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3.3.1 INTRODUCTION

mixture of two or more substance into its component fractions of desired purity by the

application and removal of heat. The separation using distillation column depends on the

differences in boiling points of the individual components presents however, the liquid

mixture have different boiling point characteristics and thus the distillation processes of

the mixtures depends on its vapor pressure characteristics.

The vapor pressure is closely related to the boiling point where the liquid is boiling

when the vapor pressure is equal to the atmospheric pressure. Therefore, the liquid that

has high vapor pressure will boil at lower temperature. The vapor pressure can be

increased by applying energy and it also depends on the amount of the components in

the mixtures.

The distillation column consists of several components that have its own functions

such as to transfer heat energy or to enhance the material transfer. The common

distillation column consists of vertical shell where the separation was carried out, column

internals such as trays or packing that used to enhance component separations, reboiler

to provide necessary vaporization for the process and condenser to cool and condense

the vapor leaving the top of the column.

A distillation column design is normally divided into two main steps, a chemical

process design followed by a mechanical design. The purpose of chemical process

design is to determine the number of required theoretical stages, column diameter and

tower height. On the other hand, equipment mechanical design focuses on the tower

internals and heat exchanger arrangement. The summarized steps of designing a

distillation column can be explained as follow:

4. Determine the stage and reflux requirements: the number of equilibrium stages.

3.3.1.2 T-100 Process Description

Generally, the purpose of T-100 is to separate the water of reaction from the reaction

mixture present in the esterification reactor R-100. The water is boiled and vaporized

through the column and as a result the water discharged from T-100 at the top as a vapor

together with other light components. The bottom outlet of T-100 contains no water.

Figure 3.0 and Table 3.0 shows the configuration and specification of T-100 respectively.

(S8) (S10) (S11)

Vapor Fraction 0 1 0

O

Temperature C 90.25 124.5 181.7

Pressure kPa 506.6 301.3 405.3

Molar Flow kgmole/h 67.80 37.30 30.51

Mass Flow kg/h 5823 2293 3529

Comp Mass Frac (Butanol) 0.0909 0.2276 0.0019

Comp Mass Frac (Acetic

Acid) 0.2503 0.6297 0.0038

Comp Mass Frac (Water) 0.0231 0.0586 0.0001

Comp Mass Frac (Butyl

Acetate) 0.6357 0.0841 0.9941

Distillation column is equipped with contacting device to provide better mass and heat

transfer between liquid and vapor phases by promote an intimate contact between both

phases through the column. The type of contacting device chosen would determine the

diameter and height of a column for a specified function since different designs would

have various capacities and efficiencies. The two types of contacting device available are

tray and packing.

Trays column is selected for this particular system because of the following reasons:

1) T-100 operates at relatively high pressure and high temperature which is 506.5

kPa and 90.25 °C respectively. The pressure is not under vacuum, thus trays column

seems to be more suitable.

2) Packed column is a better choice than tray tower if the liquid having high foaming

tendency. However, T-100 is working with non-foaming system, therefore, tray tower is

preferred.

3) The diameter calculated is relatively large. With large column diameter, tray

column is preferred. Packed column is not suitable for large diameter because the liquid

distribution would be difficult. In addition, tray column are less expensive than packed

column for large column diameter.

4) Cross-flow in in the tray column are preferred to get better vapor-liquid contacting

efficiency compared to counter current flow in packed column.

5) Handling of high liquid flow rate in tray column is often more economic.

3.3.2.2 Selection of Plate Contactor

Different types of trays available for used in tray column are sieve tray, valve tray

and buble cap tray. Valve tray is selected for this particular system based on the following

factor that should be considered for the selection of tray type are:

1) Cost

Bubble cap tray is the most expensive type of tray. The cost is double the cost of valve

tray with mild steel as material. Valve tray is more economic compared to bubble cap

tray. Even though, sieve tray is cheaper, valve tray is much suitable for the system in

several ways.

2) Capacity

The capacity is less when the column diameter is large for a given flow rates. Column

diameter required is larger when bubble cap trays is used, while, with valve tray smaller

column diameter can be achieved.

3) Operating range

This factor is regarding the range of vapor and liquid flow rates over which tray perform

satisfactorily. Distillation column are working in the range of some maximum feed flow

rate to minimum feed flow rate. The relative of maximum flow rate to minimum flow rate

is known as turn-down ratio. Compared to sieve tray, valve trays provide more flexibility

of higher turn down ratio.

4) Pressure drop

Pressure drop over the tray is an important factor should be considered in order to get

better vapor-liquid contact in large diameter column. Valve tray provide lower pressure

drop compared to bubble cap tray.

overall fluid handling systems reliability. The right choice has to be made to ensure a

highly suitable material is selected in order to increase service life for devices in a plant.

Generally, the selection of materials depends on the reliable predictions regarding the

compatibility between a given chemical and material of construction.

Since acetic acid is used as the process catalyst, the column should be

constructed using an alloy which is resistant to attack by weak sulfuric acid. To provide

adequate corrosion protection to the column, stainless steel seems to be the most

practical and economical choice.

In order to calculate the stages and the condenser and reboiler temperatures, the

dew and bubble points of the feed must be estimated first.

Dew point temperature can be defined as the temperature at which the first bubble

of vapor is formed at a given pressure. The composition of the vapor is at equilibrium with

the liquid solution.

