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THE MODERN GEOMETRY OF THE TRIANGLE
BY
WILLIAM GALLATLY,
M.A.
SECOND EDITION
LONDON
:
FBANCIS HODGSON,
89 EARRINGDON STREET, E.G.
PRICE HALF A
CROWN NET
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*'< LONDON : FKANCIS HODGSON.G. M.THE MODERN GEOMETRY OF THE TRIANGLE. BY WILLIAM GALLATLY. E. SECOND EDITION. 89 EARRINGDON STREET.A. .
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W.merely his hope. articles contributed by the present writer to the Educational Times Reprint. G. Beard. The author ventures to express not. A.PREFACE. and Mr. Dixon. Rouse for permission to use the theorems due to them. F. F. Davis. C. R. . He is also most grateful to Sir George Greenhill. E. Mr. P. but his confident expectation. Aiyar. Mr. R. V. W. but the greater part derived from French and German sources will widen the outlook of our mathematical instructors and lend new vigour to their teaching. Mr. Prof. on the Geometry of the Triangle are presented some of the more important researches on the subject little treatise IN this which have been undertaken during the last thirty years. that these novel and interesting theorems some British. to whose editor he The book includes some would offer his sincere thanks for the great encouragement which he has derived from such recognition.
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L.A. from A. to TOT' Draw : : f : : : : . of : o> : the centre O t of (kk 1 ) : tricusp Hypocycloid : Cubic in sin< or cos4> Greenhill and Dixon's Theorem. . : : inverse of S : S. eqn. : (1421. of PORISTIC TRIANGLES. of T. TU. PEDAL TRIANGLES.L. eqn. Point N : CHAPTER IV.SYNOPSIS OF CHAPTEES. OS' and (afry) in terms of \p. (5669.L. T' are axes of similitude for def. of 0(R) and : I(r) : : points S\ S%<rHiGi poristically circular loci FGHO'I'NM Gergonne Point M : poristic formulae properties of Nagel locus of If found. c. to S.) : Pedal triangle def similar to BSC = A + \ sin \ a an Limiting Points II in terms of xyz Radical Axes (group) Feuerbach 's Theorem 2 So for Sj.P. N.) : Feuerbach Point midpoint line of quad.) R. B. C on S. CHAPTER Medial II. (2234. : (113.c. of Limiting Points. angles. Artzt's Parabola U. condition: re616263 and pgr distance between (a#y) and (a'&'y') perpr.ZVfor quad. d\e\f\. ABC and A'B'C' n. pairs of S. CHAPTER V. : MEDIAL AND TRIPOLAR COORDINATES.) pqr : lines at rt. SIMSON LINES. Circle Tripolar eqn. on line : : Properties of Quad.] CHAPTER Relations between lation between I. perpr.L.L.) : S.L. DIRECTION ANGLES. [The numbers refer to Sections. to circumdiameter straight line (general) to find points with given trip. formulae : : : : : CHAPTER Poristic condition fixed : : III.v : : : : LMN : : . length and direction :* the the point a circle (kk ) point . bisects TH: OAT cr l perps. in given direction S. II. circle trip. c. : Centre Circle. : (3555.
OS. circle ABC : three S.Tj. of centre of similitude of U and V similar properties of V V' = 4 A S' and /S". 2 in terms of . U'. triangle calculation of a'. c. a. centre. Concurrence of THE OBTHOPOLE. inverts into square. of K: K centroid of def: equation to OK: II a 2 + # 2 + y'2 and u. A/XI/ : (101116. : : : . points : K found : n.) 2 pp'. of S point A'B'C' n. ": O : &Rq: equation to minor Ratio Bl Cl p* = A/iV : : : pedal circle 88' cutsN. S found : geo and through a point. ABC . of S' n.) II'. 88100. CHAPTER VIII. circle at M'Cay's Cubic For TOT conic is R.) on plane passing through fixed axis in plane of ABC ABC projected into triangle with given angles projec2 2 A (1 + cos 2 ) tion of ABC on planes at constant inclination 2tf'' cot A and Brocard Angle Antipedal triangles and projection cquilat.P. . a common to the 4 circles. inscribed in ABC : cosflj c2 ) : OK . (117129. of ff acoincides with : on N. CHAPTER VII.+ v* + w 2 each a min.) : Angular Orthologic and Antipedal triangles: nc. : ANTIPEDAL TRIANGLES. 31'. : V = $M S. Shape and ORTHOGONAL PROJECTION OF A TRIANGLE. of S for def: Harmonic system of lines. CHAPTER IX. CHAPTER VI. : : "()" a(6 2 : chords parallel to to T.2 T3 : Harmonic quad.H. OS' 2R.c. qq'. (semiaxis) 2 similarly for circle centre S S' and S\ S\ bisected at join of Twin Points : Aiyar's Theorem.c. : nn' of <T SA S'A = AB Ac : A'B'C' o>. : A'l passes through or K : locus of centres of rect. rr' : 5 = IE <r cos e l cos lies cos 3 . OV Counterpoint conies. b' c' Pedal triangles and projection: general theory size of projection of : : : . : for any triangle XYZ : Schoute Circles. direction of asymptotes and axes : : = : '. are called Twin Points.VI MODERN GEOMETRY.) : and b.) metrically : general n.P.c. .c. radius SS\ passes through I'm'ri. b. axis : COUNTER POINTS. LEMOINE GEOMETRY.c.L. at K Artzt's Parabola: triangle AK bisects Lemoine Point of Ii/a^ list of T^T. CHAPTER X. q . (8187. reciprocal relations: Lemoyne's Theorem: pedal circles through <r(o>): constant b. i and S\ : l l .c. : ^ . (See Appendix I and II.c. Apollonian Circles : Lemoine Axis : Harmonic tripolar equation quad. asymptotes. : (7080.
Circle trip. n.) Pairs of homothetic triangles. LEMOINEBROCARD GEOMETRY.ACTB G mean : centre of points yzx. to axis of right figure : angles : G double point On = eR. G 5 centroid of Dftft' D lies 3' Isodynamic Points and Steiner Ellipse. PIVOT POINTS. TCA. xyz PQR . PQR <a : : OK bisects tin' at sec : Steiner and Tarry Points : KPROQ apply to similar to 'S. coi C. of Limiting Points for Taylor Circle are as cotB. OK = eR : ABC. and St : Isogonic points on 20T: OD = eR and 8^ CircumEllipse : : CHAPTER XII. Forms for cot a> : and b.SYNOPSIS OF CHAPTERS. : Pedal circle of ftft' : Second Lemoine Circle : Taylor cot A. zxy. VU (130152. TUCKER CIRCLES.c. (153166. of : n and ft' : equation to : o> not : greater than 30 : useful : formulae Neuberg Circles Steiner Angles Pedal triangle of ft Triangles First Brocard Triangle PQR perspective XBC. . inscribed and circumscribed to family of circles touch conic Tucker Circles list of formulae Radical : : : ABC : Axis : First Lemoine : Circle c.c. ZAB : (see also Appendix III) : centre of perspective of D : eqn.) rift' : CHAPTER XI.
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J2 73 the points of contact of the circle I with the sides of ABG by X. B. which lies on 01} and the Circumradius of ^IjJj = 2E. AB respectively by J3"2 lt s (the the triangle HJIJi. I The Circiimcentre OJ OJ.and excentres by I. of Gravity by G the in. /? . . H . 1. of JjJjJg is /. 7?. will be denoted the Orthocentre by J3". J.CHAPTER I. the triangle of reference. Z the corresponding points for the circle I being X^ Y^ Zr . G on BG. the feet of the perpendiculars by from A. . CA. . IN this work the following conventions are observed: the Circumcentre of ABC.& being called the Orthocentric Triangle) the Centroid or Centre 3 lengths of AH^ BH^ GHS by l? & 2 . H . Y. INTRODUCTION: DIRECTION ANGLES. . also ..
2 MODERN GEOMETRY. Let _p. its Centroid is 6r.. BG 1 parallel to BC. cos t = A'X/OI = \ (bc)/OI oc (6c). C on a straight line TT'. . g. . C" the triangleA'B'C' being called the Medial Triangle. these angles being measured from TT' as axis. S." stand for normal or triUnear coordinatesdenoted by a/?y. The lines drawn through A. while the incen Ireis denoted by 1'.op sin^ = 2. the Centroid is G. t l so that ' a. B'. The diagram shows that a sin 6 = q r. CA. &c. J5. 1 C 1 . The midpoints of BC.. a sin ^ = 0. 2. the 8 be the angles which the sides of ABC make with TT'. For OG^if. with Centre 0' and radius \E theOrthocentre of A'B'C' is 0." stand for barycentric or areal or triangular coordinates. r be the lengths of the perpendiculars from A. we obtain 5 a cos = 0. = '. B. denoted by xyz also x aa.c. The letters "n. cos 0. form the AntiMedial Triangle A . AB Its Circumcentre is JT. The letters " b. Its Circumcircle is the NinePoint Circle. 2 .c. TT'. For 01. r Two sets of direction angles should be particularly noted.^(3 r) = 0. and in the same sense. &c. 2. . <9. By projecting the sides of ABC along and perpendicular to. = A'HJOH = R sin(50)/0//oc (/rr)/^. Let 1? Direction Angles of TT' that is. CA. so that = . . its Medial or NinePoint Circle is ABG and its NinePoint Centre is 0. AB are A'.
= . Let p. . + m'ft + n'y = 0. To determine TT. 2.DIRECTION ANGLES.*. (a / gr 26c cos ^1) TT A form of little use. 4. 5. C proportional to so that is TT determined when p. \mj3\ny = 0.ap. Now Also Z oc and Hence = 4A = aa+bft+cy = 2A. ^ k. A. 5'. 5. Note that the ratios are needed. cos O in terms of p.. ap cos bq cos cr cos 5. 2 2 ap . l g.. the righthand signs are changed. < 3 be the direction angles of the two <^ =b \TT. g... r. the length of the perpendicular on TT' from a point P. ?/. q. whose b. so that r' be q. (7. y. as it is almost always difficult to evaluate D. = 0.. I'a H l falls outside dd'.6 cos C + r.. p'. When 3. 3 To express Since . To determine the condition that la. . < Let OH lines. Xow And .AJI l l (7 l l l cos t . 1' TT.2 . only of #.. r are z known. .. 2A.. are (. 0. r ') ir) (7 + ' 0.c CH :H B = b cos C c cos 5.. in terms of p. %+y+z = (Za + m/3 + ny)/D. and may < be at right angles. f ap'(apbq mm' + ww' Gcr cos 5) + r (mn + m'w) cos J. . so #3 and Ol that = a. Since P is the centre for masses at A. . Z cc op. =D 2 . 2 . r. sin = or ZZ' (^ = 2 A cos 0. To determine 2 Put Z when T2 is 2mwcos A +. Za + m/8 + wy = .cos 0j ap bq cos crcosB. which is the required condition. 2 A sin fa = 2A . B. . the perpendiculars on the lines from Z' oc op'.c. <j+ . q. ).'. ap' sin = p' (%' . 0. cos B = (b cos + c cosB)H d = a(p H d') = ap a. r.
a + 6 2 ic 2 = 4A cot A. = 0.qr + Bq. 2 2 to (fr TOT'.. and the result From follows. q.. . f ..(bc)(8a)/a p = R/OH. [more useful that (cos B cos C) a + s (&*c )cos4. (a//3'.... straight line TT' is determined when any two of the three perpendiculars p..gr) = 2{ay(a + + c )grj...a+. 6.. For OGH. t For theorems and proofs responsible.p}~ . 8. r are given absolutely. It follows that there must be some independent relation between them. in terms of these coordinates.2A cos #! + = ap (apbq cos C cr cos P) = S (ay26tfcos4.tt+.a + 6 + c2 ) gr } = 4A a 2 = 2 A (cot B + cot C). Then apply the condition a cos A . now takes the form + c cos a + For 01..r c cos = op. q. the length of PP'..pq l /. y')...c.qr When TT' = = . Hence prove that for Of. .+ ..4 MODERN GEOMETRY.. 2 (q r) cot ^4 + (r 2A + Now Hence . r. = 0. 2 2 2 Z> This the relation sought. 2 ... The equation p = R/OI.d a ^7 r = p) cot a 2 B+ (p 2 r/) cot = 2A. (6c)(*a). 4A 2 is = p.rp+Cr.. A From elementary Cartesian Geometry we have 2 A = Ap.. p 2 2 2 4A 2 & g + cV 2bc cos A. 2 2 2 2 .. . = 2 (aa') sin 2 2 (Pfi') sin 27?+ (yy') sin 2(7. 7. 3 .... so that passes through A.. (.. /?. The We have But and Hence 2 { op 2 . To prove thatv when TT' op/JB is = b cos a circumdiameter. P' lying on TT' have absolute n. (6 c ) cos A/a. points P. = 0]..b cos # 4.( . = 0..a cos O + q. (G)f 3 + c cos #2 (2) we can express the right side in terms of p.aa.. . 0.. y) and It is required to determine d. marked (G) the present writer is = = 0. a sin $ a. which cos Os is 2) p. (a a!)/d.. for OF.
GPQ. 2p l sin A cr. . BM = 2p sin (B RM or ARM) . CA.. ap sin O r . 3. that in the circle or a/(l/q l/r). AM BM CM p p p = p sin # q sin In circle 2 .Davis) QR = AMQR.md in BMRP. have a common point (call it If) so that the parabola which touches the four sides of the quadrilateral will have for focus while the four orthocentres lie on the directrix. which has BC. : l : z : a a : 6. Let p be the radius of this circle and p v p2 . which is also the common radical axis of the circles (AP)(BQ)(CR). BRP.DIRECTION ANGLES. p & the radii of AQR. O lt 2 0.&c.F.A are known to lie on a circle (call it the Centre Circle) which also passes through If. The four circumcentres 0. The results just obtained are useful in investigating some algebraic relations of a quadrilateral. = AQ . therefore the n. of M are as l/p sin OH l/q sin S. AB for three of its sides the fourth side being PQR. CPQ. BRP. = p sin Q : l/(2 sin ^ sin sin 3) =m p/sin . 2p l sin /. (in circle AQR) 2 Pl AM QR.2 : r sin 3 . 1/r sin 8 .c. ABC. AM = 2 Pl sin ARM. 5 9. p sin 6V . Since the angles at Q. : M . S l R are #2 . (R. The circum circles of the four triangles AQR. or 1Iote a/p(qr). 2 .
a+ .bp + r. = 0. angles 0. The equation to PQR being p.'. .. 3. which will prove to be the Lemoine Axis (128). .. .* Here p cc I/a 2 so that the focus of the parabola.0.. a/(6 From = : 2 (6 A.cy 0. is the double point of the similar triangles ABO.= is : C. ( 1/p + l/gf l/r)aj+. 0. ABCM. from : MO. : MO. has n. A . the directrix being Kiepert's Parabola. 1} MB. or OMO.0. By or or or subtraction their point of intersection is found to lie on p sin.0 is perpendicular to Z 00.. cos A . The perpendicular from P on An proves = = 0. .6 MODERN GEOMETRY. = 0. : MA MB MO = Pl Hence 0. The bracketed numbers refer to sections..4/a'... cos.. The join 00. 00. aa + q.. .aaf p(qr} cos^. ft + cos A cy/p the perpendicular from R on AC is cos A aa/q + cos A bft/p + (b/pa cos C/q) y = 0. and the triangle 0.a+. 11. Since 0. For example.00. c ) cos 2 = 0. MO. ACB (in ABCM) C..03 : : similar to p.. Hence the chords 00.. 10.0.bfi \r. the well known Radical Axis * of the circles ABC.'. To determine the equation of the 4orthocentre line.0. = 0. M = Pt ABC. known as 2 2 c ) &c.x + .. ARQM is = perpendi cular to the Similarly 00 2 is perpendicular to the chord MB. let PQR be xla?\. But. to MR.. in the Centre Circle subtend so that : 00! 00 2 00 = sin^ 3 : sin0 3 : sin 8 .. the point P is determined by a cos q. . and = BMR = BPR : 0... 00. which is OGH. &c.. = AMB = . (M is a'/3V) the symmetry of this equation the line clearly passes through the other three orthocentres and is therefore the directrix of the parabola. 0..aa+ .. aa/r f (c/p a cos B/r) . The midpoints of diagonals lie on or cotA.c.. (circle JBMPR) = 0. be and = 0.0.0.. L 0. of the centres common chord MA.. A'B'C'.cy = 0.0. to . = 0.. = 0.0..
p sinflj. O^ = 2p sin AP. + c. 2. 7 circle. 7l = gr/(gr). + <y8 (^^) . a2 2 . one and 2 (7. 0. M0 = 2 (G) and O^MO^ C.A/c. = (a a ) sin a^V. . cot J. a = (a.q sin0 G a2 +6 2 c 2 pY _ (qr}(pr} J ab ~ab~~ But since Z O a 3 . = A/6.. .2A/6. 0.2A/c. or midpoints of AP. For <o 2. = r/(rp) A/a. sin 20. of the diagonals of the To determine the length quadrilateral. r' 13. 2 = = 0. the radius of the Centre so M0 = l pl = m. BQ.0. yt = ( p)/(rp) A/c. 2 a 2 /. To determine the length of ci^to. The distance d of between ^ 2 . X9 2 .. ft = (_ r )/(grr) A/6. . .4 ( ^+ D = a sin $ a I 6 sin ^2 I c sin 3 .6 0.4P (gr) 2 2 = 2 q*b + <fl(qry. 2 w.2 sin 2 Oz 2pq sin 6 l sin # 2 cos = m. p mB. Forcu. To determine p. 0. 4A /c + c* 2 2 2 .2 a) 5 be the centres of the diameter circles.A/B 2 = (a/?y) (a'fl'y') is given by (6) Now. = 0. cot Cp Hence. 12.. =(_r)/( 3 r). /3 2 .DIRECTION ANGLES.k^/abc. ^1. CR. for P.'.fc^ sin 2A+.A/E a 1==A/a.ry Hence .. .a') ^.. a' Also for = 2A/a. since cot . V/ A  _J^ (prr .. )8' y = gr/(gr).. / = . Now. Let o> 15 w.
A diagram shows that a fa' aa + aa' = hr = i. = 0. of the 6). If the ABC equation to a straight line is lx + my + nz the A'B'C' equation is 0. = ^+^ b/(ca) + c/(ab) (b c)(s a)/(c a)(a b. J5'. &c. or 8 ( Z' + m + w')a' + f =  . a'fi'y' be the n.. aa + 2^' bft + cy. Medial Coordinates.a^ = A = 4. a. in For every point there is a homologous point P' 2. of a point If A'.c..c. the triangle A'B'G' is ABO .. to Feuerbach Point determine the &c. a. l(y' + z') + . area of A'B'C' = oa b(3' /. 14. and GP referred to ABC. or 0.0 F being b..c. 2aa' = s'. BC.CHAPTER II.. ). P ABO = P respectively. If the J. OP'. oc . For example. aa = + cy'. %+y = y+ c/(a = + z.'5'C' b.'.. are to be deduced from the oc oc ac ABC then _(6c) (sa) + (ca) 2 2 ( a(a ?>)( c) oc a/(6 c). ^4'5'C" b. #' oc oc a/(b c). = 0. in A'B'G'. 15. (6 J. CA. AB..c. the a/(b c). MEDIAL AND TRIPOLAR COORDINATES. of this Here . = = If the A'B'G' equation to a straight line is I'x' the ABC + m'y' + n'z' =  equation is + .c. so that or.. . 6/(c point. 0. in b.. such that P' lies on GP. C' are the rnidpoints of called the Medial Triangle of its circumcircle A'B'G' is the NinePoint Circle whose centre 0' bisects OH.. (w + w)aj'+. A'B'C' Let a/?y. b) c)*(sa).c.
the 0. whose direction angles are 1} 0^ O s Letjp'. = OA' cos 6 p' Hence the required equation l = R cos J.2 H H S perpendiculars. . of o^ given by a.. ABC equation 0. reducing to (a y+ (a 2 ) ..B.+ cot.. ABC is cot^.') 2 + z'x' 4. a2 #'+ .a+ is = = 0.. 2 = 0. well cotA.. A/a. Returning to the quadrilateral discussed in section (13) see the b.. A diagram shows that . . lt 3 = feet or of aV + b*y' + cV  equation to H. C' on TOT'. 2 or is a2/#+. B'. The 4''C' equation therefore x'/P + y'/q + z'/r this TTj 0.c. = 0. . For OI cos^ ? = %(b to c)/OL is Hence the A'B'C' equation (b 01 c) cos ^1. are the H...MEDIAL AND TRIPOLAR COORDINATES.''?/') (y Referred to A'B'C'. .z = ( fr Therefore the A'B'C' equation (cot is B + cot C) x+ (cot a~x\ 6' 8 cot c ) 2 4)y + cot 2 ^ + cot B)z = 0. . the equation of the Nine. . is 9 The . 7'. =0. . k\ 16. = we the Hence the quadrilateral is ABC ( equation to the midpoint line .. cos A cos 6 l x' H . r' be the perpendiculars from A'.. or aqr. cos 6 r is . V+ = = ..B(7 equation to the circumcircle a/a + .x\ = known Radical Axis whose . The perpendicular on where from J/ = therefore given by D = 2 2 { a 2 g sr s _p 2 gr ( ..a2 f 6 2 + c2 ) } aqr...hi/D. Therefore or its A'B'C' equation a 2 /0/ + .a... To determine the A'B'C' equation to a circumdiameter TOT'. &c.Point or Medial 0. of I/p + 1/q + 1/r) x + is =0. becomes . Example. Circle is )  aV + 6y + cV + (a + 6 + c = 0. when If H (cot B + cot C)x' + referred to A'B'C'. = 0. Example.?/ + cot0. ABC is The J. #'+.
