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COASTAL EROSION CALCULATION USING

GIS

A PROJECT REPORT

Submitted by

MEENA KAMALI
VINISHA
VIVEK BRIGHT

in partial fulfillment for the award of the degree


of

BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING

in

ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION


ENGINEERING

ANNAI VAILANKANNICOLLEGE OF ENGINEERING

ANNA UNIVERSITY :: CHENNAI-600 025

APRIL2019

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ANNA UNIVERSITY:: CHENNAI
BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE

Certified that this Report titled “COASTAL EROSION

CALCULATION USING GIS” is the bonafide work of MEENA KAMALI

,VINISHA,VIVEK BRIGHT who carried out the work under mysupervision.

Certified further that to the best of my knowledge the work reported herein

does not form part of any other thesis or dissertation on the basis of which a

degree or award was conferred on an earlier occasion on this or any other

candidate.

HEAD OF DEPARTMENT SUPERVISIOR

SIGNATURE SIGNATURE
Mr. G. Gaswin Kastro M.E., Mrs. P.Renuka M.E.,
Professor and Head Assistant Professor
Department of ECE Department of ECE
Annai Vailankanni College of Engg., Annai Vailankanni College of
Engg.,
AVK Nagar, Azhagappapuram PO, AVK Nagar, Azhagappapuram
PO,
Kanyakumari - 629401 Kanyakumari – 629 401
Submitted for the B.E Degree Project Phase I viva-voce held on …...............

INTERNAL EXAMINER EXTERNAL EXAMINER

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I am honoured to acknowledge the below mentioned people who have been


instrumental in the completion of this project.

I express my deep respect to Mr. D. PETER JESUDHAS, M.B.A., Founder


and Chairman, Annai Vailankanni College of Engineering, for working on a great
mission and vision and providing excellent infrastructure.

I express my deep respect and thanks to our CorrespondentDr.


S.CHELLAKUMAR ROSE, M.Phil, Ph.D., who has also provided a great support
to work. I express my sincere thanks to our Principal (I/C) Mr. T. VALAN ARASU,
M.E., who has provided a great support to work.

I would like to express my sincere thanks to our Head of the Deprtment Mr.
G. GASWIN KASTRO, M.E., for his deep interest in my project and for his valuable
suggestions.

I would like to express my heartiest thanks to my Guide Mrs P.Renuka, M.E.,


for her great support, continuous encouragement and valuable guidance.

I express my deep respect and thanks to all other staff of the Department of
Electronics and Communication Engineering who have helped me in one way or the
other for the successful completion of the project.

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ABSTRACT

The coastal landuse and land cover features in the South West coast of

Thuthoor, Poothurai are dynamically regulated due to marine and

terrestrial processes and often controlling by natural and anthropogenic

activities.The primary objective of this study is to estimate the decadal

changes and their transformations of landuse and land cover (LULC)

features under Level II category of USGS-LULC Classification System

using Landsat ETM+ and TM images using Maximum Likelihood

Classifier (MLC) algorithm for the period 2000– 2011,another 10 periodic

years also it has been collected. The classified LULC features are

categorized as beach face land cover, cultivable lands, plantation and

shrub vegetation, fallow land, barren land, settlements and built-ups, water

bodies, and mining area, etc. The geo-database is prepared for LULC

feature class with an attributes of name, location, area,description of

houses and spatial distribution, etc. It shows the larger area in beach face

land cover (sandy beaches, foredunes, uplands, Teri dunes (laterite) and in

the seashore areas of Thuthoor it has been identified that the erosion of

land occurs periodically Using GIS techniques, the analysis of change

detection matrix reveals that the total area of 16km in different LULC

features periodically shifted from one latitude to the another

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER TITLE PAGE NO.

ABSTRACT 4

LIST OF TABLES 7

LIST OF FIGURES 8
LIST OF SYMBOLS 9

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS 10

1 INTRODUCTION 12
1.1 BRIEF VIEW OF THOTHOOR WITH RESPECT TO 13
ANALOG FORM OF TIDS CAUSE PERIODICALLY

1.2 COASTAL EROSION

1.3MEASUREMENT OF COASTAL REOSION USING GIS 14


2 LITERATURE SURVEY 14
2.1 COASTAL LANDUSE AND LAND COVER CHANGE 14
AND TRANSFORMATIONS OF KANYAKUMARI COAST,
INDIA USING REMOTE SENSING AND GIS
2.2 IMPROVING SURFACE–SUBSURFACE WATER 15
BUDGETING USING HIGH RESOLUTION SATELLITE
IMAGERY APPLIED ON A BROWNFIELD
2.3 SEMISUPERVISED ONE-CLASS SUPPORT VECTOR 15
MACHINES FOR CLASSIFICATION OF REMOTE SENSING
DATA
2.4 THE CLASSIFICATION OF LAND COVER DERIVED 16
FROM HIGH RESOLUTION REMOTE SENSING IMAGERY

