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# COLLECTION OF DATA

CHAPTER 2

DATA
Refers to information obtained from respondents of the subjects of the study or research.

Types of Data
Quantitative Data
• Numerical in nature

Qualitative Data
• Attributes
• (e.g. person, place or thing. Intelligence, charm and a sense of humor)

## TWO TYPES OF DATA ACCORDING TO NATURE

CONTINUOS DATA
• These are numerical values that are ACCURATE up the nth part of a given unit.
(e.g. age, height and weight)

DISCRETE DATA
• Data taken by getting FREQUENCY.
• (e.g. getting the EXACT number of the students in the classroom)

## 1. THE OBSERVATION METHOD

In this method, the researcher OBSERVES the subject of the study which maybe an individual, a
group or any unit of interest.

## 2. THE QUSTIONING METHOD

In this method, the researcher ASK the respondents or the subject of the study to give
information, either personally, in writing, or through the phone.
3. THE ODJEVTIVE METHOD
In this method, the respondents are made to ANSWER TEST and SCALED CHECKLIST which yield
more objective response.

PRESENTING DATA

## 3 WAYS OF PRESENTING DATA

1. TEXTUAL
Presentation involves describing the data in a paragraph form.

2. TABULAR
Tables are used.
TYPES OF TABULAR

REYES 1999

• 1. Frequency table – is a method of organizing raw data in a compact form by displaying a series
of scores in ascending or descending order, together with their frequencies—the number of
times each score occurs in the respective data set.

## • UNGROUP FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION - data given as individual data points.

• GROUPED FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION - Is the organizing of raw data in table form, using classes
and frequencies.
3. GRAPHICAL METHOD
Data is presented in graphic or pictorial form.

GRAPHICAL PRESENTATION

1. PIE GRAPH
Division of distribution into parts.

2. BAR GRAPH
Shows the relationship between two sets of variables.
3. LINE GRAPH
Plotted versus the two sets of variables.

4. OGIVE GRAPH
This is an offshoot of presenting data from culminative frequency distribution.

5. PICTOGRAPH
Pictures are used to present quantities.
INSTRUMENTS IN DATA GATHERING
1. Interview Guide
Generally contains the questions that the researcher wants to be answered in order to
gather the relevant information in the study.

2. OBSERVATION GUIDE

## * Structured – behavior to observe is more identified and specific.

* Unstructured – the observation must be present the following: title, date of
observation, purpose, setting, and basic information about the subject.

3. QUESTIONNAIRE
Contains a list or schedule of questions that are needed to elicit answers to the
problems and objectives of the study.

TYPES OF QUESTIONNAIRE

STRUCTURED
This is a type of question that leaves only one way or few alternative ways of answering it.

Example:

## 1. What is your civil status?

( ) Single
( ) Married
( ) Widow/Widower

UNSTRUCTURED

This are the open-ended questions. These can be answered in many ways.
Example:
1. Do you want to go abroad? ( ) YES ( ) NO Why or why not?

4. CHECK LIST
A form which describes the behaviors of to be observed in considerable detail to enable
the observer to just tally or check each behavior where it occurs.
5. SCALES
Set of symbols or numerals so constructed that the symbols or numerals can be
assigned by rule to the individuals to whom the scale is applied.

SAMPLING

## PICKING THE SAMPLE

The sample units must be drawn at random so that the sample inference of the population is
valid.

SAMPLE SIZE
Scientifically pick the right sample units and infer observations and conclusions about the
population based from the sample.

SLOVIN’S EQUATION

Where:
N = size of population
n = sample size
e = margin error

SAMPLING TECHNIQUES

1. PROBABILITY SAMPLING
Which every individual in population has an equal chance of being selected to be a
member of the sample.

## TYPES OF PROBABILITY SAMPLING

a. Random Sampling
Sample selects using the concept of the lottery method.

b. Systematic Sampling
Sampling selects sample units by drawing every nth element of a series
representing the population.

c. Stratified Sampling
Sampling selects a sample when the population is segmented into groups or
sections called satisfaction or strata.

2. NON-PROBABILITY SAMPLING
Picking the sample in this type of sampling does not require a random process.
The sample respondents are selected for a certain purpose of study.

## TYPES OF NON-PROBABILITY SAMPLING

a. Purposive Sampling
Select the sample respondents based on a certain criterion laid down by the
researcher.
b. Quota Sampling
Samples are selected in quota system

c. Convenience Sampling
Which the researcher picks his sample respondents from the population that he
finds convenient to interview due to their availability and accessibility.

d. Snowball Sampling
Subsequent responding are selected based on referral of the previous
respondents.