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OF BARS

ale barelor drepte. Se consideră cazul vibraţiilor axiale, ale barelor cu secţiune

variabilă discontinuu, acţionate de forţe perturbatoare concentrate. Sunt, de

asemenea, prezentate câteva aplicaţii relativ simple.

The paper presents the transfer matrix method, applied to forced vibrations

of straight bars. The case of axial vibrations is considered, of bars with

discontinuously variable cross-section, acted upon by concentrated perturbation

forces. Some relatively simple applications are also presented.

1. Introduction

Compared to the finite element method, the transfer matrix method is used

more and more in the study of continuous system vibrations [1], [2], [6], [7]. The

method is used for longitudinal, torsional and bending vibrations, as well as for

any of their combinations [6], [7], [10], [12].

Some applications of the method have already been presented by the

authors in references [2], [3]. This paper studies the forced vibrations of bars. The

case of axial vibrations is considered, of bars with discontinuously variable cross-

section, acted upon by concentrated perturbation forces. Some relatively simple

applications are also presented.

vectors in two sections, by means of field matrixes.

Thus, for the study of free axial vibrations (fig. 1), the relation is [1], [7],

[10], [11], [12]:

1

Prof., Dept. of Mechanics, University POLITEHNICA of Bucharest, Romania

2

Reader, Dept. of Mechanics, University POLITEHNICA of Bucharest, Romania, e-mail:

ycraif@yahoo.com

3

Reader, Dept. of Mechanics, University POLITEHNICA of Bucharest, Romania

36 Valentin Ceauşu, Andrei Craifaleanu, Cristian Dragomirescu

⎡ ω 1 c ω ⎤

⎧u 2 ⎫ ⎢ cos l1, 2 ⋅ sin l1, 2 ⎥ ⎧u ⎫

c EA ω c ⋅⎨ 1 ⎬,

⎨ ⎬=⎢ ⎥ (1)

⎩ N 2 ⎭ ⎢− EA ⋅ ω sin ω l1, 2 ω

cos l1, 2 ⎥ ⎩ N1 ⎭

⎣ c c c ⎦

where the following notations have been introduced:

– propagation speed of longitudinal waves,

E

c= ; (2)

ρ

– A – cross-section area; E – Young’s modulus; ω – circular frequency of the

vibration.

1 2

N1 N2

u1 u(x,t) u2

x

l1,2

Fig. 1

By using the quantities [2], [3]

ω

=α , (3)

c

respectively,

N

qu = u , q N = , (4)

EAα

relation (1) becomes:

⎧qu(2 ) ⎫ ⎡ cos α l sin α l1, 2 ⎤ ⎧⎪qu(1) ⎫⎪

⎪ ⎪ 1, 2

⎨ (2 ) ⎬ = ⎢− sin α l ⎥⋅⎨ ⎬. (5)

⎪⎩q N ⎪⎭ ⎣ 1, 2 cos α l1, 2 ⎦ ⎪q (1) ⎪

⎩ N⎭

In relations (5), the status vectors

⎧q (1) ⎫ ⎧ u1 ⎫ ⎧ q (2 ) ⎫ ⎧ u 2 ⎫

{q}(1) = ⎪⎨ u(1) ⎪⎬ = ⎪⎨ N1 ⎪⎬ , {q}(2) = ⎪⎨ u(2) ⎪⎬ = ⎪⎨ N 2 ⎪⎬ (6)

⎪⎩q N ⎪⎭ ⎪⎩ EAα ⎪⎭ ⎪⎩q N ⎪⎭ ⎪⎩ EAα ⎪⎭

have the dimension of a length.

Non-dimensional notations can be also used. Thus, by choosing a

reference displacement, u~0 , with notations

u N

u~u = , u~N = , (7)

u0 u 0 EAα

relation (5) becomes

{q~u }(2) = [A](1,2){q~N }(1) , (8)

Transfer matrix method for forced vibrations of bars 37

where field matrix [A](1,2 ) , also called transfer matrix from section (1) to section

(2) , has the same expression as in relation (5), i.e.

⎡ cos α l sin α l ⎤

[A](1,2) = ⎢− sin α 1l, 2 cos α l1, 2 ⎥ . (9)

⎣ 1, 2 1, 2 ⎦

By using notations (4) and (6), relation (5) can be written more

concentrated:

{q}(2) = [A](1,2) {q}(1) . (10)

In previous papers, [2], [3] the transfer matrix method has been applied for

the study of free longitudinal, torsional and bending vibrations, of straight bars

with constant, discontinuously variable and continuously variable cross-section.

