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3.

3 DISTILLATION COLUMN (T-100)

3.3.1 INTRODUCTION

Distillation column is commonly used in industries to separate liquid or vapor


mixture of two or more substance into its component fractions of desired purity by the
application and removal of heat. The separation using distillation column depends on the
differences in boiling points of the individual components presents however, the liquid
mixture have different boiling point characteristics and thus the distillation processes of
the mixtures depends on its vapor pressure characteristics.

The vapor pressure is closely related to the boiling point where the liquid is boiling
when the vapor pressure is equal to the atmospheric pressure. Therefore, the liquid that
has high vapor pressure will boil at lower temperature. The vapor pressure can be
increased by applying energy and it also depends on the amount of the components in
the mixtures.

The distillation column consists of several components that have its own functions
such as to transfer heat energy or to enhance the material transfer. The common
distillation column consists of vertical shell where the separation was carried out, column
internals such as trays or packing that used to enhance component separations, reboiler
to provide necessary vaporization for the process and condenser to cool and condense
the vapor leaving the top of the column.

A distillation column design is normally divided into two main steps, a chemical
process design followed by a mechanical design. The purpose of chemical process
design is to determine the number of required theoretical stages, column diameter and
tower height. On the other hand, equipment mechanical design focuses on the tower
internals and heat exchanger arrangement. The summarized steps of designing a
distillation column can be explained as follow:

1. Specify the degree of separation required: set product specifications.

2. Select the operating conditions: batch or continuous; operating pressure.

3. Select the type of contacting device: plates or packing.

4. Determine the stage and reflux requirements: the number of equilibrium stages.

5. Size the column: diameter, number of real stages.

6. Design the column internals: plates, distributors, packing supports.

7. Mechanical design: vessel and internal fittings.


3.3.1.2 T-100 Process Description

Generally, the purpose of T-100 is to separate the water of reaction from the reaction
mixture present in the esterification reactor R-100. The water is boiled and vaporized
through the column and as a result the water discharged from T-100 at the top as a vapor
together with other light components. The bottom outlet of T-100 contains no water.
Figure 3.0 and Table 3.0 shows the configuration and specification of T-100 respectively.

Figure 1: Configuration of distillation column T-100

Table 3.3.1: Specification of distillation column T-100

Name Unit Feed Top Bottom


(S8) (S10) (S11)
Vapor Fraction 0 1 0
O
Temperature C 90.25 124.5 181.7
Pressure kPa 506.6 301.3 405.3
Molar Flow kgmole/h 67.80 37.30 30.51
Mass Flow kg/h 5823 2293 3529
Comp Mass Frac (Butanol) 0.0909 0.2276 0.0019
Comp Mass Frac (Acetic
Acid) 0.2503 0.6297 0.0038
Comp Mass Frac (Water) 0.0231 0.0586 0.0001
Comp Mass Frac (Butyl
Acetate) 0.6357 0.0841 0.9941

3.3.2 CHEMICAL DESIGN

3.3.2.1 Selection of Contacting Device

Distillation column is equipped with contacting device to provide better mass and heat
transfer between liquid and vapor phases by promote an intimate contact between both
phases through the column. The type of contacting device chosen would determine the
diameter and height of a column for a specified function since different designs would
have various capacities and efficiencies. The two types of contacting device available are
tray and packing.

Trays column is selected for this particular system because of the following reasons:

1) T-100 operates at relatively high pressure and high temperature which is 506.5
kPa and 90.25 °C respectively. The pressure is not under vacuum, thus trays column
seems to be more suitable.

2) Packed column is a better choice than tray tower if the liquid having high foaming
tendency. However, T-100 is working with non-foaming system, therefore, tray tower is
preferred.

3) The diameter calculated is relatively large. With large column diameter, tray
column is preferred. Packed column is not suitable for large diameter because the liquid
distribution would be difficult. In addition, tray column are less expensive than packed
column for large column diameter.

4) Cross-flow in in the tray column are preferred to get better vapor-liquid contacting
efficiency compared to counter current flow in packed column.

5) Handling of high liquid flow rate in tray column is often more economic.
3.3.2.2 Selection of Plate Contactor

Different types of trays available for used in tray column are sieve tray, valve tray
and buble cap tray. Valve tray is selected for this particular system based on the following
factor that should be considered for the selection of tray type are:

1) Cost

Bubble cap tray is the most expensive type of tray. The cost is double the cost of valve
tray with mild steel as material. Valve tray is more economic compared to bubble cap
tray. Even though, sieve tray is cheaper, valve tray is much suitable for the system in
several ways.

2) Capacity

The capacity is less when the column diameter is large for a given flow rates. Column
diameter required is larger when bubble cap trays is used, while, with valve tray smaller
column diameter can be achieved.

3) Operating range

This factor is regarding the range of vapor and liquid flow rates over which tray perform
satisfactorily. Distillation column are working in the range of some maximum feed flow
rate to minimum feed flow rate. The relative of maximum flow rate to minimum flow rate
is known as turn-down ratio. Compared to sieve tray, valve trays provide more flexibility
of higher turn down ratio.

4) Pressure drop

Pressure drop over the tray is an important factor should be considered in order to get
better vapor-liquid contact in large diameter column. Valve tray provide lower pressure
drop compared to bubble cap tray.

3.3.2.3 Selection of Material of Construction

Proper selection of materials of construction is an important aspect to ensure


overall fluid handling systems reliability. The right choice has to be made to ensure a
highly suitable material is selected in order to increase service life for devices in a plant.
Generally, the selection of materials depends on the reliable predictions regarding the
compatibility between a given chemical and material of construction.
Since acetic acid is used as the process catalyst, the column should be
constructed using an alloy which is resistant to attack by weak sulfuric acid. To provide
adequate corrosion protection to the column, stainless steel seems to be the most
practical and economical choice.

3.3.2.4 Dew and Bubble Points

In order to calculate the stages and the condenser and reboiler temperatures, the
dew and bubble points of the feed must be estimated first.

Dew point temperature can be defined as the temperature at which the first bubble
of vapor is formed at a given pressure. The composition of the vapor is at equilibrium with
the liquid solution.

Bubble point temperature can be defined as the temperature at which the first
dew or condensate forms from a vapor mixture. The composition of the dew is at
equilibrium with the vapor mixture. By equation, dew and bubble points can defined as
follows

Where

xi = concentration of component i in liquid phase

yi = concentration of component i in vapor phase

Ki = equilibrium constant of component i

The saturated of component can be solved using Antoine’s equation as belows


Where

Psat = saturated pressure of in mmHg

T = temperature in Kelvin

A, B and C = Antoine’s coefficient

Table 3.433: Antoine’s coefficient


Component A B C
Butanol 17.2160 3137.02 -94.43
Acetic Acid 16.8080 3405.57 -56.34
Water 18.3036 3816.44 -46.13
Butyl Acetate 16.1836 3151.09 -69.15

Bubble point calculation, feed

 T bubble (guess) = 373 K

 PT = 506.5 kPa
= 3799 mm Hg
Table 3: Trial and error for bubble point calculation

Component At Tbubble = 373 K At Tbubble = 458.4 K


xi,f Psat yi Psat yi
Butanol 0.0909 385.6171 0.009227 5415.946 0.129589

Acetic Acid 0.2503 425.5328 0.028037 4178.456 0.275301

Water 0.0231 755.884 0.004596 8488.458 0.051614

Butyl 0.6357 334.64 0.055996 3256.194 0.54487


Acetate
TOTAL 1.0000 0.097856 1.001375

Notes: The satisfactory Tbubble is obtained using Goal Seek operation in Microsoft Office
Excel

Therefore, bubble point temperature at feed is 458.4 K


Dew point calculation, top

 T bubble (guess) = 373 K

 PT = 301.3 kPa
= 2260 mm Hg

Table 3: Trial and error for bubble point calculation


Component At Tbubble = 373 K At Tbubble = 428.2 K
xi,t Psat yi Psat yi
Butanol 0.2276 385.6171 0.038835 2483.073 0.250065

