the optimizer code. Main Index .

Ch. Default = 1) = 1 Modified Method of Feasible Directions for both MSCADS and DOT = 2 Sequential Linear Programming for both MSCADS and DOT = 3 Sequential Quadratic Programming for both MSCADS and DOT = 4 SUMT method for MSCADS = IJK for user's specified MSCADS optimization strategy. 3: Design Modeling 21 Design Modeling Table 3-5 Name OPTCOD DOPTPRM Design Optimization Parameters Description. In particular. Default= Blank) = Blank (taken from system cell number 413) = “MSCADS”: MSCADS is used = “DOT”: DOT is used = “BIGDOT”: BIGDOT is used METHOD Optimization Method: (Integer >0.ADS ENHANCED ADS PROGRAM FOR AUTOMATED DESIGN SYNTHESIS Modeling Guidelines and Limitations The quality of the results of a Topology Optimization task is a strong function of how the problem is posed in MSC Nastran. (see MSC Nastran 2005 Release Guide) Output There are no outputs that are affected by optimizer selection with the exception that the optimizer output produced using the IPRINT parameter on the DOPTPRM entry is dependent on the method selected. type. and Default value OPTCOD (Character. the banner for the MSCADS code appears as: MSC. This section contains a number of tips that have been developed based on extensive testing of the capabilities: Main Index .

c1 is the calculated compliance and λ 1 is the calculated eigenvalue via DRESP1 definition. For combined topology and sizing/shape optimization problems.0) produces more distinct black and white (solid and void) designs. There are many solutions to a Topology Optimization problem. More design cycles may be required to achieve a clear 0/1 material distribution. a Case Control Command DRSPAN can be used to construct a weighting function via a DRESP2 or DRESP3. near singularities often occur when a high POWER is selected. if higher order elements and/or a coarser mesh is used. It is common to see some members with smaller size than TDMIN at the final design since the small members have contributions to the objective. turning off the filtering algorithm may produce a better result. in a static and normal mode c1 λ0 combined problem. 3.22 MSC User’s Guide for Topology Optimization Design Modeling Modeling Tips 1. A higher value (greater than 5. Minimum member size is more like quality control than quantity control. Maximum design cycle DESMAX=30 (as default) is often required to produce a reasonable result.)+weight 2*( ----. It is in general recommended that TDMIN should not be less than the length of 3 elements. In a multiple subcase problem. c0 and λ 0 are the initial value of these responses. While FRMASS is calculated for topological designed properties only. one global and many local optima. The parameter TDMIN is mainly used to control the degree of simplicity in terms of manufacturing considerations. For Topology Optimization tasks DRESP1=FRMASS response is recommended to define a mass reduction target in a design constraint.3 .7). 4. 8. 2. This default normally results in a better design for general finite element mesh. 6.0. A lower POWER (less than 2. The POWER field on the TOPVAR entry has a large influence on the solution of Topology Optimization problems. The default of TCHECK=1 activates the filtering algorithm. It is not unusual to see different solutions to the same problem with the same discretization by using different optimization solvers or the same optimization solver with different starting values of design variables. XINIT on the TOPVAR entry should match the mass target constraint so that the initial design is feasible. A DRESP1=FRMASS is introduced to define the mass fraction of topology designed elements. However.) where weight1 and weight2 are two weighting factors. the objective can be defined as obj = weight*( ----. 9. 7. A parameter TCHECK on DOPTPRM is used to turn on/off the checkerboard free algorithm. it is recommended that RTYPE=FRMASS is used for topological designed property mass reduction constraints and RTYPE=WEIGHT is used for total mass reduction constraints. c0 λ1 Main Index . 10. particularly when manufacturability constraints are used. The response is usually used as an objective to maximize structural stiffness in static analysis problems.0) often produces a solution that contains large "grey" areas (area with intermediate densities 0. A DRESP1=COMP is introduced to define the compliance of structures for Topology Optimization. 5. However. RTYPE=WEIGHT computes total weight including all designed and non-designed parts. For example.

15. The nature of the problem depends on element type.Patran 2005 R3 can support Topology Optimization with manufacturability constraints. The OPTCOD parameter can be used to select the desired optimizer. number of elements. if a 90 degree rotational part has 3 segments. Users may increase the value of XLB on TOPVAR to further prevent the singularity. 3: Design Modeling 23 Design Modeling 11. a core non-designable shell element thickness must be defined together with two designable element thicknesses above and below the core thickness. 21. YZ plane for CS=Y.Patran 2005 R2 can smooth. Topology Optimization with manufacturability constraints often needs more material to fill the design space. 19. It is recommended that the Topology Optimization option be utilized for Topology Optimization and for sizing and shape optimization problems with thousands of design variables. MSC. Checkerboard-like material distribution pattern is observed in the Topology Optimization of continuum. The cyclical symmetry constraints can also be used for rotational parts <360 degree. the design with manufacturability constraints usually requires a relatively bigger mass target (less material savings) than the one without manufacturability constraints. it is recommended that each TOPVAR's initial value XINIT matches its corresponding mass target. The number of cyclical symmetric segments (NCS) must also be defined in 360 degrees for this case. 14. the starting surface must be XY plane for cyclical symmetry axis CS=X. Therefore. 16. (b) The design proposal from the no restriction run may give some hints for imposing manufacturability constraints. For example. It has been shown that the Checkerboard-like phenomenon is caused by the finite element formulation. add two designable elements for each regular element. Benefits are: (a) a Topology Optimization without restriction may result in a better design. 12. 13. To obtain a rib pattern by Topology Optimization. especially when first order finite elements. It is recommended that a baseline Topology Optimization job (without any manufacturability constraints) be carried out before a Topology Optimization solution with manufacturability constraints is done. 18.Ch. optimization algorithm and so on. and generate IGES files for 2D topology designs and smooth 3D topology designs. 23. are employed to analyze structural responses. Users may increase the value of XLB on TOPVAR to further prevent the singularity or set BAILOUT =-1 to cause the program to continue processing with near singularities. The optimization results from MSCADS are expected to be comparable to those from DOT. Numerical problems often occur when solving a Topology Optimization task. The casting constraints may have difficulty dealing with a design model that has one or more nonsmoothed boundary surfaces to be designed. 22. 17. NCS must be set to NCS=12 in 360 degree. The Main Index . If multiple mass targets (multiple DRESP1=FRMASS) are used. 20. In addition. such as CQUAD4. If some elements are disconnected on the final topology design proposal. ZX plane for CS=Z respectively. One frequent numerical problem is the so-called checkerboard effect. The parameter BAILOUT =0 (default) may cause the Topology Optimization run to exit if near singularities are detected. the mass target may be too small to fill the design space. remesh. It is recommended to use smooth surfaces for topology designed boundary surfaces. MSC. That is.

The idea of making a finer finite element mesh is to get a better finite element solution. An overview of the techniques used to avoid the checkerboarding and mesh-dependent solutions can be found in the reference [1]. stress constraints) are not tractable with Topology Optimization. • Super elements are not supported. CASI solve is strongly recommended for solid elements for compliance minimization topology problems for efficiency. In SOL 200. Another closely related phenomenon is mesh-dependent solutions. RTYPE=FRMASS is not supported in pure sizing problems even for Adjoint Method. This more detailed topology solution creates a problem from a manufacturing point of view.24 MSC User’s Guide for Topology Optimization Design Modeling problem occurs because the checkerboard has an artificially high stiffness compared with a structure with uniform material distribution [1]. • Although combined topology and sizing optimization is supported. The easiest way to decrease the checkerboarding effect is to use higher order elements (such as CQUAD8). It is seen that a more detailed structure is found by increasing the number of elements. TOPVAR and DVPREL1/2 entries cannot reference the same property ID (PID). This however increases the CPU-time considerably. • Element based constraints (for example. However. • Thermal loads and enforced displacements are not supported. 24. this finer meshing tends to have an increasing number of members with decreasing size. • CASI solver is limited to compliance minimization Topology Optimization problems only. Main Index . However. filtering algorithms are used to promote a checkerboard-free and mesh independent topology optimized solution and TDMIN is used to limit the increasing number of members. Limitations • Elements referencing the composite property PCOMP entry cannot be designed. • RTYPE=COMP can be used even with pure sizing problems provided that Adjoint Method is used for sensitivity calculation.

Ch. 4: Patran User Interface MSC User’s Guide for Topology Optimization 4 Patran User Interface Patran User Interface 26 Main Index .

