Puzzle Book
AwardWinning
CHESS
PROBLEMS
Burt Hochberg
Chess Braintwisters
GV1451.H615 2005
794.1'2dc22
2004066244
2 4 6 8 10 9 7 5 3
Introduction 5
The Problems 7
The Hints· 70
The Solutions 74
For my son, David
INTRODUCTION
5
In a twomover, White's first move sets up the mate in one of
two ways. White either directly threatens a specific mate on the
next move (a "threatproblem") or plays a waiting move that
threatens nothing but waits for Black to make a move that allows
mate. Knowing what type of position a problem is should be a
helpful first step in solving it: if the position is mostly blocked,
with almost no pawn moves and few piece moves for Black, then
White's first move is most likely a waiting move; this is a "block
problem" or a "zugzwang" position. Zugzwang is a very impor
tant stratagem not only in problems but also in ordinary chess
play. It's a German word that means "compulsion to move." A
player in zugzwang is required to move, thereby weakening his
position or losing the game outright.
Another helpful clue is that none of the problems in this book
has a checking key.
If you have trouble finding a solution despite your best efforts
(don't give up without a fight!}, you may avail yourself of a hint.
But be warned: though most hints are instantly helpful, some are
cryptic and require a little extra thinking.
For their invaluable help in preparing this book, I'm grateful
to my amazing wife, Carol, and my extraordinary editor, Peter
Gordon.
6
1. V. Diaconu, DerWaarheid 1967
6
5
4
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2
a b c d e f g h
6
5
4
3
2
a b c d e f g h
7
3. F. Gamage, Chess Correspondent 1941
6
5
4
3
2
a b c a e f g h
6
5
4
3
2
a b c d e f g h
8
5. H. des Marands amd P. Monreal, La Marseillaise 1945
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
a b c d e f g h
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
a b c d e f g h
9
7. M. Caillaud, Probleemblad 1985
6
5
4
3
2
a b c a e f g h
6
5
4
3
2
a b c d e f g h
10
9. M. Marandjuk, Smena 1993
8
7
6
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4
3
2
a b c d e f g h
8
7
6
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3
2
a b c d e f g h
11
11. W.A. Shinkrnan, Huddles:field College Magazine 1887
8
7
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2
a b c d e f g h
8
7
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3
2
a b c d e f g h
12
13. A. Galitsky, Shakhmatnoye obozreniye 1892
8
7
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4
3
2
a b c d e f g h
8
7
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5
4
3
2
a b c d e f g h
13
15. L. Kubbel, Deutsche Schachzeitung 1909
6
5
4
3
2
a b c ti e f g h
6
5
4
3
2
a b c d e f g h
6
5
4
3
2
a b c d e f g h
6
5
4
3
2
a b c d e f g h
15
19. H.H. Tucker, Melbourne Times 1919
6
5
4
3
2
a b c d e f g h
6
5
4
3
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a b c d e f g h
16
21. A.G. Stubbs, Good Companions 1918
8
7
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2
a b c d e f g h
8
7
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a b c d e f g h
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23. B.G. Laws, Northern Figaro 1888
6
5
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3
2
a b c d e f g h
a b c d e f g h
18
25. A. Mari, La Scacchista 1921
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3
2
a b c d e f g h
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a b c d e f g h
19
27. A.F. Kallaway, Football Field 1904
8
7
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4
3
2
a b c d e f g h
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7
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3
2
a b c d e f g h
20
29. K. Hannemann, Brisbane Courier 1920
6
5
4
3
2
a b c d e f g h
a b c d e f g h
21
31. M. Grunfeld, Miinchener Post 1937
8
7
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4
3
2
a b c· d e f g h
8
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a b c d e f g h
22
33. 0. Stocchi, Ajedrez Espaiiol1952
8
7
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4
3
2
a b c d e f g h
8
7
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2
a b c d e f g h
23
35. F.A.L. Kuskop, OtagoWitness 1898
6
5
4
3
2
1
·
a b c d e f g h
6
5
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a b c d e f g h
24
37. H. Cudmore, Hackney Mercury 1902
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2
a b c d e f g h
8
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a b c d e f g h
25
39. H.W. Bettmann, Good Companions 1924
6
5
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3
2
a b ·c d e f g h
6
5
4
3
2
a b c d e f g h
26
41. H.W. Sherrard, Sheffield Independent 1886
8
7
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3
2
a b c d e f g h
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2
a b c d e f g h
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43. A. Ellerman, Alfiere di Re 1922
8
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3
2
a b c � d e f g h
8
7
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3
2
a b c d e f g h
28
45. A. Bottacchi, Brisbane Courier 1919
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2
a b c d e f g h
8
7
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a b c d e f g h
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47. M. Feigl, Tijdskrift 1904
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3
2
a b c· d e f g h
8
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2
a b c d e f g h
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49. K. Grabowski, Tygodnik 1913
8
7
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3
2
a b c d e f g h
8
7
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4
3
2
a b c d e f g h
31
51. G. Heathcote, Healey Memorial Tourney 1901
8
7
6
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4
3
2
a b C· d e f g h
8
7
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3
2
a b c d e f g h
32
53.J. van Dyke, Tijdschrift 1903
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a b c d e f g h
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a b c d e f g h
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55. B. Djakuk, Diagrammes 1994
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2
a b c� d e f g h
8
7
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3
2
a b c d e f g h
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57. G. Guidelli, La Scacchiera 1920
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a b c d e f g h
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2
a b c d e f g h
35
59. Z. Kolodnas, L'Echiquier de Paris 1927
8
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3
2
a b c· d e f g h
8
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3
2
a b c d e f g h
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61. P. F. Blake, Football Field 1902
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
a b c d e f g h
8
7
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5
4
3
2
a b c d e f g h
37
63. J. Opdenoordt, Tijdschrift 1917
8
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3
2
a b c ·d e f g h
8
7
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3
2