3 PROPOSED METHODOLOGY 16

5
4 MAPPING OF SELECTED SECTIONS OF EROSION IN GIS 20
4.1 MARK OF SECTIONS WITH DIFFERENT ALIGNMENT 20

OF LAND RANGE WITH GIS


4.2 PLOT OVER THE MAP IN GIS 22
4.3 IDENTIFICATION OF VARIATION OF HUMIDITY OF 24
TIDES OF SEA AND OF ARABIAN SEA WITHRESPECT
TO INDIAN OCEAN IN THUTHOOR,KANYAKUMARI
4.4 MAPPING OF TEMPLATE OF PREVIOUS SORT OF 27
DATA WITH RESPECT TO THE ACTUAL REAL TIME DATA

5 CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK 33


5.1 CONCLUSION 33
5.2 FUTURE WORK 31
3 REFERENCES 33

6
LIST OF TABLES
TABLE TITLE PAGE
NO.

3.1 INPUT DATA OF PARAMETERS OF MAPPING 13

7
LIST OF FIGURES
FIGURE TITLE PAGE NO.

3.1 Block of Importing Geo Database and Land 16

Cover
3.2 Spatial Domain of affirmation of LULC 20

4.1.1 Alignment of shape file of thuthoor at the mark 21


4.1.2 Kernel point of thuthoor with respect to the 22
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higher frequency
4.3.1 24
Satellite grid of top view of thuthoor’s classified
image
27
4.4.1 Mark of all bare plot to be afformed

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4.4.2 Lateral view of Thuthoor from GIS
29
4.4.3 Infra-red Spatial Domain Analysis of thuthoor 30

4.3.4 Hyperspectral Data of Thuthoor plot of ENVI 31

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LIST OF SYMBOLS

β BETA
∑ SIGMA

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LIST OT ABBREVIATIONS
CA Color Analysis
DE Depth Estimation
DIP Digital Image Processing
MSE Mean Square Error
PC Personal Computer
PSNR Peak Signal to Noise Ratio
WCID Wavelength Compensation and Image Dehazing

GIS Geographical Information System

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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

The coastal landuse and land cover features in the South West coast of
Kanyakumari are dynamically regulated due to marine and terrestrial
processes and often controlling by natural and anthropogenic activities.
The primary objective of this study is to estimate the decadal changes and
their transformations of landuse and land cover (LULC) features under
Level II category of USGS-LULC Classification System using Landsat
ETM+ and TM images using Maximum Likelihood Classifier (MLC)
algorithm for the period 2000–2011. The classified LULC features are
categorized as beachface land cover, cultivable lands, plantation and shrub
vegetation, fallow land, barren land, settlements and built-ups, water
bodies, and mining area, etc. The geo-database is prepared for LULC
feature class with an attributes of name, location, area and spatial
distribution, etc. It shows the larger area in beachface land cover (sandy
beaches, foredunes, uplands, Teri dunes (laterite) and associated nearshore
landforms), plantations, cultivable lands, fallows,and barren lands are
converted into built-ups and it increases more than twice in the period of
10 years. Using GIS techniques, the analysis of change detection matrix
reveals that the total area of 45.90 km2 in different LULC features
periodically shifted or transformed from one state to another one or more
states, i.e. the beachface land cover area of 1.24 km2 is encroached for
built-ups and 0.63 km2 for placer miningduring the decade. Meanwhile,
the area of 0.21 km2 in this cover is transformed into wetlands and
saltwater bodies. During the past decade, the expansion of area in the built-
ups and settlements are directly proportional to the growth of population,
which produces severe threat to the coastal resources. Accuracy
assessment of classified images shows the overall accuracy is estimated as
81.16% and 77.52% and overall Kappa coeffient statistical values of 0.83
and 0.76 for the year 2000 and 2011 respectively. Ground truth
verification of the extracted LULC features performed using 120 samples
(10 samples per class) reveals that the accuracy of classified features is
89%. This indicates the acceptable accuracy of the classified LULC
features for landuse and land cover change studies. The geodatabase of
LULC features is used as primary source for sustainable land resource
management in the coastal region

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1.1 BRIEF VIEW OF THOTHOOR WITH RESPECT TO ANALOG FORM OF
TIDES CAUSE PERIODICALLY

The present study is carried out for assessment of the decadal


changes and transformations in LULC features in the South West coast of
Kanyakumari district using remote sensing and GIS technology. The
Landsat ETM+ images (30 m) covering the study area are obtained from
the Global Land Cover Facility (GLCF). The combined multispectral
images of the year 2000 and 2011 are geometrically corrected using UTM-
WGS84 projection and coordinate system with the help of GCPs (Ground
Control Points) collected from Survey of India (SOI) published
topographical maps (scale 1:25000) and Garmin Etrex-10 handheld GPS
field surveyed data. Furthermore, the images are atmospherically
corrected to obtain the perfect spectral reflectance values using FLASSH
(Fast Line-of-sight Atmospheric Analysis of Spectral Hypercubes) model
in ENVI 4.5 software