. equal to the ratios a cos 0j b cos $ 2 c cos 3 should be noted. y. for every point ratios or (r15 r. r3 2 = 0. the projections of . this becomes reducing to the well known form a cos A. . if rjt and . we see that the equaTransferring tion differs only by a constant from that of the parallel circumdiameter.'. to Cartesian coordinates. The P OP on the sides.'. tripolar coordinates of a point are its distances. C.. I 0. Tripolar Coordinates. 17. : : . Note that. J5. Referred to A BC. 2. = = OP +\r*rf)rf = (rf^ftrMvfrflr .10 MODERN GEOMETRY. ..2x cos t a. . OGH (i) The projection .. The tripolar equations to 01. or ratios of distances. 2 2 r2 r3 a. Then. P a r2 2 r32 : r3 2 ra 2 2 : r/ r. r2 4. the are constant being. The projection of OH on BG 1 =0..c cos 2 3 . OH is a 18. represents a circumdiameter. of the lr* = * 0. and So that an equation a 0080!+. . and the equation to = (M~ C )/2a. To determine the tripolar equation to a circumdiameter whose direction angles are T 2 3 Let be any point on the line. form s where + mrf + nr = + m + n = 0. = 0. from A. rj 4.6 2 cos 2 . r2 rs be the tripolar coordinates of P. . c) . cos is (bc) 2 and the equation (ii) to 01 o(fec)r +. . To find the equation to a straight line with direction (Gr) angles O lt 2 3 and at a distance d from 0.. of 01 on BG 0j cc J (& . n 5 a cos 0! . . x..2 rs ) on the line.d:+ . z. in fact.. a3 ..
since Q is the i 2y.4. at the mean centre of masses Z. 19. m.yY = LAQ^l. When . wi. C' be the line in A".6 cos 0. of Q. be the Cartesian coordinates of .. is .la r mean centre for masses Z. B'. la z + m6 2 H wc s = f w^ = l . or if (Z. 3 .PQ 2x. 5. J5Q + w. P whose tripolar coordinates are (rl5 r2 r3 ). (7. p2 [p 2 = p3 ] z (p l p. k.Sc. for any point ^t. CQ + 2 2 (l + m + n) PQ*. m. and let (c^Og). then. k a cos O l pf 4. rf + the midpoints of the sides. It 11 must therefore be of the l . 2ac sin />' Hence the required equation a cos . B. p 2 2 4. (/4m + w) if is not zero. ZTY* (^i?> 2 ).^!Q 2 + m.c cos = 2 .MEDIAL AND TRIPOLAR COORDINATES. I . (^2)1 Take any rectangular axes at Q. . . To prove that Q be . Zr1 2 + mr 2 2 f nr s 2 = I Z. a cos 6 = A Then if (p 1? p 2 ./) = = = acos^. = 4<iA. w) are the b. and let A'O meet Let A'. form .C'lf a(OD/OA")2c. . i TO. Then = (a x)~^l(a . p3 ) be the coordinates of A". P.OA"sinB cZ .la l t But.c. .
. : : Divide BG. w2 <o at T. R and externally at BP CP = : r = BP' q = r:p=GQ GQ:AQ AR BR = p q = AR' r : : GP'.. AQ m BQ + n CQ + (Z + m + w) PQ 2 2 2 2 . This. f (C) p The Nine. arT 2 + 2 fer 2 + crs : = E 2Sr. is true for . If the circle cuts the circle ABG orthogonally. (B) The inscribed circle: p = r. are sin A cos (B C ).c. RR' as diameters.. } .. (QQ) intersect . F. CA. .'. Wj.c. QO = 8 I0 2 2 / . T'. MODERN GEOMETRY. . oc sin 2 ra s /.Point circle = R. = 2 A (r 2E) 2 Z oc . OQ according If P describes a circle of radius />(= PQ) round Q. To determine the point or points whose tripolar coordinates are in the given ratios p q r.2 cos ^4 cos 5 cos C). Since the n. BR'. Q'. R'. : : AQ'. 2 (sin 2B+ sin 2(7) = 4A (1 4. P'. (A) The circumcircle : Here p = JK. 3 QQ'. then OQJP+rt so that the circle becomes 2 Zr/ + mr/ + nr = 2 3 0.... so that AB internally at P.Q& = JOB 2 1 = R2R cos + sin 2(7. Examples. 2 the point 'Q for the circle ABU is K 2 as Q. a . and let the circles (PP). Davis) . so that Z (7). being true for any point P. Irf + mrf+nr* = I . : : Q.12 . then the tripolar equation to this circle is or The power 2 2 II of OQ JR . (R. of the NinePoint centre are cos (B the b. 2O. n) OQ 2 . Z oc sin 2^1 . QO = 0. Let be the centres of the circles described on PP'. ^l cos B cos (7. an internal point. lies within or without the circle..
13 Then since GPBP' is harmonic. and TP. T' on the circle PP' we have. ABG = B . so that the tangents to these circles are each equal to R. (W). 2 . so 2 that wT 2 Ow 2 where w is the midpoint of TT'.MEDIAL AND TRI POLAR COORDINATES. at T. Since (GPBP'} is harmonic. for every point T or a' BT CT = BP CP = : : q : r .BP r : GP' = BT' : CT'. Hence the '). . Wl O. circle (PP ). the common chord or Radical Axis of the three circles (PP'.OT' E\ so that T.. are inverse points in circle (b) OT. and these points are common to the three circles : : (QQ')> (RR'). : : Hence (QQ ) f at T... from similarly the circles (QQ'). T' the points of intersection of the circles (PP'). : = = : : The symmetry of the result shows that T and T' lie also on the circle (BE'). Hence there are two points whose tripolar coordinates are as p q r. Wl P = 1 (>. while T'P. AT: JIT CT p: q:r AT' BT' CT'. T'P' bisect those r So for every point : T or T' on the circle (QQ ) GT AT ^ CQ AQ = r p. T' including the circle on TT' as diameter. TP' bisect the angles at T'. (c) The circle cuts orthogonally every circle through T. Ac. cut the circle ABG orthogonally. (RR ). and It follows that (a) lies on TT'. 1 = T ABC.
= . &c. o> 2 . w3 lie on the line through w. . v/cot 5 \/cot 0. z : = . The centres o^. bisect ing TT' at right angles. (1) For the coaxal system to which the circle incircle XYZ belong. Polar Circle. x + cot B A/cot . 21. Va I/ Vb : 1/v/c. ABC. and therefore O^CD^ for Radical Axis so that. the Radical Axis is (s ABC and the a)x+ .. Examples... T' for Limiting Points.*. the limiting points lying on 01. p : q : r = a : b : c. = . (Gr> 2 Since OT OT _R the circle ABC belongs to the coaxal system which has T. . G on a> 1 (o 2 o>3 we have by coaxal theory . have for their cot .7TJ =~AT* 2 or ^ocp Axis 2 . circles (sc). Hence the tripolar coordinates of the limiting points lying on a). Hence the equation to the Radical p x\q z yiT'z = 0.. v'/x. A r . = 0. . 7r3 are the perpendiculars from A. \/v. if the Radical Axis be Xx + /XT/ + vz then the tripolar coordinates of T or T' are VA. if 7r 7r. the limiting points lying on (4) The circles ABC. common Radical Axis OGH. For the . ( 01 are (2) as (s &). w^Wg is And conversely. The tripolar coordinates of Limiting Points.14 (d) MODERN GEOMETRY. J5. is a + /? + y p : q : = = or I/ . p : q : = J. 1^1* r the Radical Axis x/a + : . 2. . 2. (3) The circle ABC and the Antimedial circle ABC 1 1 1 have Radical ALxis /. the limiting points lying on OGH. A'B'C'. a?x + b y + (?z = z (1) .0T. = 0. y f cot : C . a .
and and . cut DD' . . and draw tangents AB. 22.'. Then = De + el+IO = R. e. cut the circle at le r. Let BI. With centre D and radius Let let 6.CHAPTER III. and J>e = De*/2R = DP/2R (Rd)*/2B + r + d = E or OI = d = R2Br. CI meet 0(Ej in 5'. e. C" respectively. in the circle 0(JJ) take any point A. AC to . at e. (Greenhill) L' An infinite number of triangles can be inscribed 0(R) and described about the circle /(r). PORISTIC TRIANGLES.6. 01 = 2 DI d. . LET I be any point on the fixed diameter DD' of the circle 0(R). provided On /(r).
(<r) The centre of similitude XYZ and 1. of the circles (6) We ABC. E l . BC touches I(r). be the Limiting Points of the two Let . the centroid of XYZ..Jd = (2Rrv*)/2d. since BI. . (a) To determine the distances of S l and Radical Axis. = . cut 01 in 1J7. XYZ. U circles. (JS calculating r from r DTJ and infinite = number of circles /(r) . Then. gives a poristic system of triangles. the Radical Axis. The Radical Axis of 0(R) and I(r). ^i = ^i r = J5I 2 2 2 now proceed to discuss some points which remain in a system of poristically variable triangles ABC.1Jy t of the homothetic triangles (c) (d) The orthocentre (H ) of the triangle XYZ. each of which. unchanged (a) The inner and outer centres of similitude (8 l and S2 ) 24. right angles. =E : r. and = 7?M #/ = r/sin . : 13. Since 01 is divided at S lt so that $2 from the 03. So C'l 1 = = C'A.E/2.'.16 MODERN GEOMETRY.L. Then W. It follows that by taking a series of points J along 3 we have an d~)/2R. 23. combined with 0(7?). E/^ 2 = EPi* 2 t by ordinary coaxal theory and Also = (2# 2firr*)/2d. = 2Br.R = 3 . 25. The Weill Point (^). so that 'C"I or 'C"(7 .IB' = &OI* B'l = 2E sin . Hence B'C bisects AT &t L B'C' A . and let Bisect 01 in &.
and to determine its distance from the Radical Axis.also lies on 01 \ = 01. . r). . a. the centre of similitude of the homothetic triangles XYZ. while the circumcentre XYZ of /jJa/s is /.*. a well known theorem. <r is Again aI/IJ = r/(2R a fixed point. Since the circumcentre of is J. 17 So that the circle is coaxal with 0(R) and I(r). 1^1^ is poristically fixed. To show that <r. constant and al/aJ = ratio of circumradii = r/2R = . from above . lying on 01.'. and such that OJ .PORISTIC TRIANGLES. 26.
J^/g slide on fixed circles. It will he convenient here to determine the n.'. : TI : : : : Note also that. From have noting that .. the homothetic triangles XYZ. of the point a. .'. on 01. To prove that 23". j^/s/j.. 00. Since H { and I are the orthocentres of XYZ.. vI/IJ = r/(2R . Hi is a fixed point.X = r/(2Rr). r. . lt joins XI . 27.. 7. and we . figure p. aoj/JjX. drawing croj perpendicular to are homologous points in XYZ. And . that is. crHJal = r/2R..r) . and IJ=2. = a = r/(2Rr). /. since oJ = 2dr/(2R r). a fixed ratio /.. the Y72 ZI^ passing through the fixed point IT.0I=2d. fixed. a : ft X and 7 ^ZjJg.belongs to the coaxal system. EI=r(2Rr)/2d.18 MODERN GEOMETRY. Again. . l . = ratio of circumradii of the triangles aX/aIi = r/2R = aX/I. (26) Note also that 7T r 7?7 7?7T . Ea El = EL\ .c.r = l/(sa) l/(sb) l/(*c).'. (7. jffi lies on oJ. since 7 and J are the circumcentres of XYZ. y = . is poristically and to determine its distance from the Radical Axis. r. oI= 2dr/(2Rr). the orthocentre of XYZ. (Greenhill) Note that so that the circle Jo.
which loci of some well are poristically variable : known The Feuerbach Point The Centroid G. = 2. of The orthocentre JT. /. I at cos JT. To determine the Since G t is the mean centre of masses 1. is a fixed point. Z. and the Medial Triangle A'B'G'. Z. and described about another fixed circle.PORTSTIC TRIANGLES. TAe JF^ZZ When an infinite number of ngons can be inscribed in one fixed circle. 19 To determine the n. . Y. and ^. p.. n.c. aoc Yoc cos* 29.GJ. ZX sin B cos 6 + cot J(7 cos J5.H. of XYZ JET. of 6r. Ac. Y. is the centre of masses tan X. In the triangle XYZ. tan Y. J. Z placed at a oc V. polygon (M'Clelland. is Gf is a fixed point on 01. and F. cot oc X Y sin Z+ tan Z. (d) (e) 0' the circumcentre. . Z. We now proceed to discuss the points related to (a) (6) (c) ABC. 96). Y. The Orthocentre H. since / the orthocentre. tan /. Y. Gh For a triangle the Weill Point is is the circumcentre and /T.. the mean with the inner circle centre of the points of contact X. 28. which may be called the Weill Point of the .c. I' the incentre of . 2 Y tanY. the centroid of XYZ. 2 /(*a).
BK CH AP = h. then aa/0 a = .c. of N are a) Nagel Point of ABC. This point called the If the absolute n. 2.. 00'. OA in Y AB 2. a = h^a/s = 2r. Ik = f 10. . /. and (c) H describes a circle. a circle. and . and GI2.. . S.. N B . I' are homologous points in the triangles A BO.. may Let XIx be the diameter of the incircle which is perpendicular to BC.20 MODERN GEOMETRY. (d) 0' obviously describes centre I. and let the excircles /15 /2 /3 touch BC in X^ 3O. (/) The Nagel Point. a)/s. the perpendiculars from on Bf!^ A^ A V B^ the sides 2r. so that the equation to = sc. NR perpendicular to AH. Oh = so that & is fixed.0'I= i(fi = constant. whose circular loci . 6ty  . (e) I' describes a circle. For since I. AX is l l and thus as (s AX^ BT^ CZ 6).c. for OG f 00' = . I'k parallel to O'l: alonsr the incircle. whose double point is 6r. GF.0'I = R2r = constant. CX = sb. IGT is a straight line. /. A'B'C'.) are each is the incentre of the triangle A 1 1 C 1 Hence } N = . (s (sc).'s are a). /. = h l (s Draw NP. a/2y. in Z z respectively. 00 = f. is y 1(81) = zl(sc). 2. radius (4Bf). = %(R2r) = /O'. = 2A/s. /. of the antimedial triangle A^B^G^ (. so that fc is a fixed point. 01. and Hh = 2.'. for OH = 2. Draw Hh. 2r) thus # is fixed.. then . series This point also belongs to the be found by inspection. (a) (6) The point F moves G Gg. S concur at a point N whose b. NQ. Then BX. describes a circle.OI. &/' = f Gg .
The two triangles ABC. N describes a circle. and ON.PORISTIC TRIANGLES. is Again Let a parallelogram. AC are common and Ix. since AxNX is a straight AP = 2r = Xx. in the ratio 1:2. are parallel radii of /.'. additional note on this interesting point may here be interpolated. A'I /P meet BC parallel to in T. and Thus ON = 2 0'l = E2r. tangents to the circles / and /15 the circles. 0' and H N The corresponding joins are parallel. centre An parallel. 31. 0. PXX^ /. A 1 B 1 C 1 have G for their common for their incentres. . is AN and PX. and XI Ix and XA' = PN XX^ = = A'X l b c. / and for NinePoint centres. and for circumcentres. drawn in the same line. Since AB. direction. And /. radius =B 2r. . ZjX. PX is parallel to AxNX l or l l . centroid and centre of similitude.*. AxX . O'l are .
3 Va+ aX . 2A a? of JSf.c.c. the Centre of Perspective for the triangles ABC and XYZ..TA'.. is called the Gergonne Point. a) 33. .aa+ . of the T TH. is y(s the barycentric equation to z(s c).. (1) A Put (3) s l8 (4) (5) (6) = ra.. 4AR = (2) abc so that a = s a = &c.. of H t.) Proceeding as usual. Then . BX = s b and GX = sc. are I/ (s a). Gergonne Point M and the Nagel Point N passes through (G.. which are (&f c)/(s ) The For which join of JH and 6r passes through <r." . c)(s is satisfied by the n. : a 2 *. which is satisfied by the n. To determine the absolute b. which are l/(s (G. so that b) AX. of (r. TH. This point...c.a. & = AV* = r l/^ + 1/^+l/*. = s . a) . = incircle and NinePoint 32. this join is (b 0.22 MODERN GEOMETRY.. = ifi+v* r )/A s $].) . and will be denoted AX = byM.. This is another point whose poristic locus Since is a circle. on the Radical Axis (common tangent) circle. 2A 3 2A'2 The join of the jST t . The Gergonne Point...c. a(b c)(s a). BY. the join proves to be 0.4.. r (4E h r) + 3r 5 = 2 4r (E 4 . In the poristics of a triangle the following formulae are often required. CZ concur at a point whose b. lies :TX = TP:TI=TX: TA'..
by coaxal theory . y. Hence..c'xu . but the proof long. * The original proof belongs to Elliptic Functions. But. . z). if TT be the perpendicular on the Radical Axis from any point whose b. Hence describes a circle coaxal with 0(K) and f(r). Gergorme Point If a circle (Greenhill) Let TTj. It may be shown that is the radius of the M circle = r ^ ~ .Hence. whose are as 1/s. Again. a) /2d. [f m is the centre of this circle. given the present writer is responsible. are * l = (a>s l +. and.c. Radical Axis E^E^.. for If. &c . then II 2 Om TT.c. be the perpendiculars from A. Of. B. . . = ncu'iiz / f. Om 4(E + r) ' . for M. * The poristic locus of the coaxal with (R) and I(r). then (X + y + Z) b. the power II for the circle are (x.)s power of M for the circle ABO varies as the distance of from the Radical Axis. The power of A for the circle J(r) (s a)". are (x. z) is given by ABC . the M M . y. 23 is 34. //?A\ .v2 of a point whose b. For the proof here .c.PORISTIC TRIANGLES.... whose II b. C on the = But by coaxal theory ... 7T = 7T r C f 7T 2 y f 7T 3 Z. &c. = . finally.d. o'zx f.c.^^ 4R+r . 7r 2 TT. /. this ^= power (s is 2 also equal to 2ir^d .
Then. FROM any point diculars to Ton the circumcircle TX. draw perpen to the sides BC. . its Pole. parallel to At. TY. 35. So XY is parallel to At. TZ ABC. CM.CHAPTER IV. L BZX = BTX or BTt = BAt ZX is parallel to At. THE SIMSON LINE. and T is called is XYZ 24 . since BZTX is cyclic.'. AB. Thus It is a straight line. Produce TX meet the circle in t. called the Simson Line of T.
a'. is a!. or their supplements. a'GA are right angles. it also passes through G. For A. 03 be the direction angles of XYZ. h lies on the NinePoint Circle. . To draw a Simson Line Draw X Let (a) AH AO meet the circle ABC again in a. to o^.2 <r3 . Hx=TX. XYZ bisects It follows that BXZ = ov OCT 37. since At. Ax. say at h. makes with the are equal to the acute angles which sides of ABC. Bt. QX or Xt 2R sin BA t = 2R sin BZX 2R sin QX = Xt = 2R sin sin <r 2 cr s . i..THE SIMSON LI1S E. AB. To determine and Bt .e.AOT = frAtT = \K. H at once lt and that 36. F.. OBT. meeting BC in X. the point X coincides with coincide with A . az perpendicular to AC. passes through it is parallel to the tangent at A. To prove that XYZ bisects TH If Q be the orthocentre of TBC. relation of fundamental importance. when the Simson Line of T passes through T'. (W.YXT = BXZ = ov Xt. o. as the case may be. prove that. o. is .'. the Simson Line of a. taking of the triangles OAT.'..2 . a. the chord tT perpendicular to BC. and Z is (b) Since a'BA. seen that yz. (c) follows that it is BC Drawing ay. 19 it is required to determine the Simson Lines of A. <r 3 . Beard) /. therefore AH l while lt the Simson Line of it H Y A . TQ and = ZRcosA Xt AH. T 25 A T in a given direction At. Let o. being its pole. QX = . To prove that the base angles . line through parallel to At is the Simson Line required.Ct/2R. XYZ L OAT (or OTA) A = fr%. (E orthocentre) . HxTX a parallelogram. TH. TOT' being a circumdiameter. the Simson Line of a'. XYZ are parallel .
C on XYZ. . Kiepert's Parabola. To determine TT. .cot 03.c. X = ZXT . XYZ being oj. / ^lf q. In the circle AYTZ.. of oc 2 (6 2 c )/a. T a/(6 The or directrix will be (6 OGH. since 27t cos o.. sin o. o 2. B. To determine p. XY. The Simson Line XYZ is evidently the XYZ is XYZ a line parallel to Let T be the pole.. Since bisects TH. ZX. To determine the n. the directrix and passing through H. Let a parabola be drawn touching the sides of ABG and T for focus.JTT l sin (r 2 sin o. cot + cot y t. oj . o.. gin AtX = 2R cos <r <T! .3 . Let the direction angles of be 15 2 8 then OGH are . 2 2 &c. with AT as YZ = AT sin A = 2R cos diameter. /. TT of the perpendicular TU o^ 011 the = TU = TX sin TXZ = 2 ^1 7 2R . s c ) 2 cos A. = 0. . from A. so that the n. <r l . the length Sim son Line of T. are as sec <r l : sec<r2 : seco3 . c ).. the lengths of the perpendiculars the Simsori Line of T. To determine the segments YZ. cos o.2. r..2 cos <r s cos Or. sin yl = a cos a r 39.8 . therefore <r 2 .c. cos O l so that the n. found as in (35). 2 cr 3 .cos cos TB TC a = 2R cos cos 212.. OTJ. The equation to XYZ is a.26 MODERN GEOMETRY. cr 3 . cos . <r.. o. TA 2R = = 2# cos = 4<R. p = JC^ . 4O. of the Simson Line parallel to the Euler Line OGH. a .3 cc cot o^!. 38.a+. . the direction angles of o.15 having vertextangent and U is the vertex. (37) Jft = 2R sin o. From and .c. of T.
