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# U.P.B. Sci. Bull., Series D, Vol. 72, Iss.

OF BARS

## Lucrarea prezintă metoda matricelor de transfer, aplicată la vibraţiile forţate

ale barelor drepte. Se consideră cazul vibraţiilor axiale, ale barelor cu secţiune
variabilă discontinuu, acţionate de forţe perturbatoare concentrate. Sunt, de
asemenea, prezentate câteva aplicaţii relativ simple.

The paper presents the transfer matrix method, applied to forced vibrations
of straight bars. The case of axial vibrations is considered, of bars with
discontinuously variable cross-section, acted upon by concentrated perturbation
forces. Some relatively simple applications are also presented.

## Keywords: vibration of bars, transfer matrix.

1. Introduction

Compared to the finite element method, the transfer matrix method is used
more and more in the study of continuous system vibrations , , , . The
method is used for longitudinal, torsional and bending vibrations, as well as for
any of their combinations , , , .
Some applications of the method have already been presented by the
authors in references , . This paper studies the forced vibrations of bars. The
case of axial vibrations is considered, of bars with discontinuously variable cross-
section, acted upon by concentrated perturbation forces. Some relatively simple
applications are also presented.

## The transfer matrix method is based on establishing relations between state

vectors in two sections, by means of field matrixes.
Thus, for the study of free axial vibrations (fig. 1), the relation is , ,
, , :

1
Prof., Dept. of Mechanics, University POLITEHNICA of Bucharest, Romania
2
Reader, Dept. of Mechanics, University POLITEHNICA of Bucharest, Romania, e-mail:
ycraif@yahoo.com
3
Reader, Dept. of Mechanics, University POLITEHNICA of Bucharest, Romania
36 Valentin Ceauşu, Andrei Craifaleanu, Cristian Dragomirescu

⎡ ω 1 c ω ⎤
⎧u 2 ⎫ ⎢ cos l1, 2 ⋅ sin l1, 2 ⎥ ⎧u ⎫
c EA ω c ⋅⎨ 1 ⎬,
⎨ ⎬=⎢ ⎥ (1)
⎩ N 2 ⎭ ⎢− EA ⋅ ω sin ω l1, 2 ω
cos l1, 2 ⎥ ⎩ N1 ⎭
⎣ c c c ⎦
where the following notations have been introduced:
– propagation speed of longitudinal waves,
E
c= ; (2)
ρ
– A – cross-section area; E – Young’s modulus; ω – circular frequency of the
vibration.
1 2
N1 N2

u1 u(x,t) u2
x
l1,2
Fig. 1
By using the quantities , 
ω
=α , (3)
c
respectively,
N
qu = u , q N = , (4)
EAα
relation (1) becomes:
⎧qu(2 ) ⎫ ⎡ cos α l sin α l1, 2 ⎤ ⎧⎪qu(1) ⎫⎪
⎪ ⎪ 1, 2
⎨ (2 ) ⎬ = ⎢− sin α l ⎥⋅⎨ ⎬. (5)
⎪⎩q N ⎪⎭ ⎣ 1, 2 cos α l1, 2 ⎦ ⎪q (1) ⎪
⎩ N⎭
In relations (5), the status vectors
⎧q (1) ⎫ ⎧ u1 ⎫ ⎧ q (2 ) ⎫ ⎧ u 2 ⎫
{q}(1) = ⎪⎨ u(1) ⎪⎬ = ⎪⎨ N1 ⎪⎬ , {q}(2) = ⎪⎨ u(2) ⎪⎬ = ⎪⎨ N 2 ⎪⎬ (6)
⎪⎩q N ⎪⎭ ⎪⎩ EAα ⎪⎭ ⎪⎩q N ⎪⎭ ⎪⎩ EAα ⎪⎭
have the dimension of a length.
Non-dimensional notations can be also used. Thus, by choosing a
reference displacement, u~0 , with notations
u N
u~u = , u~N = , (7)
u0 u 0 EAα
relation (5) becomes
{q~u }(2) = [A](1,2){q~N }(1) , (8)
Transfer matrix method for forced vibrations of bars 37