Bubble point temperature can be defined as the temperature at which the first

dew or condensate forms from a vapor mixture. The composition of the dew is at

equilibrium with the vapor mixture. By equation, dew and bubble points can defined as

follows

Where

Where

T = temperature in Kelvin

Component A B C

Butanol 17.2160 3137.02 -94.43

Acetic Acid 16.8080 3405.57 -56.34

Water 18.3036 3816.44 -46.13

Butyl Acetate 16.1836 3151.09 -69.15

PT = 506.5 kPa

= 3799 mm Hg

Table 3: Trial and error for bubble point calculation

xi,f Psat yi Psat yi

Butanol 0.0909 385.6171 0.009227 5415.946 0.129589

Acetate

TOTAL 1.0000 0.097856 1.001375

Notes: The satisfactory Tbubble is obtained using Goal Seek operation in Microsoft Office

Excel

Dew point calculation, top

PT = 301.3 kPa

= 2260 mm Hg

Component At Tbubble = 373 K At Tbubble = 428.2 K

xi,t Psat yi Psat yi

Butanol 0.2276 385.6171 0.038835 2483.073 0.250065

Acetate

TOTAL 1.0000 0.189452 1.002463

Notes: The satisfactory Tbubble is obtained using Goal Seek operation in Microsoft

Office Excel

PT = 405.3 kPa

= 3040 mm Hg

Table 3: Trial and error for bubble point calculation

xi,b Psat yi Psat yi

Butanol 0.0019 385.6171 0.000241 5017.334 0.003136

Acetate

TOTAL 1.0000 0.110227 1.003966

Notes: The satisfactory Tbubble is obtained using Goal Seek operation in Microsoft

Office Excel

PT = total pressure

At feed, stream 8

Table 3.5: Equilibrium constants calculation, feed

Component xi,f yi Ki

Total 1.0000 1.0000

At top, stream 10

Table 3.5: Equilibrium constants calculation, top

Component xi,t yi Ki

Total 1.0000 1.0000

At bottom, stream 11

Table 3.5: Equilibrium constants calculation, bottom

Component xi,b yi Ki

Total 1.0000 1.0000

words, it is the volatility of one component divided by the volatility of the other. The greater

the value of α, the easier will be the desired separation. The relative volatility can be

calculated between any two components in a mixture. Based on K values the relative

volatility can be expressed as belows

Subscripts

LK = light key component

HK = heavy key component

Light component is the component of feed mixture which is desired to be kept out of the

bottom product. Whereas, heavy key component is a component of feed mixture which

is desired to be kept out of the top product. Thus, the selection of key component is as

below:

Heavy key component = Butyl acetate b.p 126.3 °C

At feed, stream 8

Component Ki αLK,HK

At feed, stream 10

Component Ki αLK,HK

At feed, stream 11

Component Ki αLK,HK

The following approximation may be used to calculate the average relative

volatility

Where

Therefore

Feed Top Bottom

Butanol 1.663274 1.50657 1.647889 1.604329944

Butyl Acetate (HK) 1 1 1 1

The minimum reflux ratio can be estimated by using the method of approximation evolved

by Colburn (1941) and the exact procedure of Underwood (1948). The equation can be

express as belows

Where

θ is the root of the following equation

Where

T 90.25 OC

Tbubble 179.45 OC

Specific Heat 211.2 J/mole°C

xi,f Vaporization,J/mole

Acetic Acid 0.2503 16494.39

Water 0.0231 32312.02

Butyl Acetate 0.6357 26070.69

Latent heat of the feed is therefore

= 23634.71

The q value is

211.2(179.45−90.25)+23634.71

q=

23634.71

= 1.798

= 1 – 1.798

= - 0.798

θ value must be between the values of the relative volatility of the light and heavy keys.

By using Goal Seek operation in Microsoft Office Excel the satisfactory value of θ is

obtained as bellow

θ 1.1649

Component xi,f αi xi αi 𝑥𝑖 𝛼𝑖

( )

𝛼𝑖−θ

Acetic Acid 0.2503 1.283235 0.32119372 2.714274902

Water 0.0231 2.606843 0.06021807 0.041761757

Butyl Acetate 0.6357 1 0.6357 -3.855063675

Total 1.0000 -0.795657244

𝑥𝑖𝑑 𝛼𝑖

Table 3.3.3: Calculation of summation ( ) value

𝛼𝑖−θ

Component xi,t αi xi αi 𝑥𝑖𝑑 𝛼𝑖

( )

𝛼𝑖−θ

0.2276

Acetic Acid 1.274279 0.80241349 7.336083584

0.6297

Water 2.477705 0.14519351 0.110597928

0.0586

Butyl Acetate 1 0.0841 -0.510006064

0.0841

7.94026175

Total 1.0000

Therefore,

Rm + 1 = 7.94026175

Rm = 6.94026175

Therefore, by Goal Seek operation in Microsoft Office Excel, the minimum reflux

ratio is determined to be 6.94026.

Where

K = equilibrium constant

β, b = constants

Subscripts

Top Bottom

Molar Flow 38.32 kgmole/h 100.9 kgmole/hr

Component xi Vi Ki xi Wi Ki

Butanol 8.72163 0.19171

0.2276 0.0019

Acetic Acid 24.1301 0.38342

0.6297 0.0038

Water (LK) 0.0586 2.24555 1.806928 0.0001 0.01009 2.6

Butyl Acetate

3.22271 100.315

(HK) 0.0841 0.729275 0.9942 1.0016

The constants β and b are evaluated as follows

1.806928 = β (0.729275) b

2.6 = β (1.0016) b

0.6950 = 0.7281b

b = 1.1466

β = 2.5952

2.5952n+2 = ( )( ) ( )

0.01009 3.22271 38.32

2.5952n+2 = 9934.44

n+2 = 9.65

≈ 10 stages

stages by using Winn’s method.