= AMB = 0. JV lies on the circle ABC.+ ^7+ ^ = o cos ^+ sec sec ^ sec 0. = . (^r^) + 4> 3 4>2 5 < 8..'. CPQ have the common point the M".THE SIMSOX LINE. 00. OTB. To prove that Since TtT' S . passing through M. So that..c. . + < tfr. since ^. = rrANB (BNO% being = and since so that point in TT .. the perdendiculars from Oj cos Q. = = T'TCtTC ITTS = TYZ = ZXT+ T'TX = 8 = ^4< /. are (sec0 15 sec CO. < .. on AQ.NO. If p be the circumradius of AQR.. 2 3 are equal ^n ^j' ^3< ^ respectively.A meet at a point sec03 ). y are the n. and is therefore the second circle which the Centre Circle intersects the ABC. 00 2. Denote the vectorial angles OTA. l 1 /c x ft :y = cos jB : cos Q = sec 0. if a. MA. c . < OT 3 or their supplements. . = fa .. 41. Consider the quadrilateral formed by the sides of ABC and a straight line PQR. = JTT arc Ct = BT' <. are perpendicular to . L tTC = BTT' . (9) Let 15 2 3 be the direction angles of PQE. N whose coordinates And. x. 3 lie on a circle called 2 Centre Circle.2 : sec 3 Hence A0 BO^ 15 2. so that < 27 OTU to <r lt by a2 . and their centres 0. BRP. of I5 . and is the pole of the Simson Line parallel to PQR. 3 . 0. The circles ABC. on the Centre Circle. T'Tt 3 4> 2 . we may write < 42. AQR. a straight line) Again L 0. MB. (2) /. . AR are /o cos E.00. N lies 0.. /?.... (7 Making the usual convention that s is to be negative when falls on the side of TOT' opposite to A and B. 8 . OTC. .
 <r/) But so that OJT = sin o^ sin o//sin (o^ OAT' o^ 1 = o/..)(sec<r/. /?. 43. . of 8. T' <r/ .. ... To prove that the Simson Lines of T and T'. T and T' being any points on the circle ABC. = 0. 0J0203 T. = 0. the extremities of a circumdiameter. = 0. . (G. . . <r l l . We will now deal with pairs of Simson Lines. Hence the equation to TT' joining the points T. sin o/. . it is required to determine 8.. whose n. And the tangent at T is cos 2 oj . (37) TAT' <r/. if a. aa + . 44.) is cos o! cos aa + .. intersect at right angles on the Medial Circle.'.) The equation to the chord which joins the points (aj/S^) and (a2/3 2 y 2 ) on the circle ABC is aa/ajttg f . .c. TT' = 2Esin(o. the point of intersection of their Simson Lines. angles of the a = SX sin = TT' cos 6 y are n. . . XX' sin o^ o. .c. T'. sin cr//sin (o^ o/) .o/). and of the be the direction chord TT'. Let Simson Lines of Then. are (seco.28 MODERN GEOMETRY. and a = 2J2 cos ^ sin cr.
as shown above. Let these Simson Lines Xh. . since are midpoints of HT. X'h' intersect at o>. are the direction angles of TOT'. so that TtT't' is a of l\ T' are parallel to At. O. A'X A'u d . The Simson Lines h. t . therefore at right angles. . // T and are (36) Again. '. At' (35). and tt' a diameter. HT\ But h. T'X' to meet the rectangle. circle in t. Also Therefore w Since /. where 6^ 2.A'X'. and X<*X' = = A'X or A'X' = E cos JTT. h' lie on the Medial Circle ends of a Medial diameter. 29 Produce TX. therefore they are the huh' lies = JTT.THE SIMSON LINE. on the Medial Circle.
wh' in in is the NinePoint centre. qq'. . Let TOT' cut the Simson Lines wh. T and T 1 = O^i^TT.. or 2) 3 which are as cosec^ coseccr 2 cosec <r 3 2/t sin o2 sin or3 &c. . 48./.' . Hence. . VI). and pp'. the NinePoint circle at 46. Bq. = 0. /. uXA'X'. a of the circle described with Oj as And since O'OjOj is a straight line. while 0.. (37) follows that the figures ATOT' uXA'X' are similar. Through o> draw Pwp perpendicular Then from similar triangles AOp. or/. k.k fcfc' fcfc' : = TT 07i'. Consider the figures ATOT'. o.a . CA. then pp'... cr/ : are at right angles.30 MODERN GEOMETRY. also kuk' 0. and the angle it OTA or (MT = A'Xu . a fact to be very carefully noted.c. . It follows that o> is the Orthopole of the diameter TOT' (see Chap. o. Let Line of T. : . qq\ rr' be perpendiculars to BO./ be the direction angles of X'h'u. Therefore the equation to the diameter TOT' sin a. Or. 47. and cut O'to And since hh . Pwp' passes through p. 1 is is parallel to TOT' or parallel to kk'. is + . perpendicular from p on 0^4' . where the Simson Lines of T. Since TAT' and XwX' are right angles. since the Simson Lines of . 1? where 0' Since Hh = hT and Hh' = h'T'. the Simson Then.*.'. 45. wA'p'. if Ap. 0. : = = Hence kk' is a diameter centre and O w as radius. XA'X'. T' intersect. or 4'wX . and 07i OJc . . A' are the midpoints of TOT'. this circle touches oj. /. cr. (r. sin cr 3 . since T't .'. = ^! = A'p'/A'u = Ap'/R cos . AB. A'p = OpjR Op cos . is parallel to EC. to BC. T'X' cos tX oj = 2R sin o. so that the n. . &c. Or be perpendiculars to TOT'. rr' are concurrent at that point o> on the NinePoint circle. of T' are 2Bcos (^TT cos (^TT <r ).
r.c.c. .T" is given. 9* cos ^8 .. of o> are a' = 2.THE SIMSON L1XE. From the similar triangles a A'u. in = angle = #! (9 15 iTr Op// . 3 . q. draw the chord A'P in the NinePoint circle. of w are p cos 15 ^ cos $ 2 To determine a in terms of p. 7 Hence. = up = AOp.JEcos^ cos^. and then draw the chord P<o perpendicular to BG. which are as sec sec ^2 . A'u = R cos = R sin A'P<a.Ap/A = p cos 6 r Hence the absolute n. Since and . 31 (44) the NinePoint Circle.. 49. A'<t) ^4'Pw . of w. of <o. . wA'p'. 2 15 &c. to find <u when 2 O. and therefore to TOT'. From is (35) the Simson Line of o> in the NinePoint circle parallel to A'P. The A'B'C' n..c. Q y It follows from (38) that the J/'C" n. ^L'P is parallel to TOT'. Hence the direction angles of this Simson Line are # 1? 0. sec The ^BCn. A' SO.c.
c.cos 6 l = R cos A cos l . ...cos O l . cos ^.) is through oo. sin 25 0. a .p cos #! = b . the incentre. 2 6'. Here cos0 = %(bc)/d.sa). (14) = . aa'. = 0. Bat since TOT' p a diameter of a ABC. C'. whose n. . n. cos 6y (39) The angle &' which this = ^+^+ makes with the diameter wO^' 0. q'..*. 4o = R(ca)(ab)/d* oc l/(&c). a . are (sec 1S circle passing sin O l cos 6 l aa' . X. p = R/d.cos O l oc cos cos B sin B (p 2 J5 3 cos sin $2 a /. . . 2 . cos = ^ cos #. aa and Hence w is the Feuerbach Point. aa For bp + rf. (41). So that = ^E/d 2 (6c) ( 5 a) a (6c) 2 (. 5. p' A'.. r' Let Then also since A' be the perpendiculars on TOT' from is midpoint of 50. take the case when TOT' passes through J. R cos S cos 6 l 3 + c.aa jr . cos t cos 0.32 MODERN GEOMETRY. TOT' (16) = The equation to the diameter of the NinePoint .c. To illustrate the use of these formulae. = A'O. 52. + ^ sin 27? + r sin 20 = <x Hence p sec &c. To determine the A'B'G' in (45). . b cos + c 51. C (46) Hence at O where lt these lines intersect.R cos 2 . a'cosflj oc p (sin is + q)/siu G sin 2 (7) cos (r p}/ sin r sin B .. + C .. To determine the radius Ojw (= p) of this circle. of 1? the centre of the circle Taking A'B'G' as triangle is of reference. p'. the equation to 0. The perpendicular TT from o> on the A'B'C' Simson Line of <u = 2 JE . The formulae of (14) and (50) supply us with a very simple proof of (8).(bc)(*a)/a \d=OI]. sin 2 J. B'.
Let <j. The envelope of the Simson Line cloid . Let DOD' be the circumdiameter through 3 I. p = 2 perpendicular on Simson Line = 2?r = Oj<o = 2?r sec = 2. and IPD' or GPD' /. 33 The perpendicular from /. since A'd is also a Medial diameter. But /. Id. 54. HAT. /. D'DG. arc A'L = ^ arc A'H^ Now take and draw Medial diameter LO'l. X 2 8) . Then. Medial Radius = JB l .wA'H1 = AOT. o> for parabola. and for its directrix the diameter TOT'. oo on TOT' . Draw Then Also the chord CIP. by similar figures Hdh.. which is parallel to the Simson of A'B'G'. is a Tricusp Hypocy Since . having 0' for centre. . A'L = arc Id = 2 arc A'L 2 H^L arc H^ = 2 arc JW arc LCD = 2 arc Z&. then f lm + m_llj __ny IP _ ~~ " ~ IP ID ID ' sin IPD' sinDD'P  sin ' P DP' IPD sin ) sin 0. Therefore Xo>/> touches* a Tricusp Hypocycloid. 2 denote the vectorial angles D'DA. >0'H = 2. . D'DB. 3 .< sin </> 2 ) (^ + 3 <ft. 2 cos  (0j + cos D . which touches the sides of A'B'G' and has focus. arc .AOT. the incentre. arc Also . and LOl for one axis. Line and passes through the orthocentre The 53. the Medial Circle for inscribed circle.THE SIMSON LIXE. arc . /. IPD Let r/R I = in = GDD' = = ^r0 3 . has the Simson Line of o> for its vertex tangent. arc E^w = arc AT = 2 arc dh. </>.'. P is the midpoint of the arc AB .R cos ^ cos cos sec (0 + + 8' 2 3 .
sin (<k l 2 ) cos < 8 cos (<k ' 2tan^(<k + <M 2 2 /. cot 3 I </>. . sin f = si 2) Then # = .34 tan MODERN GEOMETRY. where the circle I(r) cuts the axis DIOD' (45). 8/s. Put <k + 2 0s =^ + < 5 sin S EEB . fif/s. B D ^ = 0. and through /. one of the fixed points.s f = (3 m^.) (lm) sm C S . < 2 0i * ne vectorial > .'.S'. + tan'i^ + i. . and this Simson Line passes through the Feuerbach Point F. From (42) the angle S is the vectorial angle of the perpendicular from _D on the Simson Line of D.tan m) 2 = 2 (1 m 2 ) cos 2 <^) 3 (1 sin 2 cos And or finally. 3 . . The cubic then gives the values of <k.1 .
. cos Again. Draw DE touching I (r) and parallel Draw 8T perpendicular to DE. Then shall the Simson Line of 8 pass through the fixed point T. 2 in F. Let DE be cut by AB.2? in H. ftD. DC . IE. and similarly SEAK.*. . IS l ip. DB. K. l Now 1G. G . 8^ to /SyS'. and thus the triangle < ABC is deter mined any given position of F.yH . AC in y. passes through a fixed point. = (7. AB cut S. L Sf/lfi". ID are perpendicular respectively to IF. angles of 35 DA. let AS AS cut D. 55. we shall obtain (Greenhill). /?.. Let SSv S8 Z be tangents to I(r) then .pH yD. T8^ and hence Thus or Aonin. the Simson line of a fixed point 8 on (R). is also a tangent. Let AC. .THE SIMSON LINE. Iy. or HDAH is cyclic. SDH = SS& = SAS. if we put cos 8 for 3 = c. In a poristic system of triangles ABC.
the Simson Line o^ogOg of S for the triangle ABG passes through T. /3y. (55) present themselves in the Cubic Transformation of the Elliptic Functions. a fixed point. and therefore passing through A and 8. (54). The relation (i) circles are in the shows that the powers of fi and y for these same ratio and hence that ft. BC. AB. the feet of the perpendiculars from S on the lines jRO. The properties given .36 MODERN GEOMETRY. AC. since this point lies on the circles ABC. which must be /S. being the foot of the perpendicular from S on the fixed line fty. are collinear. Afiy. ASj3y is cyclic. That is. and T. In other words. the four circles circumscribing the four triangles formed fiy have a common point. Now by AB. (Grreenhill and Dixon) in (34). GA. Hence o^o^cr. . y lie on a circle coaxal with these circles.
intersect at the point S required.CHAPTER V. &c. BS. . Thus to LMN is similar to the pedal triangle of is S with regard S with ABC. Produce AS. PEDAL TRIANGLES. e = /*. so draw Sd. any two of these arcs containing angles A}.A. If. 56. BSC=BMC+SCM = BMC + NCM or NLM = A + \. SCe or NCA L Sde NLA.'. /x. similar to the pedal triangle of Similarly ABC regard to LMN. CA. describe inner arcs on BG. Sf is that def the Pedal Triangle of 8 with respect to ABC. FROM a point S within the triangle ABC perpendiculars to BC. AB respectively. . From the cyclic quadrilateral SdCe. a point 8 whose pedal triangle has given angles A. CS to meet the circle ABC again L. J5 + /x. N. CA. / v. = in = = so Sdf = ML A d or A = MLN. Se. + v. Let angle d = A. v. AB respectively. 37 To determine .
.'. since p 2 : q : r oc sin A/a 2 : sin fji/b : sin i//c. /.fd de oc cos A sin ^ sin v oc cot A sin . TC meet the circle or ABC again IMN. .'. To determine J. in (a) and Let J x I3 be the in centres of the orthocentres in (b) and (rf). OiT4 = 58. diameter sin v AS) MN : NFj : LM = ef fd de = = sin A : sin : /x : a i\ r : ferj ci\. = 0. IfJV oc a/v/a a2 .. a In (a ). 8C. ABC is 57.. In {&). 6 cot/x. /. LMN If r x . for the circle /.sin 2 vjc~ . .38 MODERN GEOMETRY. so that the n. sin A/ 2 sin A . v. of /are a cot A. the pole of this Radical Axis ABC. Limiting Points. . . TA&S 7 J. sin e J/ = . In section (21) in (G""0 let TA. 2 oc ~by \cfi } a ac/3' +2 aZ>y' .*. It is very easy to prove that . of 8. . JfJVocsin^. SB. Then from In (a). (Dr. c coti/. the Radical Axis becomes sin A/a 2 .*. This construction also gives S as the pole of inversion when inverted into a triangle with given angles X. . 1 TAaza. a! oc a cot A. M"JV oc a 1/ya. (in circle SeAf. . z = 0. . 6ca' oc 2 2 A f sin 2 /x + sin 2 v oc e/ +/^ + de* a cos A . oc \/sin 2J. OI3 = OH. In (c). LMN = (c) H^ H 4 01. The polar of a'ft'y' is (by + c)8') a + 1 .c. 7 (57) MN a. s/cot J. . r2 and if p ?* 3 represent SA. oc sinX arr A/a. r l sin JL .'. MNcta(sa). 01. /x. x + sin 2 /x/6 . then 2p sin A = : e/ = SA : . J. . In (21). = 01. T^l oc v/ cot^. TB. Schick) . ?/ 4. OH. the tripolar coordinates be the circumradius of def.
(R + 6^4. = U Simson Line. . 2A = 4 R.&M"=I SMC. the area of def. sin X . II of a point S in terms of #.1 Then Putting we h ave + .c. . . 59. (i) ratios x : y : z are required.c. 2U = and de df.PEDAL TRIANGLES. ft. Since aa/x . = (aa + &^ f cy ) S)/abc. 2 When U is centre 0. = rr 2 3 . is the power of 8 for the circle ABC. For I.. sin B sin C sin C. fty sin . . = 2(AeS/+. When 08 vanishes.cy) 2 as the locus (a concentric circle) of S 9 when OS is constant. z.. To show that Z7.sin A sin B sin Now and in the triangle r3 . C 2R Note that only the Examples. constant. of S. Let a. y. and S describes a circle. 39 proportional to X.'. 4A 2 afiy = 2 + . y be the n. OS constant. and GO.OS')/Rr. as the pedal triangle becomesa R. &c. = a bft/y cy/z = 2A/ (a: \y + z).) 2 . r 3 or 86' = is $flf.si 3 Hence Z7/A = Jll/fi = J (B . . To determine the power the b. . II. x oc a . (aa . of S. x/a.
Examples. J ^4. B tan + A + tan 1? + tan (7) (tan = 8 7T cos cos B cos C. while II = found in (60 Equating this to the expression for II. [Jfoccos4. When 8 J... J5. the power II of S for the circle ABC usually takes a simpler form than that given by the above general formula. Let d be the distance between the centres of the two circles Q and tftftf the known powers of J. a. G ABC . The Radical Axis of the circles Q and ^5(7 0. 5.j. t* 2d 7r 1? &c. #. . . for which the power let ^4. on the NinePoint Circle.40 (ii) MODERN GEOMETRY. This point of lies A= t* = \ be cos w. (i) (ii) When Q is When Q is Incircle : t? : = ^ 2 (saf. = . a 1 tan 2 . us find II for the point w (50). =y= z . from coaxal theory. For #. lies on a known circle for which the powers of are simple expressions. the : = (tiX + t*y+tz)(p+y+t} circle Q.. j we have ayz as the locus + tfzx + rfxy of 8 i. . x oc tan ^4 . As an example. is t?x+tfy + t'fz = for TTj oc t^. H= = aa = p (q + r} tan A. G for the circle Q . &c. Circle J^Jj = fee. From (7). we have ._p(2 + r) tan J/2A 62..e. " 61.. (iii) For 6r. the perpendiculars from $. (50) Also for x and /. (7 on the Radical Axis of the two circles. J. 4 f. x + y + z = 2A.r = But. TrTTjTToTr.
The power of A' for the Incircle = t* /. 37) Multiply each side by 87? A/I1 or 45 2 . . To express have /. of the point of contact. p. cos B cos ..aintA + X) = BS SM sin (A + X) sin A/sin X = n {sin A cot X + i sin 2^1} (aa + &/34cy)/LI = S. v.^ circumscribed to the triangle formed by the tangents at A. BSG = A + A aa . +c .PEDAL TRIANGLES. by Dr. v. I believe. a cot t? = AH*+4<B? cot cos A .sin2^. n. with are different from those treated in this work. //. 2 c) . abc/tt = X + 6 2 cot /x. T^.sinM cot X + i^. are the n. Professor in the University of Munich.. 2A/H 2 or = 2..x + cot B y + cot C = 0. B. (Fig.ac cot A.c. J. 2 cot v + 4A = 2E giving II in . * The 2 expression "a cotA+. ./l .. (iv) 41 : (v) (vi) When Q When Q When Q is is Antimedial Circle (1) t* = a\ NinePoint Circle 1 : ^ 2 ^ be cos : A oc cot 4. this is the tangent to the circle A'B'C' at the point whose are l/(6 c). the Radical Axis is 2 (6 c) #' = = J(6 0. The relations he deals Schick. Then a? cot 2E . = A'X* ... 2 . But We 64. 8E A.. . 2 n = 2R abc/M . II in terms of X.. Hence the two circles touch." was first used.. To determine the Radical Axis Incircle : of the NinePoint circle and Take A'B'C' as triangle of reference.c. and !/(& c).%h..&BSC = BS. C E2 tan B tan C oc cot t* is circle A t? (vii) (viii) When Q is the circle ((91?) When Q is Polar Circle : : = 2E cos A. L . 63.. abc or /x. terms of X. Feuerbach's Theorem.SO. A So that circles (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) have the same Radical Axis z A.
It is (G. (ibc sin (A +X) a Hence sin X all X. p so Then $^4 sin J. the point S l be the 2 B inverse point of S.42 Since IV MODERN GEOMETRY. = .c. So GSK^ = A. . : .M = = ^4.C at C (see at Artzt's Parabola. IT A 58(7 and So #+ G = = 2. v. 2A 2/M .n be the radius of the pedal circle def. lying on OS produced then OS. which touches AB B f Figure. if X. a2 a (2 4crra 1 2 .. sin ( A + A. . cr cotXK. 66. that. 06VI. Then and /. 2p~. c^jm^ SG = The S can be a at once obtained from X. 88).'.cot^L we obtain = 2A. 2 where m ^ l . of = e/ = 85 =  J&c/m.1. if p 2A /M J. BSA = /x.OS l . . SAC = SBA. A/E . = abc/M. = U= = U= and now the elements of def are found in terms of fl From above. sin X sin /UL sin v 2 2 . p~ sin sin G sin J? A 2 /lf finally . . p. v are the pedal angles of $. the focus of and J. 67. /UL.) known /. bc/m. aa sin (A + X) sin A/sin. Putting 4A. A. 2p sin X . To illustrate one of these results. = . SAB = SO A 5^% = BAS + ABS = BAS + CAS = that L . X. If. Observe also that the area of def so that.) /sin &c.. = M .+4A 65. take $. with respect to the circle ABC. n. SA = %.
sin J.sin C C Si are : fd : de. so that AT. S^B.M 1 .A rilateral " l : SA = ^T ST = : S. the So &c. 43 so that S. eidji or X similar to the pedal triangle of Similarly respect to the triangle LjJtfjJVj. cuts this circle in T. = M^N^ ABC is S l with as the S l . To prove that the triangle . then angles between AS and AS 19 &c. then in the cyclic quad: S^C . be the pedal triangle of S l . sin . >i may be taken as the limiting points of a coaxal system. : = = S. and then obtain inverse point of S.'. .C SC.W pedal triangle of S r In the cyclic quadrilateral # 1 d 1 ce ] . Hence the pedal triangles inversely similar : of the inverse points el S and so that di = X. S e Af l : l : : BI/I e i/i /i^i ^i e i = = SA . =^ fi = is v. 1 similar to d^fi. To determine &\ first find 8 (56)..sin B SO : .ef SiA sin A #i4. to which the circle ABC belongs.sin A SB : .B : SB .sinB .PEDAL TRIANGLES . AT' : bisect the S. Let d^f. T'. If OSS.L 1 ..