This support includes all the features like combined size and Topology Optimization. displaying the topology results including isodensity (fringe) results and smoothing of the topology design proposal. click Analysis and in the Analysis form select Action: Optimize. Method: Analysis Deck and click on Customized Solutions Tab.26 MSC User’s Guide for Topology Optimization Patran User Interface Patran User Interface This chapter describes the Patran support to SOL 200 (focus on General and Quick Topology Optimization) for pre and postprocessing. Check Use Main Index . multiple mass targets. General Topology Optimization is not limited to the classical problems and can be used to setup any Topology Optimization problem including combined size/ topology problem. The Preprocessing section covers the Patran interfaces for the TOPVAR entry. Patran Preprocessing All input data used in Topology Optimization analysis can be generated in Patran. Quick Topology Optimization is used for the easy setup of classical Topology Optimization problems compliance minimization or eigenvalue maximization subject to fractional mass constraint.General and Quick. manufacturing constraints. Object: Entire Model. optimization parameters entries and control of output. The postprocessing section illustrates the Patran interfaces for reading the optimal element density distribution (. multidisciplinary optimization and output controls. This section explains how the Topology Optimization inputs can be generated in Patran. COMP and FRMASS entries (including multiple mass targets).des) file. Quick Topology Optimization Preprocessing For Quick Topology Optimization. the input in this option is more involved and is recommended when the Quick Topology Optimization option cannot be used. Reference is made to the relevant MSC Nastran entries and their fields throughout this section. There are two routes to input data for Topology Optimization in Patran . However.

4: Patran User Interface 27 Patran User Interface Customized Solutions. Main Index . Three tabs . Objectives & Constraints and Optimization Control .get activated through which Topology Optimization Parameters can be easily input.Design Domain.Ch.

On clicking the Define Manufacturing Constraint Tab. the following form appears which allows entry of all available manufacturing constraints. the topologically designable regions can be defined by selecting various Property IDs in the Design Domain form. The form is robust in the sense that incompatible constraint combinations cannot be entered by the user. Main Index .28 MSC User’s Guide for Topology Optimization Patran User Interface On clicking Design Domain Tab.

Main Index . and on selecting the Analysis Discipline as Static. 4: Patran User Interface 29 Patran User Interface Figure 4-1 Define Manufacturing Constraint form On clicking Objectives & Constraints Tab. the objective function is taken as Minimize Compliance and the form allows entry of Fractional Mass constraint in the range 0 to 1.Ch.

POWER fields and TDMIN line of TOPVAR entry. and DESMAX. Main Index . TCHECK and CONV1 parameters of DOPTPRM entry can be input.30 MSC User’s Guide for Topology Optimization Patran User Interface On clicking Optimization Control Tab. XLB. the XINIT.

4: Patran User Interface 31 Patran User Interface General Topology Optimization Preprocessing From the Main Menu select Tools -> Design Study -> Preprocess Main Index .Ch.

The Manufacturing Constraints can be added by clicking the Define Manufacturing Constraints Tab and filling up the form which appears (see Figure 4-1)./Max: Minimize to create Compliance Minimization as the Objective. Min. Object: Objective. Object: Constraint. Solution: Global. Then select Action: Create. Object: Design Variable.32 MSC User’s Guide for Topology Optimization Patran User Interface In the Pre-Process form select Action: Create. Type: Topology to create TOPVAR. In the Pre-Process form select Action: Create. Solution: Linear Static. Response: Fractional Mass to create Constraint on Main Index . Response: Compliance.

click Analysis and in the Analysis form select Action: Optimize. 4: Patran User Interface 33 Patran User Interface Fractional Mass. Note that when FRMASS (Fractional Mass) constraint is being created. This opens the form Optimization Main Index . The converse can be done for Fractional Mass minimization subject to Compliance constraint.Ch. analysis types and combined size and Topology Optimization. Object: Entire Model. This is the ATT1 field for RTYPE=FRMASS in the DRESP1 entry. For other responses. the procedure is just the same as for size optimization. For Output Control. Method: Analysis Deck and click on Optimization Parameters. Furthermore. there is provision to select a topologically designable region identified by a Property ID. the Lower Bound and Upper Bound boxes correspond to the LALLOW and UALLOW fields of the DCONSTR entry. Many such constraints can be created to allow for separate mass targets on different regions.

34 MSC User’s Guide for Topology Optimization Patran User Interface Parameters which allows the user to select values for DOPTPRM parameters like P1. and few parameters like CONV1. and DESMAX. DELP. CONV2. Main Index . DELX and Optimization Code like BIGDOT on clicking Advanced Optimization Parameters tab. P2.

des extension which contains the resulting optimal element density distribution. 4: Patran User Interface 35 Patran User Interface It may be noted that the Patran preprocessor facilitates Topology Optimization but that it is not absolutely necessary in order to perform Topology Optimization. From the Main Menu select Tools -> Design Study -> Postprocess Main Index . This file can be directly read in Patran to display the Topology Optimization results. A text editor can be used to create the required Topology Optimization input (by clicking the Direct Text Input Tab in the Analysis . Patran supports read and display of topology results. the smoothing/ remeshing of a topology design proposal for a new reanalysis and the generation of IGES files for a topology design proposal for CAD systems. which is quite limited in most cases Patran Postprocessing MSC Nastran produces a file with .Action: Optimize form).Ch.

36 MSC User’s Guide for Topology Optimization Patran User Interface Then in the Post-Process form select Action: Read Results. Main Index . then click Select Results File Tab to Browse through the list of available . select the required file and then click the Apply tab.des files.

input a Threshold limit (density value below which the density will be treated as 0 or void). and then click the Apply Tab. Main Index .Ch. select Action: Display Results and the required design cycle from Select Result Case List Box. 4: Patran User Interface 37 Patran User Interface To see the results. check Fringe (if density contours are desired).

38 MSC User’s Guide for Topology Optimization Patran User Interface Main Index .

Ch. 5: Application Examples

MSC User’s Guide for Topology Optimization

5

Application Examples

Application Examples 40

Main Index

**40 MSC User’s Guide for Topology Optimization
**

Application Examples

Application Examples

This Chapter contains a number of examples to illustrate the use of MSC Nastran Topology Optimization with a special focus on the various Manufacturing Constraints and their applications. The examples have been carefully selected such that usage and capabilities of MSC Nastran Topology Optimization are clearly brought out. The other purpose of this chapter is to illustrate the step-by-step Patran procedure to pre- and post-process a Topology Optimization problem. Each example section contains a description of the problem, the solution requirements and a list of features to be demonstrated through the example, the basic input deck and its variations, and the corresponding results.

Bridge Example

Summary ATTRIBUTE Title Topology Optimization features Bridge Compliance minimization Mass target Mirror symmetry constraints Geometry VALUE

Length = 40 and width = 20 Thickness = 0.1 Material Analysis Boundary conditions Applied loads Element types Topology result Introduction A simply supported bridge example (model shown in Figure 5.1) is used to demonstrate (a) basic MSC Nastran Topology Optimization capabilities without manufacturing constraints (topoug1.dat in TPL) and (b) mirror symmetry constraints (topoug1a.dat in TPL). The structural compliance (i.e., total strain E = 2.0E+5 Pa, µ=0.3 Static analysis Supported on rollers at one point and fixed support at another point A concentrated force = 10.0 N 4 node linear QUAD elements Material distribution

Main Index

Ch. 5: Application Examples 41

Application Examples

energy) is minimized with a mass target 0.4 (i.e., 60% material savings). The loading and boundary conditions are shown in Figure 5-1. The structure is modeled with 3200 CQUAD4 elements. An additional objective is to give a step-by-step procedure in Patran to (a) import the model data (b) setup a Topology Optimization problem (c) read the topology results (.des) file (d) display the density distribution (e) smooth the boundaries (f) create a surface over the smoothed topology proposal and (g) export the IGES file of the topology proposal. Figure 5-1 Bridge

Solution Requirements This bridge example is widely used by academic and industrial researchers for Topology Optimization validation. Design Model Description Objective: Constraints: Minimize compliance Mass target = 0.4 (i.e., mass savings 60%) Topology design region: PSHELL With or without mirror symmetry constraints These solutions demonstrate:

• A distinct design can be obtained by MSC Nastran Topology Optimization with checkerboard

**free algorithm (as default)
**

• By using symmetry constraints in Topology Optimization, a symmetric design can be obtained

regardless of the boundary conditions or loads.

Main Index

A Bulk Data entry TOPVAR =1 is used to define a topological design region. Tshel.4 TOPVAR. . Listing 5-1 Input File for Bridge Example DESOBJ = 1 DESGLB = 1 SUBCASE 1 $ Subcase name : Default SUBTITLE=Default SPC = 2 LOAD = 2 ANALYSIS = STATICS BEGIN BULK DCONSTR 1 2 .42 MSC User’s Guide for Topology Optimization Application Examples • The smoothed topology proposal can be exported as an IGES file which can be used by any CAD system. Type one design responses DRESP1 = 1 and 2 identify compliance and fractional mass. .4. The rest of the values on the TOPVAR entry are default values that are recommended for general Topology Optimization applications. . XINIT=0. respectively. DRESP1 1 COMPL COMP DRESP1 2 FRMASS FRMASS 1 Figure 5-2 shows the topology optimized result. This optimal design is very clear without any checkerboard effect. DESOBJ=1 in Case Control Command selects DRESP1=1 entry to be used as a design objective (minimization as default) and DESGLB selects the design constraint DCONSTR= 1 to be applied in this Topology Optimization task. Pshell. 1 .4 on the TOPVAR entry matches the mass target constraint so that the initial design is feasible. DCONSTR= 1 specifies the mass target. Optimization Solution Basic Compliance Minimization The input data for this example related to Topology Optimization model is given in Listing 5-1. . Figure 5-2 Bridge Topology Design Main Index .

