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Stat Computing > Seminars > Repeated Measures Using SPSS

**Statistical Computing Seminars Repeated Measures Analysis with SPSS
**

The syntax file for this seminar. There are a number of situations that can arise when the analysis includes between groups effects as well as within subject effects. We start by showing 4 example analyses using measurements of depression over 3 time points broken down by 2 treatment groups. In the first example we see that the two groups differ in depression but neither group changes over time. In the second example the two groups grow in depression but at the same rate over time. In the third example, the two groups start off being quite different in depression but over time the groups get closer in their level of depression. The fourth example shows the groups starting off at the same level of depression, and one group group increases over time whereas the other group decreases over time. Note that in the interest of making learning the concepts easier we have taken the liberty of using only a very small portion of the voluminous output that SPSS provides and we have inserted the graphs in the beginning of the output rather than at the end. Demo Analysis #1 The between groups test indicates that there the variable group is significant, consequently in the graph we see that the lines for the two groups are rather far apart. The within subject test indicate that there is not a significant time effect, in other words, the groups do not change in depression over time. In the graph we see that the groups have lines that are flat, i.e. the slopes of the lines are approximately equal to zero. Also, since the lines are parallel, we are not surprised that there is no interaction.

<Abbreviated output from GLM command>

http://www.ats.ucla.edu/stat/spss/seminars/Repeated_Measures/default.htm[28.10.2010 00:25:40]

Repeated Measures Analysis with SPSS

Demo Analysis #2 The between groups test indicates that there the variable group is not significant, consequently in the graph we see that the lines for the two groups are rather close together. The within subject test indicate that there is a significant time effect, in other words, the groups do change in depression over time. In the graph we see that the groups have lines that increase over time. Again, the lines are parallel consistent with the finding that the interaction is not significant.

<Abbreviated output from GLM command>

http://www.ats.ucla.edu/stat/spss/seminars/Repeated_Measures/default.htm[28.10.2010 00:25:40]

the groups do change over time. both groups are getting less depressed over time. the interaction of time and group is significant which means that the groups are changing over time but are changing in different ways. consequently in the graph we see that the lines for the two groups are rather far apart. The within subject test indicate that there is a significant time effect.ucla. in other words.ats.edu/stat/spss/seminars/Repeated_Measures/default.10.Repeated Measures Analysis with SPSS Demo Analysis #3 The between groups test indicates that there the variable group is significant. which means that in the graph the lines will not be parallel. <Abbreviated output from GLM command> http://www. Moreover.2010 00:25:40] . In the graph we see that the groups have non-parallel lines that decrease over time and are getting progressively closer together over time.htm[28.

The main effect of time is not significant.Repeated Measures Analysis with SPSS Demo Analysis #4 The within subject test indicate that the interaction of time and group is significant.ucla.10. In the graph for this particular case we see that one group is increasing in depression over time and the other group is decreasing in depression over time.edu/stat/spss/seminars/Repeated_Measures/default. the significant interaction indicates that the groups are changing over time and they are changing in different ways.2010 00:25:40] . <Abbreviated output from GLM command> http://www. However. The between groups test indicates that there the variable group is significant.ats. in other words. in the graph the lines of the groups will not be parallel.htm[28.

data list free / id exertype diet time1 time2 time3.ucla. Their pulse rate was measured at three different time points during their assigned exercise: at 1 minute. begin data. GLM time1 time2 time3 BY diet /WSFACTOR = time 3 /WSDESIGN=time /DESIGN=diet /EMMEANS=tables( time*diet) /PLOT = PROFILE( time*diet). The graph below suggests that the pulse rate is growing over time.edu/stat/spss/seminars/Repeated_Measures/default.htm[28. Exercise example. The pulse rates may vary for the 2 diets and it is possible that the pulse rate is growing faster for the "green" diet than the "red" diet. http://www.10. 1 1 1 85 85 88 2 1 1 90 92 93 3 1 1 97 97 94 4 1 1 80 82 83 5 1 1 91 92 91 6 1 2 83 83 84 7 1 2 87 88 90 8 1 2 92 94 95 9 1 2 97 99 96 10 1 2 100 97 100 11 2 1 86 86 84 12 2 1 93 103 104 13 2 1 90 92 93 14 2 1 95 96 100 15 2 1 89 96 95 16 2 2 84 86 89 17 2 2 103 109 90 18 2 2 92 96 101 19 2 2 97 98 100 20 2 2 102 104 103 21 3 1 93 98 110 22 3 1 98 104 112 23 3 1 98 105 99 24 3 1 87 132 120 25 3 1 94 110 116 26 3 2 95 126 143 27 3 2 100 126 140 28 3 2 103 124 140 29 3 2 94 135 130 30 3 2 99 111 150 end data. time and diet".ats. title "Exercise example model 1. 15 minutes and 30 minutes. walking leisurely and running.2010 00:25:40] . model 1 (time and diet) Let us first consider the model including diet as the group variable.Repeated Measures Analysis with SPSS Exercise data examples The data consists of people who were randomly assigned to two different diets: low-fat and not low-fat and three different types of exercise: at rest.