1 . ! ' l The area Hence If of A^A/I = = l/Ul/U = l /x. . = A\.abc or 85 A. 2 ^ be the radius of the pedal circle d^f^ sin v = ^ = 2A /M 2pi* sin X sin 2 . . giving IIj in terms of Since H i 15 where 2 M. sin (A X) } \ sin X  . 4A. > > B] oo! = 2.. X) sin A/sin X.C = A8 B + B8 C = (A\) + (C.44 MODERN GEOMETRY. as the figure indicates. Proceeding as before.) = HM. . From Hence above.CN. in So Also .X) sin A/sin X = Ilj.. /*. SA /!/!. A8. and therefore of X. cyt .4A' [or from Hence 0/S 2 /^ = ^/M. all the elements of d l e l fl are found in terms of V.. ( v./sinX. ac^ = a. So and giving y8 x = BM CS (M. we find n^ = ZR. = Hi sin Cv) sin (7/sin 6ft = n sin (Bp) sin 7?/sin l_ B8. v. can be v.sin (A X) sin J. A&\B = Cv. /u. IIj. now have a second pole ($ T ) from which inverted into a triangle with given angles We ABC X. u.C 1 GM 1 1 1 ) 1 l 1 l l .v = nB. the power of S 1 l for the circle ABC. = ' E 2 2 Jtt a2 cotX+.C8 .sinB8 C = BS 8^ sin (A . : ..L.CM. sin ( A = a6c  M .. [cyclic quad.^B8 C = BS . IIj . J^M^ 68.N.. p.= a 2 cot i^. X+ . And now /A. a negative value 2 [/A > B]. and 0<S\W = OT ~ E08 _ VM ~ 2 8T' JB+ 08 #1 VM+ VM 4 /^. To express terms of X..
the Simson Lines of T. o^ <ofr . In section (47) it 45 was proved that the are similar. Hence <uX'. so is S l AT Now AT bisects . and just as homologous to d r uXdA'X' S is homologous SOT' and figures to d. 69. It follows that <ad : wdi <*>d = Xd : : so that we : w/ = Xd.PEDAL TRIANGLES. the angle SAS l toX bisects the angle dn)d r .*. <o is the double point of the similar figures and wX. = <ad l TS : : TS : &c. T\ are the axes of similitude for the inversely similar triangles def and ^i/i (Neuberg) ..
whose direction angles 0. g. i. <S'. Bq. *S 2 g.* *7O.. THE ORTfiOPOLE. .CHAPTER VI.2^sin^ = l (2) 0. p$j perpendicular to BC. 7?. These lines shall be concurrent. Cr straight line TT'. qS 2 perpendicular to OA. from A. 2 2 Hence $!_p.. Draw For and /. denoted by J. ISeuberg. are M C on any r be the lengths of the perpendiculars Ap. 5('/) OD )42. B8 = BD+p sin^. 2. /9 3 r are concurrent. The point of concurrence. LET jo. l KBSfGSfi = CS = GDp sinfl. rS & perpendicular to AB.apsinWj^O. The Orthopole theorems are nearly 46 all due to Professor J. is called (by Professor Neuberg) the Orthopole of TT.
. RR'.sin (90 2 )/sin G 0. asectfj first q + 2R cosC (cr . 72. pS parallels to Ap. To determine the Orthopole geometrically. Then so /. RR = BR OB/2B = 2E cos 2 = ^8p. l ABC n. Let Ap meet the circle ABG again in R. = cos 2R cos 2 2 cos 6. 47 Let 9 be the length of the perpendicular 88' on TT O r 3 to represent for this one particular case. of S. Hence 8 is found by drawing R'S. TT' since 8p. (BAR 2 . cos 3. or r'Ap) = 2R cos cos <9 3 8.sin OS = 2E cos .c. 8 slides along R'8 perpendicular to TT'.. OA meet TT' in r'. (7 A Sp = c cos 3 . Multiply other terms by 2A/4R term on right side by sin A sin B sin 2 from (2). pq = c cos S Also pSS' = O 88' are perpendicular to BC. . l : .'.)/2A. and 9 = Sp cos X = 2 J^ cos itself. also #$' = 3 and ^$2 = C We have . sin ^4 sin 0. r". As TT' moves parallel to itself.THE ORTHOPOLE. being parallel to AR. BR = 2B. is the Simson Line of R". ap cos B bq cos J. As T2" moves parallel to unchanged in shape arid size. a . take the acute angles which the sides of ABO make with TT'.r sin G cos jB cos O. = 8S = projection of J9gr$ on fi^^ = q cos 0j + 85 cosp8q = q cos + 2R cos cos $ cos 0. 0j 6*! (G.q sin 5 + cos C. . Draw the chord RR'R" perpendicular to BG. Now. . A/2/t = sin B cos A cos G . since $p. .(/ sin J9 + cos0.jp sin A cos J5. Let BA. and the Then 2 ! . the figure SqS'pr remains 71.^ . To determine the a. 1 . $g are perpendicular to 50.r sin 6' cos^cos O.) 3 . Also R'8' 8.
cr. . . B cos C.gr. and using the form 2 . 0.bq B) C. = irR.cr). . .48 Also *. the orthopole of tt\ lies on the Ts"inePoint circle. cos ^4) r Then Let 73.0A' = + AH. then ap cos In which case a A+ . Bhimasena Rao who first pointed out expression for each coordinate involves two linear factors in p.c cos B. MODERN GEOM ETRY 2A..ap + ap. Since ATT J^'oj 2?. * It was Mr.'. bq cos C . the circumcentre 0. (5) Multiplying the two factors.COS0J 2 . whose equation ap. passes through = JK/2A = p cos 2 . T. 2bc cos A = B cos C+aqr is . Let ^Oi' be the circumdiameter parallel to TT'. =0.(apbq cos C x (cos C .a+ = pq. r. ay S. 4A C 2 we obtain 2Aa = abc cos rpb cos . 2 A cos O l (cos . H be the orthocentre of ABC. the His .ap i cr cos 73 cos cos B . When TT'. J2' = o^Hp tnr Again 5"E' = + 2. = ap cos a = R/2& ... that q. method is different from that given above.
'. XE = a parallel to 72'JS ATV . &C.'. TR^R is cyclic pR^ = TRp or TRA = 1 .THE ORTHOPOLE. passes also . <rA' = R sin oJfj J/ = orB' . circle (^Lw).C. passing through H l and TT.) to Since . the ABO n. It follows that the point cu of sections (4450) with the Orthopole <r of a circumdiameter TOT'. a = ' o^ = J. sec<9 2 sec ^ 3 ) referred to A' JVC'. Acr is is = = and parallel and parallel .. since . . the orthopole of TT' .'. &C. To find a 'y '.irC'/R . U cos 2 (9 T .) Tr'jETj in m.*. And Hence o = 2.'. the Simson Line of T. to o^m.7TO. = Sp and therefore to T^. (G.'. But ATT' 49 = RR' (equal triangles Tr'H. The Simson Lines of the extremities of any chord TT' of the circle ABC pass through $. a rectangle is a symmetrical trapezium. R p is r But . jo COS 0j.c. /. as found in preceding. is the midpoint of /TZ?".m = JV and == = ATT COS m^TT TT<T I TT'W.'. For. article. the J/'C' n.. L TpR = 90 = TR R. To Bisect find a y . of cr^ is cr. so that (sec^. Also TT^Hjm AH^cr Hence the through or. .. T1\A . CTTT Then . XA^ is parallel to R\p. 74. Am. Hence So for XS is T'. and therefore lies on the NinePoint circle. Ame r RarR'] = orr. pR^X or . cr is coincides 75. a/ = R COS ^ COS # 3 . of cr. (G.
all passing They are the three tangents drawn from 8 to the tricusphypocycloidal envelope of the Simson Lines. Narayanan) the Simson Lines of A. R" respectively. AhO . T'R". so that each of the points T. T\ R" has similar relations to the other two for . their poles being T. SX 8R'. T'. (6) As jp. and X'S to TR" or each Simson Line is perpendicular to the join of the other two poles. the foot of the perpendicular from to : f 1 on the perpendicular l 3. B. example : is perpen() Just as R'S is perpendicular to TT'.50 MODERN GEOMETRY. through 8. r . Hence ppip$ is the Simson Line of A in the triangle TT'R". so dicular to T'R". . C for th triangle TT'R" as well as the Simson Lines of T. XS A on TT lies BC from S so also do p and p the feet of perpendiculars from A on TR". T\ R" for all pass through 8. Thus we have three Simson Lines SX. Thus (S.
. P be any point on the straight line TT'. or common Radical Axis of the three diameter circles. (017). Let TT' cut BG in 7. the power of 2c/3 for each of the circles (7). Lemoyne's Theorem. S Therefore in the quadrilateral formed by 730. cut Sp in p'. twice product of perpendiculars from Then Sp Sp' and on TT'. (G. . . But the trapezium Aa"jrH /. the pedal circle of P. = If 77.'. whose orthopole is S.2 . then the power of is S' with regard to XT/. the trapezium Ap'pH^ is symmetrical.cos crSp' = 2d cos Q r Sp' 2R cos cos = d sec 6^ Sp prr . 51 9 through S 76. CA. = In the circle (A U ) the chords pp\ H^A are parallel . if TT' cut CA in 7. 0. and let the circle (AU) passing and p. TT'.i . Similarly. l is But Note that 2^8 = pir d and = S<r p'a= 2 So.) H l . also symmetrical . is therefore the power of S for the circle (AU). AB. the orthopole ( S) of TT' lies on the 4orthocentre line. constant.THE ORTHOPOLE.15 in TF.
. /. diameter AP) . jpX'4 . N is L A~>.*. 78. or (circle AYpZPX'. circle Afty. (from similar figures Aftpy.'. (#P). pass through x &.. then t7 vanishes.Sp' = 2d&. Xx' passes through and therefore through S. Since on the circle A BC. Ti'O. Let Xx cut pS in Then Sp/XX' = px/xX' ratio of perpendiculars = from p and It and J. Hence the power of $ for the circle XYZ = 2<iS. XPX' perpendicular lies PC. since Xpx'p'X' is cyclic. and therefore cyclic. M. 8 coincides with $. is YZ. X'p. and JV . Yxpy is is 180pr. YZ chords are concurrent. These common But .. When TT' is a circumdiameter ^Of'.Sx' = Sp. BG ABRC) on on fiy .4 = a straight line. . SX. .pYy = pxX' 8.52 MODERN GEOMETRY. of F. to Draw AX' YZ Zi cut lies parallel to /3y in x. AYpZPX' by L. BC. so that tlie figures Aftpy. therefore^ on the Lpyx or pyfi i = pA3 = pYZ cyclic or pAZ pYx . py parallel to are honiothetic. But X. /. A'a''. and then the pedal triangles all pass through the orthopole <r of tOt'. Draw ABRC Let pfi. RB. XX'pp. = SB'/ XX' 8p = RR' = pS. (GW) are the pedal circles ur. Finally. Xpp'X' is symmetrical. N Let L and M intersect again in x. w. since U^pp A is symmetrical. x' are two points on the circle XYZ. Denote the circles XYZ. Xow the common chord of L and M is If and . ^L /. . .'. respectively. Observe that. pxy /. ISTote that the circles (AU).
XYZ. the : dimensions of the homothetic B'G'. Conversely we may begin by taking two inverse points T and Then the internal T'. To prove that the point common to the four circumcircles of the four triangles formed by these four straight lines is w. q. Q'RP. &c. q. Medial Triangle A'B'C'. describing circles on PP'. r. four straight lines. whose tripolar coordinates are p. J?/ . P'. and similarly Q'RP and R'PQ . then 8 SP XX' > AXYZ~xX _ . the equation of P'Q'R' being px + qy + rz while that of P'QR is = + rz = px}qy 0. &c. Changing +p into jo makes no change in the focus. for . the Orthopole of OT1*.(r +p) y'+(p + q) . r so that BP PC = : by dividing BG : q r.) 8O. &c. _BK'. for every one of the (Appendix I. and take From (15) the A' B'G' equation of P'Q'R' is A (g + r) x' 4.. Since in this case figures A^iry. [g + r or as a ^ y3 .THE ORTHOPOLE. ^. Describe a parabola touching P'Q'R' and the sides of the B'C' as triangle of reference. T' whose tripolar coordinates are CA at Q. P' &c. ^(/. In section (20) we determined the inverse points T. z' = 0..'s of 8 with regard to the triangle XYZ.. (/ . of the focus are as . J3P It is : PC = BT TC = : q : r. 0. Thus the Orthopole has constant pedal triangles b. and . and external bisectors of BTC. p. &c. Hence Xo. at P. Then from where (9) the n.c. z 79.'. Returning to the general case.c. therefore the parabola also touches P'QR. 2R sin B sin sin A sec sin B : 2 : sec # 3 sin C. 27? cos #2 cos 0^ x : y : z = sec 0. P'QR. (BT'G) meet the sides in the points P. the diagram shows that if are the b. ABRC are as 1 2.. so that fty becomes YZ intersect on B'C'.. AB at 1?. x. = p']. y. known E'PQ lie 011 that the triads of points P'^'JB'.c.and 53 AT = TrR.
Hence the orthopole w.. 5 sec /) 0.. (Appendix II}.. the circumcircles of the four triangles passing through <o. And. T or T' also . For each pair we have a set of four harmonic lines touching the parabola.. and OTT' the Directrix. Now Tm let 0. whose n.. 2 the direction angles of 3 be perpendicular to BG. OTT\ and draw Then  oc GT* = 2 r a oc 2a. J/w oc oc 2a. The student may f 1 develop this hint. and the four orthocentres : lying on TOT'. there are also the three tangents B G' G'A\ A'B'..) Remember pass through also that the pedal circles of all points o>.OI cos0 T 1 . .) is the focus of the parabola the Simson Line of w (in A'B'G') being the vertex tangent. (G.c. pass through the focus o>.54 MODERN GEOMETRY. the circumcircles of the triangles formed by any three of the four tangents P'Q'R'. . are (sec 15 . In addition to each set of four harmonic tangents. On the fixed Directrix TOT' may now be taken an infinite number of inverse pairs (TT*)..
c. SB. NL. C on the sides of LMN are concurrent from LMN on the sides of ABC be concurrent. ASB ' . (65) 82. the angles are called the Angular Coordinates of 8 they are denoted by . LM perpendicular to 8 A. 5. Let AS. Z. intersect at Z. if a. /?. Then shall the perpendiculars MN 55 .sin (A+\) sinA/siu A = =n . S be any BSC. (at /S). so that the perpendiculars from J. v are the angles of the pedal triangle of S. CSA. Y. sin X sin A/sin (XA).CHAPTER VII. /A. Orthologic Triangles. So that. y are the n. then If 81. point within the triangle ABC. If A. of 8. aa Il.X". ANTIPEDAL TRIANGLES. SO. N Draw any straight lines MN. &c.
. . Then. (74. JV on 0. and I)' E'F'. of areas of the triangles. from B on fd. LM. Antipedal Triangles. are homothetic. The sides E'F'. Let def be the pedal triangle of 8. so that the perpendiculars from A on ef. SC aa are perpendicular to /_ . the antipedal triangle of >$". z/z + L) .(AN'BN*) = 2 ) 0.). ef (being each perpendicular to S'A) are parallel . of & with reference R with reference to LMN ABC are as the b. eS perpendicular to CM. If. and the proportion is that of the or of the powers of S and R for their . Hence the perpendiculars from L.c.. so that relation between 8 and R. say at R. since dS is perpendicular to BC.56 MODERN GEOMETRY.AN 2 2 . Through A. BSC = X = TTL (TT LN. C draw perpendiculars to S'A. sin ^4 f sin _L/sin (J.M.sin L) sin ^4 /sin (?r L J. are concurrent say at /S". and therefore def. It follows that jy = d = >. the triangles ABC. AB are Triangles ABC. fS perpendicular to AB are concurrent at S. S'B. ^/'. Then SM . of R referred to R for the circle LMN.CL ) + (CM '^Jtf 4. respective circumcircles. E' =e= . and Now II' let '. the pedal triangle of S. concurrent. IT.area ABC/LMN to Hence the b. To determine the trigonometrical Since SB. are said to be mutually Orthologic. (BL 2 8VSM* = CL*CM*'. Reasoning as before. from on de. S'G. A L) = . = Il. f x/x' = y/y = = n/n'.c. B.sin i sin^4/sin (lv + ^1). forming the triangle D'E'F' the Antipedal Triangle of S'. F' =f= v. 2' be the power of be the b.. or x = from (65) let II . LMN which are thus related. .c.SN = 2 2 MPNP = AM*. 83. we have x' = n'.. LMN. def are orthologic.sin (TT A) sin _L/sin (TT .
the b. sin ( * B + fi) 2 sm /x sin sin r^ sin : ( C+ sin v But abc a' 2 ?> A sin sin v c 2 sin (^ +X) (g + /*) fj. finally. But. J (65) n ." " work the name " Counter Points will be used. of S. _ afrc sin (. of 8' for Again. M* sin A sin = ftp = Thus yy'.ANTJPEDAL TRIANGLES. AS'B  RV. OS' A = TT n.) ~' : _ a^ c " sin ' " sn /A ?^c ( G + v) sn r . /S". Also 57 BS'C = TT D' = TT A.c. since ABC and def are orthologic. . afly' as the ii. from symmetry.?+/*. area of de/ U" = .c. respectively. 5(7 are as the b. of S for def. taking a/3y.' M 2 . k.c. " In this .BS'C aa _ area of ABC _ " A^ ^ . Therefore. and so that. In Germany these points are called Gegenpunkte. from (65). 8. S' are the foci of a conic inscribed in ABO.
Z7'. Z7 = 2A /M.. a cot Now . the antipedal (G. Oj is the midpoint of S'D' area S'BD'C . .. . will be denoted by U. S &c.) triangle of S\ in terms of X. antipedal triangles by F. = i. the circumcentres of the circles S'BD'C. S'E'. the area of the pedal triangle of any point. F'.acotD' = . 84. .. 2 J.BC = . f . 2 (65) C7F' =A 2 . v. Henceforth the areas of the pedal triangles of $. . &c. Then f 0.A . = 2 BO^S' = 2 (J a cot X + V = S'BD'C + S'CE'A+ S'AF'B = \ (a cot X 6 cot + c cot + 4A) 2 ' . S'AF'B S'D'. and the homothetic antipedal or. AO. &c..58 MODERN GEOMETRY. the area of ABC is a geometric mean between triangle.. i. /A. D' This is a particular case of the more general theorem given in (158). To determine the area (V) of D'E'F'. S'F' being diameters. Let 1? 3 be 2 ffCE'A. A. 2 2 2 j /x i/ But /.
(X v.. 2?.. perpendiculars to BC.  . /^p ^G! respectively meet at a point call it $/ Through A. the centre of similitude homothetic triangles def and D'E'F'. (Gr. 59 of the 85.d'C/d'S' J3 \a! . the point T lies on OH. Td/D'd .. U . S^O forming the triangle D/J^j'J?/. the antipedal triangle of /S/. 89). let d l e f be the pedal triangle of S v Then. D' are homologous points. ^L7? = y'+a' cos#. AB. The sides E^F{ and ejlt being each perpendicular to *S/A.ANTIPEDAL TRIANGLES. .. or pedal triangle of jff. cos ? cos ccsm^tan/1. Here a u = R cos 7 2R. are homothetic. TD' in def and D'E'F' = VU VV = : N/J7F : V=A V=U : ' 1 : A. since d^S^ 6^. . and is therefore the antipedal triangle of 0. are concurrent at S lt therefore the triangles ABC and d l ejl are 1 and l l orthologic..c. = U/(U). p. so that d^f^ the pedal triangle of $ 19 and D^E^F^ the antipedal triangle of $/. Let S be the inverse of 8 for the circle ABC.) The ratio of corresponding lengths Td. B.j J. &c. It follows that the perpendiculars from J. as in (67). . Now the perpendicular from d' on AC = cos 0. are parallel. G on e^. The orthocentric triangle. since e. CA. 2 and the formula gives (7 sin ^1 cos J3 cos  1 2 cos J. being the incentres of the two triangles. w) of T. and Since are homologous points. S^B. . where m= Z7/(A is Example. d'5 = (/ + a cos )/sin d'C = (P + a! cos 0)/sin D'D" = d'd" = d'B. homothetic to T^T^ (Fig. which is formed by the tangents at A.. 5. 0. Hence D/ = di = X. G draw perpendiculars to S^A.. To determine the n. Therefore./jSj. M/JW = 6'. H 86..