Acetic Acid 0.6297 425.5328 0.118565 2100.216 0.58518

Water 0.0586 755.884 0.019599 4083.664 0.105886

Butyl 0.0841 334.64 0.012453 1648.157 0.061332


Acetate
TOTAL 1.0000 0.189452 1.002463

Notes: The satisfactory Tbubble is obtained using Goal Seek operation in Microsoft
Office Excel

Therefore, bubble point temperature at top is 428.2K

Bubble point calculation, Bottom

 T bubble (guess) = 373 K

 PT = 405.3 kPa
= 3040 mm Hg
Table 3: Trial and error for bubble point calculation

Component At Tbubble = 373 K At Tbubble = 455.2 K


xi,b Psat yi Psat yi
Butanol 0.0019 385.6171 0.000241 5017.334 0.003136

Acetic Acid 0.0038 425.5328 0.000532 3903.938 0.00488

Water 0.0001 755.884 2.49E-5 7895.495 0.00026

Butyl 0.9941 334.64 0.109429 3044.865 0.995791


Acetate
TOTAL 1.0000 0.110227 1.003966
Notes: The satisfactory Tbubble is obtained using Goal Seek operation in Microsoft
Office Excel

Therefore, bubble point temperature at feed is 455.2K

3.3.2.5 Equilibrium Constants

The equilibrium constant can be calculated as follows

Where Psat,i = saturated pressure of component i

PT = total pressure

At feed, stream 8
Table 3.5: Equilibrium constants calculation, feed

Component xi,f yi Ki

Butanol 0.0909 0.129589 1.425622

Acetic Acid 0.2503 0.275301 1.099884

Water 0.0231 0.051614 2.234372

Butyl Acetate 0.6357 0.54487 0.857118


Total 1.0000 1.0000

At top, stream 10
Table 3.5: Equilibrium constants calculation, top

Component xi,t yi Ki

Butanol 0.2276 0.250065 1.098704

Acetic Acid 0.6297 0.58518 0.9293

Water 0.0586 0.105886 1.806928

Butyl Acetate 0.0841 0.061332 0.729275


Total 1.0000 1.0000
At bottom, stream 11
Table 3.5: Equilibrium constants calculation, bottom

Component xi,b yi Ki

Butanol 0.0019 0.003136 1.650526

Acetic Acid 0.0038 0.00488 1.284211

Water 0.0001 0.00026 2.6

Butyl Acetate 0.9941 0.995791 1.0017


Total 1.0000 1.0000

3.3.2.6 Relative Volatilities

Relative volatility,α is the volatility separation factor in vapor-liquid system. In other


words, it is the volatility of one component divided by the volatility of the other. The greater
the value of α, the easier will be the desired separation. The relative volatility can be
calculated between any two components in a mixture. Based on K values the relative
volatility can be expressed as belows

Subscripts
LK = light key component
HK = heavy key component

Light component is the component of feed mixture which is desired to be kept out of the
bottom product. Whereas, heavy key component is a component of feed mixture which
is desired to be kept out of the top product. Thus, the selection of key component is as
below:

Light key component = Water b.p 100 °C


Heavy key component = Butyl acetate b.p 126.3 °C
At feed, stream 8

Table 3.8: Relative volatility calculation, feed

Component Ki αLK,HK

Butanol 1.425622 1.663274

Acetic Acid 1.099884 1.283235

Water (LK) 2.234372 2.606843

Butyl Acetate (HK) 0.857118 1

At feed, stream 10

Table 3.8: Relative volatility calculation, top

Component Ki αLK,HK

Butanol 1.098704 1.50657

Acetic Acid 0.9293 1.274279

Water (LK) 1.806928 2.477705

Butyl Acetate (HK) 0.729275 1

At feed, stream 11

Table 3.8: Relative volatility calculation, bottom

Component Ki αLK,HK

Butanol 1.650526 1.647889

Acetic Acid 1.284211 1.28216

Water (LK) 2.6 2.5958

Butyl Acetate (HK) 1.0016 1


The following approximation may be used to calculate the average relative
volatility

Where

αf = relative volatility of light key to heavy key at feed of column

αt = relative volatility of light key to heavy key at top of column

αb = relative volatility of light key to heavy key at bottom of column

Therefore

Table 3.11: Average relative volatility calculation

Component αLK,HK αavg


Feed Top Bottom
Butanol 1.663274 1.50657 1.647889 1.604329944

Acetic Acid 1.283235 1.274279 1.28216 1.279885097

Water (LK) 2.606843 2.477705 2.5958 2.5593


Butyl Acetate (HK) 1 1 1 1

3.3.2.7 Minimum Reflux Ratio

The minimum reflux ratio can be estimated by using the method of approximation evolved
by Colburn (1941) and the exact procedure of Underwood (1948). The equation can be
express as belows

Where

αi = relative volatility of component i with respect to some reference

Rm = minimum reflux ratio

xi,d = concentration of component i in the tops at minimum reflux


θ is the root of the following equation

Where xi,f = concentration of component i in the feed

q = depends on the condition of the feed

The value of q is given by

Where

Hv,feed = Latent heat of the feed, J/mole

Cp,feed = Specific heat of the feed, J/mole°C

Table 3.3.2: For q value calculation at feed condition


T 90.25 OC
Tbubble 179.45 OC
Specific Heat 211.2 J/mole°C

Component Latent Heat of


xi,f Vaporization,J/mole

Butanol 0.0909 24055.17


Acetic Acid 0.2503 16494.39
Water 0.0231 32312.02
Butyl Acetate 0.6357 26070.69
Latent heat of the feed is therefore

Hv = 24055.17(0.0909)+ 16494.39(0.2503)+ 32312.02(0.0231)+ 26070.69(0.6357


= 23634.71

The q value is

211.2(179.45−90.25)+23634.71
q=
23634.71

= 1.798

Apply the value of q into the equation bellows

= 1 – 1.798
= - 0.798

θ value must be between the values of the relative volatility of the light and heavy keys.
By using Goal Seek operation in Microsoft Office Excel the satisfactory value of θ is
obtained as bellow

θ 1.1649
Component xi,f αi xi αi 𝑥𝑖 𝛼𝑖
( )
𝛼𝑖−θ

Butanol 0.0909 1.663274 0.15119161 0.303369772


Acetic Acid 0.2503 1.283235 0.32119372 2.714274902
Water 0.0231 2.606843 0.06021807 0.041761757
Butyl Acetate 0.6357 1 0.6357 -3.855063675
Total 1.0000 -0.795657244

The value of θ is then substitute in to the equation as bellows

𝑥𝑖𝑑 𝛼𝑖
Table 3.3.3: Calculation of summation ( ) value
𝛼𝑖−θ
Component xi,t αi xi αi 𝑥𝑖𝑑 𝛼𝑖
( )
𝛼𝑖−θ

Butanol 1.50657 0.34289533 1.003586303


0.2276
Acetic Acid 1.274279 0.80241349 7.336083584
0.6297
Water 2.477705 0.14519351 0.110597928
0.0586
Butyl Acetate 1 0.0841 -0.510006064
0.0841
7.94026175
Total 1.0000

Therefore,
Rm + 1 = 7.94026175
Rm = 6.94026175

Therefore, by Goal Seek operation in Microsoft Office Excel, the minimum reflux
ratio is determined to be 6.94026.

