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# [Department of Engineering ] [Mechanical section]

CHAPTER 7

STRAIN MEASUREMENT

## 7.1 Column and struts 11. Set up the differential equation

describing the elastic curve for a buckling of
7.2 Euler’s column theory: point's ended columns
7.3 Types of end condition

## When a column or strut is subjected to some compressive forces, then the

compressive stress induced is

σ= P/A, where P is the compressive force and A is the cross sectional area of the
column.

If the force or load is gradually increased, the column will reach a stage, when it will
be subjected to the ultimate crushing stress. Beyond this stage, the column will fail by
crushing. The load corresponding to the crushing stress is called as Crushing load.

Long columns will have buckling load and short columns will have crushing load.

## Slenderness Ratio: (Le/k)

It is defined as the ratio of equivalent length of column to the least radius of gyration.

It has no units.

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[Department of Engineering ] [Mechanical section]

## Euler’s column theory:

Euler’s formula cannot be used in the case of short column, because the direct stress
is considerable and cannot be neglected.
Assumptions:
1. Initially the column is perfectly straight and the load applied is truly axial.
2. The cross section of the column is uniform throughout its length.
3. The column material is perfectly elastic, homogeneous and isotropic and
obeys Hooke’s law.
4. The length of column is very large when compared to cross sectional
dimensions.
5. The shortening of column, due to direct compression is neglected.
6. The failure of the column occurs due to buckling alone.
Sign conventions:
1. A moment, which tends to bend the column with convexity towards its initial
central line as shown in fig (a) is taken as positive.
2. A moment, which tends to bend the column with concavity towards its initial
central line as shown in fig (b) is taken as negative.

## Types of End conditions of columns:

These four types of end conditions are important from subject point of view.

## 1. Both ends are hinged.

2. Both ends are fixed.
3. One end is fixed and other is hinged.
4. One end is fixed and other is free.

## Consider a column AB of length ‘l’ hinged at both of its ends A and B

column deflect in to a curved form AX1B as shown in the fig.

## 2 MIME 3130 Mechanics of Materials

[Department of Engineering ] [Mechanical section]

## Consider a column AB of length ‘l’ fixed at A and free at B

the column deflect in to a curved form AX1B1 as shown in
the fig.

## Consider a column AB of length ‘l’ fixed at both ends A and B

column deflects as shown in the fig.

## 3 MIME 3130 Mechanics of Materials

[Department of Engineering ] [Mechanical section]

## Consider a column AB of length ‘l’ fixed at A and hinged at B

column deflects as shown in the fig.

## Euler’s formula holds good only for long columns.

Euler’s formula cannot be used in the case of short column, because the direct stress
is considerable and cannot be neglected.

Problem 1:

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[Department of Engineering ] [Mechanical section]

Problem 2:

Problem 3:
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[Department of Engineering ] [Mechanical section]

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[Department of Engineering ] [Mechanical section]

Problem 4:

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[Department of Engineering ] [Mechanical section]

Problem 5:

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[Department of Engineering ] [Mechanical section]

Sources:

1) Text Books
E J Hearn. (1997).Mechanics of Material 1, Third Edition: Butterworth
Heinemann, A division of Reed Educational and Professional Publishing
Ltd., Oxford.

2) Reference Books
1. William F.Riley / Leroy D. Sturges / Don H.Morris. (2002).Statics and
Mechanics of Materials: An Integrated Approach, Second Edition, John
Wiley & Sons, INC.
2. R.C.Hibbeler, Mechanics of Materials, Ninth Edition:Pearson.
3. Ferdinand Beer , E Russell Johnston Jr, John T DeWolf: Mechanics of
Material(2004),Tata McGraw Hill third Edition.
3) Websites
1. www.wikipedia.com
2. www. howstuffworks .com
3. www.nptel.ac.in.