60 MODERN GEOMETRY. of ABC 8 l in d^i/i i = . being y^/.c. and finally.. so for y l . b.' = = J/ 1 I . and the antipedal triangles of S\ $. = the foci of a conic touching the sides of ABC.. / Hence. are a second pair of Counter Points. a. sin ((. sin sin v /x) /< a. each of which has angles X.'. : We have now four triangles. =  . viz.'.c. abc sin (B " /x) fji. the pedal triangles of >V.7 v) MI .c. from (68). But. (Z7. _ 2 6 c 2 2 sin (. of #/ in are as the b. ft sin /x. .I X) sin (5 sin A sin sin(0 v) sin v = Hence S and l ft/3/ /S'/ from symmetry. aa.S'. of 4 and $/. v. /x. . Let c^ftyj and From (82) the a/ft'y/ be the n.. = area of d^) .
v.) ^'EiFi in terms of A. To determine the area (F/) of the antipodal triangle (Gr. 3 lying >/./. O. C'O respectively. 61 87.ANTIPEDAL TRIANGLES . \ve have on the left side . Si'AFiB} SI'DI. and on A'O. be the circumcentres of the circles S^BD^C. SI'FI being diameters. ' '. SiJB^. B'O. 2 8 \'CEiA.   i be the^per So Adding. /tx. the midpoint of S l 'D l if (a/yS/y/) ^ e ^ ne n c Therefore.'A' = a cot D/ = ' . Ja cot A . Let O/. pendicular from _D/ on J5C'. ' Then O/ is 0.
is JW = A 2^/M l . 8^ (a) 8 and 6\ are Inverse Points.P*r 2 cot A + &' cot /A +c 2 cot v 4 A) (68) Now area (Z7J of ^e^ .. 2 ." Of the four points 8. the Pedal f triangle of either point of a pair being homothetic to the Antipedal triangle of its companion point. (6) 8' and $/ are Twin Points. are The points called 8' and S^ having similar antipedal : "Twin Points. triangles. . S\ 8^.62 MODERN GEOMETRY. (c) (SS ) and ($!$/) are pairs of Counter Points. N"ote also that difference of antipedal triangles of *S". Hence F/ =  (a . with similar Pedal triangles. S ' } = F'F/ = ^M^M. with similar Antipedal triangles. = 4A.
" ? 63 . since Ub/Bb = Vc/Cc = AT/ AM = cos 6. in shape and size. it is required to determine the shape and size of the orthogonal on a plane X. * AL being a given axis in the plane of the triangle ABC. ABC AL Draw In BUb. the orthogonal projection AM perpendicular to AL. Then. passing through and projection of inclined at an angle 6 to the plane ABG. Neuberg's Projections et Contreprojections d un Triangle fixe. AUV represents. the Counterprojection permission. 88. AM take a point T." with the author's To avoid overloading the chapter. theorems are omitted. Draw of ABG on the plane X. such that AT/AM = cos 0. cutting LT in U and V. CVc perpendicular to AL.CHAPTER VIII. THE ORTHOGONAL PROJECTION OF A TRIANGLE. S 1 * In writing Sections (8890) I have drawn on Professor J.
A. DA or l . the equation of the 7r = 2hx. /x. The angles of projection range to (9 0. are taken. remains unchanged. LU LB = LV LC = LT LM. T travels from l M to A. tAT or L ALT = = SAM SLM. is On either side of the common base BG a series of triangles described similar to the orthogonal projections of ABC on a series of planes passing through the common axis AL. cutting the circle ALA^I in SBC will be similar to A UV. To determine the may now deal with the problem plane X on which the orthogonal projection of ABC has given angles X. Draw At 8 S. triangle the projection of The perpendicular to LT. = T J7T. Therefore the figures ALtT. BSC = from UA V. And Therefore the triangle SBC is similar to AUV. and S' from A l to ^TT. S with from AV and S' with A. It is required to determine the locus of the vertices of these X triangles. described on BC. having SBC = AUV. so that coincides with Af. the arc AMA on the side of AA' point a series of variable axes AL 19 AL 2 . S to M. with D as origin and DA as 7/axis. : N : similar. of the circle h being the variable of the coaxal system. Therefore the figures ALUVtT and SLBONM are And : are right angles. : We . Draw SNS' Then perpendicular to BC. As 6 increases from A to M. t. and therefore to ABC on the plane X. where R is the centre ALA r Then. S. x* + y* circle is Let this family of circles is coaxal. the the image of A in BC. 89. and SLNM are similar.64 MODERN GEOMETRY. Hence each position of the axis AL gives rise to a circle ALA^M passing through the two fixed points A and A^ so that When . When 6 = cos = = 1. is Hence the locus of S remote from the axis AL. v. AH being DA = and let DR = h. lie on the circle ALA r SCB = A VU.. Hence the vertices of all triangles SBC..
cos 6 = AT/ AM. so that . Draw parallel to the line of intersection of the planes then the original projection is equal and similar to the projection on a parallel plane through AL. if AL and $ are on opposite sides of AA AL is the required axis. SCB hence B8C = A.DH' = DL. cutting AA in H and H'. the orthocentre of is DH. LH'M.DM=k. as before. so that SBC /*. triangles SBC being drawn. Then H AT/AM = cos SM. Draw LtT perpendicular to SA. l T such that a. The triangle ABC being projected on a series of planes making a constant angle a with the plane of ABC. taking Join 8L. and Construct the triangle SBC. and the AL . Let the circle ASA l cut BC in L and M". Then. Determine S as before. 9O.ORTHOGONAL PROJECTION OF A TRIANGLE. it is required to determine the locus of S. Then the required inclination of the plane X to the plane ABC is given by { = . 65 = v. similar to the successive projections.
. 7?. having A and A limiting points. 6. For another series of planes inclined at a constant angle the points and H' would be changed to B and If/. since HSH' is a right angle.cos 0). The equation to the circle x" HSH' is It + (yk cos a) (y sec a) = l 0. A triangle ABG. = constant. cot 4 = 2A (1 + cos 6) cot A . DH.S H and H f are fixed points. 2 . so that A. = 2A (sec 04. C above the Then . yu. describes a Hence.cotX = 4A. cos a AT tsLvAL AM " tan t&nALM SLM HD A^D* tan . a 2 = 4A cot J = 4A'. .cos A. J = 2A (1 4.2 A (sec + cos 0).DH.I/' k cos a k sec a = constant.66 Again.'./?. H series of circles are therefore coaxal.' = k sec a'. a'. with sides the angle of projection being 0. be the heights of the points A. This leads to (6 + c a 2 2 2 2 ) or 16A+16A' 2 No \v fe' b~ 2 +c 2 2 a2 2 fc' a' 2 . c'. which pass through A and A r The } for 91. the signs of the surds depending on the relative heights of A. . To prove Let /^. . ^. is projected &'. the point circle on HH' as diameter. Hence 2 a' 2. cos cot A. and area A' '. . where DH. with sides a. a!* cot A' = A cos 0.. .. H'D so that HD = = ^ L. ?. v/V 2 a" 2 v/6 Z/ 2 vVc' = 2 0. //. c. hfr h% ' 2 . = k cos a'.ar cot plane A'B'O. and therefore cutting orthogonally the former series of circles. MODERN GEOMETRY. angles orthogonally into a triangle A'B'C'. 2 0) . and DH. n.' = Jr. c and area A. = vVa' 2 2 .
/*. and where yF'+A/F/^ x/A sec^ = 2. F'. (131) .a 1 . v/A. and Let cos 6 = k. ABC If U. F/. v so that their corresponding sides are as the square roots of their areas : . is projected orthogonally on to a plane 93. c' of the sides of the projection A'B'G' in terms of u^ u. /x. The Brocard Angle therefore depends solely on the angle (#) It follows that all equilateral coplanar triangles of projection. Z'Z/ = 2. ( v/s^c~. the triangle whose projection (for 0) is ABC. 67 The Equilateral Triangle and the Brocard Angle. 2. Let 92. . if two antipedal triangles be drawn having the same angles as the projection. cot a/ = (a' f + )/4A' .a cotA + 4A 2 = 2A (sec + cos 0) +4A (9 . /. Xow the triangles F'.v/c^sl) 2 6> . 0. . is due to Lhuillier and Neuberg. . &'.2 %. it is required to determine the lengths a'. . of which the above is a new proof. When ABC (a' + 6' + 2 is 2 equilateral. 8'. . This theorem. with the projection and counterprojection.) . and A. F/ the areas I'm'n'j Z/w/n/ be the sides . The triangle inclined at an angle 6 to the plane of ABC. having angles X. v the angles of D'E'F'.v/3/2 (cos + sec 0) 2 2 c' . make direction angles u v u^. Z' + Z/ = 2. are all similar. u^ with the sides of ABC.. JD/JW.^F/ = ( v/sec<9+ v cos x 2 <9) . /. (Gr. we have (1 2 c' ) I/ A/3 = ' 2A + cos 2 fe' 2 0) = 2A' (sec (9 + cos 6) . So F'/A = F//A = '. A/ A' = 2. the sides of the projection are half the difference of the corresponding sides of the antipedal triangles. if u/ be the Brocard Angle of A'B'C'. %/ A cos 2. A x is the area of the counterprojection of ABC that is. cot . . the line of intersection of the planes. project into triangles having the same Brocard Angle. Antipedal Triangles and Projection. .a'. 2F' = 2.ORTHOQONAL PROJECTION OF A TRIANGLE. But. Hence. the antipedal triangles of / From (84).
. 94. Let XYZ.68 MODERN GEOMETRY. and take so that B'C' Now (= a') is equal to the projection of BC. Pedal Triangles and Projection. Cc to the line U. the projection of B'C' on Bb = . on U = a cos u^ .'. (G. and therefore L ?7.asin^. as the plane of projection revolves round Z7.) that. Draw perpendiculars Bb. where T of the Simson Line parallel to U.A. B'bC'c = and the projection a!" of B'C' B'C' k(BbCc~) = A. of qourse. being parallel to ABC. 2 siri' ^). X'Y'Z' be the Simson Lines of T7 T'. The dimensions on the of the projection depending. only direction. = = = = a 2 (cos 2 u^ + k~ sin 2 ?t ) a 2 (1(1. is the pole the sides of Then XYZ.} t a 2 (1 Bin s t*. not on the position. 2 ) sin2 u. are similar to the pedal triangles of the projections of To prove ABC points lying on the circumdiameter TOT'. of U '. makes angles u lt u^ u$ with ur (37) OTA or OAT = .
and let OP = k R. v. (93) &') : b' : c' v if ' (so that the projection on the plane triangle of P). in the triangle GAP. 95. . v. provided that is similar to the pedal so that P. any point P on one circle. be drawn with centre and radii 2 tair^a. circles A'B'G'.'. OP R tan 2 Ja. AP 2 Bin* A= 2 rt a 2 (1 {1 + k') z 1  4k> 2 j 2 sin u. let the plane of projection be inclined at a constant angle a to the plane of ABC. I 2 . . therefore. /x. (Gr. (36) the point Tis found by drawing chord At parallel and the chord tXT perpendicular to BC. and its inverse point P'.) T In this case. OP' = B cot ia. But Hence and a' = (l/v ) a' 2 . AP = 2 tf + k'*E 2 So that 4tt* = 4 . Let ABC be projected on the plane a into whose angles are A. are given by TP/T'P = TP'/T'P' = cos 0. Then. will have their pedal triangles similar to the projections of ABC. v. /x.a = tan2 ia 2 21 COSa . r be the sides of the pedal triangle u. Let w of P. = = u 4w* a' : (! + 1 : sinX}. . a point Another Proof. If.i it 1 k' k  =1  1 + COS . Let P (or its inverse P') be whose pedal triangle has angles A. Next. and its inverse point P' on the other circle.jB and cot a. .JK. j. From to 7". In 69 TOT' take any point P.ORTHOGONAL PROJECTION OF A TRIANGLE.
planes inclined to its A triangle XYZ is projected own orthogonally on a series of ABC Draw . (D'G'. BQ'.Qx = BQ. Also so that #i/. B+ Y C Z : : the angle x or x' X.KF) = (KD'. E'.D'E')/(FG. system Q' tf is inverse to 0. 9 by symmetry. so that the theorem is proved. jB. If 7 I).Qy = ABC. Y.o cot /x +c cot i> 4 4A cos a)' ' _ 2 A (sec a+ cos a) ~ /.DE) . triangle Let AQ. Lemma. with any centre JT and any radius p. F'. CQA. any four points . AQB containing angles A+X. .KF')/(p\KG) = (E'G'. BQ. = KD'/KG. Then OPIB' = "'cotA + fr cotg + r cotKjA or cot \ 4. To determine the locus of the point. Z. CQ') meet the circle ABC again in yyz (or x'y'z') then it is known that plane at a given angle 0. CQ (or AQ'. inner arcs BQC.KE')/(KG. a point Q being thus determined whose pedal {has angles X. DEF D'G'/DG /.70 MODERN GEOMETRY. A point is is taken such that its pedal triangle with respect to similar to one of these projections. as before. CQ.OQOQ? = so that in this QO.E'F')/(DG.FD) = (F'G'. (56) fc = power of Q for ABC = E'OQ* = OQ. + cosa) 2 2 OPIE = so OP'/R = cot ia.KE'. .Qz. G'. and let (inversionradius) or 2 2 = = F. y or y' Take Q as inversion centre. 4A _ ~~ (1 (1 2A(seca + cosa)f4A tan 2 Ja . z or z' = Z.F G are inverted into D'.EF) and E'F'/EF = KE'/KF = (KD'. inverts into 97.QQ'. 96.z = AQ. then the pedal is similar to the pedal triangle of G with respect to For triangle of G' with respect to D'E'F'.F'D')/(EG.
be a point on either concentric circle. R ABC R . to one of to the pedal triangle of the projections of XYZ. Then xyz inverts into into Q'. R/t*) into circles of the coaxal system which has Q and Q' . the pedal triangle of 8 with respect to with respect to xyz that is. Let a point on one or other of the coaxal circles. with centre Q. Then and radii Rt 2 R/t*. mm'. Z. k) system. Hence the required locus consists of these two coaxal circles. Rt 2 ) and ABC. are the the circles with common centre loci of points whose pedal triangles with respect to xyz are on planes inclined to the similar to the projections of YZ at an angle 6... 71 In Section (95) substitute the triangle xyz for ABC. : : that L and Z. so .01'} IU = 2 k*t/(OQ RW). radius k.. t. circles in 98. by the is similar Lemma. w' and the radii p. plane of N"ow invert. The centres o>. Let the circum diameter OQQ' be cut by the concentric LL' MM' and by the coaxal circles in II'. are inverse points in the (Q. and the two concentric circles (0. . will Ql . p' of the circles II'.ORTHOGONAL PROJECTION OF A TRIANGLE. Then.. = W/QL = W 01= OQ+Ql= 01' = [_R(R + OQ p/R = i (01. (0. Y. inverting into $. XYZ X for its limiting points. . mm' now be determined in terms of X.
(cot v/3)/cot <+ V3). Y. Om'. lies on the inner concentric circle circle (0. It follows that in the (8. the pole of the Lemoine axis for the circle ABC. Z. is is the the to be projected into a Suppose the equilateral triangle triangle with angles A/xv. . the Radical Axis of the coaxal system. Z. area A'. the Lemoine axis inverse of the circle (0.. case of great beauty and interest presents itself when the is equilateral.4A Z+ 4A ' so that When OQ = LZ/..^ cot x + a* cot cot r+ c 2 2 cot cot X+b* cot Y+ c Z. 2 Oo>' Bf . having equilateral triangle pedal triangles. then Oo> now /a. For then Q. Y. sides Zwm. so that the circles II'. Hence the (Q. 4 = < . circle (0. bisecting QQ' at right angles.72 MODERN GEOMETRY. writing 2 l/t for f'. &) inverse of the OQ) is DJS'D'. as is constant. and Brocard angle <. K") system. the pedal triangles of all points on the circumference of any one circle have the same Brocard angle. Om = [R(OQRt*)y(ROQ. or when Q are expressed in terms of X. Ow. the Radical Axis of the coaxal system is now the Lemoine axis and N. fc) system. t. A XYZ Lemoine point K. MM') in the Since the pedal triangle of Q has angles (0. Therefore < is constant. is the . which are inverse to LL'. MM' X. Then. k) inverse of the circle N circle ABC. 99. mm'. in the (Q.t*). S. J?) system. OQ') it is easily is the ON. Om' = Hence OLOm = R 01' . XYZ . And if be the pole of DED' for the proved that the (Q. viz. And. from Section (64). and p are infinite. . Q'. are the Isodynamic points 8. it follows. from Section (91). lying on 0ST.. p'. Hence the remarkable property of this coaxal system of Schoute circles. 08) while the Brocard circle inverse of (0. that 2 fr QQzip* . are mutually inverse (as are LL'.
I believe.sin (o> + 30)/sin 30 . + 4A) (cotw v/3)/(cotu> And t* = (cot< v/3)/(cot< + A/3). (cot <^> co . 100 after Chapter XI. we took Rt* < OQ.. 4A)/(a 2 cot 60+ . and therefore of Q' (here 8 a ).v /3)/(cotw /. 1OO. was analytical.) From Section (98). from Section (98). 8 r His proof. OOo> 180 x Let = = . Otf/R* = = (a cot 2 60+ . OQ^ = (x 150 .ORTHOGONAL PROJECTION OF A TRIANGLE. H.. = cot^) x years ago Prof. < 73 is equal to the acute (G. To prove that the Brocard angle angle (less than 30) between wO and OO. so that lies to the right of Q. (ISO/. Bead sections 99.) = = Many sin x/sin o>) . Schoute proved that the locus of a point whose pedal triangle had a constant Brocard angle is a circle of the coaxal system whose limiting points were 8. to (cotw+ \/3)/(cot a> In our calculations.. . Dr. Section (98). P. It is known that 008 = 30. Therefore.. + A/3) (Section 99).
S') and (Sv $/). 1O1. COUNTER POINTS. sin A sin sin v (83) . 8'. where the pednl triangle of 8 is homothetic to the antipodal triangle of S while the pedal triangle of 8' is homothetic to the antipedal triangle of $. WE now proceed to a further examination of the two 1 pairs of Counter Points ($. . a'P'y' be the n.c. Let It afiy. has been shown that = yy = W M* sin (A + X) 74 sin (B + /*) /x sin ( C+v . and so for S l and $/. of 8.CHAPTER IX.
the counter point of S. f q = . Isogonal Conjugates. //. + X). the angles It is known that tBSC = A + \. 1O2. S'A)." points S. being equally inclined to the corre sponding then said to be isogonal to SA. (a = 0) y are not zero . of is isogonal to AS. B8C = (56) And +X  5/SC = TT X' . The line 8' A is Let afty be any point Z/ 1 on Z?0. sin X = sin (J. S be on the circle ABC. S'CA. . i/. SBA = tf'BG. i/. + X') . To determine the relations between and A'.'. ftft = yy' = /3' = 0. and aa' a'/S'y' its counter point.. of 8 is AT lt BT%. the Auxiliary Circle of the conic that the major axis 2p. aa'. i. the counter point of is A. L If ST perpendicular to parallel to the to the Simson l Obviously AT^ Simson Line Line of 8. the diameter of this circle. 75 S and 8' are the foci of a conic inscribed in that the two pedal triangles def. . It follows that . &c. S' are often called a well known property of conies. being common which are perpendicular of def. the angles of d'e'f. by The L SCB = sides. V. S'B to MB. and draw diameters S8 and T'L\..COUNTER POINTS. S'C to SC'. &c i. sinX' = sin(^. =y= 0. the centre lying midway between S and 8 while the semiminor axis q is given by ABC = . .. Then But /?. so BS'C But BS'C = rrBD'C = TTX ^4 so = A+X. because.e. 8A C = 8'AB. X. CT 3 at infinity. X+V = 7T A. . the pairs (SA. d'e'f have the same circumcircle. . lies on any line isogonal to SA or SB or SG. draw chord BC. so that S'. also AT^ is 8^ and therefore perpendicular Hence the counter point to the three parallels to the Simson Line of S. /x.
siii(/< is + y. Taylor) Let 4. r . X sin  v' . (64) . . J3. M.. And and Since = U = 2A'/3f 2/. (83) /u.2 b . . v' . . Trj. so that the equation is a \..4X ) sin A_ sin X sin ^. sin X f sin X .+4A. A sin X' sin X' a result due to Professor Genese.sin(X to the minor axis /x') X')+y3. _ ri. to the minor axis of the conic S f for foci. ..*. 1O3. 7r 2. The equation 8. ana a = aa =m 2 a 6 2c 2 M . sin(^.^. Hence the equation a. j3 r TT^C . similarly. I/' = M/m?. sin ^ +A sln ^ = n pX/Bin ^ aa = n 2/. 1 8A 2 sin 2 A= ef 2p sin X . UM = 272 afcc sin//. y = 0. a = abc M 2 . oc (sin' X sin'^X') a sin (X is sin A 0. .00. 1 the area of d'e'/' M' Then = a cotX'+.sin(v v') = The proof here given by the present writer. 0. . a ' ) B1 .sin ^.7r. = U'M'. a' = abc  sin // sin M ^ sin v sin . and. f .76 also MODERN GEOMETRY. .sinX' sin/x' sinv' = 17' = m = u'/u = M/M' = n'/n U = m*U = m\2tf/M. 7r 15 which has (H.. where m = sin X' sin u! sin 2 : : sin S' 2 . sin X' T sin A ../1 <" j 2 O v ^ =^.sinA  sinv (65) "2 . 7r 3 be the perpendiculars on the minor axis from jr^a . /x sin v Let n' be the power of U . A also diagram shows that \SJBL C A 2 O. (57) X') . . U' = m H.