(Source: Applied Process Design for Chemical and Petrochemical Plants Vol. 2)

The prediction of overall column efficiency can be obtained from the correlation given

by O’Connell below:

αa = average relative volatility of the light key

= 2.5593 (from section 3.2.6)

The molar average liquid viscosity is given by:

Where

VISA, VISB = constant in the liquid velocity equation

T = Tavg

= (T at top + T at bottom) / 2

= (397.65 + 454.85) / 2

= 426.25 K

1-Butanol 984.54 341.12 0.0909 0.265199595 0.024

AceticAcid 600.94 306.21 0.2503 0.280104782 0.070

Water 658.25 283.16 0.0231 0.165815104 0.004

n-B-Acetate 537.58 272.3 0.6357 0.193626654 0.123

(μa)ave = 0.0909(0.2652) + 0.2503(0.2801) + 0.0231(0.1658) + 0.6357(0.1936)

= 0.024 + 0.07 + 0.004 + 0.123

= 0.221

Therefore, the overall column efficiency is

Eo = 51 – 32.5log (0.221 x 2.5593)

= 60 %

3.3.2.10 Plate Design

Molecular Mole Fraction Ideal

Component Weight, Liquid

MW Feed Top Bottom Density,

kg/m3

Butanol 74.12 0.0909 0.2276 0.0019 813.87

Acetic acid 60.05 0.2503 0.6297 0.0038 1051.5

Water 18.02 0.0231 0.0586 0.0001 997.99

Butyl Acetate 116.16 0.6357 0.0841 0.9941 885.84

Relative Molecular Mass of Feed,

= 96.0272 kg/kmole

= 65.5082 kg/kmole

= 115.8455 kg/kmole

Calculation of the Density

At top,

Liquid Density,

ρL =

= 0.2276(813.87) + 0.6297(1051.5) + 0.0586(997.99) + 0.0841 (885.84)

= 980.3477 kg/m3

Vapor Density,

RMM Tstp P

ρV = Vstp

X T X Pstp

= 22.4

X 124.5+273 X 101.325

= 5.98 kg/m3

At bottom,

Liquid Density,

ρL =

= 0.0019(813.87) + 0.0038(1051.5) + 0.0001(997.99) + 0.9941 (885.84)

= 886.2554 kg/m3

Vapor Density,

RMM Tstp P

ρV = Vstp

X T X Pstp

= 22.4

X 181.7+273 X 101.325

= 9.233 kg/m3

Above the feed point

Vapor rate:

Vn = D (R +1)

= 37.3 (6.94+1)

= 296.162 kmole/h

Liquid rate:

Vn = Ln + D

Ln = Vn - D

= 296.162 – 37.3

= 258.862 kmole/h

Liquid rate:

Lm = Ln + F

= 258.862 + 67.8

= 326.662 kmole/h

Vapor rate:

Vm = Lm - W

= 326.662 – 30.51

= 296.152 kmole/h

approximation is based on flooding considerations. The flooding velocity can be

determined using the correlation given by Fair in 1961

Where

Lw = liquid molar flow rate, kmole/h

Vw = vapor molar flow rate, kmole/h

326.662 9.233

= √

296.152 886.2554

= 0.1126

258.862 5.98

= √

296.162 980.3477

= 0.0683

Bottom K1 = 0.097

Top K1 = 0.11

Therefore

886.2554−9.233

Bottom uf = 0.097√

9.233

= 0.9454 m/s

980.3477 −5.98

Top uf = 0.11√

5.98

= 1.4041 m/s

Bottom ûv = 0.9454 × 0.85 = 0.8036 m/s

Top ûv = 1.4041 × 0.85 = 1.1935 m/s

296.152 (115.8455)

=

9.233 x 3600

= 1.0321 m3 / s

296.162(65.5082 )

=

5.98 x 3600

= 0.9012 m3 / s

1.0321

Bottom An = = 1.2843 m2

0.8036

0.9012

Top An = = 0.755 m2

1.1935

As a first trial take the down comer area as 12 per cent of the total

1.2843

Bottom Ad = = 1.4594

0.88

0.755

Top Ad = = 0.858

0.88

4 x 1.4594

Bottom D = √ = 1.36 m

π

4 x 0.858

Top D = √ = 1.045 m

π

Height of a column is given by:

= 0.6 x 10

=6m

Therefore, column is determined to be 6 m in height.

An initial slection of plate type either reverse, single pass or multiple pass can be

determined using Appendix B proposed by Huang and Hodson. The selection will depend

on the the liquid flow rate and column diameter.

( 326.662)(115.8455 )

=

886.2554 𝑥 3600

= 0.012 m3 /s

Based on Appendix B, at liquid flow rate = 0.012 m3/s and Dc = 1.5 m a single

pass (cross flow) plate can be used.

Net area, An = Ac - Ad

= 1.7671 – 0.212

= 1.5551 m2

Active are, Aa = Ac - 2Ad

= 1.7671 – 2(0.212)

= 1.3431 m2

Hole area Ah

= 0.13431 m2

Appendix C shows the relationship between weir length and downcomer area.

The y-axis

Ad 0.212

x 100 = x 100

Ac 1.7671

= 12

lw

= 0.76

Dc

lw

= 0.76

1.5

lw = 1.14 m

of weir height is recommended.

3.3.2.11.3 Hole Diameter

The holes are made by drilling or punching. Punching would be cheaper than drilling,

however the minimum size of hole that can be punched will depend on the plate

thickness. The preferred hole diameter is 5mm. Typical plate thicknesses used for design

are 5 mm for carbon steel and 3 mm for stainless steel.

Take

Hole diameter, dh 5mm

Plate thickness, tp 5mm

The height of weir liquid crest can be determined using the Francis weir formula as

below.

Where

Lw = weir length,

( 326.662)(115.8455 )

Maximum Lw = = 10.5118 kg/s

3600

Therefore

2

10.5188

Maximum how = 750 ( ) 3 = 35.76 mm liquid

886.2554 x 1.14

2

7.3583

Minimum how = 750 ( )3 = 28.18 mm liquid

886.2554 x 1.14

The weep point is considered to be the minimum vapor velocity that will provide a stable

tray operation, preventing liquid from passing through the holes and bypassing the

overflow weir and downcomer. The minimum vapor velocity can be estimated using

correlation given by Eduljee in 1959

ûh = 1

𝑝𝑣 2

Where

dh = hole diameter, mm

At minimum rate

hw + how = 50 + 28.18

= 78.18 mm liquid

From Appendix D

K2 = 30.85

Therefore

30.85−0.9 (28.18−5)

Ûh (min) = 1 = 3.28 m/s

9.2332

𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑚𝑢𝑚 𝑣𝑎𝑝𝑜𝑟 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒

Ûh =

𝐴ℎ

0.7 x 1.031

=

0.13431

= 5.37 m/s

Therefore, the actual minimum vapor velocity is calculated to be 5.37 m/s which is above

the minimum vapor velocity of 3.28 m/s. This indicates that the minimum operating rate

will be well above weep point.