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Table 1.1 INPUT DATA OF PARAMETERS OF MAPPING

1.2 COASTAL EROSION


The coastal erosion is naturally a dynamic environment due to its constant
exposure to the forces of nature. However, we cannot always afford to let
nature have its way. Combined with climate change, the excessive
utilization of the coastal zone puts our coasts under enormous pressure.
Therefore, the challenge lies in gaining a deep understanding of both the
detailed processes as well as the larger context.The recent years have seen
an increase in the number of storm floods, which cause heavy damage to
property - both for single citizens and for the private and public sector.
Ramboll has wide-ranging experience with storm flood projects, which
show that cross-disciplinary solutions are of great value in decision-making
processes and ensure a holistic approach to the challenges of coastal
zones. Depending on the project needs, our team of experts cover the areas
of coastal dynamics, financial and risk assessments, urban- and landscape
planning, and environment, in order to ensure solutions of the highest
quality.

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1.3 MEASUREMENT OF COASTAL EROSION USING GIS

Accelerated Sea Level Rise (SLR) is usually regarded as the most certain
consequence of global warming. SLR has serious physical impacts on
coastal areas, mainly characterized by inundation risk and displacement of
lowlands and wetlands. The increasing coastal inundation vulnerability
may lead to substantial socio-economic losses such as the loss of coastal
structures, damage to buildings and settlements, dislocation of the
population, and the loss of the agricultural production. This study
addresses the risk assessment of physical and economic impacts under
different SLR scenarios and the analysis of the effects due to SLR (i.e.
extended coastal inundation, coastal erosion on populations, land use,
etc.). A degree of vulnerability analysis based on different criteria has been
carried out to better locate which sectors are more vulnerable to the
possible sea level rise (SLR). These criteria include geomorphology, slope
(land topography), and sea-level rise (SLR). The aim of the present study
is to assess the Coastal Vulnerability Index (CVI) incorporating main
factors acting on the coastal area (erosion/accretion patterns, topography,
subsidence and relative sea level rise). The output is to determine the
coastal degree of vulnerability due to SLR. Another aim is to provide
measurements of inundated area in relation to different sea-level changes.
Possible consequences of sea-level rise and corresponding mitigations are
also discussed. Topographic maps 1:50000 were used for the extraction of
contour lines. Ground control points (GCP) were used for image
orthorectification; contours are then employed to develop a high accuracy
DTM which is for the risk assessment of inundated areas; Landsat and
Ikonos Images at different time frames (from 1972 to 2005) are used to
delineate the coastline development; land cover land use map,
geomorphologic map, population density map, are all used for coastal
vulnerability assessment. Results reveal that the Syrian coastal area is
vulnerable to accelerated sea-level rise but not at the same level in all
regions

CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE SURVEY

2.1 Coastal landuse and land cover change and transformations of


Kanyakumari coast, India using remote sensing and GIS
A histogram is a graphical representation the distribution of
numerical data. It is an estimate of the probability distribution of
acontinuous variable (quantitative variable). A Bayer filter mosaic is a
color filter array(CFA) for arranging RGB color filters on a square grid of
photosensors. Its particular arrangement of color filters is used in most

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single-chip digital imagesensors used in digital cameras, camcorders, and
scanners to create a color image CFA,HIST

ADVANTAGE:

It gives about the land boundaries in a predictable way for more insants

DISADVANTAGE:

Boundaries because of land covers changes periodically

2.2 Improving surface–subsurface water budgeting using high


resolution satellite imagery applied on a brownfield
Cluster separability analysis and visual interpretation of the image
objects belonging to each cluster resulted in the selection of eight land
cover categories for image classification: water, bare soil, meadow,
mixed forest, grey urban surfaces, red roofs, bright roofs, and shadow as
an extra image class. land cover map is produced from very high-
resolution (VHR) imagery. Ikonos satellite data is used having 1 m
resolution for the panchromatic band and 4 m resolution for the
multispectral bands (blue, green, red and near infrared). Because high-
resolution sensors like Ikonos have limited spectral resolution (only 4
bands),
VHR,Infrared,Ikonos
ADVANTAGE:
Datasets of very low to be fed off
DISADVANTAGE:
Data may or may not be accurate

2.3 Semisupervised One-Class Support Vector Machines for


Classification of Remote Sensing Data
The OC-SVM was introduced by Schölkopf et al. as a support
vector method for novelty detection Parameter estimation with missing
data is a well explored topic in statistics, and one of the most common
algorithms applied to cope with missing data is the EM algorithm OC-
SVM,TDM,OFDM,SVMM
ADVANTAGE:
Here all the superimposed data will be filtered out and it gives the actual
data
DISADVANTAGE:
Complex in all the case of cost,accuracy,time as well as spatial domain