3.3.2.8 Minimum number of stages by Winn’s method

For vapor overhead product


Where

VD = moles of a component at distillate

W = moles of a component at bottom product

W’ = moles of heavy key component at bottom product

VD’ = moles of heavy key component at distillate

B = total moles of bottoms

D = total moles of distillate

K = equilibrium constant

β, b = constants

Subscripts

LK = light key component

HK = heavy key component

Table 3.3.4: Data of the column for using Winn’s method

Top Bottom
Molar Flow 38.32 kgmole/h 100.9 kgmole/hr
Component xi Vi Ki xi Wi Ki
Butanol 8.72163 0.19171
0.2276 0.0019
Acetic Acid 24.1301 0.38342
0.6297 0.0038
Water (LK) 0.0586 2.24555 1.806928 0.0001 0.01009 2.6
Butyl Acetate
3.22271 100.315
(HK) 0.0841 0.729275 0.9942 1.0016
The constants β and b are evaluated as follows

1.806928 = β (0.729275) b

2.6 = β (1.0016) b

Divide to solve for value of b. Then

0.6950 = 0.7281b

b = 1.1466

β = 2.5952

The minimum number of theoretical stages is calculated as follows

2.24555 100.315 1.1466 100.9 1−1.1466


2.5952n+2 = ( )( ) ( )
0.01009 3.22271 38.32

2.5952n+2 = 9934.44

n+2 = 9.65

≈ 10 stages

Therefore, the minimum number of theoretical stages is determined to be 10


stages by using Winn’s method.

(Source: Applied Process Design for Chemical and Petrochemical Plants Vol. 2)

3.3.2.9 Column Efficiency


The prediction of overall column efficiency can be obtained from the correlation given
by O’Connell below:

Where μa = the molar average liquid viscosity, mNs/m2


αa = average relative volatility of the light key
= 2.5593 (from section 3.2.6)
The molar average liquid viscosity is given by:

Where
VISA, VISB = constant in the liquid velocity equation

T = Tavg
= (T at top + T at bottom) / 2
= (397.65 + 454.85) / 2
= 426.25 K

The calculated μa for each component is shown in table below

Component VISA VISB xf μa


1-Butanol 984.54 341.12 0.0909 0.265199595 0.024
AceticAcid 600.94 306.21 0.2503 0.280104782 0.070
Water 658.25 283.16 0.0231 0.165815104 0.004
n-B-Acetate 537.58 272.3 0.6357 0.193626654 0.123

Thus the average μa can be calculated as below


(μa)ave = 0.0909(0.2652) + 0.2503(0.2801) + 0.0231(0.1658) + 0.6357(0.1936)
= 0.024 + 0.07 + 0.004 + 0.123
= 0.221
Therefore, the overall column efficiency is
Eo = 51 – 32.5log (0.221 x 2.5593)
= 60 %

Therefore, the overall column effieciency obtained is 60%.


3.3.2.10 Plate Design

3.3.2.10.1 Physical Properties

Table 3.17: Properties of the inlet and outlet streams


Molecular Mole Fraction Ideal
Component Weight, Liquid
MW Feed Top Bottom Density,
kg/m3
Butanol 74.12 0.0909 0.2276 0.0019 813.87
Acetic acid 60.05 0.2503 0.6297 0.0038 1051.5
Water 18.02 0.0231 0.0586 0.0001 997.99
Butyl Acetate 116.16 0.6357 0.0841 0.9941 885.84

Calculation of the Relative Molecular Mass, RMM


Relative Molecular Mass of Feed,

= 0.0909(74.12) + 0.2503(60.05) + 0.0231(18.02) + 0.6357(116.16)


= 96.0272 kg/kmole

Relative Molecular Mass of top,

= 0.2276(74.12) + 0.6297(60.05) + 0.0586(18.02) + 0.0841(116.16)


= 65.5082 kg/kmole

Relative Molecular Mass of bottom,

= 0.0019(74.12) + 0.0038(60.05) + 0.0001(18.02) + 0.9941(116.16)


= 115.8455 kg/kmole
Calculation of the Density

At top,
Liquid Density,

ρL =
= 0.2276(813.87) + 0.6297(1051.5) + 0.0586(997.99) + 0.0841 (885.84)
= 980.3477 kg/m3

Vapor Density,
RMM Tstp P
ρV = Vstp
X T X Pstp

65.5082 273 301.3


= 22.4
X 124.5+273 X 101.325

= 5.98 kg/m3

At bottom,
Liquid Density,

ρL =
= 0.0019(813.87) + 0.0038(1051.5) + 0.0001(997.99) + 0.9941 (885.84)
= 886.2554 kg/m3

Vapor Density,
RMM Tstp P
ρV = Vstp
X T X Pstp

115.8455 273 301.3


= 22.4
X 181.7+273 X 101.325

= 9.233 kg/m3

3.3.2.10.2 Liquid and Vapor Flowrates


Above the feed point
Vapor rate:
Vn = D (R +1)
= 37.3 (6.94+1)
= 296.162 kmole/h
Liquid rate:
Vn = Ln + D
Ln = Vn - D
= 296.162 – 37.3
= 258.862 kmole/h

Below the feed point


Liquid rate:
Lm = Ln + F
= 258.862 + 67.8
= 326.662 kmole/h

Vapor rate:
Vm = Lm - W
= 326.662 – 30.51
= 296.152 kmole/h

3.3.2.10.3 Column Diameter

There are several approaches to column diameter design. In general, a better


approximation is based on flooding considerations. The flooding velocity can be
determined using the correlation given by Fair in 1961

Where uf = flooding vapor velocity, m/s

K1 = a constant obtained from Appendix A

The liquid-vapor flow factor FLV can be calculated using


Where
Lw = liquid molar flow rate, kmole/h
Vw = vapor molar flow rate, kmole/h

326.662 9.233
= √
296.152 886.2554

= 0.1126

258.862 5.98
= √
296.162 980.3477

= 0.0683

Take plate spacing as 0.6 m, from Appendix A

Bottom K1 = 0.097
Top K1 = 0.11
Therefore

886.2554−9.233
Bottom uf = 0.097√
9.233

= 0.9454 m/s

980.3477 −5.98
Top uf = 0.11√
5.98

= 1.4041 m/s

For design, assumption of 85 per cent of the flooding velocity is


Bottom ûv = 0.9454 × 0.85 = 0.8036 m/s
Top ûv = 1.4041 × 0.85 = 1.1935 m/s

Maximum volumetric flow rate

296.152 (115.8455)
=
9.233 x 3600
= 1.0321 m3 / s

296.162(65.5082 )
=
5.98 x 3600
= 0.9012 m3 / s

Net area required can be calculated as below


1.0321
Bottom An = = 1.2843 m2
0.8036
0.9012
Top An = = 0.755 m2
1.1935

As a first trial take the down comer area as 12 per cent of the total

1.2843
Bottom Ad = = 1.4594
0.88

0.755
Top Ad = = 0.858
0.88

Therefore, the column diameter can be determined as below

4 x 1.4594
Bottom D = √ = 1.36 m
π

4 x 0.858
Top D = √ = 1.045 m
π

Therefore, column diameter is calculated to be approximately 1.5

3.3.2.10.4 Column Height


Height of a column is given by:

H = tray spacing x number of stages


= 0.6 x 10
=6m
Therefore, column is determined to be 6 m in height.

3.3.2.10.5 Liquid Flow Pattern

An initial slection of plate type either reverse, single pass or multiple pass can be
determined using Appendix B proposed by Huang and Hodson. The selection will depend
on the the liquid flow rate and column diameter.

( 326.662)(115.8455 )
=
886.2554 𝑥 3600

= 0.012 m3 /s

Based on Appendix B, at liquid flow rate = 0.012 m3/s and Dc = 1.5 m a single
pass (cross flow) plate can be used.

3.3.2.10.6 Provisional Plate Design

Column diameter, Dc = 1.5 m

Column area, Ac = 1.7671 m2

Down comer area, Ad

Take as 12 per cent of Ac = 0.12 × 1.7671 m2

= 0.212 m2, at 12 per cent

Net area, An = Ac - Ad

= 1.7671 – 0.212

= 1.5551 m2
Active are, Aa = Ac - 2Ad

= 1.7671 – 2(0.212)

= 1.3431 m2

Hole area Ah

Take as 10 per cent of Aa = 0.10 × 1.3431

= 0.13431 m2

3.3.2.11 Weir Dimension

3.3.2.11.1 Weir Length

Appendix C shows the relationship between weir length and downcomer area.