The total pressure drop is taken as the sum of the dry plate drop (hd), the head of clear

liquid on the plate (hw + how), and residual head (hr).

The pressure drop calculated for the flow of vapor through the dry plate can be

calculated as below.

Where

hd = dry plate drop, mm liquid

ûh = velocity through the holes, m/s

C0 = orifice coefficient

1.031

Ûh =

0.13431

= 7.68 m/s

The value of C0 can be obtained from Appendix E

𝐴ℎ 0.1341

𝑋 100 = 𝑋 100 = 10

𝐴𝑎 1.3431

𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑒 𝑡ℎ𝑖𝑐𝑘𝑛𝑒𝑠𝑠 5

= =1

ℎ𝑜𝑙𝑒 𝑑𝑖𝑎𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟 5

Therefore

C0 = 0.84

7.68 2 9.233

hd =51( )

0.84 886.2554

= 44.41 mm liquid

The residual head can be estimated the simple equation proposed by Hunt (1955). The

equation is defined the residual drop as a fixed value of 12.5 mm of water.

12.5 X 103

= = 14.104 mm liquid

886.2554

3.3.2.16 Total Pressure Drop

= 136.694 mm liquid

The downcomer from a tray must be adequate to carry the liquid flow plus entrained foam

and froth. The area of the downcomer and plate spacing must be such that the level of

the liquid and froth in the downcomer is kept below the top of the outlet weir on the plate

above otherwise the column will flood. In terms of clear liquid the downcomer backup can

expressed as below

Where

hb = downcomer back-up, measured from plate surface, mm

hdc = head loss in the downcomer, mm

Where

Lwd = liquid flow rate in downcomer, kg/s

Am = either the downcomer area Ad or the clearance area under the

downcomer Aap, whichever is the smaller, m2

The clearance area is given by

Where

hap = height of the bottom edge of the apron above the plate

= hw – (5 to 10) mm

Take

hap = hw – 10

= 50 – 10

= 40 mm

Aap = 40 x 10-3 x 1.14 = 0.0456 mm2

Since Aap is smaller than Ad the value of Aap = 0.0456 m2 is used to calculate hdc

10.5188

hdc = 166[ ]2

886.2554 x 0.0456

= 11.24 mm

Backup in downcomer

hb = 78.18 + 136.694 + 11.24

= 226.114 mm

= 0.22 m

Check residence time

tr = = 8.1450 s

10.5188

residence time of 8.145 s is sufficient for the entrained vapor to disengage from

the liquid in order to prevent heavily aerated liquid being carried under the

downcomer.

3.3.2.18 Check Entrainment

Actual velocity

1.031

un = = 0.663 m/s

1.5551

0.663

= x 100 = 47%

1.4041

From Appendix F at percent flooding 47% and FLV = 0.0683 the fractional flooding,

Ψ = 0.04 which is well below 0.1. It must be below 0.1 because below this figure the

effect on efficiency will be small.

θc = 99°

81

= (1.5 – 50 x 10-3) 𝜋 x

180

= 2.05 m

Area of unperforated edge strips

= 50 x 10-3 x 2.05

= 0.1025 m2

99

(1.5 – 50 x 10-3) x sin

2

= 1.1026 m

= 2(1.1026 x 50 x 10-3)

= 0.11026 m2

= 1.3431 - 0.11026 - 1.1026

= 0.1302 m2

𝐴ℎ 0.0134

= = 0.103

𝐴𝑝 0.1302

From Appendix G

3.3.3 MECHANICAL DESIGN

3.3.3.1 Introduction

In mechanical design, there are two parameters such as temperature and

pressure which are important properties to evaluate the thickness and the stress of

material. Therefore, the safety factor, corrosion allowance is added as precaution

because to chemical plant process, it may have some unexpected problems with

equipment and environment. The safety factor is usually 15% above the operating

pressure and as for this distillation column; the operating pressure is 405.3 kPa at the

bottom of the column and 301.3 kPa at the top of the column. Furthermore, the operating

temperature is 124.5°C at the top column and 181.7°C at the bottom column. So, for

design distillation column, calculation should be based on:

1) Design pressure

2) Design temperature

3) Material of construction

4) Design stress

5) Wall thickness

6) Welded joint efficiency

7) Analysis of stresses

a. Dead weight load

b. Wind load

c. Pressure stress

d. Bending stress

8) Vessel support

9) Insulation

subjected in operation. For the vessels under internal pressure, the design pressure is

normally taken as the pressure at which the relief device is set. This normally be 5 – 10%

above the normal working pressure, to avoid spurious operation during minor process

upsets.

Operating Pressure = 405.3 kPa

Take as 10 % above the operating pressure

Operating Pressure = 405.3 x 1.1

= 445.83 kPa

= 0.4458 N/mm2

allowable stress will depend on the material temperature. The design temperature at

which the design stress is evaluated should be taken as the maximum working

temperature of the material with due allowance for any uncertainty involved in predicting

the vessel wall temperature.

Take as 10 % above the operating Temperature

Operating Temperature = 181.7 x 1.1

= 199.87 ℃

=473.02 K

Selection of suitable material must be taking into account the suitability of material

for fabrication (particularly welding) as well as the compatibility of the material with the

process environment. Selection of materials for construction is also required based on

the characteristics of chemical properties and mechanical properties. The material of

construction selected for this application is stainless steel 304 and it is the most

commonly used corrosion resistant materials in the chemical industry. The operating

condition is not critical, thus the material has the ability to retain the strength.

In addition, stainless steel 304 is chosen as the material of construction for

several purposes, such as: By referring to the Table 13.2 (Coulson and Richardson).