title "Exercise example model 2.htm[28. GLM time1 time2 time3 BY exertype /WSFACTOR = time 3 /WSDESIGN=time /DESIGN=exertype /EMMEANS=tables( time*exertype) /PLOT = profile( time*exertype). in the graph we have lines that are not flat. The between subject test of the effect of diet is also not significant.2010 00:25:40] . Furthermore. time and exertype". Exercise example.ats. Consequently. http://www.edu/stat/spss/seminars/Repeated_Measures/default. the lines are approximately parallel which was anticipated since the interaction was not significant. which was expected since the effect of time was significant.Repeated Measures Analysis with SPSS Looking at the results from the manova test the effect of time is significant but the interaction of time and diet is not significant. model 2 (time and exercise type) Next. let us consider the model including exertype as the group variable. they are actually increasing over time.ucla. in fact.10.

Further Issues Missing Data Compare GLM and Mixed on Missing Data Variance-Covariance Structures Discuss "univariate" vs. This is illustrated below.ucla.htm[28.10. we see that some of the lines that are rather far apart and at least one line is not horizontal which was anticipated since exertype and time were both significant. s2 s1 s2 s1 s1 s2 Unstructured The manova tests assumes that each variance and covariance is unique. "multivariate" tests.2010 00:25:40] . Independence As though analyzed using between subjects analysis. The output for this analysis is omitted. Each trial has its own variance (e. Consequently.Repeated Measures Analysis with SPSS The interaction of time and exertype is significant as is the effect of time. Furthermore. Discuss "sphericity" and test of sphericity.g.ats. s2 0 s2 0 0 s2 Compound Symmetry The univariate tests assumes that the variance-covariance structure has compound symmetry. The between subject test of the effect of exertype is also significant. s 21 is the covariance of trial 1 and trial2). in the graph we have lines that are not parallel which we expected since the interaction was significant.g.edu/stat/spss/seminars/Repeated_Measures/default. There is a single Variance (represented by s 2 ) for all 3 of the time points and there is a single covariance (represented by s 1 ) for each of the pairs of trials. referred to as an unstructured covariance matrix. s 1 2 is the variance of trial 1) and each pair of trials has its own covariance (e. s 12 s 21 s 2 2 2 http://www. see below.

l s 22 (s 2 2 + s 3 2 )/2 . variances and covariances for the exercise data. It is very likely to reject compound symmetry when the data only slightly deviates from compound symmetry. however. If. CORRELATIONS /VARIABLES=time1 time2 time3 /STATISTICS XPROD. but we can use the MIXED command for such an analysis. so called Type H structure.htm[28. s 12 (s 1 2 + s 2 2 )/2 .s ij = 2l.l s 32 However. A Type H structure is a variance-covariance structure more general than compound symmetry structure that allows the use of the univariate tests. If the sphericity test is not significant then we can not reject that null hypothesis that the variance-covariance structure has Type H structure.2010 00:25:40] . so in actuality this test could be very deceiving and may be best ignored. The null hypothesis test of the test of sphericity is: the variance-covariance structure has the Huynh-Feldt structure. however. to note that the sphericity test is overly sensitive. Let's look at the correlations.ats. we cannot use this kind of covariance structure in a traditional repeated measures analysis.edu/stat/spss/seminars/Repeated_Measures/default.ucla. which recognizes that observations which are more proximate are more correlated than measures that are more distant s2 sr s2 s2 sr2 sr Huynh-Feldt Variances This is a circular matrix that satisfies the condition: s i2 + s j2 . the sphericity test is significant then we reject that the variance-covariance structure has a Type H structure and it is most appropriate to use the results from the manova test or alternatively use the corrections for the univariate test.l (s 1 2 + s 2 2 )/2 . For a complete list of all variance-covariance structures that SPSS supports in the mixed command please see refer to the SPSS manual. http://www.Repeated Measures Analysis with SPSS s 31 s 32 s 3 We can use the sphericity test to indicate which is most appropriate: the manova or the univariate test.10. It is very important. Autoregressive Another common covariance structure which is frequently observed in repeated measures data is an autoregressive structure.