a b c d e f g h
38
65. V. Marin, Spanish National Tourney 1919
6
5
4
3
2
a b c d e f g h
6
5
4
3
2
a b c d e f g h
39
67. J.K. Heydon, Good Companions 1920
8
7
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4
3
2
a b c a e f g h
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
a b c d e f g h
40
69. C. Mansfield, Densmore Memorial 191820
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
a b c d e f g h
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
a b c d e f g h
41
71. K. A. K. Larsen, Revista Argentina 1920
6
5
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3
2
a b c � d e f g h
a b c d e f g h
42
73. E. Rukhlis, Concours de Sverdlovsk 1946
8
7
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3
2
a b c d e f g h
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a b c d e f g h
43
75. K. Grabowski, Haagsche Post 1921
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a b c d e f g h
44
77. F. Gamage, Tidskrift 1914
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2
a b c d e f g h
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a b c d e f g h
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79. M. de Moraes, Football Field 1913
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5
4
3
2
a b c d e f g h
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5
4
3
2
a b c d e f g h
46
81. A. Ellerman, L'ltalia Scacchistica 1951
8
7
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3
2
a b c d e f g h
8
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a b c d e f g h
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83. P.F. Blake, Western Daily Mercury 1906
6
5
4
3
2
1
·
a b c d e f g h
6
5
4
3
2
a b c d e f g h
48
85. A.W. Daniel, Western Daily Mercury 1911
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7
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3
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a b c d e f g h
8
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2
a b c d e f g h
49
87. A. Bottacchi, Densmore Memorial191820
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
a b c • d e f g h
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
a b c d e f g h
50
89. G.C. Alvey, Hampshire Post 1920
6
5
4
3
2
a b c d e f g h
6
5
4
3
2
a b c d e f g h
51
91. M. Niemeijer,Jan Hartong, H. Prins, De Waarheid 1985
8
7
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5
4
3
2
a b c d e f g h
8
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a b c d e f g h
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93. Kraemer, Kockelkom MemorialTourney 1921
8
7
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4
3
2
a b c d e f g h
8
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6
5
4
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a b c d e f g h
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95.J.K. Heydon, Australian Columns 1921
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2
a b c d e f g h
8
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a b c d e f g h
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97. A. Ellerman, Good Companions 1919
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
a b c d e f g h
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
a b c d e f g h
55
99. G. Guidelli, Good Companions 1917
6
5
4
3
2
a b c d e f g h
6
5
4
3
2
a b c d e f g h
56
101. K.A. Larsen, Good Companions 1920
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
a b c d e f g h
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
a b c d e f g h
57
103.J.D. Williams, Hampstead and Highgate Express 1907
6
5
4
3
2
1

a b c d e f g h
6
5
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3
2
a b c d e f g h
58
105. C. Mansfield, La Settimana Enigmastica 1935
8
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a b c d e f g h
8
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a b c d e f g h
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107. F. Libby, Morning Post 1901
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a b c a e f g h
8
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a b c d e f g h
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109. A.J. Fink, Los Angeles Examiner1919
8
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a b c d e f g h
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a b c d e f g h
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111. A. Ellerman, Good Companions 1916
8
7
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8
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a b c d e f g h
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113. D. Booth, Good Companions 1915
6
5
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a b c d e f g h
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5
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a b c d e f g h
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115. P.F. Blake, Hampstead Express 1911
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7
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5
4
3
2
a b c � e f g h
8
7
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5
4
3
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a b c d e f g h
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117. G.F. Anderson (after H. Weenink), B.C.P.S. 1918
a b c d e f g h
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
a b c d e f g h
65
119. E. Puig y Puig, Spanish NationalTourney 1920
6
5
4
3
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a b � d e f g h
6
5
4
3
2
a b c d e f g h
66
121. A. Piatesi, Paralleles 50, 1948
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a b c d e f g h
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a b c d e f g h
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123. L. Loshinski, Sahs (Riga) 1962
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3
2
a b� c d e f g h
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a b c d e f g h
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125. G. Heathcote, Norwich Mercury 1907
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a b c d e f g h
69
THE HINTS
The hints are given in four lists so that while peeking at one hint you
won't inadvertently see the next one in sequence. Admittedly, this
makes it a little harder to find specific hints, but maybe you won't need
them at all . Some hints should make solving particular problems easier;
other are somewhat cryptic and may do just the opposite.
1.The queen gets around.
5.The queen needs air.
9. Rook moves.
13. Make no threat
17. A rook goes west.
21. Ittybitty nonthreat.
25. Block the king.
29. A big queen triangle.
33. The queen is in a cag�
37. Rook moves.
41. Rook moves.
45. The bishops have their fun.
49. Rook moves.
53. The knight's triple play.
57. A bishop does not go to h7.
61. The queen is the key.
65. The queen sticks to a diagonal.
69. You like triangles?
73. A little modesty is in order.
77. Abandon ye not the Rd5.
81. A brave knight.
85. Somewhere down the line, expect a pawn discovery.
89. Set up a neat discovery.
93. The queen hides.
97. A longdistance runner.
101. The Nd5 is hanging.
105. The king threatens.
1 09. A small triangle.