3. Forced vibrations

For the study of forced vibrations, first the case of a bar acted upon by a

concentrated perturbation force is considered.

The perturbation force is chosen in the form Fi = Fi, 0 cos Ω t (fig. 2).

i-1 i

Fi =Fi,0cosΩt

ui(l ) ui(r )

dx

Fi =Fi,0cosΩt

N i(l ) N i(r )

Fig. 2

In section i , an element of infinitesimal length dx is considered, with a

section to the left of the application point of the force i (l ) and one to the ( )

( ).

right i (r )

⎧u (r ) = u (l )

⎪ i i

⎨ (r ) (11)

⎪⎩ N i = N i(l ) − F0 cos Ω t .

The second relation (11) can be written

38 Valentin Ceauşu, Andrei Craifaleanu, Cristian Dragomirescu

= − cos Ω t (12)

EAα EAα EAα

or

(r ) = q (l ) − q cos Ω t ,

qN (13)

i Ni Fi

where

Fi, 0

q Fi = , (14)

EAα

Ω

=α . (15)

c

Relations (11) can be written, following the method presented in

references [3] and [7], by means of a 3× 3 jump matrix, for the axial force:

⎧ u (r ) ⎫ ⎧ u (l ) ⎫

⎪ i(r ) ⎪ ⎡1 0 0

i

⎤ ⎪ (l ) ⎪

⎪ Ni ⎪ ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ Ni ⎪ .

⎨ ⎬ = ⎢0 1 − q Fi cos Ω t ⎥ ⋅ ⎨ ⎬ (16)

⎪ EAα ⎪ ⎢0 0 1 ⎥⎦ ⎪ EAα ⎪

⎪ 1 ⎪ ⎣ ⎪ 1 ⎪

⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭

For an element situated between sections i − 1 and i , for which the

perturbation force F p, i = F0, i cos Ωt is applied in section i the following relation

can be written

{q* }(i, r ) = [S F ](i )[A* ](i −1, i ){q* }(i −1, r ) , (17)

where

⎧ qu(i −1) ⎫ ⎧ qu(i ) ⎫

{}

q*

(i −1, r ) ⎪

= ⎨q N

⎪

⎪ (i −1, r ) ⎪

⎬, q

* (i

{}

, r ) ⎪⎪ (i, r ) ⎪⎪

= ⎨q N ⎬ , (18)

⎪ 1 ⎪ ⎪ 1 ⎪

⎪⎩ ⎪⎭ ⎪⎩ ⎪⎭

⎡ cos α l1− 2 sin α l1− 2 0⎤ ⎡1 0 0 ⎤

[A ] * (i −1, i )

= ⎢⎢− sin α l1− 2 cos α l1− 2 0⎥⎥ , (i) ⎢

[S F ] = ⎢0 1 − q Fi cos Ω t ⎥⎥ . (19)

⎢⎣ 0 0 1⎥⎦ ⎢⎣0 0 1 ⎥⎦

In the case of forced vibrations, the permanent solution (the particular

solution) must be determined, which, for F0, i cos Ωt , has the expression:

u ( x, t ) = X ( x ) ⋅ [A cos Ωt + B sin Ω t ]. (20)

The constants A and B , as well as the function X ( x ) , can be determined

according to the boundary conditions, by writing the relations between status

matrixes at the two ends of the bar.

Transfer matrix method for forced vibrations of bars 39

4. Applications

transfer matrix method.

4.1. Bar fixed at one end, with perturbation force applied at the free

end

In this case (fig. 3), since the perturbation force is applied at the end of the

bar, it can be introduced by boundary conditions and the artifice presented above

is not necessary. However, the method is used as it was described.