where field matrix [A](1,2 ) , also called transfer matrix from section (1) to section
(2) , has the same expression as in relation (5), i.e.
⎡ cos α l sin α l ⎤
[A](1,2) = ⎢− sin α 1l, 2 cos α l1, 2 ⎥ . (9)
⎣ 1, 2 1, 2 ⎦
By using notations (4) and (6), relation (5) can be written more
concentrated:
{q}(2) = [A](1,2) {q}(1) . (10)
In previous papers, ,  the transfer matrix method has been applied for
the study of free longitudinal, torsional and bending vibrations, of straight bars
with constant, discontinuously variable and continuously variable cross-section.

3. Forced vibrations

For the study of forced vibrations, first the case of a bar acted upon by a
concentrated perturbation force is considered.
The perturbation force is chosen in the form Fi = Fi, 0 cos Ω t (fig. 2).
i-1 i
Fi =Fi,0cosΩt

ui(l ) ui(r )

dx

Fi =Fi,0cosΩt

N i(l ) N i(r )
Fig. 2
In section i , an element of infinitesimal length dx is considered, with a
section to the left of the application point of the force i (l ) and one to the ( )
( ).
right i (r )

## Relations between the status quantities are:

⎧u (r ) = u (l )
⎪ i i
⎨ (r ) (11)
⎪⎩ N i = N i(l ) − F0 cos Ω t .
The second relation (11) can be written
38 Valentin Ceauşu, Andrei Craifaleanu, Cristian Dragomirescu

## N i(r ) N i(l ) Fi, 0

= − cos Ω t (12)
EAα EAα EAα
or
(r ) = q (l ) − q cos Ω t ,
qN (13)
i Ni Fi
where
Fi, 0
q Fi = , (14)
EAα
Ω
=α . (15)
c
Relations (11) can be written, following the method presented in
references  and , by means of a 3× 3 jump matrix, for the axial force:
⎧ u (r ) ⎫ ⎧ u (l ) ⎫
⎪ i(r ) ⎪ ⎡1 0 0
i
⎤ ⎪ (l ) ⎪
⎪ Ni ⎪ ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ Ni ⎪ .
⎨ ⎬ = ⎢0 1 − q Fi cos Ω t ⎥ ⋅ ⎨ ⎬ (16)
⎪ EAα ⎪ ⎢0 0 1 ⎥⎦ ⎪ EAα ⎪
⎪ 1 ⎪ ⎣ ⎪ 1 ⎪
⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭
For an element situated between sections i − 1 and i , for which the
perturbation force F p, i = F0, i cos Ωt is applied in section i the following relation
can be written
{q* }(i, r ) = [S F ](i )[A* ](i −1, i ){q* }(i −1, r ) , (17)
where
⎧ qu(i −1) ⎫ ⎧ qu(i ) ⎫
{}
q*
(i −1, r ) ⎪
= ⎨q N

⎪ (i −1, r ) ⎪
⎬, q
* (i
{}
, r ) ⎪⎪ (i, r ) ⎪⎪
= ⎨q N ⎬ , (18)
⎪ 1 ⎪ ⎪ 1 ⎪
⎪⎩ ⎪⎭ ⎪⎩ ⎪⎭
⎡ cos α l1− 2 sin α l1− 2 0⎤ ⎡1 0 0 ⎤
[A ] * (i −1, i )
= ⎢⎢− sin α l1− 2 cos α l1− 2 0⎥⎥ , (i) ⎢
[S F ] = ⎢0 1 − q Fi cos Ω t ⎥⎥ . (19)
⎢⎣ 0 0 1⎥⎦ ⎢⎣0 0 1 ⎥⎦
In the case of forced vibrations, the permanent solution (the particular
solution) must be determined, which, for F0, i cos Ωt , has the expression:
u ( x, t ) = X ( x ) ⋅ [A cos Ωt + B sin Ω t ]. (20)
The constants A and B , as well as the function X ( x ) , can be determined
according to the boundary conditions, by writing the relations between status
matrixes at the two ends of the bar.
Transfer matrix method for forced vibrations of bars 39

4. Applications

## Two relatively simple applications are presented, in order to illustrate the

transfer matrix method.