1 13 . Home again.
1 1 7. Out of the frying pan, into the fire?
121. The mighty queen shows its stuff.
125. Selfpin and discovery.
70
2. The queen mates.
6. Let a Black pawn capture.
10. Sacrifice the queen?
14. Short move on a diagonal.
18. But what if Black's dpawn discovers check?
22. Double rooks, in a way.
26. Cut off a black rook.
30. An offcenter knight.
34. Pawn option.
38. No, not a knight move.
42. Qieen mates.
46. The discovery can wait.
50. Double your pleasure.
54. Crazy bishop.
58. The queen goes south.
62. Grab that diagonal.
66. A hardto"see" key.
70. Two discoveries after a bishop breaks a pin.
74. !f it's in the way, move it!
78. In one line, there's a mate at g7.
82. A knight withdraws.
86. What is a pin that is not a pin?
90. Good knight.
94. A knight threatens to mate.
98. The queen covers all the bases.
102. A knight shows its plumage.
106. Clever little pawns!
110. Offer a sacrifice to the gods of mate.
1 14. Decentralize.
1 1 8 . The longest move.
122. Unburden the queen.
71
3. Rook moves, but which one?
7. One more knight.
1 1 . A counterintuitive bishop move.
15. The threat is 2. QP.l#.
19. A knight twostep.
23 . Checks abound, but the key isn't one of them.
27. The pawn can wait.
3 1 . Ruy Lopez?
35. Which knight moves where?
39. A bishop discovery is answered by 1. . Q.cg8.
. .
72
4. The king marches on.
8. Knight moves.
12. Make a queen threat.
16. No discovery.
20. Pity not the black queen.
24. The rooks look happy.
28. A firstrank mate.
32. Undouble a battery.
36. Only the king can logically move.
40. One queen is enough.
44. The queen does not hold the key.
48. Qyeen moves.
52. Not 1. g6.
56. An odd rook move.
60. Qyeen's Gambit deferred?
64. Set up mate on c5 or e5.
68. Fear not the advance of Black's dpawn, with or without check.
72. "One small step for a man ....
"
73
THE SOLUTIONS
The first move of a problem solution is called the key. All relevant
defenses by Black are given; that is, those that attempt to meet the
threat presented by the key. Some keys are not threats at all but waiting
moves. Such positions are zugzwang problems, where any Black move
is fatal and allows White to mate on the next move.
Moves by the same piece to different squares are bunched together but
separated by slashes; for instance, 1. . . . Nf8/h8/e5/h4, which is an
abbreviated way or writing 1. . . . Nf8, 1. . . . Nh8, 1. . . . Ne8, 1. . . . Nh4.
1. The very mobile queen seems 3. The key is not a check, a move
to threaten various mates, such as usually considered "too strong"
after 1. Q£4. But 1. . . . fl=Q  and "inelegant" (although some
stops them; e.g., 2. Rh8+ Qb.3 . problems do have a checking
And 1. Ql>l doesn't work because key). That rules out any move by
of 1. . . Kh2. The key is 1. Ql>2!.
. the Rc2. But 1. Rf4 sets up some
If now 1. . . . fl=Qor B, 2. Ng3#, interesting mates. If 1 . . . gxh6
.
74
6. Not a difficult problem but a 9. Here's another futile mission
very appealing one from a true for Black's dpawn. After 1. ReS,
grandmaster of chess composi Black is in zugzwang. If 1. ... d6
tion, Otto Wurzburg. Black is 2. fS#, and 1. ... dS allows 2.
threatening to queen his hpawn Rc6#. And 1. ... Kd6 is met by
and make all sorts of trouble. 2. �5#.
White can't allow that, and he
must also maintain his own mat 10. Black has only one piece, and
ing threat on g7. Nothing is White tempts it to move, at the
gained by moving the queen or Black king's peril. After 1. Re2,
king, and the rook must stay on the move 1. ... Bxg1 allows 2.
the gflle. The logical key is Re6#, and 1. ... Bxh6 allows 2.
therefore 1. Rg1!. If 1. ... Ne8#. The fpawn is no help,
fxg1=Q2. Qb.S#, or 1. ... h1=Q since 1. ... f4 is met by 2. Qg5#,
2. Rxh1#. Any other rook move and the king can't help itself: 1.
allows the pawn to queen, and ... Ke5 2. �1#, or 1. ... Ke7 4
there goes the mate. QgS#.
75
13. The art of threatening noth 17. The bishop wants to mate on
ing is demonstrated by 1. Nf6. d5 but the Black king can escape
Black has only a few possible to c5. Thus 1. Ra5. If 1. . . . Nc7
moves, but each allows White to to cover d5, then 2. Bd7#. If 1.
mate him. If 1. . . . Ne7 or 1. . . . . . . Nc5 or 1. . . . Nb4 2. N(x)b4#.
Nh6, then 2. Qlx)e7#. Or if 1 . . . .
Nh� then 2. N(x)g4#. If 1 . . . . 18. After the brave 1. Rg7, the
Nxf6 2. f4#, or if if 1 . . . . Kxf6 2. alignment of the Black queen and
Qg7#. If 1. . . . d3 2. QP2#. White king seems to promise
Black ways to avoid mate, but no,
14. The triplepurpose key, 1. White has the moves. If 1. . . .
Be8, controls the squares f7 and ex£5 2. Nfl#, or 1. . . e5+ 2.