The y-axis

Ad 0.212
x 100 = x 100
Ac 1.7671

= 12

From Appendix C, the weir length can determine as below

lw
= 0.76
Dc
lw
= 0.76
1.5

lw = 1.14 m

3.3.2.11.2 Weir Height

Since the distillation column operating above atmospheric pressure, 40 mm to 50 mm


of weir height is recommended.

Take weir height, hw = 50mm


3.3.2.11.3 Hole Diameter

The holes are made by drilling or punching. Punching would be cheaper than drilling,
however the minimum size of hole that can be punched will depend on the plate
thickness. The preferred hole diameter is 5mm. Typical plate thicknesses used for design
are 5 mm for carbon steel and 3 mm for stainless steel.

Take
Hole diameter, dh 5mm
Plate thickness, tp 5mm

3.3.2.11.4 Weir Liquid Crest

The height of weir liquid crest can be determined using the Francis weir formula as
below.

Where

how = weir crest, mm liquid

Lw = liquid flow rate, kg/s

Lw = weir length,

( 326.662)(115.8455 )
Maximum Lw = = 10.5118 kg/s
3600

Minimum Lw, at 70 percent turndown = 0.7 x 10.5118 = 7.3583 kg/s

Therefore

2
10.5188
Maximum how = 750 ( ) 3 = 35.76 mm liquid
886.2554 x 1.14
2
7.3583
Minimum how = 750 ( )3 = 28.18 mm liquid
886.2554 x 1.14

3.3.2.12 Check Weeping

The weep point is considered to be the minimum vapor velocity that will provide a stable
tray operation, preventing liquid from passing through the holes and bypassing the
overflow weir and downcomer. The minimum vapor velocity can be estimated using
correlation given by Eduljee in 1959

(K2 – 0.9)(28.18 – dh)


ûh = 1
𝑝𝑣 2

Where

ûh = minimum vapor velocity through the holes, m/s

dh = hole diameter, mm

K2 = a constant, dependent on the depth of clear liquid on the plate

At minimum rate
hw + how = 50 + 28.18
= 78.18 mm liquid

From Appendix D

K2 = 30.85

Therefore

30.85−0.9 (28.18−5)
Ûh (min) = 1 = 3.28 m/s
9.2332

Actual minimum vapor velocity


𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑚𝑢𝑚 𝑣𝑎𝑝𝑜𝑟 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒
Ûh =
𝐴ℎ
0.7 x 1.031
=
0.13431
= 5.37 m/s

Therefore, the actual minimum vapor velocity is calculated to be 5.37 m/s which is above
the minimum vapor velocity of 3.28 m/s. This indicates that the minimum operating rate
will be well above weep point.

3.3.2.13 Plate Pressure Drop

The total pressure drop is taken as the sum of the dry plate drop (hd), the head of clear
liquid on the plate (hw + how), and residual head (hr).

3.3.2.14 Dry Plate Drop

The pressure drop calculated for the flow of vapor through the dry plate can be
calculated as below.

Where
hd = dry plate drop, mm liquid
ûh = velocity through the holes, m/s
C0 = orifice coefficient

Maximum vapor velocity through holes

1.031
Ûh =
0.13431
= 7.68 m/s
The value of C0 can be obtained from Appendix E

𝐴ℎ 0.1341
𝑋 100 = 𝑋 100 = 10
𝐴𝑎 1.3431

𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑒 𝑡ℎ𝑖𝑐𝑘𝑛𝑒𝑠𝑠 5
= =1
ℎ𝑜𝑙𝑒 𝑑𝑖𝑎𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟 5

Therefore

C0 = 0.84

7.68 2 9.233
hd =51( )
0.84 886.2554

= 44.41 mm liquid

3.3.2.15 Residual Head

The residual head can be estimated the simple equation proposed by Hunt (1955). The
equation is defined the residual drop as a fixed value of 12.5 mm of water.

12.5 X 103
= = 14.104 mm liquid
886.2554
3.3.2.16 Total Pressure Drop

The total pressure drop is given by

= 44.41 + 78.18 + 14.104


= 136.694 mm liquid

Therefore the total pressure drop is 136.694 mm liquid.

3.3.2.17 Downcomer Liquid Back-Up

The downcomer from a tray must be adequate to carry the liquid flow plus entrained foam
and froth. The area of the downcomer and plate spacing must be such that the level of
the liquid and froth in the downcomer is kept below the top of the outlet weir on the plate
above otherwise the column will flood. In terms of clear liquid the downcomer backup can
expressed as below

Where
hb = downcomer back-up, measured from plate surface, mm
hdc = head loss in the downcomer, mm

The head loss in the downcomer is given by

Where
Lwd = liquid flow rate in downcomer, kg/s
Am = either the downcomer area Ad or the clearance area under the
downcomer Aap, whichever is the smaller, m2
The clearance area is given by

Where
hap = height of the bottom edge of the apron above the plate
= hw – (5 to 10) mm

Take
hap = hw – 10
= 50 – 10
= 40 mm

Area under apron


Aap = 40 x 10-3 x 1.14 = 0.0456 mm2

Since Aap is smaller than Ad the value of Aap = 0.0456 m2 is used to calculate hdc

10.5188
hdc = 166[ ]2
886.2554 x 0.0456
= 11.24 mm

Backup in downcomer
hb = 78.18 + 136.694 + 11.24
= 226.114 mm
= 0.22 m
Check residence time

0.0456 𝑥 0.212 𝑥 886.2554


tr = = 8.1450 s
10.5188

Since it falls under recommended value which is more than 3 seconds, he


residence time of 8.145 s is sufficient for the entrained vapor to disengage from
the liquid in order to prevent heavily aerated liquid being carried under the
downcomer.
3.3.2.18 Check Entrainment

Actual velocity

1.031
un = = 0.663 m/s
1.5551

The percentage flooding

0.663
= x 100 = 47%
1.4041

From Appendix F at percent flooding 47% and FLV = 0.0683 the fractional flooding,
Ψ = 0.04 which is well below 0.1. It must be below 0.1 because below this figure the
effect on efficiency will be small.

3.3.2.19 Perforated Area

From Appendix C, at lw/Dc = 0.76

θc = 99°

Angle subtended at plate edge by unperforated strip

Mean length, unperforated edge strips


81
= (1.5 – 50 x 10-3) 𝜋 x
180

= 2.05 m
Area of unperforated edge strips
= 50 x 10-3 x 2.05
= 0.1025 m2

Mean length of calming zone


99
(1.5 – 50 x 10-3) x sin
2

= 1.1026 m

Area of calming zone


= 2(1.1026 x 50 x 10-3)
= 0.11026 m2

Total area for perforations, Ap


= 1.3431 - 0.11026 - 1.1026
= 0.1302 m2

𝐴ℎ 0.0134
= = 0.103
𝐴𝑝 0.1302

From Appendix G

Within the satisfactory range which is 2.5 to 4.0


3.3.3 MECHANICAL DESIGN

3.3.3.1 Introduction
In mechanical design, there are two parameters such as temperature and
pressure which are important properties to evaluate the thickness and the stress of
material. Therefore, the safety factor, corrosion allowance is added as precaution
because to chemical plant process, it may have some unexpected problems with
equipment and environment. The safety factor is usually 15% above the operating
pressure and as for this distillation column; the operating pressure is 405.3 kPa at the
bottom of the column and 301.3 kPa at the top of the column. Furthermore, the operating
temperature is 124.5°C at the top column and 181.7°C at the bottom column. So, for
design distillation column, calculation should be based on:

1) Design pressure
2) Design temperature
3) Material of construction
4) Design stress
5) Wall thickness
6) Welded joint efficiency
7) Analysis of stresses
a. Dead weight load
b. Wind load
c. Pressure stress
d. Bending stress
8) Vessel support
9) Insulation

3.3.3.2 Design Pressure

A vessel must be designed to withstand the maximum pressure to which it is likely to be


subjected in operation. For the vessels under internal pressure, the design pressure is
normally taken as the pressure at which the relief device is set. This normally be 5 – 10%
above the normal working pressure, to avoid spurious operation during minor process
upsets.
Operating Pressure = 405.3 kPa
Take as 10 % above the operating pressure
Operating Pressure = 405.3 x 1.1
= 445.83 kPa
= 0.4458 N/mm2

3.3.3.3 Design Temperature

The strength of metals decreases with increasing temperatures so the maximum


allowable stress will depend on the material temperature. The design temperature at
which the design stress is evaluated should be taken as the maximum working
temperature of the material with due allowance for any uncertainty involved in predicting
the vessel wall temperature.