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2.4 The Classification of Land Cover Derived from High Resolution
Remote Sensing
Imagery extracting the land cover pattern, constructing classifier
and labeling the land cover type. Each pixel in the image represents certain
land-use pattern Different schemes such as grey level co-occurrence
matrix, mean square deviation and surface integral were used
to represent the spatial relationship in trial phase. Surface integral was
adopted for its good performance.
Land Cover,Labelling,Satellite Imagery

ADVANTAGE:
Grey Scale level could be increased and it is easily derived
DISADVANTAGE:
During rainfall there is an abrupt change

CHAPTER 3

PROPOSED METHODOLOGY

Fig 3.1 Block of Importing Geo Database and Land Cover

In unsupervised classification, it first groups pixels into “clusters” based


on their properties. In order to create “clusters”, analysts use image
clustering algorithms such as K-means and ISODATA. For the most part,
they can use this list of free remote sensing software to create land cover
maps.

After picking a clustering algorithm, you identify the number of groups


you want to generate. For example, you can create 8, 20 or 42 clusters. To
be clear, these are unclassified clusters because in the next step, you
manually identify each cluster with land cover classes. For example, if you
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want to classify vegetation and non-vegetation, you’ll have to merge
clusters into only 2 clusters.

Overall, unsupervised classification is the most basic technique. Because


you don’t need samples for unsupervised classification, it’s an easy way
to segment and understand an image.

In supervised classification, you select representative samples for each


land cover class. The software then uses these “training sites” and applies
them to the entire image.

Supervised classification uses the spectral signature defined in the training


set. For example, it determines each class on what it resembles most in the
training set. The common supervised classification algorithms are
maximum likelihood and minimum-distance classification.

Supervised and unsupervised classification is pixel-based. In other words,


it creates square pixels and each pixel has a class. But object-based image
classification groups pixels into representative shapes and sizes. This
process is multi-resolution segmentation or segment mean shift.

Multiresolution segmentation produces homogenous image objects by


grouping pixels. It generates objects with different scales in an image
simultaneously. These objects are more meaningful because they represent
features in the image.

In OBIA, you can use multiple bands to create objects and then classify
them. For example, OBIA can take infrared, elevation or a shapefile to
classify each object. Also, layers can have context with each other. For
example, objects have proximity and distance relationships between
neighbors.

Nearest neighbor (NN) classification is similar to supervised


classification. After multi-resolution segmentation, the user identifies
sample sites for each land cover class. Next, they define statistics to
classify image objects. Finally, nearest neighbor classifies objects based
on their resemblance to the training sites and the statistics defined

Humans naturally aggregate spatial information into groups.


Multiresolution segmentation does this task by grouping homogenous
pixels into objects. Water features are easily recognizable after

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multiresolution segmentation. This is how humans visualize spatial
features.

As illustrated in this article, spatial resolution is an important factor when


selecting image classification techniques.

When you have low spatial resolution, both traditional pixel-based and
object-based image classification techniques perform well.

But when you have high spatial resolution, OBIA is superior to


traditional pixel based classification.

A case study from the University of Arkansas compared object-based vs


pixel-based classification. The goal was to compare high and medium
spatial resolution imagery.

Overall, object-based classification outperformed both unsupervised and


supervised pixel-based classification methods. Because OBIA used both
spectral and contextual information, it had higher accuracy. This study is
a good example of some of the limitations of pixel-based image
classification techniques.

The tool considers both the variances and covariances of the class
signatures when assigning each cell to one of the classes represented in the
signature file. With the assumption that the distribution of a class sample
is normal, a class can be characterized by the mean vector and the
covariance matrix. Given these two characteristics for each cell value, the
statistical probability is computed for each class to determine the
membership of the cells to the class. When the default EQUALoption for
A priori probability weighting is specified, each cell is assigned to the
class to which it has the highest probability of being a member.

If the likelihood of occurrence of some classes is higher (or lower) than


the average, the FILE a priori option should be used with an Input a priori
probability file. The weights for the classes with special probabilities are
specified in the a priori file. In this situation, an a priori file assists in the
allocation of cells that lie in the statistical overlap

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between two classes. These cells are more accurately assigned to the
appropriate class, resulting in a better classification. This weighting
approach to classification is referred to as the Bayesian classifier.

By choosing the SAMPLE a priori option, the a priori probabilities


assigned to all classes sampled in the input signature file are proportional
to the number of cells captured in each signature. Consequently, classes
that have fewer cells than the average in the sample receive weights below
the average, and those with more cells receive weights greater than the
average. As a result, the respective classes have more or fewer cells
assigned to them.