.
g6, frees the square d7 for the Ne6#. Black's attempt to find an
Ne5, and clears the way for the escape square by 1 . . . . e3 or 1. . . .
queen to get to d8. It also threat Ke5 fails to 2 . Qh2#, or 1 . . . .
ens 2. N£3#. If l. . . . g6+ 2. Nfl#, Kg3 2. Nxe4#, or 1 . . . . Ke3 2.
or 1 . . . . g5+ 2. Nd7#, or 1. . . . Be6 Nh3#. Otherwise 2 N£3#.
2. Ql8#, or 1. . . . Ke7 2. Ng6#.
19. The powerful White queen is
15. When it comes to surprising decisive after 1. Nc3, threatening
key moves, few can match 1. 2. Nb5#. If l . . . . �2 2. Qb.7#,
Ncl, putting a second piece en or if 1 . . . . �8 2. Qxh2#. If 1 . . . .
prise to a Black pawn, and this Bc6 2. Na6#. Otherwise 2 NbS#.
time allowing Black to capture
while promoting. But each pro 20. The Black queen is pinned
motion leads to mate: 1. . . . and can do nothing to prevent
bxcl=QLR 2. Qf3#, or 1. . . . the various mates surrounding it.
bxcl=B 2. Q£3# or 2. Nc3#, or 1. Mter the key, 1. Qs7, the imme
. . . bxcl=N 2. Nc3#. If 1 . . . . diate threat is 2. Qe.c5#. If 1. . . .
Kxcl 2. Qb.1#. Qe.b5 2. Nxb5#, or if 1 . . . . Ql5+
2. Nc6#. The escape attempt 1.
16. The Black bishop lurking on . . . Kd4 is squelched by 2. Qe.c5#,
h1 is aimed directly at White's as promised. Meanwhile, on the
king in the opposite corner. Yet other side of the board, if 1. . . .
White has the nerve to open that Nf6 (preparing . . . Nd5), then 2.
diagonal with 1. Ng5, allowing a N£5#. Or if l . . . . Nxf4 2. Bg7#.
discovered check by Black's Ne4. And if 1. . . . e3+, reminding
But it's a vain hope: if 1. . . . White that Black has a bishop on
Nxd2+ or 1 . . . . Nxg5+ 2. Rd5#, g2, then 2. Nb7#.
or 1 . . . . Nxd6+ 2. Nd£3#. Else 2.
Nxe4#.
76
21. Here's a sweet little waiting 25. 1. Ng5 would be mate were it
move: 1. £3. All of Black's not for the Black king's escape to
defenses are pawn moves: 1. ... d5. The key, 1. Rd5, blocks that
cxd4 2. Qa2#, or 1. . . . cxb4 2. escape route and prepares the
Ql>5#, or 1. ... c4 2. �4#, or 1. knight mate. If 1. . .. Bxd5 or 1.
... exf4 2. �6#, or 1. ... exd4 2. . . . Kf7 2. Ne5#, or 1. ... Kxd5 2.
c4#, or 1 . ... e4 2. fXe4#. Nb6#. If 1. .,.. Bxd7 or 1. ...
Nxe4 2. Qg8#. If 1. . . . Nf7 2.
22. With one rook already en Ndf6#.
prise, White throws the other
one into the fire with 1. Rf6, 26. The key, 1. Bd4, blocks the
threatening 2. Rfxe6#. Black dftle so that White's rook can
can't take either rook: if 1. ... mate on d8, and also vacates the
Kxd6 2. Bf4#, or 1. . .. Bxd6 2. square g7 so that White can play
Bc3#, or 1. ... Kxf6 2. �al#. 2. Ng7#. If 1. ... Ne6 or 1. .. .
Re7 2. R(x)e7#. On other move_s,
23. With relatively few pieces on either 2. Rd8# or 2. Ng7# works.
the board (a problem with at least
eight but no more than twelve 27. There are many false trails
pieces is called a Meredith), B.G. here due to the exposed Black
Laws, a famous composer of long king and freeroaming White
ago, puts everything to good use queen. The mission is accom
in this clear construction. The plished, however, only by 1. Re3,
key is 1. Rd6, threatening 2. threatening 2. Rxe5#. Black can
�d5#, and if now 1. .. . Bxd6 2. try to defend with 1. ... 0Js_c4,
Qg7#, or 1. . .. but that takes the queen away
Rc5/b5/a5/d3/d2/dl 2. Bh2#; or from d7, so 2. 0,9.7#. If 1. ...
1. .. Rxd6 2� Ng4#; or 1. . .
. . 0,9.4, threating to take the Nc4,
Rd4 2. Re6#; or 1. ..Kd4 2.
. then 2. Qg8#. If 1. ... �e3 or
�d5#; or 1. ... Kxd6 2. 0£7#. �7, then 2. c7#. The defense 1.
. . 0,9.6 allows 2. Ncb6#, or 1. . . .
.
77
28. No discovery by the bishop 32. A centralized king is not
herethe Rh1 is attacked by the always a great idea. The Black
Ba8but that situation can king here is doubly threatened
change without warning. The key along the a1h8 diagonal, so
is 1. �6, threatening the pretty White calmly removes one of the
2. Rd1#. Ifl. ... Rb7+, blocking attackers with 1. 0£1 and waits
the a8h1 diagonal, then 2. Bb6#, to see what Black will do. Not
or 1. ... d5+ 2. Bc5#, or 1. ... that it matters. If 1. ... exf6 or 1.