10.00 1.00 1.00 83.00 1.00 1. print / id exertype diet time pulse.00 1. model 2 using MIXED Command Even though we are very impressed with our results so far.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1. Unstructured We now try an unstructured covariance matrix.00 1. VARSTOCASES /MAKE pulse from time1 TO time3 /INDEX = time(3). However.00 1.00 Compound Symmetry The first model we will look at is one using compound symmetry for the variance-covariance structure.00 94.00 1.00 93.00 1.htm[28.ats. 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 1. unstructured".00 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 85.00 1.00 82. in order to use proc mixed we must reshape our data from its wide form to a long form.edu/stat/spss/seminars/Repeated_Measures/default.00 1.00 1.00 1. title "model 2.00 85. execute.00 1. In order to compare models with different variance-covariance structures we have to use proc mixed and try the different structures that we think our data might have.00 1.2010 00:25:40] .00 1.00 80.00 97.00 1. This model should confirm the results of the univariate tests that we obtained through glm and we will be able to obtain fit statistics that we will use for comparisons with our models that assume other variance-covariance structures.00 1. we are not completely convinced that the variance-covariance structure really has compound symmetry.ucla. MIXED pulse BY exertype time /FIXED = exertype time exertype*time /REPEATED = time | SUBJECT(id) COVTYPE(un).00 1.00 88.00 1.Repeated Measures Analysis with SPSS Exercise example.00 90. http://www.00 1. title "model 2.00 97. MIXED pulse BY exertype time /FIXED = exertype time exertype*time /REPEATED = time | SUBJECT(id) COVTYPE(cs).00 92.00 1. compound symmetry". Looking at the first 14 observations of the long dataset.00 91.00 92.

8 vs. for our data the auto-regressive variance-covariance structure does not fit our data much better than the compound symmetry does (AIC of 594. title "model 2. It is very important to explore different variancecovariance structures where we have fit statistics indicating how well the models fit compared to each other.Repeated Measures Analysis with SPSS Autoregressive From previous studies we suspect that our data might actually have an auto-regressive variance-covariance structure so this is the model we will look at next. However. MIXED pulse BY exertype time /FIXED = exertype time exertype*time /REPEATED = time | SUBJECT(id) COVTYPE(ar1). autoregressive". 594.edu/stat/spss/seminars/Repeated_Measures/default.ucla.ats. http://www.1). These results are exactly the same as those from the compound symmetry model.2010 00:25:40] .htm[28.10.