When a maximum likelihood classification is performed, an optional


output confidence raster can also be produced. This raster shows the levels
of classification confidence. The number of levels of confidence is 14,
which is directly related to the number of valid reject fraction values. The
first level of confidence, coded in the confidence raster as 1, consists of
cells with the shortest distance to any mean vector stored in the input
signature file; therefore, the classification of these cells has highest
certainty. The cells comprising the second level of confidence (cell value
2 on the confidence raster) would be classified only if the reject fraction
is 0.99 or less. The lowest level of confidence has a value of 14 on the
confidence raster, showing the cells that would most likely be
misclassified. Cells of this level will not be classified when the reject
fraction is 0.005 or greater.

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Fig 3.2 Spatial Domain of affirmation of LULC

CHAPTER 4

MAPPING OF SELECTED SECTIONS OF EROSION IN GIS The


Land Use and Land Cover (LULC) data files describe the
vegetation, water, natural surface, and cultural features on the land
surface. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) provides these data
sets and associated maps as a part of its National Mapping Program. The
LULC mapping program is designed so that standard topographic maps of
a scale of 1:250,000 can be used for compilation and organization of the
land use and land cover data. In some cases, such as Hawaii, 1:100,000
scale maps are also used.

4.1MARK OF SECTIONS WITH DIFFERENT ALIGNMENT OF


LAND RANGE WITH GIS
In machine learning, support-vector machines (SVMs, also support-
vector networks) are supervised learning models with associated
learning algorithms that analyze data used
for classification and regression analysis. Given a set of training
examples, each marked as belonging to one or the other of two categories,
an SVM training algorithm builds a model that assigns new examples to
one category or the other, making it a non-probabilistic binary linear
classifier (although methods such as Platt scaling exist to use SVM in a
probabilistic classification setting). A SVM model is a representation of
the examples as points in space, mapped so that the examples of the
separate categories are divided by a clear gap that is as wide as possible.
New examples are then mapped into
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that same space and predicted to belong to a category based on which side
of the gap they fall.
In addition to performing linear classification, SVMs can efficiently
perform a non-linear classification using what is called the kernel trick,
implicitly mapping their inputs into high-dimensional feature spaces.
When data is unlabelled, supervised learning is not possible, and an
unsupervised learning approach is required, which attempts to find natural
clustering of the data to groups, and then map new data to these
formed groups. The support-vector clustering [2] algorithm, created
by Hava Siegelmann and Vladimir Vapnik, applies the statistics of
support vectors, developed in the support vector machines algorithm, to
categorize unlabeled data, and is one of the most widely used clustering
algorithms in industrial applications

Fig 4.1.1 Alignment of shape file of thuthoor at the mark prior 10 years

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Fig 4.1.2.Kernel point of thuthoor with respect to the higher frequency

4.2.PLOT OF MAP IN GIS


GIS organizes geographic data so that a person reading a map can select
data necessary for a specifi c project or task. A thematic map has a table
of contents that allows the reader to add layers of information to a basemap
of real-world locations. For example, a social analyst might use the
basemap of Eugene, Oregon, and select datasets from the U.S. Census
Bureau to add data layers to a map that shows residents' education levels,
ages, and employment status. With an ability to combine a variety of
datasets in an infi nite number of ways, GIS is a useful tool for nearly
every fi eld of knowledge from archaeology to zoology. A good GIS
program is able to process geographic data from a variety of sources and
integrate it into a map project. Many countries have an abundance of
geographic data for analysis, and governments often make GIS datasets
publicly available. Map fi le databases often come included with GIS
packages; others can be obtained from both commercial vendors and
government agencies. Some data is gathered in the fi eld by global
positioning units that attach a location coordinate

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(latitude and longitude) to a feature such as a pump station. GIS maps are
interactive. On the computer screen, map users can scan a GIS map in any
direction, zoom in or out, and change the nature of the information
contained in the map. They can choose whether to see the roads, how many
roads to see, and how roads should be depicted. Then they can select what
other items they wish to view alongside these roads such as storm drains,
gas lines, rare plants, or hospitals. Some GIS programs are designed to
perform sophisticated calculations for tracking storms or predicting
erosion patterns. GIS applications can be embedded into common
activities such as verifying an address.
Identify where to take samples representing a wide range of habitats and
sea depths from nearshore (about 50 meters deep) to the edge of the
continental shelf (about 750 meters). Determine which sort of sampling
gear to use in a particular location to reduce the risk of expensive
equipment being damaged or lost and to minimize damage to fragile
ecosystems on the Antarctic seafloor. Act quickly in case changing ice
conditions closed off areas that were open and workable a few hours
earlier.
As soon as each survey line was completed, the multibeam data was
processed and maps of the survey area were produced within minutes,
thereby minimizing vessel downtime before sampling operations could
begin. When mapping the seafl oor with a multibeam echo sounder, the
strength (or amplitude) of the returned signal depends on the nature of the
seabed. Thus it is possible to assess what the substrate is made of (mud,
sand, gravel, bedrock, or a mixture of these) and how rough or lumpy the
seafl oor is. A standard template was created in ArcGIS to produce charts
of any area of interest so the scientists could accurately plan the
deployment of sampling gear in the right depth and in a suitable seabed
type. The ArcGIS Spatial Analyst extension allows scientists to analyze
the slope and aspect of the seabed to aid their decision making.