Re4+ 2. Bd4#. Other tries are 1. ... Rxf6 2. Nc4#. I f 1. . .. exd6 2.
... e1=Q:'RIN 2. R£3#, or 1. ... Ne2# or 2. Ng4#. If 1. ... Rxd6
e1=B 2. Re3/f3#, or Ke1 2. �1#. or 1. ... Kxf6 2. Ng4#. If 1. ...
Kf4 2. Nxe6#. And if 1 . .. . Kxd6
29. Discoveries by the knight are 2. NbS#.
premature due to Black ability to
interpose his rook on d5, protect 33. White's best piece needs to
ed by the Bb3. To remove that get out of its cage with 1. �7,
defensive possibility, White has threatening 2. �5#. The rest is
the clever key, 1. �4, threaten clear: 1. ... Nd5 2. Rxa2#, or 1.
ing 2. Qg4#. If 1. ... Rxa4 2. ... Na4 2. �3# or 1. ... Nc4 2.
Nc4#, or 1. ... Bxa4 2. Nb5#. Bc3#.
Otherwise 2. Qg4#.
34. The positions of the pawns
30. Again we see two Black bish might suggest the solution: 1. c4.
ops menacing the White king Black can't play either 1. ... bxc3
(see No. 12), but White pays e.p. 2. �d4# or 1 . ... dxc3 e.p.
them no heed. The key, 1. Nh4, 2. Q91#. As for other moves: 1.
threatens 2. Rh6#. If the Nd5 ... Rc8 2. Nxc8#; or 1. ... Rd8 2.
moves anywhere with check, then �b4#; or 1. ... Nb7Ic6/xc4/b3
2. Rb7# puts the pieces back in 2. Qix)c6#.
the box, except 1. ... Nc7+ 2.
d5#, or 1. ... Ne7+ 2. Rg2#. 35. Here's a clever clockwork
mechanism. The key is 1. Nf4,
31. The mechanics of a problem and now: 1. .. , g5 2. Rx£5#, or 1.
are so much fun when the pieces ... Kxf4 2. Bd6#, or 1. ... Kxf6,
get in each other's way. The key, Rg5/h5 2. Nd7#, or 1. ... Rxf6 2.
1. Bb5, threatening 2. Q£6# or 2. Nxd3#, or 1. ... Rxf4 2 Re6#.
Qf5#, clears the second rank for
White's rook, so if 1. ... axb5 2. 36. Some nice symmetry here
Rc2#. If 1. ... gxf3 2. Rg5#. 1. with a couple of unlikely mating
... g3 clears the short diagonal moves. The queen can't leave the
and allows 2. Qxh5#, and 1. ... bftle because of 1. ... bxc5; nei
Kxb5 is answered by 2. Q95#. ther rook can move because the
78
other rook or a knight would be 1. Rc6 �c6+ ( 2. Nb6+ �b6#) .
left hanging; and the knights If 1. Rd6 Qgl (1. . . �d6 2
.
79
42. Chess players like to say "the to 1. Ral . Now 1. . . . Ka5 allows
threat is stronger than the execu 2. �c5#. Other moves by either
tion," although that axiom does knight allow 2. Rxa6# or 2.
n't really make logical sense. Rb7#, and if l . . . . a5 2. Rb7#.
What it's supposed to mean is
that a strong threat forces the 45. The threats to White's king
opponent to make concessions look worse than the threats to
that are more unfavorable than if Black's, considering the Black
the threat were actually carried battery along the h1a8 diagonal.
out. Here, for example, 1. Nd4 But with 1. Be7, threatening 2.
threatens 2. Rg4#. In avoidance Be6#, White forces Black to
of this threat, Black allows other hamstring his own bishop. The
mates, especially by the White defense 1 . . . . Rae4 blocks that
queen. If 1. . . . exd4 2. �d5#. If diagonal and allows 2. Qf6#. The
1. . . . �d4 2. �h7#. If 1. . . . same goes for 1. . . . Rge4 2.
Kxd4 2. QP4#. If 1. . .• Bxd4 2. �g6#. If Black blocks the diag
Qll 1 #. White's knight can be onal with a knight with 1 . . . .
taken in four different ways, each Nbd5 or 1. . . . Ned5, then 2.
leading to a different mate by the �6#.
same p1ece.
46. The Ne6 would like to mate
43. Black's queen is pinned, on d4, but the knight would be
which White exploits with 1. blocking the dflle , allowing the
Rf3, clearing c3 to make 1. Nc3# Black king to escape to d7. So
possible. If Black breaks the pin White first plays 1. Qg4, threat
with 1. . . . Rd4, allowing the ening 2. Nd4#. If 1. . . . Kd5 2.
queen to protect c3 , the rook Ng5#, or 1 . . . . Kb5 2. Nc7#, or
blocks d4 and allows 2. �6#. If 1 . . . . Kd7 2. Nxg7#.
Black tries 1. . . . Nd4, to break
the pin and at same time prevent 47. The queen can't mate on the
2. �6#, the knight gives up its a3ffi diagonal, so it switches to
protection of e3 and allows 2. the other side with 1. �3, threat
Re3#. ening 2. Qg3#. If 1. . . . Rxa3 2.