3. Figure 5-3 Importing Model into Patran Step B.Importing the Bridge Model into Patran 1. Select the required data file from the browser. The bridge is employed again to demonstrate the mirror symmetric constraint capability that enforces the design to be symmetric about a given plane. In the geometry form select Action: Create. 1. [20 10 1] for a Point on Axis 3 and [21 10 0] for a Point on Plane 1-3 4. Step A. Main Index . Object: Coord.Ch. Import 2. Source: MSC Nastran Input. Click File. Click Apply This rectangular coordinate frame will define the mirror plane for the symmetry constraint (see Step E. 5: Application Examples 43 Application Examples Mirror Symmetric Constraints (Patran Tutorial 1) Since the loads applied on the bridge are not symmetric. the topology optimized design Figure 5-2 is not symmetric about z-x plane. Creating a Coordinate Frame for Defining Mirror Plane A new Coordinate frame is created with its origin at the midpoint of the rectangular domain. This entire exercise is taken up using Patran.) 4. The Topology Optimization problem will be setup on this base model. Click Apply. Method: 3 point. Type: Rectangular 3. Create a new database in Patran. (This file contains the finite element model suitable for a static analysis lacking any topology related input. Enter [20 10 0] for Origin. Click Geometry 2. Defining Design Domain and Manufacturing Constraints ). In the Import form select Object: Model.

1. Click OK 7. Click Input Data Tab 5. In the Input Data form click all the entries in the Select Individual Loads/BCs list box 6.44 MSC User’s Guide for Topology Optimization Application Examples Figure 5-4 Creating Coordinate Frame Step C. Enter a name for the load case in Load Case Name box 4. Type: Static 3. Creating a Load Case The imported model has the FE entities and force and support entries. so a Load Case has to be created combining the forces and supports. In the Load Case form select Action: Create. Click Load Case 2. Click Apply Main Index .

Method: Analysis Deck (Selecting Method: Full Run allows MSC Nastran to be called through the GUI itself) 3. Click Analysis 2. Object: Entire Model. 5: Application Examples 45 Application Examples Figure 5-5 Creating Load Case Step D.Ch. Click the Customized Solutions Tab 4. In the Analysis form select Action: Optimize. Initiating Quick Topology Optimization 1. Check Use Customized Solutions box Main Index .

Defining Design Domain and Manufacturing Constraints 1. Select all the designable properties from the Valid Properties section in the Design Domain form. 3. Click the Define Manufacturing Constraint Tab Main Index . 2. This automatically triggers the creation of TOPVAR variable.46 MSC User’s Guide for Topology Optimization Application Examples Figure 5-6 Initiating Quick Topology Optimization Step E. Click the Design Domain Tab. The Design Domain form appears.

In the Objectives/Constraints form select Statics as the Analysis Discipline Main Index . Click OK to close the form 7.Ch. In the Define Manufacturability Constraints form input Coord 1 in box Reference Coordinate Frame (created in Step B. Click OK to close the Design Domain form. This process results in the generation of the TOPVAR entry as shown under: 1 TOPVAR 1 SYM 2 1 3 4 5 ZX 6 7 8 1 9 PSHELL PSHELL 4 Figure 5-7 Creating TOPVAR entries Step F. Defining Objectives and Constraints 1. Check the Symmetry Constraints box and check the ZX box for the Mirror Symmetric Plane to add the mirror symmetry constraint 6. 5: Application Examples 47 Application Examples 4. Click Objectives & Constraints Tab 2. Creating a Coordinate Frame for Defining Mirror Plane ) 5.

Click OK. Check Minimize Compliance Radio Button 4. Click the Optimization Control Tab.4 in Initial Design box in the Optimization Control Parameters form 3. Input 0.4 for Mass Target Constraint 5.48 MSC User’s Guide for Topology Optimization Application Examples 3. Defining Optimization Parameters 1. Then input 0. 2. Click OK Figure 5-8 Objectives & Constraints Figure 5-9 Optimization Parameters Main Index . Step G.

Select Action: Optimize. Click Subcase Select Tabs in the Analysis Form. Select Solution Type: 101 Linear Static. Method: Analysis Deck in Analysis form. 5. Main Index . Cancel. the next requirement is the creation and selection of Subcase. 4. Click Analysis. Click OK. This completes the Preprocess. 5: Application Examples 49 Application Examples Step H. Select the created Load Case from the Available Subcases list. 2. 9. 1. 10. Click Subcase Create Tab. 8.Ch. In the Subcase Create form. In the Subcase Select form select the created subcase from Subcases Available. 3. Click Apply in the Analysis form to create the analysis deck for optimization. Object: Entire Model. Creating and Selecting Subcase for Optimization After the Optimization problem has been setup. select Solution Type: 101 Linear Static. Click Apply. 11. 6. 7.

Main Index . Initiating Quick Topology Optimization . this can be done from the GUI itself if Method is Full Run instead of Analysis Deck). The density distribution file (.des file into Patran 1.des) file through the browser. Select Action: Read Results. Click Select Results File Tab. 4. This can be read by Patran and displayed as a density plot which is the topology design proposed by MSC Nastran. Design Study. 5.des) will be created. Post Process 2. (As indicated in Step D. Click Tools. This is achieved by Patran postprocessing and the steps are now described. Click Apply.50 MSC User’s Guide for Topology Optimization Application Examples Figure 5-10 Creation and Selection of Subcase Submit the analysis deck to MSC Nastran. Reading jobname. Select the desired (. 3. Step I.

2. 5. Select Action: Display Results. 3.Ch. 4. Main Index . Click Apply. Display Fringe Plot 1.4 as the Threshold. Select last design cycle in the Select Result Case list. Input 0. 5: Application Examples 51 Application Examples Figure 5-11 Reading Density Distribution File into Patran Step J. Check the Fringe box.

4. A smoothed and remeshed topology design is displayed. Select Action: FEM Smooth. 2. 5. Make a window around the full design domain to input Select FEM to smooth. Input 0. Select Remesh ElType: Quad4. Method: 2D. Click Apply.4 for Threshold. Smooth Results 1. 3. Main Index .52 MSC User’s Guide for Topology Optimization Application Examples Figure 5-12 Display of Fringe Plot Step K.

Make a window around the full design domain to create input for the Element List. 5: Application Examples 53 Application Examples Figure 5-13 Smoothed and Remeshed Topology Further work with this model requires that new geometry by created in a CAD system. Main Index . In the Geometry form select Action: Create. This process is now explained. Step L. Object: Surface.Ch. 3. For this purpose the new surfaces appearing in the proposed topology design are to be captured and then the geometric model can be exported as an IGES file. Method: Mesh. 4. Capturing new Surfaces appearing in the Proposed Topology Design 1. Click Apply. 2. Click Geometry.

Click on the newly created surface as input to the Surface List. Make a window around the full domain to create input for the Element List. 3. Method: Surface. In the Element form select Action: Associate. Main Index . Associate remaining Finite Elements in the Model with newly Created Surface 1. Uncheck Auto Execute. Click Apply. 5.54 MSC User’s Guide for Topology Optimization Application Examples Figure 5-14 Creating new Surface Step M. 6. Now the model has all the FE and geometric information and its association. Object: Element. Click Element. 2. 4.

Export 5. Enter a File name. 4. Click File.Ch. Click Apply. 9. Global 2. Creation of IGES file 1. 5: Application Examples 55 Application Examples Figure 5-15 Associating FE with Surface Step N. Click OK.6 for the Global Tolerance (relax the Global Tolerance) 3. Input 0. In the form select Surfaces as the Entity Types. 8. 10. Click IGES Options Tab. 7. 11. 6. Click Preferences. Main Index . Check Export through Parasolid box. In the Export form select Format: IGES. Click Apply.

56 MSC User’s Guide for Topology Optimization Application Examples Figure 5-16 Relaxing Global Tolerance Figure 5-17 Exporting IGES file Main Index .

total strain energy) is minimized with a mass target 0. (b) minimum member size control (topex3a.dat in TPL). µ=0.e.dat in TPL). The loading and boundary conditions are shown in Figure 5-18. The structure is modeled with 4800 CQUAD4 elements.e. 5: Application Examples 57 Application Examples MBB Beam with Variations Summary ATTRIBUTE Title Topology Optimization features MBB Beam Compliance minimization Mass target Checkerboard free solution Minimum member size control Mirror symmetry constraints Geometry VALUE Length = 6 and width = 2 Thickness = 0.. E = 2.01 Material Analysis Boundary conditions Applied loads Element types Topology result Introduction An MBB beam example (a half model shown in Figure 5-18) is used to demonstrate (a) basic MSC Nastran Topology Optimization capabilities without manufacturing constraints (topex3.3 Static analysis Supported on rollers at one point and fixed support at another point A concentrated force = 100.05E+5 Pa.dat in TPL). The structural compliance (i.Ch.0 N 4 node linear QUAD elements Material distribution Main Index .5 (i. and (c) mirror symmetry constraints (topex3b.. 50% material savings).