1 Readily available

2 Low cost

3 Subjected to welding

5 Easily fabricated

6 High strength

For this material, the design stress at 200 ºC is obtained from table below;

Design stress, f =115 N/mm^2

Tensile Strength=510 N/mm^2

Join factor=1

Diameter vessel, Di=1500 mm

Operating Pressure=0.4458 N/mm^2

The minimum thickness of column required and other designs are calculated based on

equation below ;

Pi Di

e=

2Jf − 0.2Pi

where, e = minimum thickness of the plate required

Pi = internal pressure, N/mm2

Di = internal diameter, mm

f = design stress , N/mm2

J = Joint factor

0.4458 x 1500

e=

2 x 1 x 115 − 0.2 x 0.4458

= 2.90 𝑚𝑚

e = 2.90 + 2

= 4.9 mm

= 5 mm

Torispherical head had been chosen because of operating pressure for this below 10

bars and suitable for liquid vapor phase process in inconsistent high pressure. There are

two junctions in a torispherical end closure: that between the cylindrical section and the

head, and the junction of the crown and the knuckle radii. The thickness of torispherical

head can be calculated by using equation below.

𝑃𝑖 𝑅𝑐 𝐶𝑠

𝑒𝑑 =

2𝐽𝑓 + 𝑃𝑖 (𝐶𝑠 − 0.2)

Where

𝑅𝑐 = 𝑐𝑟𝑜𝑤𝑛 𝑟𝑎𝑑𝑖𝑢𝑠 = 𝐷𝑐

𝑅𝑘 = 𝑘𝑛𝑢𝑐𝑘𝑙𝑒 𝑟𝑎𝑑𝑖𝑢𝑠 = 0.06𝑅𝑐

= 0.06 𝑥 1500

= 90 𝑚𝑚

𝐶𝑠 = 𝑆𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑐𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛

1 𝑅𝑐

𝐶𝑠 = (3 + √ )

4 𝑅𝑘

1 1500

𝐶𝑠 = (3 + √ )

4 90

𝐶𝑠 = 1.7706

𝑒𝑑 =

(2 𝑥 1 𝑥 115) + 0.4458(1.7706 − 0.2)

= 5.13 𝑚𝑚

𝑅𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑑 𝑢𝑝 𝑡𝑜 5 𝑚𝑚

Ellipsoidal Head

The minimum thickness of ellipsoidal head can be calculated using the following

equation:

Where

Pi = design pressure, N/mm2

Di = internal diameter, mm

J = welded joint factor

f = design stress, N/mm2

0.4458 𝑥 1500

e=

(2 𝑥 1 𝑥 115)+0.2(0.4458)

= 2.90 mm

So an ellipsoidal head would be probably be the most economical since the

minimum thickness of the head is nearly to that of the wall. Take as same

thickness as wall 4.90 mm.

For tall column the bending moment will vary from the top to the base of the column. The

maximum value of bending stress would be at the base of the column. The most

economical design will be one such that the plate thickness is progessively increased

from the top to the base of the column. The thickness of the wall at the column base

should be much thicker to withstand the wind and dead weight loads.

As a first trial, the column is divided into 5 sections, with the thickness increasing

by 2 mm per segment as follows

5 mm

7 mm

9 mm

11 mm

13 mm

The weight of cylindrical vessel with domed ends, and uniform wall thickness, can be

estimated using the following equation:

Where

= 1.15 for distillation column

Hv = height, or length, between tangent lines (the length of the cylindrical section)

T = wall thickness, mm

Mean Diameter of vessel

Dm = Di + tav

= 1.5 + (9 x 10-3)

= 1.509 m

Wv = 240 x 1.15 x 1.509(13 + 0.8(1.509))0.009

= 53.25 kN

a) Weight of Plate, 𝑾𝑷

From Nelson Guide, page 1022 Chemical Engineering Volume 6; take

contacting plates, 1.2 kN/m2. The total of weight of plate determine by

multiply the value with number of plate design.

Weight of Plate = Ac x Number of Plate x 1.2

= 1.77 𝑥 10 𝑥 1.2

= 21.24 𝑘𝑁

b) Weight of Ladder, 𝑾𝑳

From Nelson Guide, page 1022 Chemical Engineering Volume 6; take

caged ladder where the weight is 360 N/m. The total of weight of ladder

determine by multiply the value with high of column.

= (360 𝑥 6)𝑥10−3

= 2.16 𝑘𝑁

3.3.9 Weight of Insulation

Richardson Chemical engineering volume 6, page 1022,

𝑇ℎ𝑖𝑐𝑘𝑛𝑒𝑠𝑠 = 50 𝑚𝑚 = 0.05 𝑚

𝑉𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑖𝑛𝑠𝑢𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛, 𝑉𝑖 = 𝜋 𝑥 𝐷𝑚 𝑥 ℎ𝑐 𝑥 𝑡ℎ𝑖𝑐𝑘𝑛𝑒𝑠𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑖𝑛𝑠𝑢𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛

= 3.142 𝑥 1.509 𝑥6𝑥 0.05

= 1.4223 𝑚3

𝑊𝑒𝑖𝑔ℎ𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝑖𝑛𝑠𝑢𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛, 𝑊𝑖 = 𝑉𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑖𝑛𝑠𝑢𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑥 𝜌 𝑥 𝑔

= 1.4223 𝑥 130 𝑥 9.81

= 1813.73 𝑁 = 1.8137 𝑘𝑁

The total weight is the summation of dead weight of vessel, weight of accessories

and weight of insulation

𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑤𝑒𝑖𝑔ℎ𝑡 = 𝑊𝑣 + 𝑊𝐴 + 𝑊𝑖

= 53.25 + 21.24 + 2.16 + 1.8137

= 78.4637 𝑘𝑁

A wind loading must be designed to withstand the highest wind speed that is likely

to encounter at the site during the life of the plant. From the British Standard Code

of Practice BS CP 3: 1972 “Basic Data for the Design of Buildings, Chapter V

Loading: Part 2 Winds Load”, (Sinnott, 1999), a wind speed of 160km/h (100mph)

can be used for preliminary design.