Operating Temperature = 181.7 ℃


Take as 10 % above the operating Temperature
Operating Temperature = 181.7 x 1.1
= 199.87 ℃
=473.02 K

3.3.3.4 Material of Constructions

Selection of suitable material must be taking into account the suitability of material
for fabrication (particularly welding) as well as the compatibility of the material with the
process environment. Selection of materials for construction is also required based on
the characteristics of chemical properties and mechanical properties. The material of
construction selected for this application is stainless steel 304 and it is the most
commonly used corrosion resistant materials in the chemical industry. The operating
condition is not critical, thus the material has the ability to retain the strength.
In addition, stainless steel 304 is chosen as the material of construction for
several purposes, such as: By referring to the Table 13.2 (Coulson and Richardson).
1 Readily available

2 Low cost

3 Subjected to welding

4 Corrosion resistant to feed and product

5 Easily fabricated

6 High strength

For this material, the design stress at 200 ºC is obtained from table below;

From the table,


Design stress, f =115 N/mm^2
Tensile Strength=510 N/mm^2
Join factor=1
Diameter vessel, Di=1500 mm
Operating Pressure=0.4458 N/mm^2

3.3.3.5 Vessel Thickness


The minimum thickness of column required and other designs are calculated based on
equation below ;
Pi Di
e=
2Jf − 0.2Pi
where, e = minimum thickness of the plate required
Pi = internal pressure, N/mm2
Di = internal diameter, mm
f = design stress , N/mm2
J = Joint factor

Therefore, minimum thickness required,

0.4458 x 1500
e=
2 x 1 x 115 − 0.2 x 0.4458

= 2.90 𝑚𝑚

Add corrosion allowance of 2mm


e = 2.90 + 2
= 4.9 mm
= 5 mm

3.3.3.6 Design Head and Closure

3.3.3.6.1 Torispherical Head

Torispherical head had been chosen because of operating pressure for this below 10
bars and suitable for liquid vapor phase process in inconsistent high pressure. There are
two junctions in a torispherical end closure: that between the cylindrical section and the
head, and the junction of the crown and the knuckle radii. The thickness of torispherical
head can be calculated by using equation below.
𝑃𝑖 𝑅𝑐 𝐶𝑠
𝑒𝑑 =
2𝐽𝑓 + 𝑃𝑖 (𝐶𝑠 − 0.2)
Where

𝑅𝑐 = 𝑐𝑟𝑜𝑤𝑛 𝑟𝑎𝑑𝑖𝑢𝑠 = 𝐷𝑐
𝑅𝑘 = 𝑘𝑛𝑢𝑐𝑘𝑙𝑒 𝑟𝑎𝑑𝑖𝑢𝑠 = 0.06𝑅𝑐
= 0.06 𝑥 1500
= 90 𝑚𝑚
𝐶𝑠 = 𝑆𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑐𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛

1 𝑅𝑐
𝐶𝑠 = (3 + √ )
4 𝑅𝑘

1 1500
𝐶𝑠 = (3 + √ )
4 90

𝐶𝑠 = 1.7706

The minimum thickness

0.4458 𝑥 1500 𝑥 1.7706


𝑒𝑑 =
(2 𝑥 1 𝑥 115) + 0.4458(1.7706 − 0.2)

= 5.13 𝑚𝑚

𝑅𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑑 𝑢𝑝 𝑡𝑜 5 𝑚𝑚

Ellipsoidal Head

The minimum thickness of ellipsoidal head can be calculated using the following
equation:

Where
Pi = design pressure, N/mm2
Di = internal diameter, mm
J = welded joint factor
f = design stress, N/mm2

The minimum thickness


0.4458 𝑥 1500
e=
(2 𝑥 1 𝑥 115)+0.2(0.4458)

= 2.90 mm
So an ellipsoidal head would be probably be the most economical since the
minimum thickness of the head is nearly to that of the wall. Take as same
thickness as wall 4.90 mm.

3.3.6 Division of Column to Courses

For tall column the bending moment will vary from the top to the base of the column. The
maximum value of bending stress would be at the base of the column. The most
economical design will be one such that the plate thickness is progessively increased
from the top to the base of the column. The thickness of the wall at the column base
should be much thicker to withstand the wind and dead weight loads.

As a first trial, the column is divided into 5 sections, with the thickness increasing
by 2 mm per segment as follows

5 mm
7 mm
9 mm
11 mm
13 mm

Take the average thickness as tav = 9 mm

3.3.7 Dead Weight of Vessel

The weight of cylindrical vessel with domed ends, and uniform wall thickness, can be
estimated using the following equation:

Where

Cv = a factor to account from the weight of nozzles, manways, internal supports,


= 1.15 for distillation column

Dm = mean diameter of vessel, mm

Hv = height, or length, between tangent lines (the length of the cylindrical section)

T = wall thickness, mm
Mean Diameter of vessel

Dm = Di + tav
= 1.5 + (9 x 10-3)
= 1.509 m

Dead weight of vessel


Wv = 240 x 1.15 x 1.509(13 + 0.8(1.509))0.009
= 53.25 kN

Therefore, the calculated dead weight of vessel is 53.25 kN

3.3.8 Weight of Accessories

a) Weight of Plate, 𝑾𝑷
From Nelson Guide, page 1022 Chemical Engineering Volume 6; take
contacting plates, 1.2 kN/m2. The total of weight of plate determine by
multiply the value with number of plate design.
Weight of Plate = Ac x Number of Plate x 1.2
= 1.77 𝑥 10 𝑥 1.2
= 21.24 𝑘𝑁

b) Weight of Ladder, 𝑾𝑳
From Nelson Guide, page 1022 Chemical Engineering Volume 6; take
caged ladder where the weight is 360 N/m. The total of weight of ladder
determine by multiply the value with high of column.

𝑊𝑒𝑖𝑔ℎ𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝐿𝑎𝑑𝑑𝑒𝑟 = (360𝑥ℎ𝑐 )𝑥10−3


= (360 𝑥 6)𝑥10−3
= 2.16 𝑘𝑁
3.3.9 Weight of Insulation

The mineral wool was choosing as insulation material. By referring to Coulson


Richardson Chemical engineering volume 6, page 1022,

𝐷𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑜𝑓 𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑙 𝑤𝑜𝑜𝑙, 𝜌 = 130𝑘𝑔/𝑚3


𝑇ℎ𝑖𝑐𝑘𝑛𝑒𝑠𝑠 = 50 𝑚𝑚 = 0.05 𝑚
𝑉𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑖𝑛𝑠𝑢𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛, 𝑉𝑖 = 𝜋 𝑥 𝐷𝑚 𝑥 ℎ𝑐 𝑥 𝑡ℎ𝑖𝑐𝑘𝑛𝑒𝑠𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑖𝑛𝑠𝑢𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛
= 3.142 𝑥 1.509 𝑥6𝑥 0.05
= 1.4223 𝑚3
𝑊𝑒𝑖𝑔ℎ𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝑖𝑛𝑠𝑢𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛, 𝑊𝑖 = 𝑉𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑖𝑛𝑠𝑢𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑥 𝜌 𝑥 𝑔
= 1.4223 𝑥 130 𝑥 9.81
= 1813.73 𝑁 = 1.8137 𝑘𝑁

2.3.8.4 Total weight

The total weight is the summation of dead weight of vessel, weight of accessories
and weight of insulation

𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑤𝑒𝑖𝑔ℎ𝑡 = 𝑊𝑣 + 𝑊𝐴 + 𝑊𝑖
= 53.25 + 21.24 + 2.16 + 1.8137
= 78.4637 𝑘𝑁

2.3.8.5 Wind Load

A wind loading must be designed to withstand the highest wind speed that is likely
to encounter at the site during the life of the plant. From the British Standard Code
of Practice BS CP 3: 1972 “Basic Data for the Design of Buildings, Chapter V
Loading: Part 2 Winds Load”, (Sinnott, 1999), a wind speed of 160km/h (100mph)
can be used for preliminary design.