Preventing thin members enhances the simplicity of the design and hence its manufacturability. a symmetric design can be obtained regardless of the boundary conditions or loads.58 MSC User’s Guide for Topology Optimization Application Examples Figure 5-18 MBB Beam Solution Requirements This MBB example is widely used by academic and industrial researchers for Topology Optimization validation. A Bulk Data entry TOPVAR =1 is used to define a topological design region. Mirror symmetry constraints These solutions demonstrate: • A distinct design can be obtained by MSC Nastran Topology Optimization with checkerboard free algorithm (as default) • The minimum member size is mainly used to control the size of members in topology optimal designs. • By using symmetry constraints in Topology Optimization. Design Model Description Objective: Minimize compliance Topology design region: PSHELL Constraints: Mass target = 0. Minimum member size control and/or b. Minimum member size is more like quality control than quantity control.. mass savings 50%) a. XINIT=0. The rest of the values on the Main Index .5 (i. Optimization Solution Basic Compliance Minimization The input data for this example related to Topology Optimization model is given in Listing 5-2.e.5 on the TOPVAR entry matches the mass target constraint so that the initial design is feasible.

Listing 5-2 Input File for MBB Beam DESOBJ = 1 DESGLB = 1 SUBCASE 1 $ Subcase name : Default SUBTITLE=Default SPC = 2 LOAD = 2 ANALYSIS = STATICS BEGIN BULK DCONSTR 1 2 . 5: Application Examples 59 Application Examples TOPVAR entry are default values that are recommended for general Topology Optimization applications. . . Listing 5-3 Input File for MBB Beam with Minimum Member Size DESOBJ = 1 DESGLB = 1 SUBCASE 1 $ Subcase name : Default SUBTITLE=Default Main Index . DCONSTR= 1 specifies the mass target. DRESP1 1 COMPL COMP DRESP1 2 FRMASS FRMASS 1 Figure 5-19 shows the topology optimized result that is smoothed and remeshed by using Patran. Pshell. It is noticed that there are some small members. 1 .5. . The minimum member size value is defined by the parameter TDMIN = 0.Ch.5 on the DOPTPRM entry and corresponds to the length of 10 elements. The input data for this example related to Topology Optimization with "minimum member size" is given in Listing 5-6. DESOBJ=1 in Case Control Command selects DRESP1=1 entry to be used as a design objective (minimization as default) and DESGLB selects the design constraint DCONSTR= 1 to be applied in this Topology Optimization task.5 TOPVAR. Type one design responses DRESP1 = 1 and 2 identify compliance and fractional mass respectively. This optimal design is very clear without any checkerboard effect. Tshel. . Figure 5-19 MBB Beam Topology Design Minimum Member Size Control The MBB beam (shown in Figure 5-18) is used here to demonstrate the minimum member size control capability.

. Grid 10002 (x=3. the topology optimized designs Figure 5-19 and Figure 5-20 are not symmetric. To apply symmetric constraints on designed properties. The MBB beam is employed again to demonstrate the mirror symmetric constraint capability that enforces the design to be symmetric about a given plane. .5 DCONSTR 1 2 . and z=0) is defined as the origin.60 MSC User’s Guide for Topology Optimization Application Examples SPC = 2 LOAD = 2 ANALYSIS = STATICS BEGIN BULK DOPTPRM. . 0. DRESP1 1 COMPL COMP DRESP1 2 FRMASS FRMASS 1 The Figure 5-20 shows the topology optimized result with "minimum member size" TDMIN=0. . . Listing 5-4 Input File for MBB Beam with Mirror Symmetry Constraints DESOBJ = 1 DESGLB = 1 SUBCASE 1 SUBTITLE=Default SPC = 2 LOAD = 2 ANALYSIS = STATICS BEGIN BULK CORD1R 1 10001 GRID 10001 GRID 10002 GRID 10003 TOPVAR. 1 ZX Main Index . and z=1) lies on the z-axis. 0. 1 . 4. SYM . Pshell. 10002 3. 3.5. The input data for this example is given in Listing 5-4. y=1. Tshel. YZ . 1 . A continuation line "SYM" enforces the property PSHELL=1 to be symmetric about the planes YZ and ZX in the reference coordinate system CID=1. Compared the design shown in Figure 5-19. . y=1. 0.5 TOPVAR. users need to create a reference coordinate system using a rectangular coordinate system CORD1R or CORD2R.15 is applied. Pshell. CORD1R CID=1 defines a reference coordinate system. a minimum member size TDMIN=0. y=1. and z=0) lies in the x-z plane. TDMIN. In this example. Figure 5-20 MBB Beam Topology Design with "Minimum Member Size" Mirror Symmetric Constraints Since the loads applied on the MBB beam are not symmetric. . 10003 1.0 . In addition. and grid 1003 (x=4. 1. this design with "minimum member size" is obviously much simpler and there are no tiny members at all.0 1.5. . grid 10001 (location x=3. 1 .0 1. Tshel.

tdmin =0. Figure 5-21 MBB Beam with Symmetric Constraints and Minimum Member Size Figure above shows density distribution chart with sym= yz and zx. DRESP1 1 DRESP1 2 DCONSTR 1 0. 5: Application Examples 61 Application Examples .dat). TDMIN. Main Index .Ch.21 topex3b.15 and xinit field blank (Figure 5.15 COMPL FRMASS 2 COMP FRMASS .5 The Figure 5-21 shows the topology optimal result with symmetric constraints and minimum member size.

µ=0. one-die casting (topex5a.dat in TPL).62 MSC User’s Guide for Topology Optimization Application Examples Torsion Beam with Variations Summary ATTRIBUTE Title Topology Optimization features A Torsion Beam Compliance minimization Mass target Casting constraints Extrusion constraints Mirror symmetry constraints Geometry VALUE Length = 16 and width = 4 height = 4 Material Analysis Boundary conditions Applied loads Element types Topology result Introduction A torsion beam is used here to demonstrate the extrusion (topex5. 70% material savings). A pair of twisting forces is applied on one end while the other end is fixed. and RHO=1.3 (i.dat in TPL).e.dat in TPL) and two-die casting constraints (topex5b..0 N 8 node HEXA Material distribution Main Index . E = 2.1E+5 Pa. The objective is to minimize the structural compliance with mass target of 0. 2048 CHEXA elements are used for this model. The Figure 5-22 shows the FEM model of the torsion beam.0 Static analysis Fixed support at one end A pair of twisting forces = 1000.3.

a constant cross-section design along the given extrusion direction can be obtained regardless of the boundary conditions or loads. • The use of casting constraints can prevent hollow profiles in Topology Optimization so that a die can slide in a given direction. 5: Application Examples 63 Application Examples Figure 5-22 Torsion Beam Solution Requirements This torsion beam is utilized to show MSC Nastran Topology Optimization extrusion and casting constraint capabilities..3 (i. Main Index . Design Model Description Objective: Constraints: Minimize compliance Mass target = 0. mass savings 70%) Topology design region: PSOLID (a) Extrusion constraints or (b) Casting constraints with one or two dies These solutions demonstrate: • By using extrusion constraints in Topology Optimization.e.Ch. • Some combined manufacturing constraints are allowed in Topology Optimization to achieve the design goal. One or two dies options are available for selection.

. the result from the torsion beam without manufacturing constraints is shown in Figure 5-23. .3. .3 TOPVAR. TSOLID. . EXT . PSOLID. Z PSOLID 1 1 0 1 The Figure 5-24 shows the topology optimized result with extrusion constraints. For example. . Figure 5-23 Torsion Beam without Manufacturing Constraints The extrusion constraints enforce a constant cross-section design along the given extrusion direction. . The input data related to imposing an extrusion constraint along the z-axis in the basic coordinate system (as the default option) is given in Listing 5-5. It is obvious that the design has a constant cross-section along the z-axis. Main Index .64 MSC User’s Guide for Topology Optimization Application Examples Optimization Solution Extrusion Constraints With One Die It is often seen that some topology optimized designs contain cavities that are not achievable or require a high cost manufacturing process. Clearly. 1 . this topology design proposal is not achievable by casting. Listing 5-5 Input File for Torsion Beam with Extrusion DESOBJ = 1 DESGLB = 1 SUBCASE 1 SUBTITLE=Default ANALYSIS = STATICS SPC = 2 LOAD = 2 BEGIN BULK DRESP1 2 Frmass FRMASS DRESP1 1 COMPL COMP DCONSTR 1 2 .