For cylindrical column, semi-empirical equation can be used to estimate the wind

pressure:

Pw = 0.05 x uw 2

Where

PW = wind pressure, N/m2

uW = wind speed, km/h

Wind Pressure:

Pw = 0.05 x uw 2

= 0.05 x 1602

= 1280 𝑁/𝑚2

= 𝐷𝑖 + 2(𝑡 + 𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑠 )

= 1500 + 2(9 + 50)

= 1618 𝑚𝑚 = 1.618 𝑚

𝐹𝑤 = 𝑃𝑤 𝐷𝑒𝑓𝑓

= 1280 𝑥 1.618

= 2071.04 𝑁/𝑚

Bending Moment:

𝐹𝑊 𝐻𝑉 2

𝑀𝑥 =

2

2071.04 𝑥 62

=

2

= 37278.72 𝑁𝑚

= 37.278 𝑘𝑁𝑚

3.3.10 Analysis of Stresses for Vessel

𝑃𝑖 𝐷𝑖

𝜎𝐿 =

4𝑡

(0.4458𝑥1500)

=

4𝑥9

= 18.575 𝑁/𝑚𝑚2

𝑃𝑖 𝐷𝑖

𝜎ℎ =

2𝑡

(0.4458𝑥1500)

=

2(9)

= 37.15 𝑁/𝑚𝑚2

c) Dead weight stresses is significant for tall columns. This stress can be

tensile for points below the column support or compressive for points above

the support. Dead weight stresses are given by :

𝑊

𝜎𝑊 =

𝜋(𝐷𝑖 + 𝑡𝑖 )𝑥 𝑡

78463

=

3.142(1500 + 9)9

3.3.10.2 Bending Stress

Bending moments will be caused by the following loading conditions:

a) The wind loads on tall self-supported vessels

b) Seismic (earthquake) loads on tall vessels

c) The dead weight and wind loads on piping and equipment which is attached to

the vessel, but offset from the vessel centre line.

The bending stress will be compressive or tensile, depending on location and are given

by;

𝑀𝑥 𝐷𝑖

𝜎𝑏 = ± ( + 𝑡)

𝐼𝑣 2

Where

𝑀𝑥 = 𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑏𝑒𝑛𝑑𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑚𝑜𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡

𝐷𝑜 = 𝑂𝑢𝑡𝑠𝑖𝑑𝑒 𝑑𝑖𝑎𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟

= 𝐷𝑖 + 2𝑡

= 1500 + 2(12)

= 1524 𝑚𝑚

𝜋

= (𝐷 4 − 𝐷𝑖 4 )

64 𝑜

𝜋

= (15244 − 15004 )

64

= 1.63 𝑥 1010 𝑚𝑚4

Hence,

37278.72 𝑥103 1500

𝜎𝑏 = ± ( + 9)

1.63 𝑥1010 2

= 1.74 𝑁/𝑚𝑚

3.3.10.3 The Resultant Longitudinal Stress

The resultant of longitudal stress is the summation of longitudinal stresses, Dead weight

stresses and bending stress.

𝜎𝑧 = 𝜎𝐿 + 𝜎𝑤 + 𝜎𝑏

For upwind,

𝜎𝑧 = 18.575 − 1.84 + 1.74

= 18.475 𝑁/𝑚𝑚2

For downwind,

𝜎𝑧 = 18.575 − 1.84 − 1.74

= 14.995 𝑁/𝑚𝑚2

18.475 14.995

37.15 37.15

Upwind Down-wind

𝜎𝑑 = 𝜎ℎ − 𝜎𝑧 (𝑑𝑜𝑤𝑛𝑤𝑎𝑟𝑑)

= 37.15 − (−14.995)

= 52.145 𝑁/𝑚𝑚2

The value obtained is well below the maximum allowable design, 150 N/mm2.

3.3.10.4 The Resultant Bulking Stress

Local bulking will normally occur at stress than that required buckling the complete. A

column design must be checked to ensure that the maximum value of the resultant axial

stress does not exceed the critical value at which buckling will occur.

𝑡

𝐶𝑟𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 𝑏𝑢𝑙𝑘𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠, 𝜎𝑐 = 2𝑥104 ( )

𝐷0

9

= 2𝑥104 ( )

1500

= 120 𝑁/𝑚𝑚2

The maximum compressive stress will occur when the vessel is not under pressure

𝜎𝑤 + 𝜎𝑏 = 1.84 + 1.74

= 3.58 𝑁/𝑚𝑚2

Since the result is below the critical buckling stress of 120 N/mm2, the design is

satisfactory.

The method used to support a vessel will depend on the size, shape and weight

of the vessel; the design temperature and pressure; the vessel location and arrangement;

and the internal and external fittings and attachment. Since the reactor is a vertical

vessel, skirt support is used in this design.

A skirt support consists of a cylindrical or conical shell welded to the base of the

vessel. A flange at the bottom of the skirt transmits the load to the foundations. The skirt

may be welded to the bottom, level of the vessel.

Skirt supports are recommended for vertical vessels as they do not imposed

concentrated loads on the vessel shells; they are particularly suitable for use with tall

columns subject to wind loading.

Type of support = straight cylindrical skirt

θs = 90o

Material of construction = plain carbon steal

Design stress, fs = 115 N/mm2

Young modules = 200,000 N/mm2

Skirt height hs =3m

Skirt thickness ts = 9 mm

Joint factor =0.85

= 92393.73 𝑁

= 92.39 𝑘𝑁

= 170.85 𝑘𝑁

= 83.8755 𝑘𝑁𝑚

2. Bending stress of skirt, σbs

4𝑀𝑠

𝐵𝑒𝑛𝑑𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑠𝑘𝑖𝑟𝑡, 𝜎𝑏𝑠 =

𝜋(𝐷𝑠 + 𝑡𝑠 )𝑥𝐷𝑠 𝑡𝑠

4 𝑥 83.8755 𝑥 103

=

𝜋(1500 + 9)𝑥(1500 𝑥 9)

= 52.42 𝑁/𝑚𝑚2

𝑊𝑎𝑝𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑥𝑖𝑚𝑎𝑡𝑒

𝜎𝑤𝑠 𝑡𝑒𝑠𝑡 =

𝜋𝑡𝑠 (𝐷𝑠 + 𝑡𝑠 )