Nc4#. If l . . . . Nd 2. N£3#. And
44. Black is almost in zugzwang if 1. . . . gxh3 to stop the queen
already. The two knights are pro from going to g3, then 2. f4#.
tecting the sensitive pawns on a6
and c5, and the king has only one 48. Mter 1. Qd2, most defenses
move, to a5. Then �c5 would are refuted easily; for example: 1.
be mate were it not for the . . . Rxd3 2. �d3#; or 1. . . . Q97
knight on a4. That thought leads 2. Rxd7#, etc. The two most
80
interesting mates are 1. ... Rc5 2. king a couple of escape squares,
Nb6#, and 1. .. . Rf1+ 2. Bb1#! then 2. �d6#. If 1. ... c6, pin
(but not 2. Bxf1 Ke4). ning the knight, 2. Q£3#, or if 1.
... c5 2. �1#.
49. The clearance move, 1. Rh5,
threatens 2. QsS# and causes 53. White's knight allows itself to
havoc in the Black camp. If 1. be captured in three different
�3/b4/d5 2. R(x)dS#. If 1. ... ways, each of which leads to
�c3 2. Qg4#, or 1. ... 0£4 mate. Mter 1. Ne3 the defense 1.
Qb8#. Finally, if 1. ... Nd3 2. ... Rxe3 is met by 2. d3#, or if 1.
e3#. ... Bxe3 2. dxe3#, or if 1. . ..
dxe3 2. d4#. The escape attempt
50. Under the right circum 1. ... Kf2 is answered by 2. Qf1#,
stances, White will promote his and if 1. .. f2 2. Q91#.
.
81
56. This refreshingly clean com and now: 1. . . Kd4,
.
82
Black moves come into play when ening 2. 0!;7#. If 1 . . . . 0£18 or 1 .
White moves 1. �6, threatening . . . O!e8, mate comes o n the h
2. Rxe1#. Now if 1. . . . Ne 2. ftle with 2. Rh2#. The same mate
0£13#. If 1 . . . . f2 (to let the king follows 1. . . . Nc6, 1. . . . Rb7, 1 .
escape to £3), then 2. 0!;2#. If 1. . . . d5, 1 . . . . e4, o r 1 . . . . Ne4. If
. . . b5, the queen swings over to 1. . . . QP7 or 1. . . Nc8 2.
.
83
69. A bishop discovery doesn't maximum efficiency, appears to
workyet!because of . . . Nxh4. promise a forceful key, yet the
But after 1. Qfl, threatening 2. answer is the most modest move
Ql>l#, the knight has to move to possible: 1. d4. By protecting the
give the king an escape square, squares c5 and e5, the pawn
and then the bishop discovery move relieves the Nd7 of those
works. duties and allows it to threaten 2.
Nb6#. Black defenses: 1. . . .
70. First the Bg2 needs to protect Nxd7 2. �6#; 1. . . Bxd4 2.
.
84
76. White breaks his own pin of 80. Take a break with this easy
the Black queen temporarily, but one. The slightly brutal key, 1 .
this doesn't help Black at all . Bb6, directly threatens 2. �a7#.
After 1 . ReS, the threat is 2. Black has only a couple of
Rd5#. If l . . . . �c5 2. Nc4#, or defenses: if 1 . . . . Kxb6 2. Qg6#,
1. . . . �4 2. Ne4#, or 1. . . . or 1 . . . . axb6 2. Qg8#. Now,
�b5 2. Ne4#, or 1 . . . . Kxc5 2. wasn't that refreshing?
Nd3#, or 1. . . . �d2+ 2. �d2#.
8 1 . Incredibly, the knight throws
77. 1. Qb6 is a nice mate, but itself into a bramble bush; it can
first the Re4 must be protected. be captured in no fewer than four
And don't forget that nasty bish different ways, each leading to
op lurking at al. All in all, the mate on the next move. The key
key, 1. Rgg5, threatening 2. is 1 Nd6, threatening 2 Nb7#. If
Qb6#, looks promising. The 1 . . cxd6 2. Bb6#. If 1 . . . . exd6
. .
or 1. . . . f2 2. Re2#.
85
83. You can break a pin legally by 86. The ingenious key, 1. Qg6,
moving the piece behind the pin, threatening 2. Qec4#, "pins" the
in this case the White king. The Rc4 against the square d3, so that
White Re4 is not only pinned, it if the attacked rook moves, 2.
also stands between the Black Rd3 discovered check is mate.
king and a discovered check by Other defenses: 1. . . . Kd5/c5 2.
the White queen. The try 1 . Kb5 Qec4#, or 1. . . Bd3 2. Re5#, or
.
86
by 2. Re6#. If 1 . . . . Bc5+ 2. 92. A delicate balance with dis
Rd6#. Any other move by the covered mates all over the place.
Bd4 is answered by 2. Rc4#. Every Black move is answered by
mate, but every White move
90. The Black king is vulnerable spoils itevery move but one: 1 .
along the diagonal a2g8 as well Rc4. The Nfl can't move because
as by means of a discovered check of 2. Qix)g3#. If 1. . . . Bxg7 2.
along the a8h1 diagonal. Bxg7#; if 1 . . . . g3 2. Qf.3#; if 1.
White's queen can't abandon the . . . Rd1/e2 2. N(x)e2#; if 1 . . . .
Rc6, so he first protects it with 1 . Rxcl 2. Bc2#; 1 . . . . Re3 2. Bc3#;
Nfd4 (not 1 . Nbd4 Kc4) to if 1. . . Rxe4 2. Bd4#; if 1. . . .
.