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4.3 IDENTIFICATION OF VARIATION OF HUMIDITY OF
TIDES OF SEA AND OF ARABIAN SEA WITH RESPECT TO
INDIAN OCEAN IN THUTHOOR,KANYAKUMARI

Fig 4.3.1 Satellite grid of top view of thuthoor’s classified image


It is a resource available to local residents and researchers that are doing
work in Barrow. Many sea ice specialists consider it to be a model
application for the emerging Arctic GIS initiative. Another project we are
hoping to get funded soon is a portal that connects research nodes across
the Arctic through ArcIMS technology. Many of the nodes are near native
communities similar to Barrow. Web applications can provide access to
high-resolution satellite imagery, as well as information about historic and
current research activity, infrastructure, landownership data, etc. This
would be the beginning of developing an Arctic Spatial Data
Infrastructure." The Minerals Management Service (MMS), a bureau in the
U.S. Department of the Interior, is also interested in the dynamics of
landfast ice. MMS in the Alaska region is a federal agency that has a
mission to manage the mineral resources of the Alaskan Outer Continental
Shelf in an environmentally sound and safe manner. It is tasked with fi
nding a way to provide the opportunity to explore for petroleum and still
preserve the environment and the lifestyle of the people living adjacent to
its coast. Naturally, MMS is interested in Nuna Technologies' research
efforts and has funded the company to conduct further research in the
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region. MMS needs to know how spring leads and moving ice packs
interact. The seaward limit of stable landfast

ice defines where spilled oil might pool under the ice and where fast ice
conditions apply to the design and operation of offshore facilities. This
landfast ice also defi nes the furthermost landward boundary of possible
whale routes during the springtime migration period. Nuna Technologies
has teamed with sea ice specialists from the Geophysical Institute of the
University of Alaska to map the average monthly shoreward landfast ice
extent. GIS is also used to process datasets to summarize the spatial
distribution of spring leads. ArcGIS grids and shapefi les are used to show
monthly distribution of the shoreward landfast ice across the Alaskan
Beaufort Sea to the Canadian McKenzie Delta. The extent and stability of
the landfast ice along this stretch of coast is being analyzed. Remote
sensing imagery, specifi cally Radarsat synthetic aperture radar and
advanced very high-resolution radiometer data, has been analyzed for the
time period between 1993 and 2004. This data will be compared with the
university's archived data from the 1970s and 1980s. The information
from this study of both temporal and spatial aspects of landfast ice is the
foundation for improving the MMS oil spill risk analysis. The study meets
an ongoing need for future sales policy, oil spill contingency planning,
and National Environmental Impact Act analysis.
Scientific evidence suggests that climate change and sea-level rise will
potentially have significant impacts on the coastal environment and human
society. The most valuable set of tools that can be used to understand the
processes associated with these changes and to assess their environmental
and socioeconomic impacts is Geographic Information Systems (GIS).
Studies carried out in Morocco reveal that in many locations, the low-lying
coastal areas are very sensitive to accelerated sea-level rise, not only due
to their low topography, but also to their high ecological, economic and
tourist values. Assessment of the potential land loss by inundation and
erosion, based on a modeling approach and GIS, has enabled to identify
both locations and the socioeconomic sectors that are most at risk to
accelerated sea-level rise and extreme events. The case studies of Saidia
and Tetouan littorals (sandy beaches with important RAMSAR sites and
high touristic value) on the Mediterranean coast, and Mohamedia littoral
(very populated with many economic activities) on the Atlantic coast,
show that the most severely impacted sectors, are expected to be the
settlements, the recreational and industrial areas, agricultural land, and the
coastal ecosystems. Indeed, the conversion of natural coastal habitats such
as coastal dunes and wetlands for urban or agricultural uses reduced the

25
ability of such ecosystems to provide a natural barrier or buffer against
wave action and storm surges. This should be exacerbated with the
expected rise in sea level.
The lagoon of Nador (called also, Mar Chica or Sebkha Bou Areg) is
located on the Mediterranean coast of Morocco (2º 45'-2º 55', 35º 10' N)
(Figure 3). With an area of about 115 km², it‟s the largest coastal lagoon
in the North Africa region. The average depth is of 8 m. The lagoon is
separated from the sea by a narrow barrier (25 km length) and opens into
the Mediterranean through a narrow inlet which has undergone several
modifications until it was stabilized by two jetties. Tidal amplitudes range
from about 0.1 m at neap tide to about 0.5m at spring tide and the
circulation is dominated mainly by wind induced forces. The system
receives drainage from several small streams (wadis) which flow into the
lagoon only in rainy season as flash floods. Besides, the lagoon receives
also many irrigation canals that drain one of the most important
agricultural areas of the Mediterranean coast of Morocco: the Bou Areg
plain.
The inclusion of socio-economic variables in coastal vulnerability indices
is extremely important albeit not without difficulties. For this, we applied
the socio-economic sub-index developed by Mclaughlin et al. (2002) and
based on six socio-economic variables: population, cultural heritage,
roads, railways, land use and conservation status. As for the CVI, these
variables were ranked on a 1-5 scale according to their perceived
vulnerability. Each of these variables was gridded in ArcView GIS, The
resulting scores were then normalised by converting them to a range of
maximum and minimum scores