8 579. http://www. CS) (vs.1 .1 -2RLL 590. If we are not satisfied with the choice of compound symmetry or unstructured variance-covariance structure then we can return to the mixed command. Let us first look at the model including both diet and exertype using the glm command which means we have to use the wide data again. however. The test of sphericity is not significant so it is appropriate to look at the results from the univariate tests.027 The two most promising structures are Autoregressive Heterogeneous Variances and Unstructured. time exertype and diet".7 590.edu/stat/spss/seminars/Repeated_Measures/default. title "model 3.1 Parms (df + 1) 2 6 2 13.2010 00:25:40] .ats. are also very close together and almost flat. We would also like to know if the people on the low-fat diet who engage in running have lower pulse rates than the people participating in the not low-fat diet who are not running.7 4 0 . GLM time1 time2 time3 BY exertype diet /WSFACTOR=time 3 /WSDESIGN=time /PLOT = profile(time*exertype*diet ) . Exercise example.Repeated Measures Analysis with SPSS Model comparison (comparing to Compound Symmetry) Model Compound Symmetry Unstructured Autoregressive (from SAS PROC MIXED) Autoregressive Heterogenous Variances AIC 594.8 577.ucla. The interactions of time and exertype and diet and exertype are also significant as are the main effects of diet and exertype. the pulse rate will depend on which diet you follow. Looking at the graphs of exertype by diet. model 3 (time. exertype and time. In order to address these types of questions we need to look at a model that includes the interaction of diet and exertype.7 594. are very close together and they are almost flat whereas the running group has a higher pulse rate that increases over time. In the graph of exertype by diet we see that for the low-fat diet (diet=1) group the pulse rate for the two exercise types: at rest and walking. diet and exertype) Using the GLM command Looking at models including only diet or exertype separately does not answer all our questions.01 na Diff -2RLL Diff in df (vs. CS) p value for Diff (from a chi square dist) 587. the pulse rate for the running group increases greatly over time and the increase is much steeper than the increase of the running group in the low-fat diet group. The univariate tests indicate that there is a three-way interaction between diet.10. For the not lowfat diet (diet=2) group the same two exercise types: at rest and walking. the exercise type you engage in and at what time during the the exercise that you measure the pulse. For this group.htm[28. In other words.8 589.8 4 11 2 0.

edu/stat/spss/seminars/Repeated_Measures/default.10.2010 00:25:40] .Repeated Measures Analysis with SPSS http://www.htm[28.ats.ucla.

ats.10.htm[28.ucla.edu/stat/spss/seminars/Repeated_Measures/default.2010 00:25:40] .Repeated Measures Analysis with SPSS http://www.

Repeated Measures Analysis with SPSS Exercise example.ats. The -2 Log Likelihood decreased from 579.3 for the current model. model 3 (time.ucla. since the model has a better fit we can be more confident in the estimate of the standard errors and therefore we can be more confident in the tests and in the findings of significant factors. diet and exertype) Using the MIXED command For the mixed model we will use the autoregressive heterogeneous variances variance-covariance structure since we previously observed that this is the structure that appears to fit the data the best (see discussion of variance-covariance structures).2010 00:25:40] . The model has a better fit than the model which only includes exertype and time because both the -2Log Likelihood and the AIC has decrease dramatically. http://www. MIXED pulse BY exertype diet time /FIXED = exertype diet time exertype*time diet*time diet*exertype exertype*diet*time /REPEATED = time | SUBJECT(id) COVTYPE(arh1).3 for the current model.8 for the model including only exertype and time to 505.edu/stat/spss/seminars/Repeated_Measures/default. However. We do not expect to find a great change in which factors will be significant but we do expect to have a model that has a better fit than the glm model.8 for the model including only exertype and time to 513.htm[28. the AIC decreased from 587. The graphs are exactly the same as the glm model and we find that the same factors are significant.10.