Also Hence the ASb.Ab = AB. Davis. /?. (7. y. triangles . to prove be to the conic being drawn SA. Lemma. so that .Ab = AB. >S'^(7= SAb. 8 = AC. ACS' are similar. The theorem is due to Mr. b. BC. 77 parallel to The tangent 1O4. regarding the parallel tangents as at infinity.Ac. P. Z /. E. F. Rouse.= SD is y.*.COUNTER POINTS. /. : : AS Ab = AC AS' . SA. . DSl = DSn = i(2/3h2y) = (/? DSC= DSlCSl= + y)S'CJL = SCI = DSC = y = /.S'A = AC. c. B. the demonstration to Mr. Then and. be the angles subtended at & by the tangents from 5.S'A Let a. drawn from a point }D parallel to B(7.Ac.
to prove : Cl = sin /u.) y . H. 8 A . The coordinates Let a /8 of the centre . be Then /. sin /x. Ab or AB. and since ' + fy8 + cy = A. Taylor. n. a n 7? ' referred to ively. 5Z : C? = J?^! C% = &! *?.'. aa = "2p sin X sin X'/sin yl. B a. from A on = ZRxAbsiuB or 2Rx4csinC = AC. (57) ' 71 2 2 . ) f . q.78 MODERN GEOMETRY. (G. B : sin v sin v'/sin is 6'. is 6/3 f ' : cy : aa ( ?>^ cy feft' cy sin /x'/sin (14) /x.sin A = ef 2p sin X 4 a = 4p sin X sin X'/sin J. . The conic touching Bl : Z. giving the absolute A'B'C' aa . j a ' = J^ But 4E. /.. of projection being 6 = q. . .Ac = 8 A S'A (from Rouse's Theorem). the proof by the . of ' cr .5(7 into A^B^J^. and ^4. /. sin X sin X'/sin ^4. 1O6. . ABO 'y be the and the centre of the conic. ' b. . M. .'/sin J5 sin v sin v'/sin (7.l l C l = : A. of oto the midpoint triangle A'B'C' respect Let &i be the perpendicular from a ' A . a. Then A. cr of the conic. on B G. Project the conic (ellipse) into a circle of radius cos" q/p.c. ca = aa = = sin The theorem present writer. by Mr.a^ = ac^Xq/p aa : . 2a = 2Experp. where N= BG at 3. the angle 1 Let the centre cr be projected into o a. cc j . 1O5.o = 2R(h. Bo^C X q/p /.c. ' 2 ( .
OS'.COUNTER POINTS. from A' 0'<r . And therefore ww' is the Radical Axis of the two 0) circles. But since GMO' is the Radical Axis of the two circles. The pedal circle of every point on the diameter through 8 passes through o> therefore def. a/ be the orthopoles of the circumdiameters passing i. OS. OJA %$&' be the direction angles of OS. 79 1O7.O'<r Q .A'd' OS cos 0.. the through 8 and S' points on the NinePoint circle whose NinePoint circle Simson Lines are parallel to the diameters OS and 08' (49).A'u'/R /. the common pedal circle of 8 and $'. (V. . = A'w.' .. (78) Therefore defd'e'f.) s'/L When OS' falls on OS. 0'<r . (Gr. Aiyars Theorem. OS' cos 0/. through <o and <*/. 6. OS' = 2R . the pedal circle of 8. Let w.e. (44.R cos = 2R. passes . Ramaswami Aiyar. and the pedal circle at w. passes through w similarly the circle d'e'f passes through a/. the = = power of A' for pedal circle = And this perpendicular perpendicular from A' on wo/ x 2 .OS' = E cos e. The power of A' for the pedal circle A'd.) . circle touches the NinePoint 108. If 0' be the NinePoint centre Then Let OS and . a/ coincides with w. .
Q. /S' are counter points. the counter point of P. it is required the locus of its counter point Q. Ct by ft y.S". if any diameter TOT' cut this cubic at S. (G. Draw Denote perpendiculars from AC. Bt. w and o>' have n. then . so that now Aiyar's be written 08.. = passes through 0. Counterpoint Conies. Tor ABC coordinate? of S . OS' 2R(Rp).). k'. 8' (the third point is 0). When /8/S>' l(m~n)a+. this occasion take (Imn) as the so that (1/7. and therefore on TT'. 1O9. Xote that the A'B'C' equation COS O l COS 6[ . the counter point (101) the chord Aa parallel to TT'. of . on ..c. and at parallel to BC. we have I (m 2 rr) cos A+ . of P moving along a given ABC in L. /.c. sec ft/. and if the circle cut TSS'OOfl' in k. The equation to &$' then is 0. So that and 8' He on M'Cay's Cubic. M. The counter point of t (101) is the point at oo on Aa.. 1/n) are the n. C . Hence t is a point where the Q locus cuts the circle ABC . And conversely.. But this point being on TT'. then w&.  = : for. also (101) t is the pole of the Simson Line perpendicular to TT. . from (50). to o>o/ is aa + . the orthopole of TOT'. I/.. N. J. =0. M'Cay's Cubic. AB. '.S. its counter point must be on the locus of Q.) The point to determine Let TT cut the sides line TT'. n.c. Then the Q of . 1/m. O'Qp* is = 110...80 MODERN GEOMETRY. A7 locus passes through B. wk' are the Simson Lines : We have already met with this is centre On Theorem may of T.. (sec^. T'.. circle in Section (45) its a straight line. and their pedal circle touches the NinePoint circle at w.
The points at infinity of the Q conic are the counter points of and therefore lie on Ax.sin Q. .. But aT AT'. tT' are parallel to Ax 1 . Ax. ^. Ax' are parallel to the asymptotes. C on T2 Hence the locus is a come passing through ^4. and therefore to the asymptotes. which are isogonal to AT. J5. of the 111. Then QBt So = QBC+CKt = PBA+ BCa .COUNTER POINTS.. BO. 81  Then y sin (1 A( " siu PA /.. g. sin OPT ~ ^ q r 7 ' where p. C. sin QA'Ji sin H Q<J .Ct _smQCB ~ sin ainQBt ' _smPCA ~ sin ' QBt QCt' ^5(7 sin QCt ninPBA sin Let Z?P. T. Draw Tx. QCt = QCB+BCt = PCA + CBa = PCA + nAC = Pna = OPT. r are perpendiculars from. tC. T'x' parallel to BC. A. so that Ax. B. T f . '. Ax'. PC' PA' sin yy' CPT PC . tA. we should have yy'/aa' = r/p. (7P cut Aa in ?w. the arc tx = G = Hence tT. AT'. and w. If the sides of the quadrilateral were BA. To determine the directions asymptotes and axes.FBA + BAm = Bma = BPT.. .
. T'. <r l cr 2 cr3 . la + mp + ny=Q we have or p. and. = b cos 8 + c cos ^ 2 . .. But I oc op. If TOT' be the conic is .. To find the centre. t .. 0. my + nfi a cc a.aa+. if u l9 aie the perpendiculars from i(?. &c. . = 0. Hyperbola. . A A. the centre is w. (G. from (50). from (8).. ex. .. To determine the Asymptotes. whence p cos &c.. 5. 112.7? on ojj^ arid w 2 r 2 w^ h z those on coX2 then .2 cr 3 . a a Z( al \brn \cti). From (111). the Asymptotes are at right angles. wX' be the Simson Lines of T. T' 113. From Section (41).) Let wZ.. .cos (^TT oJ. the Orthopole of TOT'. = 2B sin cos cos . = 0. oj o. n l ^2 = 2E cos sin sin = 2/i'.82 MODERN GEOMETRY. ap/R #j. To determine the Counter Point Conic of a circum diameter TOT'. Hence. since they are parallel to tT. . tT' therefore the conic is ^a Rectangular . Z/af.
oj o2 <r s .cos(i7r(T h. wXg are the Asymptotes of the Rectangular Hyperbola and the square of the semiaxis = B Since ? 2 . 83 3 Also So /. Hence the OT. the Twin Point of 6'.sin^OT = E. = perp. from on o>Xj Aj = perp. oj o. the fourth point where the Rectangular Hyperbola cuts the circle ABC.COUNTER POINTS. sin A. /.. on the Eectangular Hyperbola. It /?/. sin 2o. 2. l 2 . . the n. . A.) . (37) 114.sin 2<r sin 2<r = 2 t^ro = 2 iv w*.. since oj circle ABC in t'..c.. cr 3 . u^ = R*. Therefore t' coincides with t. 1 ). . and therefore lies on the Rectangular Hyperbola.c. 1 2 . flu> = wt'. . y x be the n. &. from T on = 2R cos cos cos = 2R.. Hence w^. . square of semiaxis = pqr/R.'. of S^ inverse to 8.. is But H Let ttj. lies on the NinePoint Circle. Produce H<o'to cut the Then. and w is the centre. = 2 R sin sin sin = 27^. . } ff w.4 or OAT = = E. Therefore t' lies on the Rectangular Hyperbola..sin2o. _ abc ' sin (B p) sin (C sin /x v) If JVJT sin v (68) and (86) So that /S/ is the counter point of $. of $/. which is the counter point conic of TOT'.w 2 . sin 2^ sin 2cr 2 sin 2<r3 o. y/ has been shown that _ abc sin(J. and a/.X'j .
w/c = ud^ . as the inverse points S and S travel along TOT' in contrary directions from T. have shown that the pedal circles of all points on TOT' pass through the orthopole w. Therefore the pedal circles of (SS ) and (fi^/S/) pass through w. 2p so that the projection of w on and Si on BG. B^ G and has o> for its centre. being homologous points in the similar triangles S. We f Hence. $'. Then. is the midpoint of S' and /S'/. w is the Centre of Similitude of def. To prove that o> is the midpoint of S'SJ.84 MODERN GEOMETRY. since CD is on the circle defd'e'f. from Section (69). $/ are always at the extremities of a diameter of the Rectangular Hyperbola. and similarly. Hence. and the difference between the areas of their antipedal triangles is always 4A. d' Pi def./ d^fr Draw to& perpendicular to BG. and of d^ej^ the pedal circle of $.. tad <ad } ' P d. 115. AB. wd l '/2p l . BG is midway between the pro jections of 8' So for OA. Therefore o> l . if p. p are the circumradii 1 of these circles. Also. their counter points S' and $/ travel along the Rectangular Hyperbola which passes through 4. the pedal circle of S.
m'. 85 116.'. <r S=:oS'<rQ /. (Gr.COUNTER POINTS. Therefore a circle.<r d' = 2p. . centre 8. AB. Let I'. 2p. because cr is the centre of the pedal circle of ($$'). . CA. . passes through Again. n' be the images of 8' in EG. since = ar 8 and 2. SI' = 2. 88^ = = <u. radius 2p.o<u 8'<o = oi/8/. '..) Then. I'm'n'. since the circle def passes through Hence a through circle described with centre S and radius 2p passes I'm'n' and $/.
BC in K then. The absolute values of the n. are given by a ha.c. are as the squares of adjacent . Hence AA. so that the sides.CHAPTER X. The Lemoine Point. BB.. CK. the three outer sides of the squares meeting in A. LEMOINE GEOMETRY. (a. BK. AK to : meet BK. z and y = c o" : o . B. = . c). B.c. CCl meet at the point whose n. AK. . 6. CK = where Produce k = 2A l .. and complete the diagram as given. segments BK. AB being b and equal to the equation to AA l is (3/b y/c. on AC.> . &c. are 2 2 2 6 c ). are therefore (a Grebe or Symmedian This point is called the Lemoine or Point and will be denoted by K.c. = &AKB AAKC = ratio of b. .. The perpendiculars from A.. .c. are called the Symmedians of A. On the sides of the triangle ABC construct squares externally.. 117.and whose b... CK. C. c. C.
. then a + /? fy 2 is a minimum at K. or (118) and (131) . of those of ET are as (sin 9 OK is or sin( C). a2 +Z) 2 + c 2 = therefore 3 4A 2 2 +. from (19). we have 119. ^.. y are the n. Since If a. therefore.LEMOINE GEOMETRY.sin A . 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 r 2 + c r3 Z> KO* + E 2 ) a\ r. = . ' . ABC. 2 .y.. u = r. v.j8 + sin(4 (b*<?)/a*.c. 0.. . a 2 4/8 2 fy 2 has its minimum value.. sin C) therefore the equation to t Since the n.. since a 6 c are the b.a+sm(C4). which 4A 2 is 2 7j 7 t The sides of the pedal triangle of a point 8 are u. From (57). A as (cos A.) 2 2 2 But. In this case. . To show that u*\v*+v& is a minimum when 8 coincides with the Lemoine Point K.c. and the righthand expression when 8 coincides with K.c. (a + & + c )(a + 2 2 /S except when or when the point a/a = (3/b +y ) 2 is 2 always greater than 4A = y/c coincides with K.KfsinA be sin A .Ke. /?.x+. are A eKf = AfKd = A dKe. 118. The Power of JT for the circle Using the form of Section (60). + (a + 6 + c ) CfiTtf . cos B. we have. (SA = r. while sin 5. of K. of any 2 2 point. So that K is the centroid of def. = 5). cos 0). The minimum value of u 2 is a minimum when KS = 0. For 87 def. K is the centroid of its pedal triangle &eKf= cc .
BSK.. = SAB + SB A = SAB + SAC .. AB. if 8 be SBA the double point of Y and . = 2A = BOG. AB. (in circle Also. /.Symmedian. touching AB. are similar. and nally on AC. C. Z. directly similar. the triangles SAO. Let figures Yand Z.88 MODERN GEOMETRY. on the circle so that S lies BOG. / BSK. SAC. BSC = 2. so that in to JL in Z. S lies Again. from similar triangles so that SBA. having L so that SEA = SAC is . 12O. AO at B. Let Pv Pz be the perpendiculars from $ known S on AC. A Y Then. . OSKi = OSB+A = OGB + A = 90. be described exterin Y is homologous to B in Z. Then. AC may be found by drawing the Symmedian chord AAl through K and bisecting it at 8. on the J. SAB = SGA ASB = 4SC. as Artzt's First the focus of a parabola Parabola. 8A = 5A B08C) Hence the double point 8 of the two directly similar figures on AB.
the centre of similitude being <r. _ T. are concurrent at K.. _sinff_ *inC b ' r c .2 (7T3 Hence AT^ passes through Note that T is the point of intersection of the tangents and C. AB. The Lemoine Point A of I^A. whose equations are y/c + a/a = 0. q__ S. . be the perpendiculars from T^ on AC. Then AT. formed by drawing tangents to the circumcircle at A. C. r BT CT 2. .. 6. IJJs =r:2B. . But XYZ and IJ^ are homothetic.GsinACT. if q. 122.c. For. Therefore the point M.. (26) Therefore the Lemoine Point call it A of I^/a lies on crJIf. K l at so that the n. which the Lemoine Point of XYZ.LEMOINE GEOMETRY. it will be seen that of the inscribed triangle ABC. r 89 121. B so also do BT. a/af 6//S = 0. In the figure of the preceding section. is the Gergonne Point of ABC. Let l\'l\'l\ be the Tangent Triangle. and <rM crA : = linear ratio of XYZ. c). B. of '1\ are ( a. is the the Lemoine Point K Gergonne Point (32) is of r I\T2 Ts .
in the same order.. AB and T^AI\ are harmonic conjugates and AC. (4) Centre of Sim. are (sa). (30) (32) : (. (s c)} on the sides of 1^1^ are found to be proportional to the sides of this triangle. The Harmonic Quadrilateral.c. Note the following list of " (s a) " points (1) Nagel Point: b.c.A^G sin 0/sin If x.c. 1 l . for the perpendiculars from the point {(s a). And. p.C.<? a). = AC.: n. A^K^ is the Jljsymmedian in A C1 and CK^ the Csymmedian in AGA r l 1 . &c. or are perpendicular to OA.G x/AB //. The point A has n. A. jugate to BK^ so that Similarly. since = y/AC = z/A. x/AB = y/AC. The angles of the harmonic pencil at A are seen to be B.. In the triangle ABA the tangent at B is harmonically con<f> l } is the Bsymmedian for this triangle. which are parallel to the tangent at A. 0. BK l To prove that rectangle AB. (26) 123. then For.. (s b.B.. (s &). since 5^ AK l is the ..A B.A. (s a). with to are parallel 124. AJ3. <t> = sin = rectangle AC . on this account.c.K bisects all chords which T2 Tx or JToHg. ABC.c. <. (7. (56). since l is x/AB z/A. To prove that JJT bisects all chords of the triangle ABC. ABA C being called. . A and A are harmonic. AB. u are the perpendiculars from K l on AB.B. .Bsymmedian of And.. AC. at B and and.A^B. 2 H^H^Hy respect to It follows that J.. the J^symmedian of = . (3) Lemoine Point A of IJ^: n. The same angles are found. are 1/0 (2) Grergonne Point a). AI^ is the J.. a Harmonic Quadrilateral. are 1/0 a).symmedian of .90 MODERN GEOMETRY... or parallel to the side HH Z S of the orthocentric triangle Let Then sin 0/sin < Therefore AK BAK = B.. 6 or (7. OAK = <. = y/ft = c/b = sin 0/sin B = sin 5^T /sin CA'1\. BCA/sin CBA = A^/A. are : c). z.4 r Hence the pencils at B. 89). or perpendicular to OA. o of XTZJJJ. (Fig.
C'n is the comcentre of three inscribed rectangles. so that in AD is A side XY on BC. rectangle XYVU inscribed ABC with the The diagram and that P lies on A'L The Lemoine Point K. OK cos Now and l = A'd = A'D. standing on BC. pencil A'(AWco being ) is harmonic. CA. BC. B'. HJ A'D = 2 fr c 2a 2 2A (117) . mon AB to A'l. Then.LEMOINE GEOMETRY. common to find the locus of its centre P. respectively. and let A'K meet AD in I. shows that the midpoint of UV lies on A'A. B'm. since BK and the tangent BT at B form a harmonic pencil with BA. AB. CA. The Lemoine Point is the point of intersection of lines to the midpoints of joining the midpoints of the sides of corresponding perpendiculars. To determine the direction angles makes with the sides of ABC. 126. C' be the midpoints of BC. ABC A Let A'. 3. therefore the range (AKK^T^ is harmonic l : therefore the bisected at I. 91 125. which OK From the diagram. 6 19 2.
m. .'.. The equation to the tangent at A is ft/b+y/c 0. since so that Z/j is aAa' = 90. where 1/m = = a(b"c 6 (c a c(a COS0! Hence the tripolar equation to OK is a ^ C )r ffe (c o )r *f6 (aa 6)rt = 0.a(b~ c cos08 cos : 2 ). & 2 2 2 2 2 Z> ) : ) : ).A. !TAe Apollonian. The Lemoine Axis. 1 and therefore 128. in ft J. Circles.. 1 of Section (120). . which is therefore equipotential for the four circles. . Let the several pairs of bisectors of the angles A. is is the polar of L. the other tangent from L v Hence the common chords AA^ BB^ GGl of the circle ABG and the Apollonian Circles intersect at K. C meet in a. 1 8 i i 2 s s l l 1 8 (17) 127. A the centre of the Apollonian Circle and orthogonal to the circle ABG. Since AL^ since through Kr (BKfiL^ a tangent. A Harmonic Quadrilateral such as ABA^ can be in verted into a square. .^ on the polar of K. = Hence L^L. passing . /^a = = = And. The circles described on aa'. . &c. a/a /3/6fy/c This is called the Lemoine Axis. is l (aa'). therefore L^L.92 .aA = L^a = . 129. the polar of L passes through A is harmonic.B in y. L. + = 0. It follows that AKK^Ti Note that OL bisects passes through the point l AKK A IS at right angles. OJ.^LS is or x/ar + y/tf + z/c* 0. /?/?. aBA + BAa. the passes polar of L t so that L. BG ' Let the tangent at A to the circle ABC meet BG in L r Then so that angle L. a! . L^.A = LX through and. B. COS0! : = . lie Since the polars of L^ L>2 L s pass through K. MODERN GEOMETRY. y'. yy' as diameters are called the Apollonian Circles.AC \GAa. L.
Ac.C = A+ 3 : : : . Hence LMNL' is a square.EC But since BE EC = BA : : AC. Let the circle described with centre 'L\ and radius cut the Apollonian Circle L in E and E' . OA to the are equal. AE.LEMOINE GEOMETRY. /.BT. CE.*.. so that E. lies on their common chord EE'. 93 or l Then. \ ?r so that x =v= . . EA. aa'. 2 : pole. . Also E is on the Apollonian Circle r r = BE CE = Ba aC = c b = de = df or br = cr \ = BEC = TT^. EA. BE. . as pole and VII as radius of inversion (where RZ OE*). z & . since the tangents OA. Another square may be obtained by taking E' as In the above figure. OB. A of n= Then. we have } ' E meet n n LM= AB.EB' LN = AC. E' are inverse points for the circle ABC. and { two circles OE. /x v.. LM = LN. E is on the Apollonian Circle aAa! /. taking power E E= the circle again in LMNL'.OE' Let =S 2 . 00. .
by </."} In like manner. let triads external segments contain the angles AB O) (b) (c) A. 17. 94 and .O/> touches BC at B. 13O. C. Q'AC = Q'CB = &BA.. 056' w.'CB. of circles be described whose On the sides BC. &c. CA. BB. and AlB touches BC at B. = VAB. the angle So Similarly. Again.. BQ!G touches AB at B. QCA = SIBC. the cyclic order The first preserved.CHAPTER XI LEMOINEBROCARD GEOMETRY. Since the external segment of circle touches BQC contains the angle C. " (Memorize the order of angles for O by the word CAB. A . ABC. CttA touches C. QCA.C. this CA at C. SlAB by each of the equal angles 0. AB at A.A. C. triad of circles intersect at the orthocentre H. Denote each of the equal angles IBC. (ABC) being O Let the second triad intersect afc and O' are the Brocard Points of and the third at O'. ASl'B touches CA at A. Cti'A touches BC at Similarly. The Brocard Points. since J.
LEMOiNEBROCARD GEOMETRY.
95
131 To determine
B
CD
and
to'.
In the triangle AtoB, toB =: c sin w/sin B 2R sin to.c/6. to A = 2B sin to 6/a, 12 6 = 2 JB sin co So a/c
=
Y
.
.
;
sin (01 to) sin to
...
_
~~
sin
CLIO
12 0.4
_ ~
120
_
a2
be
.
sin
toA~
'
cot
to
=
_
4A
sin J,
2
^1 2
cot
A + cot 5 + cot
2
2 sin
+ sin B + sin C. ^. sin B sin C
a>
_ 1
4
cos
sin ^1 sin
;
A cos j? cos C B sin
The same expressions are found
^^
for a/
o>.
The angle
,
<o,
which
is
QCA, &BA, Q'CB, Q'AC,
oV
equal to each of the six angles QA B, is called the Brocard Angle of
ABC.