0 1

Fp =F0cosΩt

x

l

Fig. 3

With the notations in Fig. 3 and from (6) and (14), it follows:

⎧ qu(1) ⎫ ⎡1 0 0 (0 )

⎤ ⎡ cos α l sin α l 0⎤ ⎧qu ⎫

⎪⎪ (1, r ) ⎪⎪ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎪⎪ (0 ) ⎪⎪

⎨q N ⎬ = ⎢0 1 − q F cos Ω t ⎥ ⋅ ⎢− sin α l cos α l 0⎥ ⋅ ⎨q N ⎬ , (21)

⎪ 1 ⎪ ⎢0 0 1 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 0 ⎪

1⎥⎦ ⎪ 1 ⎪ ⎪

⎪⎩ ⎪⎭ ⎣ ⎩ ⎭

which is equivalent to

⎧q (1) = q (0 ) cos α l + q (0 ) sin α l

⎪ u u N

⎪ (1, r ) (0) (0 )

⎨q N = − qu sin α l + q N cos α l − q F cos Ω t (21’)

⎪

⎪1 = 1.

⎩

For the bar fixed at one end and free at the other, the boundary conditions

are

u0 = 0 , N1 = 0 (22)

or

(1, r )

q u(0 ) = 0 , q N = 0 . (22’)

System (21’) becomes, with the initial conditions:

⎧ N0

⎪⎪u1 = EAα sin α l

⎨ (23)

⎪0 = N 0 cos α l − F0 cos Ω t .

⎪⎩ EAα EAα

40 Valentin Ceauşu, Andrei Craifaleanu, Cristian Dragomirescu

It follows:

⎧ F0

⎪N 0 = cos Ω t

⎨ cos α l (24)

⎪u = F tg α l ⋅ cos Ω t .

⎩ 1 0

Observation. In the case

cos α l = 0 , (25)

respectively,

ω

cos l = 0, (25’)

c

system (23) leads to u1 → ∞ , N 0 → ∞ . This happens due to the resonance

phenomenon, for which the particular solution is not in the form

A cos Ω t + B sin Ω t , but in the form A1t cos Ω t + B1t sin Ω t .

Relation (25’) represents the equation of the eigenfrequencies, for free

undamped vibrations. This equation has the solution

πc

ω k = (2k − 1) . (26)

l

4.2. Bar fixed at both ends, with perturbation force applied at the

middle

⎡ l l ⎤

cos α sin α 0⎥

⎧ qu(1) ⎫ ⎢ 2 2 ⎧q (0 ) ⎫

⎪⎪ (1, l ) ⎪⎪ ⎢ l l ⎥ ⎪⎪ u(0 ) ⎪⎪

⎨q N ⎬ = ⎢− sin α cos α 0 ⎥ ⋅ ⎨q N ⎬ , (27)

⎪ 1 ⎪ ⎢ 2 2 ⎥ ⎪ ⎪

⎩⎪ ⎭⎪ ⎢ 0 0 1⎥ ⎪⎩ 1 ⎪⎭

⎢⎣ ⎥⎦

or, concentrated,

{q* }(1, l ) = [A* ] (0,1) {q* }(0) . (27’)

Fp =F0cosΩt

0 1 2

l/2 l/2

0 1l 1r 2

l/2 l/2

Fp =F0cosΩt

Fig. 4

Transfer matrix method for forced vibrations of bars 41

⎧ qu(1) ⎫ ⎡1 0 0 ⎤ ⎧ qu ⎫

(1)

⎪⎪ (1, r ) ⎪⎪ ⎢ ⎪

⎥ ⎪ (1, l ) ⎪⎪

⎨q N ⎬ = ⎢0 1 − q F cos Ω t ⎥ ⋅ ⎨q N ⎬ , (28)

⎪ 1 ⎪ ⎢0 0 1 ⎥⎦ ⎪⎪ 1 ⎪⎪

⎩⎪ ⎭⎪ ⎣ ⎩ ⎭

or, concentrated,

{q* }(1, r ) = [S F ] ( 1) {q* }(1, l ) . (28’)

For segment (1 − 2) ,

⎡ l l ⎤

cos α sin α 0⎥

⎧ qu(2 ) ⎫ ⎢ 2 2 ⎧ qu(1) ⎫

⎪⎪ (2, l ) ⎪⎪ ⎢ l l ⎥ ⎪⎪ (1, r ) ⎪⎪

⎨q N ⎬ = ⎢− sin α cos α 0 ⎥ ⋅ ⎨q N ⎬ , (29)

⎪ 1 ⎪ ⎢ 2 2 ⎥ ⎪ ⎪

⎪⎩ ⎪⎭ ⎢ 0 0 1⎥ ⎩⎪ 1 ⎭⎪

⎢⎣ ⎥⎦

respectively,

{q* }(2) = [A* ] ( 1, 2) {q* }(1, r ) . (29’)