edu/stat/spss/seminars/Repeated_Measures/default.10.htm[28. Since we are being ambitious we also want to test if the runners in the low fat diet group (diet=1) are different from the runners in the nonlow fat diet group (diet=2).Repeated Measures Analysis with SPSS Contrasts and interaction contrasts for model 3 From the graphs in the above analysis we see that the runners (exertype level 3) have a pulse rate that is increases much quicker than the pulse rates of the two other groups. We would like to know if there is a statistically significant difference between the changes over time in the pulse rate of the runners versus the change over time in the pulse rate of the walkers and the "rest-ers" (the people at rest) across diet groups and across time. We are conducting this test across both time and diet. *exertype 12 v 3.ucla. Since we are conducting a test involving exertype we have to include the coding scheme for all interactions which involve exertype.e. But to make matters even more complicated we would like to test if the runners in the low fat diet group are statistically significantly different from all the other groups (i.0001). Furthermore. exertype*time and exertype*time*diet in the test subcommand.2010 00:25:40] . the runners in the non-low fat diet. MIXED pulse BY exertype time diet /FIXED = exertype diet time exertype*time diet*time diet*exertype exertype*diet*time /REPEATED = time | SUBJECT(id) COVTYPE(arh1) /test= 'exer 12 v 3' exertype -1/2 -1/2 1 exertype*diet -1/4 -1/4 -1/4 -1/4 1/2 1/2 exertype*time -1/6 -1/6 -1/6 -1/6 -1/6 -1/6 1/3 1/3 1/3 exertype*time*diet -1/12 -1/12 -1/12 -1/12 -1/12 -1/12 -1/12 -1/12 -1/12 -1/12 -1/12 -1/12 1/6 1/6 1/6 1/6 1/6 1/6. *include all interactions involving exertype. The results are contained in the table labeled "Contrast Estimates" which are the results of the test subcommand and here we note that the runners are indeed statistically significantly different from the other two groups (p < . These contrasts are all tested using the test subcommand. we suspect that there might be a difference in pulse rate over time and across exercise type between the two diet groups. Note: The only change in the results from the model in the above example is the inclusion of the "Contrast Estimates" table and we will therefore omit them in the subsequent examples. This is the reason why we have included the coding for the interaction diet*exertype. In the following example we are testing whether the pulse rate of exertype groups 1 and 2 is significantly different from the pulse rate of exertype group 3 (the runners). http://www.ats. the walkers and the "rest-ers" in both diet groups).

MIXED pulse BY exertype time diet /FIXED = exertype diet time exertype*time diet*time diet*exertype exertype*diet*time /REPEATED = time | SUBJECT(id) COVTYPE(arh1) /test= 'exer 1 v 2' exertype -1 1 0 exertype*diet -1/2 -1/2 1/2 1/2 0 0 exertype*time -1/3 -1/3 -1/3 1/3 1/3 1/3 0 0 0 exertype*time*diet -1/6 -1/6 -1/6 -1/6 -1/6 -1/6 1/6 1/6 1/6 1/6 1/6 1/6 0 0 0 0 0 0. *include all interactions involving exertype. *exertype 1 v 2.htm[28.Repeated Measures Analysis with SPSS In the following example we are testing if exertype group 1 is different from exertype group 2 across both time and diet.2010 00:25:40] .ats.05 level (p = 0. From the results we conclude that they are not statistically significantly different from each other at the 0.edu/stat/spss/seminars/Repeated_Measures/default.07). http://www.10.ucla.

001). http://www. Keppel. In the following example we are testing if there is a difference across diets between the differences of exertype group 1 and 2 versus exertype group 3. *diet 1 v 2.004). MIXED pulse BY exertype time diet /FIXED = exertype diet time exertype*time diet*time diet*exertype exertype*diet*time /REPEATED = time | SUBJECT(id) COVTYPE(arh1) /test= 'diet 1 v 2' diet -1 1 exertype*diet -1/3 1/3 -1/3 1/3 -1/3 1/3 time*diet -1/3 1/3 -1/3 1/3 -1/3 1/3 exertype*time*diet -1/9 1/9 -1/9 1/9 -1/9 1/9 -1/9 1/9 -1/9 1/9 -1/9 1/9 -1/9 1/9 -1/9 1/9 -1/9 1/9.ats. From the results we see that there is indeed a significant differences across diets between exertype group 1 and 2 and exertype group 3 (p = 0.htm[28. *include all interactions involving diet.2010 00:25:40] . MIXED pulse BY exertype time diet /FIXED = exertype diet time exertype*time diet*time diet*exertype exertype*diet*time /REPEATED = time | SUBJECT(id) COVTYPE(arh1) /test= 'diet 1 v 2 and exertype 12 v 3' exertype*diet -1/2 1/2 -1/2 1/2 1 -1 exertype*time*diet -1/6 1/6 -1/6 1/6 -1/6 1/6 -1/6 1/6 -1/6 1/6 -1/6 1/6 1/3 -1/3 1/3 -1/3 1/3 -1/3. *include all interactions including exertype*diet. This kind of contrast is known as an interaction contrast and for more details about these type of interactions please refer to Design and Analysis by G. From the results we conclude that the two diets are indeed statistically significantly different (p = 0. *diet 1 v 2 & exertype 12 v 3.Repeated Measures Analysis with SPSS In the following example we are testing if there is a significant difference between the two diets across time and exertype.10.ucla.edu/stat/spss/seminars/Repeated_Measures/default.