Since
to'
=
o>,
.
it
follows that
A = 2E sin w
a
c/a,
Q'C
n.c. of

=
2 Z? sin
co
.
Observe that the
=
2A
CL" \~
\~
K may now be written
to
to,
fe/c,
O'5
=
2.R sin
w
.
a/6.
.
a
b
c"
= Ja tan = R sin A tan
n.c.
&c.
(117)
132. To determine the
and
b.c. of to
and
fi'.
From
So
the diagram, a toB sin
=
to
212
sill to
2
.
fi
=
to
.
2R
6/c,
sin
2
to
.
a/c,
y
sin
2
= 2E sin
to
.
c/6.
2
to
.
6/a.
And
a'
for O',
= 2B sin aa' =
.*.
2
ft'
:
=
2R
y8y8'
= yy'
: :
c/a,
7'
=
2JB sin
2
to
.
a/6,
so that O,
12'
are Counter Points.
2
:
The
b.c. of
O
are given
by
x:y:z
and for
to',
x'
toto' is
2
y'
z'
= =
2
l/b2
:
1/c
2
I/a
1/61
4
;
1/c
:
I/a
2
:
The
line
4
then found to be
2
(a
6
c
2
).^/a
of
to
+ (6
4
cV).?//6 +(c
2
a
2
6
2
2
)^/c
=
0.
The power
U
= /V+"; . ^
on
,
?'f 22
^
22
..
=
on'.
96
MODERN GEOMETRY.
133. The Brocard Angle
is
never greater than 30.
\
For
and
.*.
cot
<o
=
co
cot
A
cot
B + cot
(7,
cot
cot
V
2
cot ('+...
cot
2
=
...
1
;
=
/.
(cotl?cot(7) +...
cot
to
+ 2; = 2(cotM + ...)2
J.+
=
Hence
is
2 (cot 2 (o3).
is
never less than A/3, and therefore w
never
greater than 30.
134, Some useful formulae.
(a)
cosec
2
CD
=
=
1 4 cot 2
<o
=
1 4 (a 4 &
2
2
+c )
2
2
2
/16A
and
s
,
,
.
1
4
a4
2
.
sin
cu
This expression will be denoted by
(6)
e
cos
CD
==

.
.
(c)
sin 2to
2 2 2A(a + 6 + c
2
)
.
^
.
2
a
(d)
COS
l>oi
= _
A^
a
(e)
cotL^^j. 4
sin
A(
(A
w)/sinw
a>)
:
(/) Since
/.
= a /66;
s
sin(J.
w)
:
sin(l?
sin
(0
w)
to)
to
.and
(gr)
sin(J.
sin
(^.4
w) sin (/?
jw)/sin
o>
<o)
siii(6'
=a = sin
3
:
I
s
:
c
8
,
3
to.
=
sin
A (cot
f
cot
A)
Note
(/&)
that,
when
6
c,
sin
to
cos (^4
+ <o)/sin J.
sin
+ w) = 2 sin = cot A cot 1
(^4.
to
2
to.
/.
cos(yl+(o)
=
a
sin
sin
A sinto/8A
4
.(fc
+c
4
a 2 /; 2
<rc
2
)
f
'.
(AE)
sin
7>
+
sin ( J.
C)
sin
LE:IOINEBROCARD GEOMETRY.
97
135. JTeuberg Circles.
of a triangle The base being fixed, to determine the locus of the vertex A, when the Brocard Angle of the triangle is constant.
BG
ABC
ABC
to
Bisect
BG
in I)
:
draw DA^A. perpendicular, and A
2
M parallel
BG.
Then
=
4. area of
.'.
ABC
L
4,a.DM
2
AD*
.
a.
DM .coto) + 3/4.a = 0.
so that
Take
DN =
\ a cot o>,
BND = GND =
2 1/4. a
u>.
Then
NA*
= =
AD* + ND 2 2.DN .DM
3/4.o
constant.
8
=
(cot'w3)
Hence the locus
centre N,
of 4 is a circle, called
a Neuberg Circle,
and radius p =
\a
136. Let
nicies of
Sj&C', #_E7'(7
the
common
base BC, so that
be equilateral triangles on opposiie DE = a. V3.
Let the Neuberg Circle cut
Then
DA,. DA,
=
DJV 2  P 2
H
DE in A A. = 3/4. a = DE
2
.
2
2
.
And
thus, for different values of
<o,
the Neuberg Circles form
and EG for Let GA l cut the circle in Tv Then. BT then l is a tangent at Similarly. = Also. GA^. = BG BT. from the cyclic quadrilateral at T. ~*inB l\D~ BD r BD Similarly. = BG = BE Tr .D/DB j DJNT/DJ5 . 2 a> 3. with right angles and Z>. and . A. This gives cot 2 ^ 2 cot J# cot w + 3 = 0.C. E and E' for Limiting Points.C = A + _ sin r.B if = /. so that the triangles GBA GT^B B'l\ : are similar A.G.CT^ 19 = CE* = : CB\ . since E is A . From the similar triangles BA. For A. . L r l\BG BAf. = =  cot w v/cot' 2 w w v/cot' 2 3 .G. will be called the Steiner Angles. = cot to p/^a = f cot \/cot 3. T^BC.D(7 _ ^^ _ BG ~ l >. But A. /_ n sino> oi i o) BT^D = BND or w BG = u + BA.98 a coaxal family. a limiting point. sin w Thus J. So denoted by S 19 cotJA /S' 2 = cot w \/cot w A The angles %A V \A^ 2. whence cot^^ as is obvious cot 00+ cot^A. A. The Steiner Angles. from the diagram. BT^ND^ . 137..B /. BA% cuts the circle at T^ CT is a tangent at T 2 . 2 sin o>. 15 A% are the values of x obtained from sin (x + w) = . 3. with Radical Axis. MODERN GEOMETRY.NAJDB GJ 2 .
To prove that AX. Y. so 0. . the circumradius of the pedal triangle of 2p sin B. (a 2 /32 y2 ).c. v' So that the pedal triangles of the Brocard Points are similar for ft'. ABO A have their linear ratio equal sin w. 2 . all Let XBC.MOINEBROCARD GEOMETRY. b/a sin . 4 sin Oft = E (l II 2 2 2 2 to. sin (B 6). . (a 3 &y3 ) be the n. A. sin (C0) . 2p sin A. and having a common base angle 6. ZAB be isosceles triangles. To determine p. CZ are concurrent. // /x = 0. \ = B. 2 /. ef ft. A = (131) to J\ sin to. yx = ia sec 0. 99 138. Z. YCA. ft or ft' supplies some interesting illustrations of the properties of pedal triangles..2 7. U Also . the triangles sin <o : def. = But ef=QARiuA = 2R sin p to . . ft : == s i n (^ 0) : sin (^ 0^ si 11 0 . 1. A C So that fll : ft : yj y. BY. : : sin (A : 0). \' = = ABO.'. 2 2 2 o>) (134 a) 139.i a2 a : ft : = sin0 sin (00) = sin (00) sin : : sin (. v = A. Then 04 = ^ a tan ft = JO7sin(C'6>) = i. And to B. A + \ = BQO = 1800 = A + B. of X. Let (a^yO.# 0) . = 4_B /A U E Oft = n = 4JR sin = e'E*.LE. Hence. Lemma I. Either Brocard Point For ft. a sec 0. described inwards or all outwards.
. are as the The point obviously of lies on Kiepert's Hyperbola. XYZ.100 MODERN GEOMETRY... that is. ^ : y l = sin sin (C = 1 cr/ab b*/ac. 97). N CN For a second illustration take the triangles PBC. of aj : /'.2 n. N. (143) . its n. 0). ... to The equation or AX is sin (7>> ft/fa ft. Then since sin (A 0} becomes cos (A + <*>). S concur at a point whose at the Tarry Point. of P are as a 2 c 2 .c of G'. with the Illustrations. called the First Brocard Triangle. ABC. 8 0^ concur at a point whose the centre of n. CA. 1/af =0. The triangle PQR. &c..c. (p. 2 1/c .c. AB. 3. O. a> : : co) : sin (7^ co) . Perspective I/sin (A J3Y. CA. BQ. For the n. so that 1 N^N9 the three Neuberg Circles. BN. while AP.2 CA.c. corresponding to 7? (7. b.6) (A) In the diagram of Neuberg's Circle v and on BC. 0. Hence AX. CR meet at a point D. XYZ coincides with a. = 0> = y/y 1? 7 sin (C0).sin (7? 0) } oc 26 sin (7 oc I/a . 6r' coincides with G.. &c. (B for the K. 3 3 8 I/sin (Acu) Ac. (Appendix TIL a) 14O. of The centroid (') For if (a. : BO that the b. or I/a 1/6 1/c the .c. I/sin (7?0). 141. the lines AiV. Lemma II. equation . .c. being as 2 being as I/a 1/6% . having the common base angle w measured inwards.c. I/sin (00). 8. 7) be the n. Counter Point conic OK. . RAB the Centre of Perspective for PQR. (la = + Oo + = \ sec0 [a sin 016 sin (0 ttj 0) +c. N^AB (all inwards). are as sec (A + w).H. has G for centroid from (140). (See Appendix 771. . 6 2 . for triangles ABC. AT? describe the isosceles triangles N^BC. change N into N common are the centres of base angle (^TT <o). is sin G) ..
? //(6 cV) + s/(c'aW) _p<?r = 0. for which 4 o8 6 s )y+(fe*c a a 2 ) (c 4 or. AB respectively. BC. . = (6) Since the angles PPG'. and K. 4 6V ) + 2 . Q. pass through O'. /. O. The equation 4 of & e 3 2 QR found to be a 2 6 2 )2/+(6* (a )0+(c cV)s = This meets J56' at a pointy. PQR. . E lie on the Brocard Circle (OA'). Q'. tan PjBA' = Ja. AP is parallel to so Y^. a 2 . c) Hence the Axis is of Perspective of the triangles z/O 142. .tan w = KM. A'. A B (a) Since PA' = /. = 0. BR Since o>. 7CK are parallel to OA. 5. Similarly OQ. AQ. Some of the relations between O. it OPK = 90 = OQK = ORE. follows that P. c 2 . O'. ?r. =0. AE pass through fl.4'. while C'P.LEMOINEBROCARD GEOMETRY. QBG are each PP passes through O. Similarly those of 101 of Q are is 4 2 c' . will now be investigated. and those R are 0. ABC (4p_pewdi'a' 7IZ". 2 ?/ . cr.
o>) =B = PQR. (35) The ABC Steiner Point denoted by is Simson Line which parallel to If 0j. eR to.102 (c) MODERN GEOMETRY. sec((7 + u>). . . <o. 00 OK (diameter of Brocard Circle) = DO' = 2 012 sin = 2eR sin . + oo). of Tare PQR OK. 2 2 c ). o> . 5 5 are 2 R cos c 2 cos b.f to). KR.'. Hence the n. 3. = R (14 sin o> 2 4 oo) = eR . So and thus the QPR = QKR = A. Since KQ. 0. secw.2 . or as a (o r ) . PRQ=C. . of Tare 2 R sin 2 sin 8 &c. as sec(J. and therefore per oc Hence the n. sec(5+(o).c. draw Aa. and the are as l/(6 c ). The point diametrically opposite Now 03T sin ^ = J^M.. cos 6 l oc a (6 of it has been proved The n. . PQR is common Since inversely similar to ABC. (46) . c.c. To determine 2 geometrically. The Steiner and Tarry Points. RQP = B. 2 is the pole of the ABC OK. N pendicular to Hence N is the Tarry Point. o> to 56') IZ cos 4 cos(J.OA = R sin A tan 1 (KM perp. and crS perpendicular to BC. From Section (138). 2 is to S on the circle J^BO therefore the called the Tarry Point. AB..parallel to OK. &c. In (42) let is the pole be the Lemoine Axis then of the Simson Line parallel to this axis.c. O (and similarly O') lies on the Brocard Circle. which 2 (126) are as sectf]. (e) L so Q'OK = VOK = &PK = OJ5(7 = OK bisects flO' at right angles (at Z). the triangles having centroid G as their double point. (d) POE = VAB + ttBA = u+(B .. that # 3 are the direction angles of OK. 143. &c. and is denoted by T Simson Lines of 2 and T are at right angles. are parallel to AC.
to &c.c. N W) be tne absolute n. Then./. since KR . Hence G' coincides with G. 103 144. so that aT is CT.c. 145. a. b. Lemma. a = 2 A/ + y + 2) a?/a 3a' = ai + a 4a = 2A/o. + y + ). and KO to A<r (as OKR = <rAB = T2C. If. 2B is parallel to EP. 3oT B<r is parallel to BC. to prove that (a proportional to yzx. (aj 04 8 (a. Hence and T are homologous points in these two triangles. from the equal arcs.'. above). So and /. TO to PQ. is parallel to L Similarly. T5 EP. = 2A/(o. OAh)* (oa^sys)* and 6r' respectively. coincides with G. zxy. of /. JV have .LEMOINEBROCARD GEOMETRY. = 2 A/ + y + z). Therefore Hence the figures KPROQ. inversely similar to prove that the figure KPROQ is inversely similar is 2ACTB. PQR K Since L parallel to . 2 3 Ac. the mean centre of Let (0. for L. . 3f. to to ABC.y/a. 6?'. . Now. OKQ = T2B .^70. 2BA = KQP = (similar figures) JKTJKP. AB (142 a. . Since ZSOT a diameter.'. PQR being the First Brocard Triangle. The points L. and arc = a right angle. are inversely similar.). ^AGTB are inversely similar. Hence TA is perpendicular to QE. also ABC. and 2 are homologous. and AB is KR. arranged in cyclic order LMN. L. xyz.
1/c l/a . j . The order.c. proved. and therefore of the ABC. Again. as already and is therefore the double point of the inversely .c. (H orthocentre of ABO) OK. 1/6'. of P. 2 2 .104 MODERN GEOMETRY. 146. Bisect DO' in Z. Brocard Circle (OK) .'. the orthocentre of PQE.0Z = 2. PQR. O. Let L be the circumcentre of PQJR. D. 2 . in cyclic follows that G is the centroid of PQR. and Dfi" =2. . of . 1). It being aVfe 7/W. is : the Euler Line of : PQR. LGH' /.S" is parallel to OG:GH=l:2. Let Since LG meet DIf in H'. 1/6 I/a is the centroid of DOQ'. i is the circumcentre. 1/6 1/c . 1 : But LG GH' = ZG GD = J^ is 2 . 8 b. Hence G But . 12' 2 .'. it cW. then on DZ. and G the centroid of PQR. and Z GD = : 1 : i>. 2 2 . (9 lies 1/c are I/a in cyclic order. . similar triangles ABC. Q.eP cos to. in then L in PQR is homologous to Therefore the axes of similitude of the two inversely similar triangles bisect the angles between GO and GL. the 2 b.
: : .p.ZL = 2 cos > p cos 2w . is 147. ZL = OZp = /.p~ above. DT: . Again. 0. on SOT. OD:B = 2cos2o>l:l. L. in the latter. the double point of the inversely similar therefore the points 6?. p(= eR secco) be the radius of the Brocard Circle. T are collinear. From and (146) H'D ZL : = H'G GL : = 2 : 1 . 105 HH' 2 is . H'HKO bisects and E'K OH a parallelogram at the NinePoint centre. L.. GT GL = R.'. Ofi 2 or OO' 2 . To determine OD. if OGT = LGO. OD = eK =eE = 2 2 Note also that OD. So GT:GO=R: P : : and GO'=GL.GL: GTGL. OT= H'T: LT = 2cos2w:l. : so that G. from H'T:LT= GT+2. OO' are tangents to the circles . (by similar figures).= P. 02 respectively..= GT : <!L. 148.GTGT GO. OL = OK. KPROQ. . : then GO GL = R .. /. Hence angle Again. f 2o>. H'TiLT = /. To prove that D lies on the circurndiameter SOT. Since G figures 2ACTB.LEMOINEBROCARD GEOMETRY. jB 2 + 'V J^p : : 2 = 2 cos 2w D lies 1 = H'D LO : (or p). H'D eR cos w^eR sec w = = 2. T in the former figure are homologous to G. . So that OO. Again. 2 p . and.
= = ' PiP2'Pz= 1> 1/& : = c = !/ />/ : Ps' ^ Pa' The tripolar equation to OK is 0. : : : : 8 and 8 t for its From (149). . 1). l). Consider the coaxal system which has limiting points. = for I/a. The Isodynamic Points. ABO . Therefore the Brocard Circle (OK) belongs to this system.106 MODERN GEOMETRY.'. and therefore is coaxal with ABC. i> by on OK. These are the pair of inverse points triangles are equilateral . of the pedal triangles are given by area of pedal triangles sin 60 sin 60 sin 60 2p* (2p*) = = iA/(cot<ocot60l). therefore the Radical Axis of the system becomes which is the Lemoine Axis Jj^L^Jj^. cos^ oc 2 a(6 c 2 ). The Powers 11(11^ are given by H (BO = 8Es A/Jf (1Q = 2EV(cotoi cot60=bl). Areas of pedal triangles = 2A*/M (3^) Absolute n. M= a? cot = 4 A (cot . . cot 60 + 4A + 1). 60. (64) 4A (cot & cob 60 So for ST M. . = = the pole of LJJ^LZ for the circle square of tangent from X to ABC. 149. In this case. )\ oc a (6 *_ c s) ri i_. Let (piP2 p3 )._.c. Let this Radical Axis cut then. (A The circamradii . Then ' (p/paW) be the tripolar coordinates of constant. p sinA ef p sin 60 l 8a . (68) = oc a (a l} sin = A/(cot(ocot60 = abc 60). since K . 8. . OK in X . (126) and this is satisfied 8. since p q r I/a l/b 1/c. is \0 ^K X8 2 or XSj 2 since ABO belongs to the coaxal system. 8 and 8 1? whose pedal so that A = ^ =v= X+ o> . 8! lie Hence 1 50.
ABC is projected.. = aa x g/p . i/ . These are the Counter Points of 8 and B l they are therefore denoted by 8' and /. are !} . 1 Let a/?y. The Isogonic Points. of O are as sin 2X. the point of concurrence is S/. so that 2aa' n. of = the ellipse. 2pg sin X sin /x sin 2a' aa \. 152. aa =: pg' sin2X.b/3 + cy aa' 2pg sin X cos /x cos v = . from (139). sin sin 2p. Again A. 2/t. ZAB be described inwards on BC. 0. Their antipedal triangles are equilateral. 2 2/?y sin 2A sin 2 2 2p sin 2v .. so that the A'B'G' b. tanv.lfo>J\r /.*. CA.c. centre co. ~ oc ale l sin(Bd=60) sinf fJ=b60) sin 60 M(M )'' sin 60 60). so that the ABC b. a//?V be the and A'B'C'. ZC concur at 8' for the outward system. ti .c. I/Bin (4 Hence. Since and and it = 2pq sin A sin sin v aa+6/2fcy = 4>pq sin A cos/x cos aa = pq sin 2A A .LEMOINEBROCAKIJ GEOMETRY. A. Their n... . The Circumellipse. whose equation is . follows that (aaf bfi = cy) .c. sin (5 C)/a+. of O are as tan A. AB. then XA. the centre O. Project the ellipse into a circle. with angles X/xv. be the triangle into which /.c. tan/x. Also . YCA. = . 107 151. 2q. Let l/a + m//3 + n/y 0. while the angle of projection 6 is cos" q/p. These points lie on Kiepert's Hyperbola. = g sin 2X 2 A. .  (aa + 6/3 + cy) =A i/ . having areas %M (MJ = 2A (cot w cot 60d=l). with axes 2p.J3OC'xcos0. . referred to ABC Let LMN. the radius of the circle being therefore g. if equilateral triangles XBC. be oa + fyS + cy. YB.
: sin v. aa b/3+cy) (aa+bficy) giving the locus of the centre. the projection of T is evidently the Lemoine Point of p. are as Z. sin v sin A sin /x sin v (P~g) 8 = i. and LMN A It will be /u. v. //.. = And from (152).S T . be projected into pqr. whose Limiting Points have A/U. PQR LMN. . . whose centre so that is equilateral. 2pq sin ./3y + . A sin sin 1 So . NL LM2 .c. fern. /S2 are the Steiner Angles. = v ^TT.c ) = f 2 . sin : 2 2 tt.'./a. are as HN*. or as sin A. is the Lemoine Axis. whose Let circle b. Counter Point Locus is .108 MODERN GEOMETRY. Counter Point Locus of the Steiner Ellipse is a/a+0/6+?/c s= 0.c. From (91). whose sides touch the * Then LMN (fig. when the area of the ellipse Let PQB he the triangle formed by tangents to the Ellipse at A.Lemoine Point of the conic. = = 4A/3 \^3 _pg = cot V3 \/3 3)/v/3 = cot w .. .. = 3 ^ sin x A siti /x sin v is A 6r. 89).I/ for the angles of their pedal triangles. A cot 2 (cot wf \/cot w 3)/ \/3 where The which * jS 2 v/cot a> (cotw ^/p ^. To calculate the axes of the ellipse in terms of A. A = 2A (sec 6 + cos 2A (q/p+p/q) A sin/x sinv. (irpq) is constant.. 2 sin' 2 v. and therefore its b. sin 2 A/a. . well known example is the Steiner Ellipse. en... . . /A. Hence the and its Ellipse is sin A. al : bm : en 2 = sin A 2 sin 2 //. . a  =0. a 2 cot A + b" cot ^ f c 2 cot v =. This is the Radical Axis of the coaxal system. C then AP. = 0. 6) = . The point T may be called the Sub. GR have a common point call it T f . B.fe 4. 2A J/ (p* + q*)/l>q. found that 2 2 p~ + cf = p/q (a 4. BQ.