92393.73

=

3.142 𝑥 9(1500 + 9)

= 2.1655 𝑁/𝑚𝑚2

𝑊

𝜎𝑤𝑠 𝑜𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑔 =

𝜋𝑡𝑠 (𝐷𝑠 + 𝑡𝑠 )

78463.7

=

3.142 𝑥 9(1500 + 9)

= 1.84 𝑁/𝑚𝑚2

= 52.42 + 2.1655

= 54.5855 𝑁/𝑚𝑚2

= 52.42 − 1.84

= 50.58 𝑁/𝑚𝑚2

Where θs = 90oC

𝜎𝑠 (𝑡𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑙𝑒) < 𝑓𝑠 𝐽𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃𝑠

𝑁

54.5855 < 115 𝑥 0.85 𝑥 sin 900

𝑚𝑚2

𝑡𝑠

𝜎𝑠 (𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑣𝑒) < 0.125𝐸( )𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃𝑠

𝐷𝑠

𝑁 9

50.58 < 0.125𝑥 20000 𝑥 ( ) 𝑥 sin 900

𝑚𝑚2 1500

𝑁

50.58 < 15𝑁/𝑚𝑚2

𝑚𝑚2

Both criteria are satisfied, add 2 mm for corrosion; gives a design

thickness, ts of 11 mm.

The loads carried by the skirt are transmitted to the foundation slab by the skirt

base ring (bearing plate). The moment produced by wind and other lateral loads

will tend to overturn the vessel. Since the dc can be considered as the small

vessel, the simplest types, rolled angle ring are used. The preliminary design of

base ring is done by using Scheiman’s short cut method. Scheiman gives the

following guide rules which can be used for the selection of the anchor bolts. Refer

to J.M Coulson, J.F Richardson, Chemical Engineering Volume 6, Third Edition,

page 848.

1. Bolts smaller than 25 mm diameter should not be used

2. Minimum number of bolts = 8

3. Use multiples of 4 bolts

4. Bolts pitch should not be less than 600 mm

Circumference of bolt circle = 2200π

Closest multiple of 4, Nb = 12 bolts

Bolt design stress, fb =125 N/mm2 (Scheiman, 1963)

= 2200𝜋/600

= 11.52

1 4𝑀𝑠

𝐵𝑜𝑙𝑡 𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑎, 𝐴𝑏 = 𝑥( − 𝑊)

𝑁𝑏 𝑓𝑏 𝐷𝑏

1 4 𝑥 83875

= 𝑥( − 78463.7)

12 𝑥 125 2.2

= 49.35 𝑚𝑚2

𝐴𝑏 𝑥4

𝐵𝑜𝑙𝑡 𝑟𝑜𝑜𝑡 𝑑𝑖𝑎𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟 = √

3.142

49.35 𝑥 4

=√

3.142

= 7.93 𝑚𝑚2

4𝑀𝑠 𝑊

𝐹𝑏 = ( 2) + ( )

3.142 𝑥𝐷𝑠 3.142 𝑥 𝐷𝑠

4 𝑥 83875 278463.7

=( 2

)+( )

3.142 𝑥 1.5 3.142 𝑥 1.5

= 106.541 𝑘𝑁/𝑚

Taking the bearing pressure fc as 5 N/mm2, minimum width of the base ring is

given by:

𝐹𝑏

𝐿𝑏 =

𝑓𝑐

106541

=

5 𝑥 1000

= 21.3 𝑚𝑚

This is the minimum width required; actual width will depend on the chair design.

= 13 + 11 + 50

= 74 𝑚𝑚

𝐹𝑏

𝑓𝑐 ′ =

𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑙 𝑤𝑖𝑑𝑡ℎ

106541

=

74 𝑥 1000

= 1.439 𝑁/𝑚𝑚2

3𝑓𝑐 ′

𝑡𝑏 = 𝐿𝑟 √

𝑓𝑟

where,

F’c = actual bearing pressure on base, N/mm2

fr = allowable design stress in the ring material, typically 140 N/mm2

3𝑥0.6536

𝑡𝑏 = 102√

140

= 2.28 𝑚𝑚

Therefore, the minimum bolt thickness is 2mm and anchor bolt design is M24 (BS

4190:1976)

An approximate estimate of the economic pipe diameter for normal pipe runs can

determined using the following equation:

ρ = density, kg/m3

3

Density, kg/m 817.1 3.891 694.8

Mass flow, kg/h 13300 1636 11770

𝑘𝑔 1 ℎ𝑟

𝐺 = (13300 )( )

ℎ𝑟 3600 𝑠

𝐺 = 3.69 𝑘𝑔/𝑠

= 260𝑥3.690.52 𝑥817.1−0.37

= 42.88 𝑚𝑚

𝑘𝑔 1 ℎ𝑟

𝐺 = (1636 )( )

ℎ𝑟 3600 𝑠

𝐺 = 0.454 𝑘𝑔/𝑠

= 260𝑥0.4540.52 𝑥3.981−0.37

= 103.429 𝑚𝑚

𝑘𝑔 1 ℎ𝑟

𝐺 = (11770 )( )

ℎ𝑟 3600 𝑠

𝐺 = 3.27 𝑘𝑔/𝑠

= 260𝑥3.270.52 𝑥694.8−0.37

= 42.76 𝑚𝑚

Standard flanges use for pipes, nozzles and other attachments to pressure vessel

are available in a range of sizes, materials and types. Figure 3.1 shows the typical

example of standard flange design. Usually flanged joint are used for connecting pipes

and instruments to vessels, formanhole covers and for removable vessel heads when

ease of access is required. It can also be used on the vessel body for transport or

maintenance purposes. Standard flanges are available in range of types, sizes and

materials and are used extensively for pipes, nozzles and other attachment to pressure

vessels. Two manholes’s measuring 500mm in diameter re added to the vessel.