001). the third emmeans subcommand tests for differences in groups of exertype for each combination of time and diet levels. The results of the second emmeans subcommand indicate that at time = 1 there is no differences in the means of the pulse rate for the different exertype groups.001).Repeated Measures Analysis with SPSS In the following example we are testing the difference between the diets for exertype group 3 (the runners).001). In the following example. for diet = 1 and time = 2 there is a significant difference across the exertype groups (p = 0. for diet = 1 and time = 3 there is a significant difference across the exertype groups(p < 0. To summarize these results we could say that at the first time point the three exertype groups have mean pulse rates that are not significantly different regardless of which diet they are following. at time = 3 there is also a difference among the means of pulse rate of the exertype groups (p < 0.ucla. MIXED pulse BY exertype time diet /FIXED = exertype diet time exertype*time diet*time diet*exertype exertype*diet*time /REPEATED = time | SUBJECT(id) COVTYPE(arh1) /test= 'diet 1 v 2 runners only' diet 1 -1 exertype*diet 0 0 0 0 1 -1 time*diet 1/3 -1/3 1/3 -1/3 1/3 -1/3 exertype*time*diet 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1/3 -1/3 1/3 -1/3 1/3 -1/3.10. for diet = 2 and time = 3 there is a significant difference across the exertype groups(p < 0. *The first emmeans subcommand is testing the differences among exertype for each level of diet. *The 3rd emmeans subcommand tests for differences in groups of http://www. *include all interactions invovling diet.001).001). It is also possible to look at the differences among groups at each level of another variable and in order to do so we have to utilize the emmeans subcommand with the compare option.htm[28.34). From the results we see that there is a statistically significant difference between the diets (p < 0. The results of the first emmeans subcommand indicate that there is a differences in the means for each level of exertype when we are considering only the people in diet = 1 (p < 0.003). For the other time points there are significant differences between the mean pulse rates for the three exertype groups and that these differences exists in both diet groups. *diet 1 v 2 for runners only (exertype group 3). The results of the third emmeans subcommand indicates that for diet = 1 and time = 1 there is no significant difference across the exertype groups (p = .001). the second emmeans subcommand tests for differences in groups of exertype for each time point across both levels of diet.edu/stat/spss/seminars/Repeated_Measures/default. for diet = 2 and time = 2 there is a significant difference across the exertype groups (p < 0.001) and when we are considering only the people in diet = 2 (p < 0. the first emmeans subcommand tests for differences among the exertype groups at each level of diet across all levels of time.229). at time = 2 there is a difference among the means of the exertype groups (p < 0. *The second emmeans subcommand is testing for differences at each time point.2010 00:25:40] .001).ats. The results of the third emmeans subcommand also indicates that for diet = 2 and time = 1 there is no significant difference across the exertype groups (p = .

10. However.edu/stat/spss/seminars/Repeated_Measures/default.htm[28.ats.Repeated Measures Analysis with SPSS exertype for each combination of time and diet levels. In this study a baseline pulse measurement was obtained at time = 0 for every individual in the study.ucla. Unequally Spaced Time Points Modeling Time as a Linear Predictor of Pulse We have another study which is very similar to the one previously discussed except that in this new study the pulse measurements were not taken at regular time points. subsequent pulse measurements were taken at less regular time intervals. The second pulse measurements were taken at http://www.2010 00:25:40] . MIXED pulse BY exertype diet time /FIXED = exertype diet time exertype*time diet*time diet*exertype exertype*diet*time /REPEATED = time | SUBJECT(id) COVTYPE(arh1) /emmeans = tables(exertype*diet) compare(exertype) /emmeans = tables(exertype*time) compare(exertype) /emmeans = tables(exertype*diet*time) compare(exertype).