87
95. The Black king has no off that retreat. Now the threat is
moves; all White needs to do, it 2. Ke5#. Black's pieces are all
seems, is give check. But every bunched up in the comer, but he
check allows Black an escape. So can still try to avert mate. If 1. . . .
it is necessary to wait for Black to Nf7 2. Bh7#. If l . . . . Nc6 2.
unbalance the situation: 1 . Qf2! Nf4#. If 1 . . . . Bd4 2. Kxd4#.
poses no threat, but every Black The obvious 1. . . . Bxd5+ runs
answer falls into mate. If 1 . . . . into Kxd5#, The escape try 1 . . . .
Be5 2. Nxe5# or 1 . . . . Bb4 2. g4 allows 2 . Kf4#, while 1 . . . . c6
Ndxb4#. If l. . . . Bb8/c7/g3/h2 2. Ne7# and 1. . . . c5 2. Kxe3
2. Ncb4#, or 1 . . . . Ba3/e7/ffi 2. take care of the other pawn
Ne5#. If l . . . . Na7/c7/d4/a3/c3 moves. Finally, there is 1 . . . .
2. Q!x)d4#. Pawn promotions Ng4/£3 2 . K(x)£3#.
don't help, either: 1. . . . e1=QLR
2 Qc2#. Or 1 . . . . e1=B 2. 98. This catandmouse game
<2.f2/xf1#. Or 1 . . . . e1"'N 2. begins with 1. Q98, threatening
(2#1#. Finally, if 1 . . . . the discovery 2. Nfe6#. Black can
Ne3/g3/d2/h2 2. Q!x)e3#. try to defend by luring the White
queen away from d8 by 1. . . .
96. Another way to break a pin �d2/Q!>4/�5/Qs5/Qd3/Qf6,
(see No. 83) is by interposing. but White has the killer 2.
Here we have mutual pins and Q!x)f6#. If 1 . . . . Q94 2. �d4#,
crosspins centered on the �5 or 1. . . . Qg7 2. Nxg6#. If 1. . . .
with both queens en prisea Kg7 or 1 . . . . Bfi+ 2. Nfe6#.
fantastic construction! It would
be possible to play Rd1# if the 99. The d4square is the intend
Rd4 were not pinned. So let's ed mating spot after 1. Bb2,
break the pin with 1 . Q!>5 If 1 .
. threatening 2. Q94#. If 1. . . . c5
. . . Rd4 2. N£3# (the Black rook 2. Nb6#, or 1. . . . e5 2. Nc3#. If
gives up £3). Or 1 . . . . N£2, allow 1. . . . Nf7 2. Qg6#, or 1. . . . N£5
ing 2. Rg1#. And if 1 . . . . �d5 2. Nf6#. If 1. . . . Rxd5+ 2.
or 1 . . . . �2 or 1 . . . . Q94 or 1 . Bxd5#. If 1. . . . b3 2. Q!>1#. If 1 .
. . . �b2 o r 1 . . . . Nge3 o r 1 . . . . . . . f2 2. Qb1#. Finally, if 1 . . . .
Nce3, then 2. R(x)e2#. Bc3/e3 2. Q!x)e3#. On the first
move, if the Bd4 moves along the
97. Why isn't 1 . Ke5 discovered a1h8 diagonal, 1. . . . Be3 stops
mate? Because Black's king the mate, or if the bishop moves
escapes to g7, supposedly con along the a7f2 diagonal, then 1.
trolled by the Bb2. The key, 1 . . . . Bc3 does it.
Bh8, swings the bishop to the
other side of the king and cuts
88
100. The queens and rooks battle 1 . . . . e4 2. Qg7#. If 1 . . Re4 2.
. .
89
106. Another ingenious Comins has only a few moves at his dis
Mansfield composition. Despite posal. So when White plays 1 .
all the heavy artillery on the Qf 1 , threatening 2. �3#, Black
board, the key is the modest 1 . is hard pressed to defend. If 1. . . .
c3, threatening 2 . �d4#. Mter Re4 2. Rd5#, or 1 . . . . Rf5 2.
1. . . . Bxc3, Black may be Ne6#. If l . . . . Rg4 2. Ne£5#, or
shocked to see 2. d3#. If 1. . . . 1 . . . . R£3 2. Re4#. If 1 . . . . Nd3
Bc5 2 . Qi3#. If 1 . . . . Be5 2. 2. Rxc4#, or 1 . . . . Nc2 2. Qd2#.
Bxe6#. Black's knight can put in
an appearance with 1. . . . N d5 1 10. In this clearcut construc
but his act is canceled by 2. tion by the great Arnaldo
�c6#, or if 1. . . . Ne2 2. Nxe3#. Ellerman, White's key, 1. QP2,
The reasonable 1 . . . . Bd5 or 1 . threatens the sweeping 2. QD8#
. . . Rd5 blocks d5 but allows 2. or 2. Qg7#. Black's troubles
QP4#. extend to the gfue, too, as we
shall see. If 1 . . . . c3 2. Bf4#, or
107. White pays Black the cour 1. . . . Rc3 2. QP8#. If 1. . . .
tesy of releasing the N e3 from Rxg3+ 2. Rxg3#, or 1 . . . . Rxb2 2.
the pin with 1. Bb4. But it's a B£2#. And if l . . . . Nc3 2. Bel#
Greek gift: after 1. . . . cxb6 2.
Bd6# is mate, and that same 11 1 . The pin on Black's queen
mate greets 1 . . . B. If 1. . . . prevents the queen from partici
Ng7/f6/g3 2. Q(x)g3#. If l . . . . pating in the defense. Black's
Ke5 2. �e3#. If l . . . . knight has annoying discovered
Nd5/g4/g2/d1/fl 2. Qi4#. check possibilities after the 1.