The input data related to the Topology Optimization model is given in Listing 5-6. It is observed that the design material is added by "filling up" in the Y direction from the bottom. stated another way.3 CORD1R 1 5 167 7 PSOLID 1 1 0 TOPVAR. To apply casting constraints and symmetric constraints on designed properties. that voids extend from the top surface and do not reappear in the die direction). 5: Application Examples 65 Application Examples Figure 5-24 Torsion Beam with Extrusion Constraints in Z-Axis Casting Constraints with One Die A torsion beam (shown in Figure 5-22) is used here to demonstrate the combination of one die casting manufacturability constraints and mirror symmetric constraints. 1 . In DESOBJ = 1 DESGLB = 1 SUBCASE 1 SUBTITLE=Default ANALYSIS = STATICS SPC = 2 LOAD = 2 BEGIN BULK DRESP1 2 Frmass FRMASS DRESP1 1 COMPL COMP DCONSTR 1 2 . A "CAST" continuation line defines casting constraints in the Y direction and one die is a default option. SYM. CAST. 1 .3. Another "SYM" continuation line defines symmetric constraints about the YZ plane. The casting constraints with one die option enforce the material to be added to the region by "filling up" in the given draw direction from the bottom (or. PSOLID. TSOLID.Ch. . Y 1 . a reference coordinate system CID=1 is defined by using a rectangular coordinate system CORD1R. . . . . YZ 1 Main Index . Listing 5-6 Input File for Torsion with One Die The Figure 5-25 shows the topology optimized result with one die casting constraint. .

TSOLID. .3 CORD1R 1 5 167 7 PSOLID 1 1 0 TOPVAR. PSOLID. 2 . Listing 5-7 Input File for Torsion with Two Dies DESOBJ = 1 DESGLB = 1 SUBCASE 1 $ Subcase name : Default SUBTITLE=Default ANALYSIS = STATICS SPC = 2 LOAD = 2 $ Direct Text Input for this Subcase BEGIN BULK DRESP1 2 Frmass FRMASS DRESP1 1 COMPL COMP DCONSTR 1 2 . . . Y. 1 .66 MSC User’s Guide for Topology Optimization Application Examples addition. . the design is symmetric about the YZ plane in the reference coordinate system CID=1. Here. 1 . Figure 5-25 Torsion Beam with One Die Casting Constraints in Y Direction Casting Constraints with Two Dies A torsion beam (shown in Figure 5-22) is also used here to demonstrate two die casting manufacturability constraints. . The input data related to imposing two die casting constraints is given in Listing 5-7. 1 Main Index . the difference is that 2 is selected for the DIE field on the TOPVAR entry.3 CAST. The input for two die casting constraints is similar to the one die option in Example 5.

YZ The Figure 5-26 shows the topology optimized result with two die casting constraints. The splitting plane is determined by optimization and in this case corresponds to the y-z plane. SYM . 5: Application Examples 67 Application Examples .Ch. Figure 5-26 Torsion Beam with Two Die Casting Constraints in Y-Axis Main Index . It is observed that the design material grows from the splitting plane in opposite directions along the y-axis specified in the reference coordinate system CID=1. 1 .

3 Static analysis Fixed at three points 14 load cases (forces) HEXA.68 MSC User’s Guide for Topology Optimization Application Examples Engine Mount Summary ATTRIBUTE Title Topology Optimization features Engine Mount Averaged compliance minimization Multiple TOPVAR entries Multiple load cases Displacement constraints Geometry VALUE Material Analysis Boundary conditions Applied loads Element types Topology result Introduction E = 2. The finite element model is shown in Figure 5-28. The analysis model has 14 load cases.3 (material savings 70%) and displacements within a range (-0. and RBE3 Material distribution The main goal is to minimize the compliance of the engine-front-mount-beam (shown in Figure 5-27) with mass target 0. 0. PENTA. and 5 RBE3 elements.05E+5 Pa. 703 PENTA elements.dat in TPL).6) at selected 5 grids. Main Index .6. There are 62306 HEXA elements. µ=0. 31 TETRA elements. (Refer topoug2. TETRA.

Ch. 5: Application Examples 69 Application Examples Figure 5-27 Front-Mount-Beam Figure 5-28 Front-Mount-Beam FE Model The objective of this example is to illustrate the step-by-step procedure to (a) setup a Topology Optimization task with displacement constraints and multiple load cases in Patran using General Topology Optimization interface and (b) use Patran Insight to get the iso-surfaces. Solution Requirements Design Model Description Main Index .

1. 7. 6. 7. 6. 9 Force_force2.1.70 MSC User’s Guide for Topology Optimization Application Examples Objective: Minimize averaged compliance Topology design region: PSOLID = 1. 5. 8. 5. Displ_spc. 5.cid4. 8.cid4. Design Study. 8.cid3 Displ_spc. Next create 14 Load cases.cid4.cid3 Displ_spc. 6. 6. 9 Force_force6. Displ_spc.1. 5. 7.1. 7.e. 6. 6.cid3 Displ_spc.1. 5. 8.0) This solution demonstrates: • The averaged compliance can be used for Topology Optimization problems with multiple load case to achieve an efficient design concept. 8. Displ_spc. Click on Tools. 7. 9 Force_force11. • Multiple topological design parts are allowed • Displacement constraints can be readily handled in Topology Optimization. 5.cid3 Displ_spc.cid4. Displ_spc. 7. 6.cid4. Displ_spc. 5. 8. 5.cid4. 9 Force_force7. 9 Force_force8.cid3 Displ_spc.1. Displ_spc.cid4. 9 Force_force4. Displ_spc.1. 2. 7.1.. 6. 9 Force_force5. 6. 7. 7. 76096.1.1. The latter two steps have already been explained in Patran Tutorial 1.cid4.1.cid3 Displ_spc.cid4.1. Displ_spc.1. Initiating the General Topology Optimization interface.1.cid3 Displ_spc. 8. 76419. and 76421 for all 14 load cases within the range (-6. 5. 5. 6. 6. 5. 8. 8.cid4.1.cid3 Force ids Force_force1.cid3 Displ_spc. 7. 9 Force_force13.cid4.cid3 Displ_spc. The following table gives the load and displacement sets belonging to each load case. Displ_spc. 9 Force_force12.cid3 Displ_spc. 8. 76420. 9 Force_force14. 3. Optimization Solution (Patran Tutorial 2) Topology Optimization Input through Patran Create a new database in Patran and Import the model file as an MSC Nastran input file. Pre Process Main Index .1.1.cid3 Displ_spc. Displ_spc.0.cid4. 7.1.1. mass savings 70%) Displacements at grid points 76095. 7.1. 9 Force_force3. 6. 8.1. Displ_spc. 5. 9 and 10 Constraints: Mass target = 0. 8.1.cid3 Displ_spc. Load Case 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Displacement ids Displ_spc. 6. 9 Force_force10. 5.1.cid4. 8. 7.1.cid4.3 (i. Displ_spc.1. Displ_spc.1. 7. This process enables the input of all Topology Optimization parameters for setup of the optimization job.1. 6. 8. 8. 9 Step A. 5. 6.cid3 Displ_spc. 1.1. 9 Force_force9. Displ_spc.

constraint functions.1 will automatically appear in the Variable Name box.Ch. Select Action: Create. Creation of initial TOPVAR variable 1. constraint sets and a Design Study. 4. A variable name tv_psolid. Type: Topology 2. Select Dimension 3-D. Figure 5-29 General Topology Optimization Step B. Object: Design Variable. 5: Application Examples 71 Application Examples The form that appears enables creation of TOPVAR variables.3 for the Initial Design Value 5.1 in Select Property Set list. objective function. Select psolid. Click Apply Main Index . Input 0. Type: Solid 3.

1./Max: minimize Main Index .72 MSC User’s Guide for Topology Optimization Application Examples Figure 5-30 Creation of TOPVAR Similarly.4) 1 (psolid. Creation of Objective The objective is minimization of the average compliance of all the 14 load cases.2) Displ_spc.cid3 PSOLID ID Step C. create 5 more TOPVAR variables. Response: Average Compliance 2. Displ_spc.1.1. Select Min. TOPVAR ID 1 (tv_psolid.1. Select Action: Create. Displ_spc. Object: Objective.cid3 Displ_spc.3) 4 (tv_psolid.1) 2 (psolid. 1. Solution: Global.1) 2 (tv_psolid.2) 3 (tv_psolid. The table below gives the designable property id for each of the created TOPVAR variables.

There is a global constraint of 30% mass fraction. Input the Objective Name (avgcomp) 4. Input 0. Object: Constraint. Selecting Action: Create. 2. 3. Click Apply.Ch. Step D.3 as the Upper Bound 4. Click Apply. Solution: Global. 5: Application Examples 73 Application Examples 3. Input mass as the Constraint Name 5. Creation of Global Constraint 1. Figure 5-31 Creating Objective Main Index . Response: Fractional Mass.

Select -6 for Lower Bound and 6 for Upper Bound 5.74 MSC User’s Guide for Topology Optimization Application Examples Figure 5-32 Creating Mass Constraint In addition to the fractional mass global constraint. Input loadcase1grid1 for Constraint Name 3. there are displacement constraints on 5 grid points under each of the 14 load cases. Object: Constraint. Check Magnitude radio button in Displacement Component section 6. The total number of constraints is 70 grouped into 14 constraint sets of 5 constraints each. Input Node 76095 for Select Node 4. Solution: Linear Static. Response: Displacement 2. Creation of Displacement Constraints 1. Step E. Click Apply Main Index . Select Action: Create. Now the steps to create these constraints and constraint sets are explained.