edu/stat/spss/seminars/Repeated_Measures/default. 1 1 1 1 90 0 1 2 1 1 92 228 1 3 1 1 93 296 1 4 1 1 93 639 2 1 1 1 90 0 2 2 1 1 92 56 2 3 1 1 93 434 2 4 1 1 93 538 3 1 1 1 97 0 3 2 1 1 97 150 3 3 1 1 94 295 3 4 1 1 94 541 4 1 1 1 80 0 4 2 1 1 82 121 4 3 1 1 83 256 4 4 1 1 83 575 5 1 1 1 91 0 5 2 1 1 92 161 5 3 1 1 91 252 5 4 1 1 91 526 6 1 1 2 83 0 6 2 1 2 83 73 6 3 1 2 84 320 6 4 1 2 84 570 7 1 1 2 87 0 7 2 1 2 88 40 7 3 1 2 90 325 7 4 1 2 90 730 8 1 1 2 92 0 8 2 1 2 94 205 8 3 1 2 95 276 8 4 1 2 95 761 9 1 1 2 97 0 9 2 1 2 99 57 9 3 1 2 96 244 9 4 1 2 96 695 10 1 1 2 100 0 10 2 1 2 97 143 10 3 1 2 100 296 10 4 1 2 100 722 11 1 2 1 86 0 11 2 2 1 86 83 11 3 2 1 84 262 11 4 2 1 84 566 12 1 2 1 93 0 12 2 2 1 103 116 12 3 2 1 104 357 12 4 2 1 104 479 13 1 2 1 90 0 13 2 2 1 92 191 13 3 2 1 93 280 13 4 2 1 93 709 14 1 2 1 95 0 14 2 2 1 96 112 14 3 2 1 100 219 14 4 2 1 100 367 15 1 2 1 89 0 15 2 2 1 96 96 15 3 2 1 95 339 15 4 2 1 95 639 16 1 2 2 84 0 16 2 2 2 86 92 16 3 2 2 89 351 16 4 2 2 89 508 17 1 2 2 103 0 17 2 2 2 109 196 17 3 2 2 114 213 17 4 2 2 120 634 18 1 2 2 92 0 18 2 2 2 96 117 18 3 2 2 101 227 18 4 2 2 101 614 19 1 2 2 97 0 19 2 2 2 98 70 19 3 2 2 100 295 19 4 2 2 100 515 20 1 2 2 102 0 20 2 2 2 104 165 20 3 2 2 103 302 20 4 2 2 103 792 http://www. the third pulse measurement was obtained at approximately 5 minutes (300 seconds).ucla.Repeated Measures Analysis with SPSS approximately 2 minutes (120 seconds). data list free / id timec exertype diet pulse time.10.htm[28. The data for this study is displayed below in the study2 data file. and the fourth and final pulse measurement was obtained at approximately 10 minutes (600 seconds). begin data.2010 00:25:40] .ats.

The multilevel model with time as a linear effect is illustrated in the following equations. Level 1 (time): Pulse = ß0j + ß1j (Time) + r ij http://www.ucla.edu/stat/spss/seminars/Repeated_Measures/default.htm[28. In order to get a better understanding of the data we will look at a scatter plot of the data with lines connecting the points for each individual.Repeated Measures Analysis with SPSS 21 1 3 1 93 0 21 2 3 1 98 100 21 3 3 1 110 396 21 4 3 1 115 498 22 1 3 1 98 0 22 2 3 1 104 104 22 3 3 1 112 310 22 4 3 1 117 518 23 1 3 1 98 0 23 2 3 1 105 148 23 3 3 1 118 208 23 4 3 1 121 677 24 1 3 1 87 0 24 2 3 1 122 171 24 3 3 1 127 320 24 4 3 1 133 633 25 1 3 1 94 0 25 2 3 1 110 57 25 3 3 1 116 268 25 4 3 1 119 657 26 1 3 2 95 0 26 2 3 2 126 163 26 3 3 2 143 382 26 4 3 2 147 501 27 1 3 2 100 0 27 2 3 2 126 70 27 3 3 2 140 347 27 4 3 2 148 737 28 1 3 2 103 0 28 2 3 2 124 61 28 3 3 2 140 263 28 4 3 2 143 588 29 1 3 2 94 0 29 2 3 2 135 164 29 3 3 2 130 353 29 4 3 2 137 560 30 1 3 2 99 0 30 2 3 2 111 114 30 3 3 2 140 362 30 4 3 2 148 501 end data.ats.2010 00:25:40] .10. This is a situation where multilevel modeling excels for the analysis of data with irregularly spaced time points.