4.1. Bar fixed at one end, with perturbation force applied at the free
end

In this case (fig. 3), since the perturbation force is applied at the end of the
bar, it can be introduced by boundary conditions and the artifice presented above
is not necessary. However, the method is used as it was described.
0 1
Fp =F0cosΩt

x
l
Fig. 3
With the notations in Fig. 3 and from (6) and (14), it follows:

⎧ qu(1) ⎫ ⎡1 0 0 (0 )
⎤ ⎡ cos α l sin α l 0⎤ ⎧qu ⎫
⎪⎪ (1, r ) ⎪⎪ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎪⎪ (0 ) ⎪⎪
⎨q N ⎬ = ⎢0 1 − q F cos Ω t ⎥ ⋅ ⎢− sin α l cos α l 0⎥ ⋅ ⎨q N ⎬ , (21)
⎪ 1 ⎪ ⎢0 0 1 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 0 ⎪
1⎥⎦ ⎪ 1 ⎪ ⎪
⎪⎩ ⎪⎭ ⎣ ⎩ ⎭
which is equivalent to
⎧q (1) = q (0 ) cos α l + q (0 ) sin α l
⎪ u u N
⎪ (1, r ) (0) (0 )
⎨q N = − qu sin α l + q N cos α l − q F cos Ω t (21’)

⎪1 = 1.

For the bar fixed at one end and free at the other, the boundary conditions
are
u0 = 0 , N1 = 0 (22)
or
(1, r )
q u(0 ) = 0 , q N = 0 . (22’)
System (21’) becomes, with the initial conditions:
⎧ N0
⎪⎪u1 = EAα sin α l
⎨ (23)
⎪0 = N 0 cos α l − F0 cos Ω t .
⎪⎩ EAα EAα
40 Valentin Ceauşu, Andrei Craifaleanu, Cristian Dragomirescu

It follows:
⎧ F0
⎪N 0 = cos Ω t
⎨ cos α l (24)
⎪u = F tg α l ⋅ cos Ω t .
⎩ 1 0
Observation. In the case
cos α l = 0 , (25)
respectively,
ω
cos l = 0, (25’)
c
system (23) leads to u1 → ∞ , N 0 → ∞ . This happens due to the resonance
phenomenon, for which the particular solution is not in the form
A cos Ω t + B sin Ω t , but in the form A1t cos Ω t + B1t sin Ω t .
Relation (25’) represents the equation of the eigenfrequencies, for free
undamped vibrations. This equation has the solution
πc
ω k = (2k − 1) . (26)
l
4.2. Bar fixed at both ends, with perturbation force applied at the
middle

## With notations in Figure 4, it results for the segment (0 − 1) ,

⎡ l l ⎤
cos α sin α 0⎥
⎧ qu(1) ⎫ ⎢ 2 2 ⎧q (0 ) ⎫
⎪⎪ (1, l ) ⎪⎪ ⎢ l l ⎥ ⎪⎪ u(0 ) ⎪⎪
⎨q N ⎬ = ⎢− sin α cos α 0 ⎥ ⋅ ⎨q N ⎬ , (27)
⎪ 1 ⎪ ⎢ 2 2 ⎥ ⎪ ⎪
⎩⎪ ⎭⎪ ⎢ 0 0 1⎥ ⎪⎩ 1 ⎪⎭
⎢⎣ ⎥⎦
or, concentrated,
{q* }(1, l ) = [A* ] (0,1) {q* }(0) . (27’)
Fp =F0cosΩt
0 1 2