. Each of these displacement responses is constrained to lie between -6 and 6. Load Case 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Grid 76095 loadcase1grid1 loadcase2grid1 loadcase3grid1 loadcase4grid1 loadcase5grid1 loadcase6grid1 loadcase7grid1 loadcase8grid1 loadcase9grid1 Grid 76096 loadcase1grid2 loadcase2grid2 loadcase3grid2 loadcase4grid2 loadcase5grid2 loadcase6grid2 loadcase7grid2 loadcase8grid2 loadcase9grid2 Grid 76419 loadcase1grid3 loadcase2grid3 loadcase3grid3 loadcase4grid3 loadcase5grid3 loadcase6grid3 loadcase7grid3 loadcase8grid3 loadcase9grid3 Grid 76420 loadcase1grid4 loadcase2grid4 loadcase3grid4 loadcase4grid4 loadcase5grid4 loadcase6grid4 loadcase7grid4 loadcase8grid4 loadcase9grid4 Grid 76421 loadcase1grid5 loadcase2grid5 loadcase3grid5 loadcase4grid5 loadcase5grid5 loadcase6grid5 loadcase7grid5 loadcase8grid5 loadcase9grid5 Main Index . The following table gives the load case and grid number for each of the constraints. 5: Application Examples 75 Application Examples Figure 5-33 Creating Displacement Constraint Similarly.Ch. create 69 more constraints.

Creation of Constraint Sets 1.76 MSC User’s Guide for Topology Optimization Application Examples Load Case 10 11 12 13 14 Grid 76095 loadcase10grid1 loadcase11grid1 loadcase12grid1 loadcase13grid1 loadcase14grid1 Grid 76096 Grid 76419 Grid 76420 loadcase11grid4 Grid 76421 loadcase11grid3 loadcase10grid2 loadcase10grid3 loadcase10grid4 loadcase10grid3 loadcase11grid2 loadcase11grid3 loadcase12grid2 loadcase12grid3 loadcase12grid4 loadcase12grid3 loadcase13grid2 loadcase13grid3 loadcase13grid4 loadcase13grid3 loadcase14grid2 loadcase14grid3 loadcase14grid4 loadcase14grid3 Each row of constraints in the above table is combined into a constraint set. Click Apply Figure 5-34 Creation of Constraint Set Main Index . Object: Constraint. Solution: Linear Static 2. It may be noted that in this example the same 5 displacement constraints apply to all the 14 load cases and therefore only 5 constraints would have sufficed. Step F. Selecting Action: Create. Selecting the appropriate constraints from the Constraints to be included list 4. Enter a Constraint Set Name 3. Thus there are 14 constraint sets.

Constraints and Constraint Sets. Object: Design Study and enter a Design Study Name 2. One by one click all the tabs in the Design Study Setup section and select all the listed quantities in the forms (Select Design Variables.Ch. a Design Study is created by selecting the created Design Variables. Creation of Design Study Finally. Select Constraints and Select Constraint Sets) Figure 5-35 Creation of Design Study Step H. 5: Application Examples 77 Application Examples Step G. Click the Design Study Select Tab and select ds1 (name of created design study) from the Existing Design Studies form Main Index . 1. Select Objective. Method: Analysis Deck 3. Creation of an Analysis Deck 1. Select Action: Create. Click on Analysis 2. Objective. Object: Entire Model. In the Analysis form select Action: Optimize.

Click the Advanced Optimization Parameters Tab to select the BIGDOT optimizer Main Index . Click the Optimization Parameters Tab 2. Print all Constraints and Print all Responses boxes 3.78 MSC User’s Guide for Topology Optimization Application Examples 4. Click the Global Obj. Setting up of Optimization Parameters 1. Select Tab and select avgcomp in Select an existing Global Objective list and mass in Select Existing Global Constraint(s) list Figure 5-36 Creation of Analysis Deck Step I. Check the Print Objective and Design Variables./ Constr. Print Properties.

5: Application Examples 79 Application Examples Figure 5-37 Setting up Optimization Parameters Main Index .Ch.

Click Apply to generate the Analysis Deck. Enter Subcase Name as subcase1. Creation and Selection of Subcases Subcases will be created and the appropriate load cases and constraint sets will be associated with the subcases. In the Subcase Create form select Solution Type: 101 LINEAR STATIC. 6. 9. Click Select Constraints/Objective Tab. 11. In the form select loadcase1 from the Select Existing Constraint Sets list. Click Apply. 7. 8. 1. Then the created subcases will be selected for the current job. Click Subcase Select Tab. Select Subcases 1 to 14 from the Subcases Available list 10. Click OK. Click Subcase Create Tab. Main Index . 2.80 MSC User’s Guide for Topology Optimization Application Examples Step J. 5. 4. 3. Then click OK. This ends the Preprocessing section. Similarly create 13 more subcases by associating the remaining 13 load cases in sequence.

Background Color: White 3. Face Color: Gray. Post Process and then select Action: Read Results and then click the Select Results File Tab to select the required . click Tools. Creating Iso Surfaces using Patran Insight This section illustrates how to use the Insight tool to create a smooth topology and iso surface(s) for density. 5: Application Examples 81 Application Examples Figure 5-38 Creation of Subcases Now run the deck with MSC Nastran which will generate the (.des) elemental density distribution file. Step A. Edge Color: Black. Insight 2. Click Apply Main Index . As in Patran Tutorial 1. Design Study.Ch. Setting Insight Preferences for better Visual effect 1.des file. Click on Preferences. In the Insight Preferences form select Display Method: Shaded.

5. 4. 6. Element Density Distribution from the Isosurface Results list 7. 3. Click Insight 2. In the Results Selection form select one or more Current Load Case(s) and then click Update Results Tab. Tool: Isosurface. Initiating the Insight Tools for creating Isosurface 1. Check Result radio button in the Isosurface Value section. Select the last load case from the Select Default Load Case list. Select Topology Optimization. Click the Result Options Tab. 8. Click the Isovalue Setup Tab. Click the Results Selection Tab. In the Insight Tools form select Action: Create. Following this action results will be updated into the Isosurface Result list.82 MSC User’s Guide for Topology Optimization Application Examples Figure 5-39 Insight Preferences Step B. 9. Main Index .

In the form select Color: Red. 13. check Clip at isosurface box and select Display: Free Edge and Shaded.Ch. 12. Input an isovalue directly into the Isovalue box or through the slider bar. Click OK. Click Apply. 15. 14. Figure 5-40 Creating Isosurface Main Index . 5: Application Examples 83 Application Examples 10. 11. Click the Isosurface Attributes Tab. Click OK to close the Results Selection form.

84 MSC User’s Guide for Topology Optimization Application Examples Figure 5-41 Setting Isovalue Figure 5-42 Isosurface Attributes The following Isosurface appears on clicking Apply. Main Index .

2. 3. Click Insight Control. Main Index . Insight Control This enables user to see different isosurfaces dynamically 1.Ch. 5: Application Examples 85 Application Examples Figure 5-43 Isosurface Step C. Slide the Isovalue slider bar to dynamically view the isosurface changes. Check Form Action: Immediate. Isosurface Controls.

86 MSC User’s Guide for Topology Optimization Application Examples Figure 5-44 Isosurface Control Main Index .

fractional mass constraints should be applied at the global level in a design optimization by using DESGLB. DRESP1=500 defines a fractional mass response. Separate DRESP1 entries 1 -5 identify displacements responses at grid points. A Case Control Command DESOBJ selects DRESP2=1000 to be an objective. The TOPVAR entries define five topological design parts with XINIT (initial design)=0. identify the compliance.Ch. The DRESP1 entries 200-213. 5: Application Examples 87 Application Examples Topology Optimization Input Deck for MSC Nastran The input data related to the Topology Optimization model is given in Listing 5. it first must be identified on a DRESPi Bulk Data entry.8. for example.3 that matches the mass target so the initial design is feasible (reduce CPU time spent on optimizer). There responses are constrained by the bounds set using a corresponding set of DCONSTR entries. The equation response DRESP2=1000 with the attribute FUNC=AVG spans all subcases to calculate averaged compliance of the structure. Listing 5-8 Input File for Engine Mount analysis=statics set 1 = 200 set 2 = 201 set 3 = 202 set 4 = 203 set 5 = 204 set 6 = 205 set 7 = 206 set 8 = 207 set 9 = 208 set 10 = 209 set 11 = 210 set 12 = 211 set 13 = 212 set 14 = 213 DESOBJ = 1000 DESGLB = 50 DESSUB = 1 $ Direct Text Input for Global Case Control Data $ $======================================================================$ $======================================================================SUBCASE 1 LOAD = 1 DRSPAN = 1 SUBCASE 2 LOAD = 2 DRSPAN = 2 SUBCASE 3 LOAD = 3 DRSPAN = 3 SUBCASE 4 LOAD = 4 DRSPAN = 4 SUBCASE 5 LOAD = 5 DRSPAN = 5 SUBCASE 6 LOAD = 6 DRSPAN = 6 SUBCASE 7 Main Index . This mass target is imposed by the upper bound on the DCONSTR=50 entry. DRSPAN and SET Case Control Commands are then used to select one compliance DRESP1 entry for each subcase that is used in DRESP2=1000 response. As always. In order for a structural response to be used either as an objective or a constraint.