Finally, if 1 . . . . N£5 2. Ng6#. Nf6, threatening 2. Qd5#, but the
checks are futile, however: if 1. . . .
108. If White can induce the N+ 2. Bc4#, or 1 . . . . Nc6+ 2.
Black knights to move, he will be Nc4#, or 1 . . . . Nxe6# 2. d4#, or
able to mate at d5 or £5. The first 1. . . . N£5# 2. �4#.
step in this plan is 1. g3, threat
ening 2. gx£4#. If Black defends 1 12. This is a zugzwang problem,
with 1. . . . Ne6 2. R£5#. If 1. . . . which means that any Black
Bxd3+ 2. Nxd3#. If 1 . Nde2 2. move is fatal. The key, 1. Ral,
Qi5#. The obvious 1. . . . fxg3 is prevents the Black king from
met by 2. f4#. And if 1. . . . Nce2 escaping to the afue. If 1 . . . .
2. Q£5#. Kb4 2. Rd4#. If 1 . . . . Rc6+ 2.
�c6#. If 1. . . . Rxd5 2. �d5#.
109. The position looks very If 1. . . Rc8 2. �b5#. If 1 . . . .
.
90
113. Black's only escape is Kxg6, threatening 2. Bb2#. If 1 . . . . Na2
so White cuts it off with 1 . Bel, 2. 0£5#, or 1. . . . Nd3 2. Re4#,
threatening 2. Qf4#. Black can or 1 . . . . Nc6 2. Rb5#, or 1 . . . .
try to interfere with White's Nd5 2 . Re6#. If 1 . . . . Bf5 2.
threat with 1. . . . Ne5 2. Ne7#, or �g7#.
1. . . . Be3 2. Bbl#, or 1 . . . . Be5
2. �d7#, or 1. . . . Re4 2. Rg5#, 1 1 7. White has the good idea of
or 1 . . . . Re5 2. Qffi#. getting the king off the line of
Black's rook with 1 . Kg3, threat
1 14. Black's king is vulnerable ening 2. Qfl#, but it puts the
from many directions after 1 . king in the direct range of Black's
Qgl, threatening 2. Nd3#. The Bb8. If 1. . . . cxb6+ 2. Nf4#, or if
obvious defense 1 . . . . �a6 fails 1 . . . . c6+ 2. Ndc7#. Black's other
to 2. Nxa6#, and 1 . . . . axb4 fails bishop can move, too, but futile
to 2. �b4#. Now that the queen ly. If 1 . . . . Bc6/a6/c8 2. Nd6# or
has left e4, the defense 1 . . . . Bd4 if 1. . . . Bxd5 2. �d5#. Finally,_
runs into 2. Ne4#. If 1 . . . . if 1 . . . . d3 2. Qf4#.
Rb2/d2 2. Rxa5#. If 1 . . . . Nb2 2.
�gl#. Finally, if 1 . . . . d5, from 1 1 8 . Among the characteristics of
out of nowhere comes 2. Bffi#. many 19thcentury compositions
was a bishop in a comer on an
115. In order to expose Black's open diagonal. This suggested
sensitive squares, White moves the possibility of the bishop's
his bishop out of the way with 1. longest move, all the way to the
Bf6 (any other bishop move is opposite comer, a sort of "feat."
answered, ingeniously, by 1 . . . . In this case, the key is the
Bd6, bring the Black rooks into provocative 1. Bal, a waiting
play and staving off the mate), move that threatens nothing but
threatening 2. Rc5#. If 1. . . . Q96 leaves Black in zugzwang. If 1 .
or 1. . . . Qs8 2. N(x)b6#. If 1. . . . . . . K£3/x£5 2. �d5#. I f 1 . . . .
Qs6 2. Rd4#, or 1 . . . . Q96 2. Kd3, 1 . . . £3 , 1 . . . .
.
91
1 19. The action takes place on 121 . The only move that works is
the blh7 diagonal, where the 1 . Q!>l, threatening 2. �4#.
White queen and rook are both (But not 1 . N+ Kxd5.) If now 1 .
pinned against the king by the . . . Rf4, the queen stretches its
Black bishop on c2. But the bish muscles with 2. Q!>8#. Or if 1 .
op is itself pinned. How can . . . Rx£3 o r cxd5 2. Ng4#. I f 1 . . . .
White get out of both pins in g5 2 . �1#, and if 1 . . . . Ke6 2.
only two moves and also give Qf5#.
mate? The answer is 1 . Rd8,
threatening 2. Qg3#, breaking 122. The pinned queen obviously
the pin on the rook and ignoring can't move, but the pin can be
the pin on the queen. If instead lifted another way: 1. Kh5 even
1 . Re3/£3, then 1 . . . . Kd4 and though now the queen can be
there's no mate. Or 1. Rd5 Q£3, captured by the rook, 1 . . . . Rxg3.
or 1. Rd6 b4, or 1. Rd7 Re4. But the cost to Black is 2.
Black defense tries are: 1. . ... Q£3 Nxg3#. Other tries: 1. . . Kxf5 2.
.
92
124. Problem composers love dis 125. The most unlikely move on
covered checks, usually as the the board, 1. Ke5, threatens an
mating second move. Here's unlikely discovered mate, 2.
another one, after the key, 1. Kd4#. If 1. . . Qc£6+, the king
.
93
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