l/2 l/2

0 1l 1r 2

l/2 l/2

Fp =F0cosΩt
Fig. 4
Transfer matrix method for forced vibrations of bars 41

## In section (1) it results

⎧ qu(1) ⎫ ⎡1 0 0 ⎤ ⎧ qu ⎫
(1)
⎪⎪ (1, r ) ⎪⎪ ⎢ ⎪
⎥ ⎪ (1, l ) ⎪⎪
⎨q N ⎬ = ⎢0 1 − q F cos Ω t ⎥ ⋅ ⎨q N ⎬ , (28)
⎪ 1 ⎪ ⎢0 0 1 ⎥⎦ ⎪⎪ 1 ⎪⎪
⎩⎪ ⎭⎪ ⎣ ⎩ ⎭
or, concentrated,
{q* }(1, r ) = [S F ] ( 1) {q* }(1, l ) . (28’)
For segment (1 − 2) ,
⎡ l l ⎤
cos α sin α 0⎥
⎧ qu(2 ) ⎫ ⎢ 2 2 ⎧ qu(1) ⎫
⎪⎪ (2, l ) ⎪⎪ ⎢ l l ⎥ ⎪⎪ (1, r ) ⎪⎪
⎨q N ⎬ = ⎢− sin α cos α 0 ⎥ ⋅ ⎨q N ⎬ , (29)
⎪ 1 ⎪ ⎢ 2 2 ⎥ ⎪ ⎪
⎪⎩ ⎪⎭ ⎢ 0 0 1⎥ ⎩⎪ 1 ⎭⎪
⎢⎣ ⎥⎦
respectively,
{q* }(2) = [A* ] ( 1, 2) {q* }(1, r ) . (29’)
From relations (27’), (28’) and (29’), it results:
{q* }(2) = [A* ] ( 1, 2) ⋅ [S F ] (1) ⋅ [A* ] (0,1) ⋅ {q* }(0) . (30)
Relations (30) are accompanied by the boundary conditions:
qu(0 ) = 0 , qu(2 ) = 0 . (31)
() ( )
In relations (30) and (31), the unknowns are q N0 , q N2 , i.e. N 0 ( t ) and
N 2 ( t ) . The time function can be easily identified as: cos Ω t . Hence:
N ( t ) = Nˆ cos Ω t , N ( t ) = Nˆ cos Ω t ,
0 0 2 2 (32)
so that only the scalars N̂ 0 and N̂ 2 remain as unknowns.
The equation of the eigenfrequencies can be also established, by equating
with zero the determinant of the linear system in N̂ 0 and N̂ 2 , resulted from
equation (30) with conditions (31).
The matrix form of the equations in N̂ 0 and N̂ 2 facilitates the use of
computer codes, such as MATLAB, Mathcad or even Excel, in order to solve the
problem.
Indeed, by choosing l = 1 m , A = 4 ⋅10 −4 m 2 , Ω = 10 s −1 , F0 = 100 N ,
42 Valentin Ceauşu, Andrei Craifaleanu, Cristian Dragomirescu

kg N
E = 7.86 , ρ = 2.1 ⋅ 10 6, the following values have been obtained:
m 3
m2
Nˆ 0 = 52.43 N and Nˆ 2 = −52.43 N .

5. Conclusions

Transfer matrix method can be used also for solving problems of forced
vibrations of bars. By using the artifice presented in relations (17), the matrix
form of the equations can be easily written in order to determine the time function
and the values of the unknown quantities.
The examples presented above show how the method can be applied.

6. Acknowledgement

## This study was supported by research contract No. 81-031 / 2007

(SIMOCA), funded by the National Authority for Scientific Research in Romania
(Ministry of Education, Research and Youth) through the National Center for
Projects Management (CNMP).

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