COMP6. . 5 . 3 TOPVAR. COMP7. . 6.3. COMP DRESP1. 10 $234567812345678123456781234567812345678123456781234567812345678 DRESP1 500 w FRMASS DRESP1 1 d disp 123 76095 DRESP1 2 d1 disp 123 76096 DRESP1 3 d2 disp 123 76419 DRESP1 4 d3 disp 123 76420 DRESP1 5 d4 disp 123 76421 $234567812345678123456781234567812345678123456781234567812345678 DRESP1. psolid8.0 DCONSTR 1 2 -6. COMP5. COMP DRESP1. 6. . Psolid. . . COMP $234567812345678123456781234567812345678123456781234567812345678 DRESP2 1000 COMPL AVG DRESP1 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 Main Index . 2 TOPVAR. psolid9. COMP DRESP1. psolid10. 200.3 TOPVAR.3. 213. .0 DCONSTR 1 4 -6. .0 DCONSTR 50 500 . COMP12. Psolid. COMP14. COMP DRESP1. 1 TOPVAR. .3.3. 203. . 6. psolid. COMP13.0 DCONSTR 1 5 -6. COMP DRESP1. 8 TOPVAR. 9 TOPVAR. 212. COMP1. . COMP DRESP1. COMP4. 1 . . COMP DRESP1. Psolid. COMP DRESP1. . COMP DRESP1. COMP10. COMP DRESP1. 202. 207.3. COMP3. COMP DRESP1. 204. 208. 6. . . psolid3. . 3 . 210. psolid2. 4 . 206. COMP9. Psolid. 211. . 201. COMP DRESP1. 6 . . . Psolid. . 205. COMP11. . . 209.88 MSC User’s Guide for Topology Optimization Application Examples LOAD = 7 DRSPAN = 7 SUBCASE 8 LOAD = 8 DRSPAN = 8 SUBCASE 9 LOAD = 9 DRSPAN = 9 SUBCASE 10 LOAD = 10 DRSPAN = 10 SUBCASE 11 LOAD = 11 DRSPAN = 11 SUBCASE 12 LOAD = 12 DRSPAN = 12 SUBCASE 13 LOAD = 13 DRSPAN = 13 SUBCASE 14 LOAD = 14 DRSPAN = 14 $====================================================================== BEGIN BULK $ $23456781234567812345678123456781234567812345678123456781234567812345678 DCONSTR 1 1 -6. COMP8.0 DCONSTR 1 3 -6. COMP DRESP1. Psolid. . . COMP2.3. . 6. 2 .

5: Application Examples 89 Application Examples A topology result shown in Figure 5.45 is obtained by MSC Nastran. Figure 5-45 Front-Mount-Beam Topology Optimization Proposal Main Index .Ch. The Topology Optimization design proposal is smoothed by Patran.

**90 MSC User’s Guide for Topology Optimization
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Application Examples

**Hub for Cyclic Symmetry
**

Summary ATTRIBUTE Title Topology Optimization features Geometry Wheel Cyclical symmetry constraints VALUE

Material Analysis Boundary conditions Applied loads Element types Topology result

E = 1.0E+7 Pa, µ=0.3, and RHO=1.0 Static analysis Fixed at some points A force = 1000.0 N HEXA, and RBE3 Material distribution

Introduction A wheel model shown in Figure 5-46 is used to demonstrate MSC Nastran Topology Optimization cyclical symmetry capabilities. The wheel is modeled with six-sided solid elements (118156 CHEXA). The wheel outer layers and bolts are non-designable. One load case is considered. The structural compliance is minimized (i.e., minimize the total strain energy of the structure) with a mass target 0.1 (i.e., remove 90% of the material). Although the load is not cyclically symmetric about the Y-axis, the design is required to be cyclically symmetric about the Y-axis with five segments. (Refer topoug3.dat in TPL)

Main Index

Ch. 5: Application Examples 91

Application Examples

Figure 5-46

Wheel FE Model

Solution Requirements

Design Model Description Objective: Constraints: Minimize compliance mass target = 0.1 (i.e., mass savings 90%) The design is forced to be cyclical symmetry about the Y-axis with five segments. This solution demonstrates:

• By using cyclical symmetry constraints in Topology Optimization, a rotational symmetric design

Topology design region: PSOLID (blue)

**can be obtained regardless of the boundary conditions or loads.
**

• CASI solver provides a major speed up for large 3 D problems in static analysis

Optimization Solution The input data for this example related to Topology Optimization model is given in Listing 5-9. The coordinate system CORD2R = 1 is created to be used to specify cyclical symmetric constraints. The field CS (cyclical symmetric axis) on the SYM line is Y-axis with NCS (number of cyclical symmetric segments) = 5. It is noticed that SMETHOD= ELEMENT is used to select CASI iterative solver. The CASI iterative solver released in MSC Nastran 2007 r1 can provide a major speedup in the solution of large static analyses.

Main Index

**92 MSC User’s Guide for Topology Optimization
**

Application Examples

Listing 5-9

Input File for Wheel

DESOBJ = 10 DESGLB = 1 ANALYSIS = STATICS SMETHOD = ELEMENT SUBCASE 1 SPC = 2 LOAD = 2 BEGIN BULK CORD2R 1 10.512 33.3312 12.9921 -22.209833.3312 4.88385 28.388 33.3313 -19.7297 DCONSTR 1 2 .1 TOPVAR 1 PSOLID PSOLID .1 2 SYM 1 Y 5 DRESP1 2 FRM FRMASS DRESP1 10 COMP COMP

Figure 5-47 shows the topology optimized result that is smoothed by using Patran. It is noticed that cyclical symmetry is obtained even though the loading is not cyclically symmetric.

Figure 5-47

Wheel Topology Design

Main Index

µ=0. While mass fraction is limited to the topologically designable region. the stiffener dimensions are also designed. plate as well as beams.Ch. (Refer topoug4. There is also a static load case and the displacement at a specified grid point is constrained.5 and first eigenvalue constrained to be greater than 1. The loading and boundary conditions are shown in Figure 5-48. Beam dimensions A plate stiffened by beams is used to demonstrate (a) combined sizing and topology variables in a single job (b) mirror symmetry constraints (c) multidisciplinary optimization.Static and Modes analysis Fixed at two horizontal edges Normal to plane central point load = 1. There is a constraint on weight to be less than 0. The structure is modeled with 168 CQUAD4 elements and 70 CBEAM elements.0E+5.21.3. 5: Application Examples 93 Application Examples Combine Size/Topology Optimization Summary ATTRIBUTE Title Topology Optimization features Geometry Stiffened Plate Combined size and topology variables VALUE Material Analysis Boundary conditions Applied loads Element types Topology result Introduction E = 10. In addition to the topology variables.616E-4 Multidisciplinary .3 E+6 Pa. weight takes care of the full domain . The first eigenvalue is maximized subject to mass target of 0.design as well as non-design.dat in TPL) Main Index . CBEAM Material distribution.0E5 N CQUAD4. and RHO=2.

e. Main Index .5 (i. a symmetric design can be obtained.7 Mirror symmetry constraint about x-y plane • Subcase 1:Normal Modes analysis • Subcase 2:Static analysis These solutions demonstrate: • Sizing and topology variables can be combined in a single job • Multidisciplinary optimization can be easily done just like in sizing optimization • By using symmetry constraints in Topology Optimization. mass savings 50%) Weight constraint = 0.0E+5 y-direction displacement constraint on grid 158 = 7..94 MSC User’s Guide for Topology Optimization Application Examples Figure 5-48 Stiffened Plate Solution Requirements Design Model Description Objective: Maximize first eigenvalue Topology design region: PSHELL Size design variable: PBEAML dimensions Constraints: Mass target = 0.21 First eigenvalue constraint >= 1.