For cylindrical column, semi-empirical equation can be used to estimate the wind
pressure:
Pw = 0.05 x uw 2
Where
PW = wind pressure, N/m2
uW = wind speed, km/h

Wind Pressure:
Pw = 0.05 x uw 2
= 0.05 x 1602
= 1280 𝑁/𝑚2

Mean diameter, including insulator:

= 𝐷𝑖 + 2(𝑡 + 𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑠 )
= 1500 + 2(9 + 50)
= 1618 𝑚𝑚 = 1.618 𝑚

Loading (per linear meter):

𝐹𝑤 = 𝑃𝑤 𝐷𝑒𝑓𝑓
= 1280 𝑥 1.618
= 2071.04 𝑁/𝑚

Bending Moment:
𝐹𝑊 𝐻𝑉 2
𝑀𝑥 =
2
2071.04 𝑥 62
=
2
= 37278.72 𝑁𝑚
= 37.278 𝑘𝑁𝑚
3.3.10 Analysis of Stresses for Vessel

3.3.10.1 Pressure stress

a) Longitudinal stresses due to pressure is given by:

𝑃𝑖 𝐷𝑖
𝜎𝐿 =
4𝑡
(0.4458𝑥1500)
=
4𝑥9
= 18.575 𝑁/𝑚𝑚2

b) Circumferential stresses due to pressure are given by:

𝑃𝑖 𝐷𝑖
𝜎ℎ =
2𝑡
(0.4458𝑥1500)
=
2(9)
= 37.15 𝑁/𝑚𝑚2

c) Dead weight stresses is significant for tall columns. This stress can be
tensile for points below the column support or compressive for points above
the support. Dead weight stresses are given by :

𝑊
𝜎𝑊 =
𝜋(𝐷𝑖 + 𝑡𝑖 )𝑥 𝑡

78463
=
3.142(1500 + 9)9

= 1.84 𝑁/𝑚𝑚2 (𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑣𝑒)


3.3.10.2 Bending Stress
Bending moments will be caused by the following loading conditions:
a) The wind loads on tall self-supported vessels
b) Seismic (earthquake) loads on tall vessels
c) The dead weight and wind loads on piping and equipment which is attached to
the vessel, but offset from the vessel centre line.

The bending stress will be compressive or tensile, depending on location and are given
by;
𝑀𝑥 𝐷𝑖
𝜎𝑏 = ± ( + 𝑡)
𝐼𝑣 2
Where
𝑀𝑥 = 𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑏𝑒𝑛𝑑𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑚𝑜𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡
𝐷𝑜 = 𝑂𝑢𝑡𝑠𝑖𝑑𝑒 𝑑𝑖𝑎𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟
= 𝐷𝑖 + 2𝑡
= 1500 + 2(12)
= 1524 𝑚𝑚

𝐼𝑣 = 𝑠𝑒𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑 𝑚𝑜𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑎


𝜋
= (𝐷 4 − 𝐷𝑖 4 )
64 𝑜
𝜋
= (15244 − 15004 )
64
= 1.63 𝑥 1010 𝑚𝑚4

Hence,
37278.72 𝑥103 1500
𝜎𝑏 = ± ( + 9)
1.63 𝑥1010 2

= 1.74 𝑁/𝑚𝑚
3.3.10.3 The Resultant Longitudinal Stress

The resultant of longitudal stress is the summation of longitudinal stresses, Dead weight
stresses and bending stress.
𝜎𝑧 = 𝜎𝐿 + 𝜎𝑤 + 𝜎𝑏
For upwind,
𝜎𝑧 = 18.575 − 1.84 + 1.74

= 18.475 𝑁/𝑚𝑚2

For downwind,
𝜎𝑧 = 18.575 − 1.84 − 1.74

= 14.995 𝑁/𝑚𝑚2

18.475 14.995

37.15 37.15

Upwind Down-wind

Therefore, the greatest difference between the principles stresses,


𝜎𝑑 = 𝜎ℎ − 𝜎𝑧 (𝑑𝑜𝑤𝑛𝑤𝑎𝑟𝑑)
= 37.15 − (−14.995)

= 52.145 𝑁/𝑚𝑚2

The value obtained is well below the maximum allowable design, 150 N/mm2.
3.3.10.4 The Resultant Bulking Stress

Local bulking will normally occur at stress than that required buckling the complete. A
column design must be checked to ensure that the maximum value of the resultant axial
stress does not exceed the critical value at which buckling will occur.

𝑡
𝐶𝑟𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 𝑏𝑢𝑙𝑘𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠, 𝜎𝑐 = 2𝑥104 ( )
𝐷0
9
= 2𝑥104 ( )
1500

= 120 𝑁/𝑚𝑚2

The maximum compressive stress will occur when the vessel is not under pressure

𝜎𝑤 + 𝜎𝑏 = 1.84 + 1.74

= 3.58 𝑁/𝑚𝑚2

Since the result is below the critical buckling stress of 120 N/mm2, the design is
satisfactory.

3.3.11 Vessel Support

The method used to support a vessel will depend on the size, shape and weight
of the vessel; the design temperature and pressure; the vessel location and arrangement;
and the internal and external fittings and attachment. Since the reactor is a vertical
vessel, skirt support is used in this design.
A skirt support consists of a cylindrical or conical shell welded to the base of the
vessel. A flange at the bottom of the skirt transmits the load to the foundations. The skirt
may be welded to the bottom, level of the vessel.
Skirt supports are recommended for vertical vessels as they do not imposed
concentrated loads on the vessel shells; they are particularly suitable for use with tall
columns subject to wind loading.
Type of support = straight cylindrical skirt
θs = 90o
Material of construction = plain carbon steal
Design stress, fs = 115 N/mm2
Young modules = 200,000 N/mm2
Skirt height hs =3m
Skirt thickness ts = 9 mm
Joint factor =0.85

3.3.11 Weight of Skirt

𝐴𝑝𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑥𝑖𝑚𝑎𝑡𝑒 𝑤𝑒𝑖𝑔ℎ𝑡 = (𝜋⁄4𝑥𝐷𝑖 2 𝑥ℎ𝑐 ) 𝑥𝜌𝐿 𝑥9.81

= (𝜋⁄4 𝑥 1.52 𝑥6) 𝑥 888.28 𝑥 9.81

= 92393.73 𝑁

= 92.39 𝑘𝑁

𝑊𝑒𝑖𝑔ℎ𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝑣𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑒𝑙 = 78.4637 𝑘𝑁

𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑤𝑒𝑖𝑔ℎ𝑡 = 92.39 + 78.4637

= 170.85 𝑘𝑁

3.3.12 Analysis of Stresses for Skirt

1. Bending moment of skirt, Ms

𝐵𝑒𝑛𝑑𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑚𝑜𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑎𝑡 𝑏𝑎𝑠𝑒 𝑠𝑘𝑖𝑟𝑡, 𝑀𝑠 = 0.5 𝑥 𝐹𝑤 (ℎ𝑐 + ℎ𝑠 )2

= 0.5 𝑥 2.071 𝑥 (6 + 3)2

= 83.8755 𝑘𝑁𝑚
2. Bending stress of skirt, σbs

4𝑀𝑠
𝐵𝑒𝑛𝑑𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑠𝑘𝑖𝑟𝑡, 𝜎𝑏𝑠 =
𝜋(𝐷𝑠 + 𝑡𝑠 )𝑥𝐷𝑠 𝑡𝑠

4 𝑥 83.8755 𝑥 103
=
𝜋(1500 + 9)𝑥(1500 𝑥 9)