26
4.4MAPPING OF TEMPLATE OF PREVIOUS SORT OF DATA
WITH RESPECT TO THE ACTUAL REAL TIME DATA

Fig 4.4.1 Mark of all bare plot to be afformed

To modify a feature, complete the following steps:

1. To edit a feature, do either of the following:


o Click in the text box to highlight the location name and type a new
name for the feature.
o Click the arrow below the symbol icon to display a color palette and
choose a new fill color for the symbol. If the location card contains
multiple features, the color change applies to all those features.

Location cards remain in the Pins pane until you delete them.

2. To view information about the location, click the feature on the map.
3. To remove a location, click Delete on the location card.

The location card is removed from the Pins pane and the symbol no longer
appears on the map. If the card contained multiple locations, all of those
features are removed from the map.

1. With your ArcGIS Maps for Edit Power BI visualization in In-Focus


mode, click the Pins button on the map toolbar.

The Pins pane appears.

27
2. Type keywords into the search box.

Keywords can include addresses, places, and points of

interest. Note:

As you type, similar recent searches or suggestions based on similar


keywords appear.

3. Choose the result that matches the location you want.

A symbol appears on the map, and the map automatically zooms to the
location. Search results are saved as location cards in the Pins pane. You
can save up to 10 location cards.

Note:

If you searched for a place of interest, such as museums, the location card
can contain up to 10 features, and each one will be represented on the map.

Fig 4.4.2 Lateral view of Thuthoor from GIS

28
Fig 4.4.3 Infra-red Spatial Domain Analysis of thuthoor

Data Access and Geodatabase Support ENVI supports imagery types


gathered from numerous satellite and airborne sensors including
panchromatic, multispectral, hyperspectral, radar, thermal, LiDAR, and
more. ENVI can read over 70 data formats and includes HDF, GeoTIFF,
JPEG and JPEG2000. And, ENVI also delivers enterprise capabilities that
allow users to quickly and easily access imagery from OGC and JPIP
compliant servers within organizations or over the internet. Geodatabase
and enterprise connectivity is important for ENVI, as more and more
companies and organizations are providing their image data to
constituents by setting up databases on centralized server machines. For
the members of the enterprise to access these images across the internet or
other network, they need appropriate software on their local (client)
machines. Making ENVI a client to these remote databases allows the
enterprise members to use ENVI to smoothly access the imagery that they
need as part of their GIS and image analysis workflow. ENVI supports file
access to and from the ArcGIS Geodatabase, so users can seamlessly open
data from the ArcGIS Geodatabase in ENVI, perform image analysis, and
then save the results back into the geodatabase. ENVI supports personal,
file, and enterprise geodatabases.Change Detection The landscape
changes continually as a result of human and natural forces. Change
detection is a process that measures how the characteristics of a particular
area have changed between two or more time periods. Change detection
can be accomplished using satellite

29
imagery or aerial photography, advanced image processing techniques,
and GIS analysis to map the spatial location and magnitude of land cover
change. Performing a change detection analysis encompasses a broad
range of methods used to identify, describe, and quantify the differences
between the images, which were acquired at different times and under
different conditions. A user may use many of ENVI’s tools independently
or in combination as part of a change detection analysis. When performing
a change detection study, there are two types of change detection: absolute
change and relative change. Absolute change detection highlights
specifically what has changed – for example, a forest class that has
changed to a grassland class. Relative change detection shows that
something has changed, but does not specify what that change is. ENVI
offers a variety of change detection methods; depending on what type of
analysis is needed, the user can choose between the different methods to
suit the particular project’s needs.