SYM line is introduced for mirror symmetry about X-Y plane. Since Weight and Fractional Mass are independent of Subcases.7 2 2. 3000 0.21 0.25 . 2000 EIGN FRMASS WEIGHT 1.75 2.0 DVPREL1 4 PBEAML 4 1.5278 1 1 7.E5 EIGN 0.2 4 4 4 4 Main Index . 158 DISP 3.93 -11. 0.5 on the TOPVAR entry matches the mass target constraint so that the initial design is feasible. Listing 5-10 Input File for Stiffened Plate DESGLB = 220 SPC = 1 SUBCASE 1 ANALYSIS = MODES METHOD = 100 DESOBJ(MAX) = 200 DESSUB = 230 SUBCASE 2 ANALYSIS = STATICS LOAD = 1 DESSUB = 240 BEGIN BULK GRID 1000 GRID 2000 GRID 3000 CORD1R 1 1000 DRESP1 200 EIGN1 DCONSTR 220 210 DCONSTR 220 215 DRESP1 210 MF DRESP1 215 WT DCONSTR 230 230 DRESP1 230 EIGN1 DCONSTR 240 240 DRESP1 240 YMAX DESVAR 1 MHD1 DESVAR 2 MHD2 DESVAR 3 MHD3 DESVAR 4 MHD4 DESVAR 5 MHD5 DESVAR 6 MHD6 DVPREL1 1 PBEAML 1 1. The subcase dependent responses eigenvalue and displacement are referred by DRESP1 = 230 and 240 respectively.5 2. 71.0 66.13 . respectively.5 2.5 0. they are referenced by DESGLB or global constraint.2 . DCONSTR = 220 is identified by DESGLB=220.21 .25 2.12 . A Bulk Data entry TOPVAR =1 is used to define a topological design region.0 DVPREL1 2 PBEAML 2 1. 0. which in turn are selected by DCONSTR = 230 and 240.21 -15.5 2. Since eigenvalue is meaningful only in Normal Modes analysis DESOBJ is within SUBCASE 1. 5: Application Examples 95 Application Examples Optimization Solution The input data for this example related to Topology Optimization model is given in Listing 5-10.Ch. Type one design response DRESP1 = 200 identifies DESOBJ (MAX) = 200. 0. 0. The rest of the values on the TOPVAR entry are default values that are recommended for general Topology Optimization applications. in turn are selected by the DESSUB= 230 and 240 in the Case Control Section under SUBCASE 1 and 2.5 . 2.19 . XINIT=0. 66. For the sizing variables DESVAR and DVPREL1 are combined to design for beam dimensions by PBEAML property. DRESP1 = 210 and 215 are selected by DCONSTR entries 220 for Weight and Fractional Mass Responses.0 DVPREL1 3 PBEAML 3 1.14 .75 .7 -11. DCONSTR=230 and 240. 0.19 DIM1 DIM2 DIM3 DIM4 3.

96 MSC User’s Guide for Topology Optimization Application Examples DVPREL1 5 5 DVPREL1 6 6 DLINK 1 DLINK 2 TOPVAR 1 SYM PBEAML 1. 0. 1. Figure 5-49 Stiffened Plate Topology and Size Design The result of size variables optimization is given below Main Index . 0. PSHELL . 0. 0. 1.0 3 6 TSHEL 1 4 4 DIM5 DIM6 2 5 1. 1.5 XY 1 Figure 5-49 shows the topology optimized result by using Patran.0 PBEAML 1. The dimensions of the beams tend to reach the upper bound and are constrained by the overall weight constraint.

5: Application Examples 97 Application Examples DESIGN VARIABLE HISTORY Main Index .Ch.

98 MSC User’s Guide for Topology Optimization Application Examples Main Index .

6: References MSC User’s Guide for Topology Optimization 6 References References 100 Main Index .Ch.

MSC Nastran 2005 r1 Release Guide. and Buttazo. 1993. The MSC Corporation. 49 (5). 885-896. G. Optimal Design and Relaxation of Variational Problems. O. Bendsoe. Design of Material Structures using Topology Optimization. Generating Optimal Topologies in Structural Design using a Homogenization Method. pp. 2001. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering.. 39. K. M. M... Tai. Bendsoe. pp. and Steven. Main Index .M.N. 2006. 80-83. The MSC Corporation. The MSC Corporation. Springer. Layout Optimization of Structures. A Simple Evolutionary Procedure for Structural Optimization. 2006. 21.. 2000. Transactions of ASME.V. The MSC Corporation.100 MSC User’s Guide for Topology Optimization References References 1. 55-69.P.. 1995. 1. N. and Applications. 6. Denmark. G. 5.. 1989. and Rozvany. O. 122. MSC Nastran 2005 r3 Release Guide.H..P. Representations for Evolutionary Optimization and Identification in Structural Mechanics. 3. MSC Nastran 2005 r3 Design Sensitivity and Optimization Users' Guide. In: J. Computers and Structures. 193-202.I. Sigmund. Xie. 2003. pp. Rozvany. Optimal Shape Design as a Material Distribution Problem. 1-25 (Part I) 139-182 (Part II) 353-377 (Part III). Ambrosio.. An Optimal Design Problem with Perimeter Penalization. Kohn. 4. pp. Winter. and Strang. L. 71.. Design of Structures and Compliant Mechanisms by Evolutionary Optimization of Morphological Representations of Topology. On the Validity of ESO type Methods in Topology Optimization. Periaux and G. Calculus of variations and Partial Differential Equations 1. 1988. Thesis. Methods. 197-224. Schoenauer. and Chee. 2006..N.41-119 3. 1994. Zhou. pp. Rev.P. and Kirsch U. 2005. and Sigmund. M. G. 560-566. pp. G. T. Ph. 9. 11. Appl. Bendsoe.D. pp. 1986. pp. Technical University of Denmark (DTU). Y. John Wiley. M. 2. 2. R. Bibliography 1. 1993. Genetic Algorithms in Engineering and Computer Sciences.. 8. and Kikuchi. 1995. Topology Optimization Theory. editors. 10.. 48. 443-464. M. 7. MD Nastran R2 Release Guide.P. Communications on Pure and Applied Mathematics. G.I. Structural Multidisciplinary Optimization. Mech..P. M. Structural Optimization. Bendsoe. 4. pp.

22. 88 SET 88 CASI Solver 24. 51. 16. 22. 16. 32 C Case Control Command 22 DRSPAN 22. 48. 47 Defining Displacement Constraint 75 Defining Global 30. 88 DRESP3 22 DVPREL1 13. 30. 33 B BAILOUT parameter 23 Bulk Data Entry 12 DOPTPRM 16 DRESP1 15 DRESP2 22. 22. 30 TDMIN 15. 23. 47 Design Objective (see objective) 2. 97 DVPREL2 13 TOPVAR 12. 37 G General Topology Optimization 26 Initiate 31 Glued Contact 100 H Homogenization-based Approach 6 Main Index . 24. 92 Checkerboard 2. 33. 33. 6. 60 DRESP1 Attributes 15 DRESP1 response types (RTYPE) 15. 16 Fringe 26.jp`Kc~íáÖìÉ=nìáÅâ=pí~êí=dìáÇÉ Index User’s Guide for Topology Optimization A Analysis 2 Multidisciplinary 95 Types 2 Analysis Deck 78 Creation 78 Artificial Material approach 6 D Defining Mirror Plane 44 Density Method 6 des file (see Topology Results) 26 Design Constraint (see Constraint) 2 Design Domain 28. 24 Mesh independent 6. 41 Composite Material (also see homogenization) 6 Constraint (also see manufacturing constraint) 28 Define Manufacturing 28. 71 Creating 78 Design Variables (see variables) 2 DESPCH parameter 18 DOPR1 3 DOPTPRM parameters 17 IPRINT 21 METHOD 21 OPTCOD 20 P1 17 P2 17 TCHECK 16. 74 Constraint Set 77 Defining 77 Convexification (see density method) 6 Creating a Load Case 45 Creating Isosurface 83 F Filtering 16. 24. 22. 73 Design Sensitivity (see sensitivity) 2 Design Study 31. 22. 35.

10. 58 Multiple Mass Targets 11. 19 DOT 7. 23 Symmetry 10. 31. 47. 53 O Optimization Methods 7 Optimization Parameters 16. 91 Extrusion 11. 11 Support for Inertia Relief 11 Solution Sequence SOL 200 2 Subcase 50 creation and selection 50. 46. 15. 19 MSCADS 7. 49. 6 Output Specific To Topology Optimization 17 representation 6 Topology Results 35 display 35. 71 U User Interface (also see Postprocessor and Preprocessor) 12 V variables 2 intermediate 7 size/shape 2 Sizing and topology variables 96 TOPVAR variable 28. 10. 14. 72 Q Quick Topology Optimization 26. 51 smoothing/ remeshing 35. 22. 56 Importing the Bridge Model 43 Initiating 46 Insight 70. 48. 14. 64 Minimum Member Size 10. 13 Perimeter Constraint 6 Postprocessing 35 Insight 82 Power Law 6 Preprocessing 26. 15. 10. 53 Read 36. 67 Cyclic Symmetry 11. 46 R Rayleigh Quotients 7 RC file 20 Main Index . 26 fractional mass 17 intermediate 7 Types 15 weight 2. 96 Restriction 6 S Sensitivity 3 adjoint design 3.102 User’s Guide for Topology Optimization I IGES files 23. 32. 61 MBB 58 Mirror Symmetric Constraints 43 Multidisciplinary 96 relaxation 6 Response 15 Attributes 15 compliance 15 eigenvalues 2. 81 T Threshold limit 37 Topology 3 Optimization problem 3. 35. 16. 22. 19 P Penalty Factor 7. 10. 79 Optimizer 19 ADS 19 BIGDOT 7. 33. 82 Insight Control 86 Isosurface 83 M Manufacturing constraints 11 Casting Constraints 11.