Note: The random components have been placed in square brackets.2010 00:25:40] . As we can easily see the this model is not an optimal model since the green line is fitting curved data with a straight line. Note: Currently it is not possible to produce these types of graphs with the mixed command in SPSS version 11. All the predicted lines are straight lines since we fitted time to as a linear effect. Pulse = γ 00 + γ 01(Exertype) + γ 10(Time) + γ 11(Exertype*time) + [ u0j + u1j (Time) + r ij ] Since this model contains both fixed and random components. The graphs in this section were all produced by SAS.ucla.htm[28. Please refer to the seminar Repeated Measures using SAS for the code. In order to access how well the model with time as a linear effect fits the model we have plotted the predicted and the observed values in one plot. mixed pulse with time by exertype /fixed = time exertype time*exertype /random = intercept time | subject(id). http://www.Repeated Measures Analysis with SPSS Level 2 (person): ß0j = γ 00 + γ 01(Exertype) + Level 2 (person): ß1j = γ 10 + γ 11(Exertype) + u0j u1j Substituting the level 2 model into the level 1 model we get the following single equations. *linear model. it can be analyzed in the mixed command as shown below.ats.edu/stat/spss/seminars/Repeated_Measures/default.10.

We see that term is significant. mixed pulse with time by exertype /fixed = time exertype time*exertype time*time /random = intercept time | subject(id).edu/stat/spss/seminars/Repeated_Measures/default.ucla.10.2010 00:25:40] . *quadratic mode.Repeated Measures Analysis with SPSS Modeling Time as a Quadratic Predictor of Pulse To model the quadratic effect of time. http://www. we add time*time to the model.htm[28.ats.

Modeling Time as a Quadratic Predictor of Pulse. We see that this model fits better. Interacting by Exertype We can include an interaction of time*time*exertype to indicate that the different exercises not only show different linear trends over time. as shown below.ats.10. mixed pulse with time by exertype /fixed = time exertype time*exertype time*time time*time*exertype /random = intercept time | subject(id). *Modeling time as quadratic and interacting with exertype.Repeated Measures Analysis with SPSS Again.2010 00:25:40] .htm[28. The time*time*exertype term is significant. http://www.ucla.edu/stat/spss/seminars/Repeated_Measures/default. we can plot the predicted values against the actual values of pulse. but it appears that the predicted values for the green group have too little curvature and the red and blue group have too much curvature. but that they also show different quadratic trends over time.

Repeated Measures Analysis with SPSS Below we see the predicted and actual values and see that this model fits much better.2010 00:25:40] .edu/stat/spss/seminars/Repeated_Measures/default. The green curve hugs the data from the green group much better and the blue and red groups are much flatter.Chapter 18 SPSS Library: Linear Mixed Models (courtesy of SPSS) SPSS Library: An Overview of SPSS GLM (courtesy of SPSS) http://www. For more information: SPSS Library: Comparing Methods of Analyzing Repeated Measures Data SPSS Textbook Examples: Design and Analysis. fitting their data much better as well.Chapter 16 SPSS Textbook Examples from Design and Analysis.A Researchers Handbook (3rd Edition) SPSS Textbook Examples from Design and Analysis.ats.10.ucla.Chapter 17 SPSS Textbook Examples from Design and Analysis.htm[28.

Report an error on this page http://www.ats. book.ucla.edu/stat/spss/seminars/Repeated_Measures/default.10.htm[28.Repeated Measures Analysis with SPSS SPSS Library: MANOVA and GLM (courtesy of SPSS) SPSS Library: Understanding and Interpreting Parameter Estimates in Regression and ANOVA (courtesy of SPSS) SPSS Library: How do I handle interactions of continuous and categorical variables? SPSS Library: Advanced Issues in Using and Understanding SPSS MANOVA (courtesy of SPSS) How to cite this page UCLA Researchers are invited to our Statistical Consulting Services We recommend others to our list of Other Resources for Statistical Computing Help These pages are Copyrighted (c) by UCLA Academic Technology Services The content of this web site should not be construed as an endorsement of any particular web site. or software product by the University of California.2010 00:25:40] .

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