= 52.42 𝑁/𝑚𝑚2

3. Dead weight stress in skirt σws

𝑊𝑎𝑝𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑥𝑖𝑚𝑎𝑡𝑒
𝜎𝑤𝑠 𝑡𝑒𝑠𝑡 =
𝜋𝑡𝑠 (𝐷𝑠 + 𝑡𝑠 )

92393.73
=
3.142 𝑥 9(1500 + 9)

= 2.1655 𝑁/𝑚𝑚2

𝑊
𝜎𝑤𝑠 𝑜𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑔 =
𝜋𝑡𝑠 (𝐷𝑠 + 𝑡𝑠 )

78463.7
=
3.142 𝑥 9(1500 + 9)

= 1.84 𝑁/𝑚𝑚2

4. Resultant stress in skirt σs

𝜎𝑠 (𝑡𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑙𝑒) = 𝜎𝑏𝑠 + 𝜎𝑤𝑠 𝑡𝑒𝑠𝑡

= 52.42 + 2.1655

= 54.5855 𝑁/𝑚𝑚2

𝜎𝑠 (𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑣𝑒) = 𝜎𝑏𝑠 − 𝜎𝑤𝑠 𝑜𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑔


= 52.42 − 1.84

= 50.58 𝑁/𝑚𝑚2

5. Criteria for Design

Take the joint factor, J as 0.85


Where θs = 90oC
𝜎𝑠 (𝑡𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑙𝑒) < 𝑓𝑠 𝐽𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃𝑠

𝑁
54.5855 < 115 𝑥 0.85 𝑥 sin 900
𝑚𝑚2

54.5855 𝑁/𝑚𝑚2 < 97.75 𝑁/𝑚𝑚2

𝑡𝑠
𝜎𝑠 (𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑣𝑒) < 0.125𝐸( )𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃𝑠
𝐷𝑠
𝑁 9
50.58 < 0.125𝑥 20000 𝑥 ( ) 𝑥 sin 900
𝑚𝑚2 1500
𝑁
50.58 < 15𝑁/𝑚𝑚2
𝑚𝑚2
Both criteria are satisfied, add 2 mm for corrosion; gives a design
thickness, ts of 11 mm.

3.3.13 Base Ring Anchor Bolts


The loads carried by the skirt are transmitted to the foundation slab by the skirt
base ring (bearing plate). The moment produced by wind and other lateral loads
will tend to overturn the vessel. Since the dc can be considered as the small
vessel, the simplest types, rolled angle ring are used. The preliminary design of
base ring is done by using Scheiman’s short cut method. Scheiman gives the
following guide rules which can be used for the selection of the anchor bolts. Refer
to J.M Coulson, J.F Richardson, Chemical Engineering Volume 6, Third Edition,
page 848.
1. Bolts smaller than 25 mm diameter should not be used
2. Minimum number of bolts = 8
3. Use multiples of 4 bolts
4. Bolts pitch should not be less than 600 mm

Approximate pitch circle diameter, Db = 2.2m


Circumference of bolt circle = 2200π
Closest multiple of 4, Nb = 12 bolts
Bolt design stress, fb =125 N/mm2 (Scheiman, 1963)

Number of bolts required, at minimum recommended bolt spacing

= 𝑐𝑖𝑟𝑐𝑢𝑚𝑓𝑒𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑏𝑜𝑙𝑡 𝑐𝑖𝑟𝑐𝑙𝑒/600


= 2200𝜋/600
= 11.52
1 4𝑀𝑠
𝐵𝑜𝑙𝑡 𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑎, 𝐴𝑏 = 𝑥( − 𝑊)
𝑁𝑏 𝑓𝑏 𝐷𝑏
1 4 𝑥 83875
= 𝑥( − 78463.7)
12 𝑥 125 2.2
= 49.35 𝑚𝑚2

𝐴𝑏 𝑥4
𝐵𝑜𝑙𝑡 𝑟𝑜𝑜𝑡 𝑑𝑖𝑎𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟 = √
3.142

49.35 𝑥 4
=√
3.142

= 7.93 𝑚𝑚2

Total compressive load on the base ring per unit length:


4𝑀𝑠 𝑊
𝐹𝑏 = ( 2) + ( )
3.142 𝑥𝐷𝑠 3.142 𝑥 𝐷𝑠

4 𝑥 83875 278463.7
=( 2
)+( )
3.142 𝑥 1.5 3.142 𝑥 1.5

= 106.541 𝑘𝑁/𝑚
Taking the bearing pressure fc as 5 N/mm2, minimum width of the base ring is
given by:
𝐹𝑏
𝐿𝑏 =
𝑓𝑐
106541
=
5 𝑥 1000
= 21.3 𝑚𝑚

This is the minimum width required; actual width will depend on the chair design.

𝐴𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑙 𝑤𝑖𝑑𝑡ℎ 𝑟𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑟𝑒𝑑 = 𝐿𝑟 + 𝑡𝑠 + 50𝑚𝑚


= 13 + 11 + 50
= 74 𝑚𝑚

Actual bearing pressure in concrete foundation


𝐹𝑏
𝑓𝑐 ′ =
𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑙 𝑤𝑖𝑑𝑡ℎ

106541
=
74 𝑥 1000

= 1.439 𝑁/𝑚𝑚2

So, minimum base thickness

3𝑓𝑐 ′
𝑡𝑏 = 𝐿𝑟 √
𝑓𝑟

where,
F’c = actual bearing pressure on base, N/mm2
fr = allowable design stress in the ring material, typically 140 N/mm2

3𝑥0.6536
𝑡𝑏 = 102√
140

= 2.28 𝑚𝑚
Therefore, the minimum bolt thickness is 2mm and anchor bolt design is M24 (BS
4190:1976)

3.3.14 Pipe Diameter

An approximate estimate of the economic pipe diameter for normal pipe runs can
determined using the following equation:

Where G = mass flow rates across the pipe, kg/s

ρ = density, kg/m3

Table 3434: Data obtained from hysis to calculate pipe diameter

Feed Inlet Top Outlet Bottom Outlet


3
Density, kg/m 817.1 3.891 694.8
Mass flow, kg/h 13300 1636 11770

Pipe diameter at feed inlet,

𝑘𝑔 1 ℎ𝑟
𝐺 = (13300 )( )
ℎ𝑟 3600 𝑠
𝐺 = 3.69 𝑘𝑔/𝑠

𝑑𝑙 𝑜𝑝𝑡𝑖𝑚𝑢𝑚 𝑎𝑡 𝑡𝑜𝑝 𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑑𝑢𝑐𝑡 = 260𝐺 0.52 𝜌−0.37


= 260𝑥3.690.52 𝑥817.1−0.37
= 42.88 𝑚𝑚

𝑎𝑑𝑑 2𝑚𝑚 𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝑐𝑜𝑟𝑟𝑜𝑠𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑎𝑙𝑙𝑜𝑤𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒 = 45 𝑚𝑚

Pipe diameter at top 0utlet,


𝑘𝑔 1 ℎ𝑟
𝐺 = (1636 )( )
ℎ𝑟 3600 𝑠
𝐺 = 0.454 𝑘𝑔/𝑠

𝑑𝑙 𝑜𝑝𝑡𝑖𝑚𝑢𝑚 𝑎𝑡 𝑡𝑜𝑝 𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑑𝑢𝑐𝑡 = 260𝐺 0.52 𝜌−0.37


= 260𝑥0.4540.52 𝑥3.981−0.37
= 103.429 𝑚𝑚

𝑎𝑑𝑑 2𝑚𝑚 𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝑐𝑜𝑟𝑟𝑜𝑠𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑎𝑙𝑙𝑜𝑤𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒 = 105 𝑚𝑚

Pipe diameter at bottom 0utlet,


𝑘𝑔 1 ℎ𝑟
𝐺 = (11770 )( )
ℎ𝑟 3600 𝑠
𝐺 = 3.27 𝑘𝑔/𝑠

𝑑𝑙 𝑜𝑝𝑡𝑖𝑚𝑢𝑚 𝑎𝑡 𝑡𝑜𝑝 𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑑𝑢𝑐𝑡 = 260𝐺 0.52 𝜌−0.37


= 260𝑥3.270.52 𝑥694.8−0.37
= 42.76 𝑚𝑚

𝑎𝑑𝑑 2𝑚𝑚 𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝑐𝑜𝑟𝑟𝑜𝑠𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑎𝑙𝑙𝑜𝑤𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒 = 45 𝑚𝑚

3.3.15 Flages Design

Standard flanges use for pipes, nozzles and other attachments to pressure vessel
are available in a range of sizes, materials and types. Figure 3.1 shows the typical
example of standard flange design. Usually flanged joint are used for connecting pipes
and instruments to vessels, formanhole covers and for removable vessel heads when
ease of access is required. It can also be used on the vessel body for transport or
maintenance purposes. Standard flanges are available in range of types, sizes and
materials and are used extensively for pipes, nozzles and other attachment to pressure
vessels. Two manholes’s measuring 500mm in diameter re added to the vessel.
For the esterification column, steel welding neck flanges are be use where it have
a long tapered lub between the flange ring and the welded joint. This gradual transition
of the section reduces discontinuity stresses between flange and branch, and increases
the strength of the flange assembly. Welding neck flanges are suitable for extreme
service conditions, where the flange is likely to be subjected to temperature, shear and
vibration loads.