For the esterification column, steel welding neck flanges are be use where it have

a long tapered lub between the flange ring and the welded joint. This gradual transition

of the section reduces discontinuity stresses between flange and branch, and increases

the strength of the flange assembly. Welding neck flanges are suitable for extreme

service conditions, where the flange is likely to be subjected to temperature, shear and

vibration loads.

Flanges used in this design are chosen from the standard flanges. Here standard

flanges are adapted from the British standard (BS 4504), nominal pressure 6 bar. All

tables below show standard value for flange where o.d is outside diameter for pipe and

all value in unit millimeter, mm.

ulate m o.d face ng

d size

pipe

diam D b h d4 f No. d2 k d3

eter

Feed 45 50 60.3 140 14 28 90 3 M12 4 14 110 80

Top 105 100 114.3 210 16 40 148 3 M16 4 18 170 130

Bottom 45 50 60.3 140 14 28 90 3 M12 4 14 110 80

3.3.16 Technical Drawing

3.3.17 CONCLUSION

Distillation Column (T-100) design is generally divided into two sections which are

chemical design and mechanical design. Generally, T-100 is a 20 stages tray column

with valve trays as plate contactor and employs stainless steel as a material of

construction. T-100 is determined to be 3.8 in diameter and 12 m in height. Others

calculated design values can be summarized into Table 3.24. The T-100 data sheet is

provided in Appendix J

Parameters Value Unit

CHEMICAL DESIGN

Column Diameter 1.5 m

Column Height 6 m

Number of Stages 10 -

Column Efficiency 60 %

Column Area 1.767 m2

Downcomer Area 0.212 m2

Net area 1.551 m2

Hole Area 0.13431 m2

Weir Length 1.14 m2

Weir Height 50 mm

Hole Diameter 5 mm

Plate Thickness 5 mm

Trays Spacing 0.6 m

Total Pressure Drop 136.694 mm liquid

MECHANICAL DESIGN

Design Pressure 445.83 kPa

O

Design Temperature 199.87 C

Materials of Construction Stainless Steel 304 -

Insulation Mineral wool

Design Stress 115 N/mm2

Corrosion Allowance 2 mm

Wall Thickness 5 mm

Ellipsoidal Head Thickness 5 mm

Vessel Weight 52250 N

Plates Weight 21240 N

Weight of Insulation 1813.7 N

Total Weight 78463.7 N

Wind Loading 2071 N/m

Bolt Area 49.35 mm2

Bolt Thickness 2.28 mm

REFERENCES

Barber M.J., Handbook of Hose, Pipes, Couplings and Fittings, First Edition, The

Trade & Technical Press Limited, 1985.

Billet, R., Distillation Engineering, Heydon Publishing, 1979.

Branan C.R., Rules of Thumb for Chemical Engineers, Gulf Publishing Company,

1994.

Coulson J.M., Richardson J.F. , Chemical Engineering, Volume Two, Third Edition, The

Pergamon Press, 1977.

Douglas J.M., Conceptual Design of Chemical Processes, McGraw-Hill Book

Company, 1988.

King, C. J., Separation Processes, Second Edition, McGraw-Hill, 1992. Kister, H. Z.,

Distillation Design, McGraw-Hill, 1992.

Lamit L.G, Piping Systems: Drafting and Design, Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1981. Lockett, M.

J., Distillation Tray Fundamentals, Cambridge University Press, 1986.

Ludwig E.E., Applied Process Design for chemical and petrochemical plant, Volume

2, Gulf Publishing Company, 1997.

Martyn S.R. and David, W.J., Chemical Engineering, Design Project: A Case Study

Approach, Gordon and Breach Science Publishers, 1989.

Normans, W. S., Absorption, Distillation and Cooling Towers, Longmans, 1961.

Oliver, E. D., Diffusional Separation Procesess, John-Wiley, 1966.

Perry R.H., Green D.W, Perry’s Chemical Engineer’s Handbook, Seventh Edition,

McGraw-Hill, 1998.

Robinson, C.S., and Gilliland, E.R., Elements of Fractional Distillation, McGraw- Hill,

1950.

Sinnot R.K, Coulson & Richardson’s Chemical Engineering, Chemical Engineering

Design, Volume Six, Butterworth Heinemann, 1999.

Smith, R., Chemical Process Design, McGraw-Hill, 1995.

Walas S.M., Chemical Process Equipment, selection and design, Butterworth –

Heinemann series in Chemical Engineering 1988

Van Winkle, M., Distillation, McGraw-Hill, 1967

APPENDIX A

APPENDIX B

APPENDIX C

APPENDIX D

APPENDIX E

APPENDIX F

APPENDIX G

Relation between Angle Subtended by Chord, Chord Height and Chord Length

APPENDIX H

APPENDIX I

APPENDIX J

Distillation Column (T-100) Data Sheet

Tag.

T-101

No

Column tray data sheet Sheet

1 of 1

No

To separate

Func component

Operating Data

Top Bottom Or top and bottom

TOWER INSIDE DIAMETER (mm) 1500

TRAY SPACE (mm)

TOTAL TRAYS IN SECTION 10

Internal condition at tray number

VAPOR TO TRAY

RATE (kg/hr)

DENSITY (kg/m3)

PRESSURE (kPa) 157.5

TEMPERATURE (°C) 129.7

LIQUID FORM TRAY

RATE (kg/hr) 523172.4051

DENSITY (kg/m3) 771.8

VISCOSITY (cP) 0.4635

Technical/Mechanical data

WEIR LENGTH (m)

HOLE SIZE (mm) 5

PLATE SPACING (m) 0.6

DOWNCOMER BOLT BAR THICKNESS

(mm) 2

Column Dimension Specifications

MATERIAL Stainless Steel

THICKNESS (mm) 4.122

CYLINDER HEIGHT (m) 12

TRAYS NUMBER FROM TOP TO BOTTOM 20

HEAD AND CLOSURE TYPE Ellipsoidal

INSULATION MATERIAL Mineral Wool

Checked ABDUL AZIZ ISHAK

Date Eng. Process By Appr. Date

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