Fig 4.4.4 Hyperspectral Data of Thuthoor plot of ENVI

Image Classification For panchromatic, multispectral, and hyperspectral


data, ENVI has numerous methods for automatically categorizing pixels
into specific classes. Image data classified in this way can then be
converted to vector layers and output to a variety of vector formats, such
as shapefiles, or saved to the ArcGIS geodatabase. The classification
images can be used for reference maps to conduct change detection,
monitoring of new development, or quantifying land cover types. The goal
of classifying features in an image is to identify homogeneous groups of
pixels which represent various features or land cover classes of interest.
Classification assigns each image pixel to a particular class, such as water,
forest, urban area, and agricultural fields – producing a thematic “map” of
the original image. ENVI’s classification workflows

30
include two different methods, depending on whether or not the user has
classification training data: • In a supervised classification, the user selects
representative samples of the different surface cover types from the image.
These samples are referred to as training areas. The ENVI classification
algorithms use the training data to learn what each class ‘looks like’ in
multi- or hyper-spectral data space. Once the user selects the training
areas, then ENVI will perform the classification based on these training
areas for the entire image

Fig 4.4.5 Clear view of classified form of thuthoor


Feature Extraction Users need fast and accurate methods to locate, identify
and extract features of interest. Manually locating and digitizing these
features from imagery is often tedious and time consuming, especially
over large coverage areas. Furthermore, limited spectral content may make
standard pixel based classification and extraction approaches too
inaccurate to be effective. The ENVI Feature Extraction Module (ENVI
Fx) uses an object-based approach that can be used on high spatial
resolution imagery with limited or no spectral content. ENVI Fx allows
GIS professionals to automatically extract spatial objects from imagery
and reduce the time spent on manual processes. ENVI Fx can be used to
extract a wide variety of features such as vehicles, buildings, roads,
bridges, rivers, lakes, and fields, and is optimized for extracting
information from high-resolution panchromatic and multispectral imagery
based on spatial, spectral, and texture characteristics. Additional datasets,
such as a raster LiDAR elevation dataset, can be added to the workflow to
enhance results. The ENVI Feature Extraction Module is ideal for: Finding
and counting particular features across large images Adding and updating
vector layers to geodatabases Classifying images as outputs to be used in
reports or analyses Replacing or accelerating manual digitization
processes The ENVI Feature Extraction Module uses an object-based
approach to identify and define features, allowing users

31
to get accurate results even with limited bands. With popular high-
resolution panchromatic or multispectral imagery that is commonly in use
today, an object-based method offers more flexibility in the types of
features to be extracted. One of the most efficient and innovative aspects
of ENVI Fx is the ability to preview results at each step of the workflow.
The preview portal shows on-the-fly results of parameter adjustments and
can be resized and moved around the image, to make sure that the features
of interest are being located in all areas of the scene. Visual Information
Solutions recognizes the growing importance of having ENVI
functionality integrate with a GIS workflow for fast and accurate results.
Image processing workflow tools with customers’ solutions and products
in mind increases the effectiveness of the software and the efficiency of
the operation. ENVI currently provides a number of these tools that can
help users of all backgrounds integrate imagery into their daily workflows.
Moreover, development plans for ENVI include many new workflow tools
that will make image processing even easier.

CHAPTER 5
CONCLUSIONS & FUTURE WORK

5.1 CONCLUSION
Conditions in the area and a key driver indicating the hazards and
vulnerability due to natural and anthropogenic activities. GIS and
remote sensing provides an effective platform for assessment of
LULC changes and transformations over time. In the study area,
it is observed that area in beach face landforms, plantations, cultivable
lands, fallows, and barren lands are converted into settlements and built-
ups and it is increased twice in spatial extent from 2000 to 2011 due to
human encroachment and urban expansion activities. Decreasing of area
in these land covers affects the sediment load that causes shoreline erosion
along the various parts of the coastal regions. The coastal structures like
groins, revetments, seawalls are evidently decreasing the areal extent of
the beaches on the down-drift due to backwashing of more sediment by
rip currents that leads morphological changes landforms and dynamics of
shoreline throughout the year. It is noticed that the plantations and dune
vegetative cover are uprooted or severely damaged during the year 2004
due to the effect of Tsunami occurred on 26th December 2004. During the
last decades, the cultivable land and fallow land are encroached for built-
ups due to rapid growth of populations and this causing landform
degradation, loss of biodiversity,

32
seawater intrusion and pollution of groundwater in the coastal region.
Similarly, the saltpan and saltwater bodies are increased in area due to
placer mining and other anthropogenic activities. Significantly, the LULC
features are dynamically transformed to another land uses due to
requirement of the local people. For example, the cultivable lands are
converted to built-ups due to human encroachment activities, whereas the
natural processes as land degradation and surface runoff are transformed
the cultivable land into fallow land and barren results loss of soil fertility
and agriculture productivity in the study area. Unfortunately, most of the
LULC features are transformed to built-ups and settlements and other land
uses without considering their negative impacts on the coastal systems and
processes with increasing rate of vulnerability to the coastal landforms.
Unregulated LULC features shifting activities is alarming the
environmental issue in the coastal zones and severely violated the
government regulations and policies. This study provides primary
information for sustainable coastal management and planning with respect
to decreasing the risk and vulnerability in the coastal region.With the
actual data all the precrypted data will be embed and get readlogy of the
updated point

5.2FUTURE WORK
Plotting of deseperated areas in the planet of MARS by the
opportunity Rover to have a brief view about the change of land with
respect to Martian Dustorm is also about the long term course work of
NASA

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