Figure 3.1: Steel slip-on boss flange for welding

Source: Chemical engineering design. 3rd Ed. Volume 6

Flanges used in this design are chosen from the standard flanges. Here standard
flanges are adapted from the British standard (BS 4504), nominal pressure 6 bar. All
tables below show standard value for flange where o.d is outside diameter for pipe and
all value in unit millimeter, mm.

Calc No Pipe Flange Raised Bolti Drilling Boss


ulate m o.d face ng
d size
pipe
diam D b h d4 f No. d2 k d3
eter
Feed 45 50 60.3 140 14 28 90 3 M12 4 14 110 80
Top 105 100 114.3 210 16 40 148 3 M16 4 18 170 130
Bottom 45 50 60.3 140 14 28 90 3 M12 4 14 110 80
3.3.16 Technical Drawing
3.3.17 CONCLUSION

Distillation Column (T-100) design is generally divided into two sections which are
chemical design and mechanical design. Generally, T-100 is a 20 stages tray column
with valve trays as plate contactor and employs stainless steel as a material of
construction. T-100 is determined to be 3.8 in diameter and 12 m in height. Others
calculated design values can be summarized into Table 3.24. The T-100 data sheet is
provided in Appendix J

Table 3.24: Summary of chemical and mechanical design values


Parameters Value Unit
CHEMICAL DESIGN
Column Diameter 1.5 m
Column Height 6 m
Number of Stages 10 -
Column Efficiency 60 %
Column Area 1.767 m2
Downcomer Area 0.212 m2
Net area 1.551 m2
Hole Area 0.13431 m2
Weir Length 1.14 m2
Weir Height 50 mm
Hole Diameter 5 mm
Plate Thickness 5 mm
Trays Spacing 0.6 m
Total Pressure Drop 136.694 mm liquid
MECHANICAL DESIGN
Design Pressure 445.83 kPa
O
Design Temperature 199.87 C
Materials of Construction Stainless Steel 304 -
Insulation Mineral wool
Design Stress 115 N/mm2
Corrosion Allowance 2 mm
Wall Thickness 5 mm
Ellipsoidal Head Thickness 5 mm
Vessel Weight 52250 N
Plates Weight 21240 N
Weight of Insulation 1813.7 N
Total Weight 78463.7 N
Wind Loading 2071 N/m
Bolt Area 49.35 mm2
Bolt Thickness 2.28 mm
REFERENCES

Barber M.J., Handbook of Hose, Pipes, Couplings and Fittings, First Edition, The
Trade & Technical Press Limited, 1985.
Billet, R., Distillation Engineering, Heydon Publishing, 1979.
Branan C.R., Rules of Thumb for Chemical Engineers, Gulf Publishing Company,
1994.
Coulson J.M., Richardson J.F. , Chemical Engineering, Volume Two, Third Edition, The
Pergamon Press, 1977.
Douglas J.M., Conceptual Design of Chemical Processes, McGraw-Hill Book
Company, 1988.
King, C. J., Separation Processes, Second Edition, McGraw-Hill, 1992. Kister, H. Z.,
Distillation Design, McGraw-Hill, 1992.
Lamit L.G, Piping Systems: Drafting and Design, Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1981. Lockett, M.
J., Distillation Tray Fundamentals, Cambridge University Press, 1986.
Ludwig E.E., Applied Process Design for chemical and petrochemical plant, Volume
2, Gulf Publishing Company, 1997.
Martyn S.R. and David, W.J., Chemical Engineering, Design Project: A Case Study
Approach, Gordon and Breach Science Publishers, 1989.
Normans, W. S., Absorption, Distillation and Cooling Towers, Longmans, 1961.
Oliver, E. D., Diffusional Separation Procesess, John-Wiley, 1966.
Perry R.H., Green D.W, Perry’s Chemical Engineer’s Handbook, Seventh Edition,
McGraw-Hill, 1998.
Robinson, C.S., and Gilliland, E.R., Elements of Fractional Distillation, McGraw- Hill,
1950.
Sinnot R.K, Coulson & Richardson’s Chemical Engineering, Chemical Engineering
Design, Volume Six, Butterworth Heinemann, 1999.
Smith, R., Chemical Process Design, McGraw-Hill, 1995.
Walas S.M., Chemical Process Equipment, selection and design, Butterworth –
Heinemann series in Chemical Engineering 1988
Van Winkle, M., Distillation, McGraw-Hill, 1967
APPENDIX A

Flooding Velocity for Sieve Plates

Source: Chemical engineering design. 3rd Ed. Volume 6


APPENDIX B

Selection of Liquid Flow Arrangement

Source: Chemical engineering design. 3rd Ed. Volume 6


APPENDIX C

Relation between Downcomer Area and Weir Length

Source: Chemical engineering design. 3rd Ed. Volume 6


APPENDIX D

Weep Point Correlation

Source: Chemical engineering design. 3rd Ed. Volume 6


APPENDIX E

Discharged Coefficient for Sieve Plates

Source: Chemical engineering design. 3rd Ed. Volume 6


APPENDIX F

Entrainment Correlation for Sieve Plates

Source: Chemical engineering design. 3rd Ed. Volume 6


APPENDIX G

Relation between Angle Subtended by Chord, Chord Height and Chord Length

Source: Chemical engineering design. 3rd Ed. Volume 6


APPENDIX H

Anchor Bolt Chair Design

Source: Chemical engineering design. 3rd Ed. Volume 6


APPENDIX I
APPENDIX J
Distillation Column (T-100) Data Sheet
Tag.
T-101
No
Column tray data sheet Sheet
1 of 1
No
To separate
Func component
Operating Data
Top Bottom Or top and bottom
TOWER INSIDE DIAMETER (mm) 1500
TRAY SPACE (mm)
TOTAL TRAYS IN SECTION 10
Internal condition at tray number
VAPOR TO TRAY
RATE (kg/hr)
DENSITY (kg/m3)
PRESSURE (kPa) 157.5
TEMPERATURE (°C) 129.7
LIQUID FORM TRAY
RATE (kg/hr) 523172.4051
DENSITY (kg/m3) 771.8
VISCOSITY (cP) 0.4635
Technical/Mechanical data
WEIR LENGTH (m)
HOLE SIZE (mm) 5
PLATE SPACING (m) 0.6
DOWNCOMER BOLT BAR THICKNESS
(mm) 2
Column Dimension Specifications
MATERIAL Stainless Steel
THICKNESS (mm) 4.122
CYLINDER HEIGHT (m) 12
TRAYS NUMBER FROM TOP TO BOTTOM 20
HEAD AND CLOSURE TYPE Ellipsoidal
INSULATION MATERIAL Mineral Wool

Date of enquiry 2-Apr-11

Prepared MOHAMAD FIRDAUS


Checked ABDUL AZIZ ISHAK
Date Eng. Process By Appr. Date