(circle tiD'BF). eSE. and thus the triangle D/*/. which rotate about it. SF = y sec b. /=:/. ABC. on BC.c. SE = sec 0. Let def be the pedal triangle of S. where (a/3y) are the n. Let angles be A. d angle So . / dSf irB L DSF by ft Hence Denote each dSD = fSF = 0. circumradius. and let its DEF /x. including def. Hence /S is the double point for any pair of the family of similar triangles DEF. Then SD = of these angles a sec (9. of 8.CHAPTER PIVOT POINTS. XII.CA.? is similar to the pedal triangle of 8. TUCKER CIRCLES. with their vertices on the sides of ABC. e = /LI. L SDF = SBF or SBf = SDE = Sde so 1 = X. so that it may be fitly named the " Pivot Point " (Drehpunkt) of these triangles. andp Sdf. be any triangle inscribed in The circles AE F. 109 .*. Again. \>. its SDBF. In the circle 17 its area..AB. 153.. The point $ can be found. as in (56) by drawing inner arcs (A + X). BFD. ODE meet in a point call it S. changing their size but not their shape.
is the centre of DE F. Hence SD = 2p sin a sec . is a line through perpendicular to 8m.^. . These lie on a line through <TO the centre of the circle def. and. An important case is that of the centres of the triangles DEF. def are as sec 6 1 M. . and the locus of m M M for different triangles DEF . A FI'E + F'EE' 180 = FDF + F'D'E' = So 18GB . 2p . 155. absolutely in terms of X/xv 154. . All the elements of DEF may now be determined and 0. v' DEF In the triangle AF'E. and S' their Pivot Point. . then perpendicular to >Scr <rSo = 6. 0. if The linear dimensions of DEF. . let cutting the sides of ABC again in D'E'F'. +c i/ 2 cot v + 4d . S = mS sec : . so that.110 M ODERN GEOMETRY . circumradius of EF = X area of D#^ = U sec 2 6^ DEF = p = = 2&/M sec. sin X sin sin = Z7 known. The circle X'. if a. m are homologous points in these triangles then MSm = 0. be the angles of the family of triangles D'E'F'. For M sin A (65) where and so that M= p is a~ cot 2 Xf 2 fe cot /* /x. //.
and that the AX.PIVOT POINTS. Now. Hence =& a. TUCKER CIRCLES. . S' for foci. Let TT be a point where the circle since Soti' . the centre of D'E'F'. . we SV $' through o. (102) angles of the family D'E'F' are 180 The triangles def. to . either being the centre of the circle 0' = 0.Str . in the cyclic quadrilateral OTT . = S& (Sir + S'TT) = major axis of conic. Then arc So = S'ar Therefore CTTT is L STrS' is bisected by TTO. draw a perpendicular . But a' coincides with DD'EE'FF'. 156..and take To find or'. S'ir : =: So. L o'SV where 6' = d'S'D'.. oiSV/S". Hence this circle touches the conic at r.. meets the conic. and has $. normal to the conic at TT.. . . d'e'f therefore have the same circumcentre cr and the same circumradius p . <T7r = p sec 6 = S<rJS<r = 2 cos p. STT j. SS' = S'(T .2p But Also cr SS'/S<r = for 2p '2 . HI It follows that S' is the Counter Point of $. To prove that the circle DD'EE'FF' touches the conic which is inscribed in ABC. . is the centre of the circle DD' . .
The : N . and therefore making an angle with qr.. C. linear dimensions of the similar triangles PQR. the pedal triangle of S. vertices slide on fixed circles. the sides of AB( rotate about A. pqr are so that. S'q cos 0. /A. AQC = AqC lies and ARB = v . S' being Counter Points) is known to be homothetic to def. triangles. the Antipedal Triangle of S'. Through A. . Since RB meet at P. 157. as the vertices of the sides of PQR. B. S'B. . &c.. and '. S'O. homothetic to its DEF slide along DEF. and therefore to have angles X. S'Q= Therefore 8' '. This triangle (o. Sr are diameters of the circles BS'Cp. Obviously Sp. Let QC. 8q. if 2V. Through A draw QR parallel to EF. n be homologous points in the two as cos 6 1 describes a circle on S'n as diameter. so that P on the circle BS'C'p. B. R Hence. C draw perpendiculars to S'A. Triangles circumscribed about ABO. is Since S'q a diameter of S'qQC.112 MODERN GEOMETRY. forming pqr.. is the double point of the family of triangles including jp^r. v. /A.
D'E'F'. is then called a Tucker Circle.) the centre of the pedal circle of O. also And it since = = Dtid = EVe = Ftlf. bisecting Ofi' at right angles. d'e'f Since are now B. V= = %M . DD'EE'FF'. if area of pqr p' be the circumradius of pqr. and whose sides is inscribed in pass through A. B. 2 2p' sin \ sin /x sin v . for PQR. O'. and by Z' (corresponding to a) the circumcentre of DEF.2A /M sec 0. VCEe are similar. TUCKER CIRCLES. 159. the pedal triangles of 12. falls on Oil. But PQR = V cos = i Afcos area of DBF . 2 Then. 1'. Tucker. and the area of homothetic to DEF. = ^M. QAFf. From (84) so that.PIVOT POINTS. To determine the elements of PQR. Hence. 0. properties. VBDd. 2 2 . An for " circle Pivot Points series interesting " of circles we take the Brocard Points O and present themselves. SlOZ = u = VAF = O5D = Q(IE7. from who was the first thoroughly to investigate its def. the area of areas of any triangle the triangle which ABC is DEF PQR a geometric mean between the ABC. Denote by Z (corresponding to o. C. 113 158. /. when The K. Z'VZ follows that the figures VOZ'Z. F=f= A. D= d = E = e= C. Area circumradius of p' 2 p' cos 0. common common The line of centres ZZ'. . O' . Tucker Circles.
114
Let
'
MODERN GEOMETRY
.
=
0'
= ACIF = BttD =
CQE.
Then
Now the
.'.
radius of the pedal circle of
fii)'
=
JP
7i*
sin w, (138)
circumradius of DD' ...
= p = p sec =
Tt.siii to/sin (o> 40').
The quadrilateral BDSIF being cyclic, EFT) therefore the arcs DF', FE', ED' subtend each an angle circumference, and are therefore equal.
= B&D
6'
6'
:
at the
Hence the chord E'D is parallel to AB, F'E to BC, D'F to AC and a circle with centre Z' and radius p cos 0' will touch the
:
three equal chords. In the cyclic quadrilateral so EDF, AE'F that the equal chords are antiparallel to the corresponding
E
!
= EDF=B;
sides of
ABC.
L TJE'D'
= F'E'E =
F'E'D' F'E'D
F'E'D' + D'E'E
=
A0'.
A+
6'.
Chord EF'
parallel to
chord DD' cut from
BO = 2p sin F'E'E = sin (4 + 6') EC = 2/> sin DE'D' = 2 P sin (A 6').
'2,>
;
And
if
afiy
be the
n.c. of
the centre
Z
1
',
a
= p cos^DZ'D' = p cos DE'D' = p cos (A&).
PIVOT POINTS.
TUCKER CIRCLES.
formulae will be found useful.
H5
16O. The following
(a)
(b)
(c)
list of
Radius of
circle circle
DD' ...
=
p
E
sin co/sin (w
+
fl').
Radius of
touching equal chords
;
= p' = p cos
$'.
N.c. of centre Z'
a
= p cos (A
PC =
6').
(d)
(e)
Length
of equal antiparallel chords
=
2p sin
&'.
Chord DD' cut from
Chord #/<"
If
d!
l
2p sin (A
&).
(>').
(/)
parallel to
EG
0.K"
2p sin (A +
((/)
and d are points on
such that
00d
then
a x cos aa
l
=
30, OOdj
=
150;
(A3Q) a
150)
sin
(4 + 60),
60).
8
and
oc
cos (^t
a sin (J.
Hence d and d coincide with the Isodynamic Points
and
8r
161. The Radical Axis of the Tucker and the circle ABC.
If
circle
(parameter
#'),
^
2
,
2
2
,
I.*
then the required Radical Axis
are the powers of A, B, is t *x
l
C
for the
Tucker
+
...
= 0.
A 'sin (wf 6')'
circle,
(62)
Now,
'sin
=
And
since
sin o 2p
.
Kin
5 A

. .
sin 6.
/,,
EF'
is
parallel to
BO,
.
sin
.'.
A
2
.
^
2
= AF. AF' = 4p
sin ^. sin
S sin C sin
0'.
sin
(4 f ^)/sin
8
^1,
so that the Radical Axis is
sin^+0'^ +
..
=
0.
116
MODERN GEOMETK Y
.
162. The properties of four Tucker Circles, whose centres are certain standard points on OK, will now be discussed.
(A) The First Lemoine Circle, or Triplicate Ratio Circle. This has its centre at L, the midpoint of OK, or the centre of the Brocard Circle.
so that
&
(a) p
(]})
=
<o.
Then,
(c)
= R sin w/siii 2w = = ^R. p = p COS a = ^Ksec cos (A
to
^Ii*
sec w.
00.
w).
o>
.
(d) Antiparallel chord
(e)
= R sec sin = tan Chord DD' cut from 5C = E sec sin (A
<o
Z?
oo.
o>
o>).
So that
:
FF'
=
sin
(A
o>)
:
sin(Sw)
:
sin (6
y
o>)
Hence the name "Triplicate Ratio
(/)
Circle."
Chord EF'
parallel to
BC = R
sec <o.sin
is anti
These chords pass through K.
parallel to
.'.
For since chord ED'
AB, ED'C
perp. from
E
on
= A, BC = ED' sin A = tan sin A, = perp. from K on BC.
li
o>
.
from
(^)
2 (o. ' <o (131) F'D. 164. TUCKER CIRCLES of OQ'. P . sin (A f. so that & = O&K = Jir. 6/ (d) (a) (/) Antiparallel chord = R sin 2w. a) .a>) := . A The centre (a) (6) (c) of this circle is K". (B) The Pedal Circle The centre being (a) p (fo) ' Z.'. . as is also obvious the diameter (6). from (e) . so (d) Antiparallel chords E'F.PIVOT POINTS.R sin 2 a> .0. H7 163. Hence the name "Cosine (/) Chord parallel to BC = 2R tan <o cos A = chord cut from BC. (C) The Second Lemoine Circle. J>D' = cos A Circle." : cos 5 : cos (7. p = R tan w. or Cosine Circle. a = R tan sin ^1. <o). Chord cut from BC = 2R sin w cos Chord parallel to BO = 2R sin w cos (J. 6' = %TT c) = R sin = sin p' a = R sin 72 oj. co 2R tan w. w. D'E each equal that they each pass through the centre K. DD' : = 2R tan EE' FF' : cos A .
118 MODERN GEOMETRY. Then it may be shown that H F' Z perpendicular to AQ'E' = Btl'F' . jff3 Next. The Taylor Circle. . = 2R sin sin 5/sin A 2 o> . draw HJE' perpendicular to CA. Draw S perpendicular to AB. H. called the Taylor Mr. after D&EE'FF' on a Tucker circle. (131) Similarly it may be shown that tan 5OD or tan ClE BO that = tan A tan B tan = BOD = CUE. H. C on the opposite sides. 1 j6> . it follows that circle.. AVF A 13. . B. The six triangles lie A&F. Taylor. D' perpendicular to BC. (131) sin to Also cot o> Hence tan < AF sin A sin 5 sin C + cos J. E to CA. H. 165. M. Let H!. sin B = 211 sin B sin C AQ. AF AH. cos B cos (7 = sin A sin sin (7 = tan A tan 5 tan 0. = Ctt'D' = </>. H H^ H Let Then and A&F = <. being all similar.2 D to BC.2 be the feet of the perpendiculars from s A.. A B O < The angle is called the Tajdor Angle.
. So that the tripolar coordinates of the Limiting Points of these two circles are as cot A cotB cot C. the other chords being D'F and E'D. OT TK tan < : T being the centre of this tan o> = tan A tan B tan C circle. we have (7.1 <) = R sin 2. parallel to AB. the Radical Axis 2 cot A. C f sin 2 A sin J5 sin 2 (7. 119 is less than 2 TT.B sin sin </> = 2RD = A (e) Chord (/) Chord cut from BO = 2ED sin (. also the \ K T 166. : : 0. FE'. cos </> =D oc sin A 2 . from (61).= J?_D cos </> := + 7? cos ^4 cos 5 cos sin (w =R sma> . />) 0. / . : tan . Since < TUCKER CIRCLES. F'E to BC. cos 2 B cos (7. sin ^4 sin B sin ( ') sin A cos A.PIVOT POINTS. Note the equal antiparallel chords DP'. (21) .4 cos A . w. + cos A sin cos . (d) Antiparallel chord E'F or F'D or D'E sin 7? sin 0. is Hence. x + . The (a) list of formulae is now Radius of Tcircle p' (fe) . 2. 2 D sin where < = + sin A sin B sin D = cos JL cos B cos 2 2 : D cos = < cos J. sin ( ABC and the A f <) = sin ( A ..4 cos (BC). ED' chord E'D. ^'7 parallel to BC = R sin 2.. circle To determine the Radical Axis of the Taylor Circle. D' F to AC. (c) 'a = RDcos(A<j>} = R (cos A cos 5 cos 2 sin 2 A sin 5 sin C).4 cos B cos + cos A </> . A diagram shows that.
take TT. Let LMN. is (ee'. &c. Here LL' = dd' = PP or > ..'.. NN') .. and let lmn.. e. If'. Project LMN. Therefore the required condition is that a closed polygon may be formed.APPENDIX I.. Then m')+r(nn') + . &c.. q at M. . in the case under discussion.LL'. L' gr. To determine the condition that the two systems shall have . L'M'N'.x be the distances of these projections from a given point on the axis. and let its pedal triangle be d'e'f.. and the masscentre 011 any axis... a second point P' on Now.. the same masscentre. NN')..LL' <x Bin (MM 1 . are the projections of LL'. oc sin A. In the case of a triangle p.. and angle (MM'. Hence all pedal triangles same masscentre for the A sec def of points P on TT have constant masses sin A sec 6 V or sin 1B f the &c.. whose sides are parallel and proportional to p. and so for any number of axes.. /. Place equal masses p. MM'. cos ^.. //') A oc p cos 6. 120 . &c. = 0. NN'. be two systems of n points. p at L.. But I I'. placed at the angular points d.
. &c.c.AR.APPENDIX II. . = BP. by Ceva's Theorem.CP. AR. since AP.AR = CP.CQ.AQ .AQ^ . Let the circle PQR cut the sides of ABC again in P19 Q 19 r R Then . since CQ QA = : r : /. l l But. CQr AQ.b. CQ. AR RB = p AQ=p/(r+p). : Again.AQ . .: BP. l : q. and .'. = AR. BQ.. GQ. AR=p/(p+q).CP.BP. So AR =pJ(p } {q l }.BR .. l are concurrent. = AR.BP. But AQ.AQ.AR.AQ. } Therefore AP^ BQ GR .BR.AR^ &c. 6 2 121 . l .1>'..BR. AQ.BROP. . To determine the second points in which the four circles out the Ninepoint Circle.c. .. AQi=pJ(ri+pJ.. GR are concurrent. = AR.
where the (the same circle) cuts the Nineb. whose b.c. are as a /(q r*). 2 PQB 1 1 1 <o'.'. if the b. So ql r.' R' cuts the NinePoint Circle again at o^ o> are given by 1 1 writing p for . MODERN GEOMETRY.122 . a oc +r Hh g : r \p .r. of the circle PQ. <x M .c. of <o' are given by ^ 2 ' a AT So. a 2& 2 Tn (80) it Point Circle at a point Similarly the circle Point Circle at a point aJ ' ' was shown that the circle 1J QR cuts the Nine w. p.c. q.
APPENDIX
(a)
III.
To determine the area
A'O
of
X YZ.
%a tan
.
Since
= E cos A
.'.
,
A'X
=
= E sin 4 tan
A + 0}
.
6.
OX=
B/cos
cos
(
.'.
/.
= OY.OZ.sinA = E /cos cos (B + cos (0 + 0) sin A. 2.&XYZ = '2(YOZ + ZOX+XOY) =
Z.&retiYOZ
2
2
.
(9)
...
;
and by some easy reduction we
obtain,
oj
&XYZ = AM cos
When
then
is
2
0.
[2 sin
sin (20
+ o>) }/sin
o>.
equal to either Steiner Angle,
sin (20
(137)
+ w) =
2 sin
w,
and the triangle
line.
XYZ
vanishes, so that
XYZ
is
a straight
But
this triangle always has G for its centroid. Hence, in this particular case, XYZ passes through G.
(b)
Instead of the base angles being equal, suppose that
z
and
 YCA = ZAB = BOX = CAY = ABZ = BXG CYA  AZB =
XE(
'
0,
0,
X

Then
Oj
a2 as
3a
= = = =
a. sin
b sin
c sin
sin </sin ^,
0.sin(C'
0.sin
0)/sinx,
^>)/siii
A,,
(B
x
;
a1
+ a2
+
u3
=
&c.
Hence
6r is
the eentroid of
XYZ.
123
124
(c)
MODERN GEOMETRY.
Let YZ, ZX,
XY
meet BG, GA,
AB
in x, y, z respect
ively.
Then, since AX, BY, GZ&re concurrent, xyz is a straight being the axis of perspective of the triangles ABC, XYZ. To show that the envelope of xyz is Kiepert's Parabola.
line,
The equation
of yz is
(Ay.&y,)
+ (wy a. ) 0+ (oAa,&) y = 0.
3
2
Now
So
y 2 a3
y3 a 2
oc
sin (J.
sin J. sin
0) sin
(B
0)
sin
sin
;
cc
B
sin
C sin 26.
sin
a3&"~* a
A
<* s ^
n^
sin J.
5 sin 2^.
sin
Therefore at # we have
/3/(sin
C'
sin ^4
sin
5
sin 20) +y/(sin
A sin 5
G
sin 20)
=
0,
so that xyz is
aa/(sin J. sin
Writing
this as
5 sin (7 sin A sin 20) + px + qy + rz = 0, we know,
2
. . .
=0.
this line touches the
parabola, the n.c.
oc
of
from (9), that whose focus are
a/(l/ 3 l/r), Ac.
Here
1/g
1/r
(sin J5
2 2
2
sin 0) sin 20.
c ) &c.,
2
Hence the focus has
2
n.c. a/(fc
2
and the
directrix is
(& c )cos.4a+... =0. Hence the envelope of xyz is Kiepert's Parabola, having for focus the point whose Simson Line is parallel to OGH, and
OGH for directrix.
INDEX.
[The numbers
refer to Sections,
Aiyar, V. R., 108, 109.
Angular Coords., 81.
Apollonian Circles, 127, 129.
Artzt's Parabola, 66, 120.
Feuerbach Point, 14, 51. Theorem, 63.
Gegenpunkte
,
83.
Axis of Perspective
:
ABC
and PQR, 141.
,,
Genese, Prof. R. W., 102. Gergonne Point (ABC), 32, 34,
,,
XYZ,
App. Ill
(c).
(TiTtTj, 122.
Greenhill, Sir George, 22, 26, 34,
Beard, W. F., 36. Brocard Circle, 142, 144, 150. Brocard Angle and Equil. T., 91.
Centres of Similitude
:
54, 55.
Harmonic system Harmonic Quad.,
of lines, 80.
124, 129.
(g).
XYZ and
Circles
Ii/2 I3 26.
,
Isodynamic Points, 99, 149, 160
Isogonal Conjugates, 101. Isogonic Points, 151.
Kiepert's Parabola, Ill (c).
11,
def and D'E'F', 85.
HiHiHs and
:
T^T^
85.
40,
App.
Apollonian, 127, 129.
Brocard, 142, 144, 150.
Centre, 9, 12, 42.
Kiepert's Hyperbola, 139, 151.
Lemoine
Lemoine Point
Lhuillier, 92.
(First), 162.
of 1,12/3, i22

(Second), 164. Neuberg, 135.
Lemoyne's Theorem,
77.
Nine Point,
Taylor, 165.
16, 45, 61, 107.
Limiting Points, 21, 57. Lines, harmonic system
of, 80.
Pedal C. of nn', 163. Centre O lf 44. Cubic Transformation of Functions, 34, 54, 55.
Davis, R. F., 9, 19, 104. Dixon, A. C., 55. 125
Elliptic
M'Cay's Cubic, 109.
Nagel Point, 30, 31. Narayanan, S., 75. Neuberg, Prof. J., 69,
135.
70, 88, 92,
Nine Point
Circle, 16, 45,. 61, 107.
148. SubLemoine. 122. 153. : SiSrfHiGi 2428.C. Dr. 165. Angles. 143. FGHO'TNM(on poristic circles). 141. 144. 87. 34. 2934. Quadrilateral. Point D.. and Tucker .. Rouse. H. 33. Circle. 160 Isogonic. hyp. F. 115. 72. T. Kingsway. Schoute. Weill Point GM 28. 141. H. 152. Harmonic. . J.. Pivot Points. 122. Pivot. MODERN GEOMETRY. Poristic formulae..'s. 30. 87. 144.. 137. Tarry. 143. 57. Limiting. 62. 1 Groups of R. Dr.. 52. Twin Points. 103. 144. 129. Tsodynamic. 21. .. 124. 106. Twin Points. 141. 153. 66. Tricusp. 99. Ellipse. W. 161. 146. Taylor 166. : Radical Axis (poristically fixed). (g). M. 149. Point. Midpoint of S'S/. 151. P. SS'SiSj (relations).. 32. 82. Tarry Point. 21. London : Printed by C.. 64. Nagel.126 Orthologic Triangles. Schick. Taylor. Circle. 143.A. 104. 11. . E. 2 Newton Street. 87. Bhimasena. P. 31. Rao. 100. 144. Steiner. Kiepert. 14. 51. 152. Gergonne. Hodgson & Son. Orthopole is for TOT'. Parabola Points : Artzt. Lemoine Point of IiI2 ^. 58. 40. ABC . 143. 74. 120. Steiner : Feuerbach.
.
.
.
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