From relations (27’), (28’) and (29’), it results:

{q* }(2) = [A* ] ( 1, 2) ⋅ [S F ] (1) ⋅ [A* ] (0,1) ⋅ {q* }(0) . (30)

Relations (30) are accompanied by the boundary conditions:

qu(0 ) = 0 , qu(2 ) = 0 . (31)

() ( )

In relations (30) and (31), the unknowns are q N0 , q N2 , i.e. N 0 ( t ) and

N 2 ( t ) . The time function can be easily identified as: cos Ω t . Hence:

N ( t ) = Nˆ cos Ω t , N ( t ) = Nˆ cos Ω t ,

0 0 2 2 (32)

so that only the scalars N̂ 0 and N̂ 2 remain as unknowns.

The equation of the eigenfrequencies can be also established, by equating

with zero the determinant of the linear system in N̂ 0 and N̂ 2 , resulted from

equation (30) with conditions (31).

The matrix form of the equations in N̂ 0 and N̂ 2 facilitates the use of

computer codes, such as MATLAB, Mathcad or even Excel, in order to solve the

problem.

Indeed, by choosing l = 1 m , A = 4 ⋅10 −4 m 2 , Ω = 10 s −1 , F0 = 100 N ,

42 Valentin Ceauşu, Andrei Craifaleanu, Cristian Dragomirescu

kg N

E = 7.86 , ρ = 2.1 ⋅ 10 6, the following values have been obtained:

m 3

m2

Nˆ 0 = 52.43 N and Nˆ 2 = −52.43 N .

5. Conclusions

Transfer matrix method can be used also for solving problems of forced

vibrations of bars. By using the artifice presented in relations (17), the matrix

form of the equations can be easily written in order to determine the time function

and the values of the unknown quantities.

The examples presented above show how the method can be applied.

6. Acknowledgement

(SIMOCA), funded by the National Authority for Scientific Research in Romania

(Ministry of Education, Research and Youth) through the National Center for

Projects Management (CNMP).

REFERENCES

[1]. Gh., Buzdugan, Lucia Fetcu, M. Radeş, Vibraţiile sistemelor mecanice (Mechanical Systems

Vibrations, in Romanian), Ed. Academiei, Bucureşti, 1975.

[2]. V. Ceauşu, A. Craifaleanu, Cr. Dragomirescu, A. Costache, Maria Prunău, Transfer Matrix

Applied to Lateral Vibration of the Beams, Second Int. Conf. of SRA on Sound and

Vibration, Bucharest, 14-17 oct. 2004.

[3]. V. Ceauşu, N. Enescu, A. Craifaleanu, Cr. Dragomirescu, The axial force influence on the

bars transversal vibrations, Analele Univ. Maritime Constanţa, anul VII, vol. 9 (II),

Constanţa, 2006.

[4]. W. R. Clough, J. Penzien, Dynamics of Structures, McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1975.

[5]. M. Géradin, D. Rixen, Mechanical Vibrations. Theory and Application to Structural

Dynamics, Wiley-Masson, 1994.

[6]. O. Guash, F. X. Magrans, The Global Transfer Direct Transfer Method Applied to a Finite

Simply Supported Elastic Beam, Journal of Sound and Vibration, 276, pp. 335-359, 2004.

[7]. M. Lalanne, P. Berthier, J. Der Hagopian, Mécanique de vibrations linéaires, Masson, 1986.

[8]. W. Nowacki, Dinamica sistemelor elastice, Ed. Tehnica, Bucureşti, 1969.

[9]. S. Timoshenko, D. H. Young, W. Jr. Weaver, Vibration Problems in Engineering, Fourth Ed.,

John Wiley&Sons, 1974.

[10]. R. Voinea, D. Voiculescu, Vibraţii mecanice, (Mechanical Vibrations, in Romanian, printed

course) I. P. B., 1979.

[11]. R. Voinea, D. Voiculescu, Capitole speciale de mecanică teoretică (Special Chapters of

Theorical Mechanics, in Romanian), I.P.B., 1990.

[12]. R. Voinea, D. Voiculescu, P .Fl. Simion, Introducere în mecanica solidului cu aplicaţii în

inginerie (Introduction in Solid Mechanics with Applications in Engineering, in Romanian),

Ed. Academiei, Bucureşti, 1989.

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