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International Engineering Research Journal Page No 288-300

Design And Optimisation Of Disc Brake Rotor


(For Two Wheeler)
1
Yogesh H. Mishra, Research Scholar, Dept of Mechanical Engineering. G.S.Moze College of
Engineering, Balewadi. Pune, India.

2
Prof. Vikas R. Deulgaonkar, Professor, Dept of Mechanical Engineering. M.M.College of
Engineering, Pune, India.

3
Dr. P.A. Makasare, HOD, Dept of Mechanical Engineering. G.S.Moze College of Engineering,
Pune, India.

 In braking system one of most important active safety of


Abstract—These day technologies go beyond us. For vehicle. Brakes continuously improved in various aspects.
While braking, most of the kinetic energy are converted into
automotive field, the technology of engine develops very fast even
thermal energy and increase the disc temperature. This project
the system of the car, luxury or comforts everything that deals in disc brake rotor design, disc rotor profile selection,
develops by the innovation of engineer. Although the engineer disc rotor material selection & thermal stress analysis on
pulsar brake disc rotor for steady state and transient condition.
gives priority for safety measure, but most consumers still have
The heat dissipated along the brake disc surface during the
inadequate of knowledge in safety system. Thus safety is the first periodic braking via conduction, convection and radiation. In
important thing we must focus. order to get the stable and accurate result of element size, time
step selection is very important and all of these aspects are
This project deals with “Force and Friction Analysis on
discussed in this paper. The findings of this research provide a
Disc Brake and Optimization of Disc Rotor” which studies about useful design tool to improve the brake performance of disc
action on disc brake by analysis the different forces acting on disc brake system.
brake. Therefore, we can estimate the efficiency of the disc brake.
PROBLEM STATEMENT
Hopefully this project will help everyone to understand action
1) A problem in Disc Brake occurs because of uneven stress
force and friction force on the disc brake and how disc brake
works more efficiently, which can help to reduce the accident & heat dissipation during braking of two wheeler as follows:-
that may happen in each day.  2) Scarring, Cracking, Rusting, Poor stopping, noise,
Index Terms—Disc Brake, Analysis of Disc Rotor , Thermal Vibration, Pulling, Grabbing, Dragging, Pulsation etc
Analysis, Design of Disc Brake Rotor, Stress & Thermal
OBJECTIVE
Analysis of Disc Brake, Transient Analysis of Disc Brake by
using Ansys, Heat Transfer coefficient, Heat Flux etc. 1) Structural Analysis (and coupled Thermal analysis) is
to be carried out on a given disk brake rotor.
INTRODUCTION
These day technology improved rapidly day to day which 2) Best combination of parameters of disk brake rotor
changes in vehicle sector surprisingly. On comparison of
like, Profile and material there by use a best
vehicle production before 20-25 years ago & later, we find
abundant difference in aspect of comfort, economy, function combination is to be suggested.
& particularly in Safety. Very careful attention given these
3) Design of the rotor component for a disc brake
days to passive & active safety system for vehicle. Active
safety means helpful in avoiding traffic event & passive safety system using stress analysis approach.
system protect passengers & drivers against injuries in traffic.
SCOPE
International Engineering Research Journal Page No 288-300

Safety is the first important thing we must focus on any The computational results are presented for the
human related things. Here in case of automobiles the distribution of heat flux and temperature on each friction
brake is one of the major device which contributes in surface between the contacting bodies. Also, thermo elastic
safety system. So the performance of the same should be instability (TIE) phenomenon (the unstable growth of contact
as good as possible, and if we are generating the brakes pressure and temperature) is result of localized hot spot that
with optimum parameters that is added advantage. grow with time due to runout, road vibration, rotor size, rotor
Considering this fact on mind this projects deals with, thickness. In this they study the influence of the material
1) Performance improvement of the disc brake properties on the thermo elastic behaviours (the maximum
2) Better heat dissipation temperature on the friction surfaces) is investigated to
3) Material used improvement facilitate the conceptual design of the disk brake system.
RESEARCH DESIGN Hartsock & Fash (1999) et. al. [4] studied thermo-elastic
1) Study of Disc Brake, Material, Components phenomenon of disc brake rotor & pad occurring while
2) Design of Disc brake for various materials. braking & numerical analysis of result get. In this paper they
3) As per calculation model in CATIA. studied themo-elastic instability occurs due to torque variation
4) Analyze same model by using ANSYS. during initial rotor run out because differences in rotor
5) Optimization of design. thickness or coefficient of friction. These pulsation brakes in
6) Redesign of Disc. sinusoidal components which shows localized hot spot which
7) Analysis using ANSYS. are usually asymmetric. TEI is not occurs below critical speed
8) Conclusion & depends on rotor material & it’s properties, rotor thickness,
LITERATURE REVIEW coefficient of friction.
Ali Belhocine et. all [1] studied the thermal behaviour of Dow & Burton (1973) et. al. [5] studied analysis of load
the full and ventilated brake discs of the vehicles using variation on disc rotor & optimization of rotor thickness. In
computing code ANSYS. The modelling of the temperature this they analyze magnitude of speed require to cause TEI &
distribution in the disc brake is used to identify all the factors experimentally analyze automotive disc brake system.
and the entering parameters concerned at the time of the L. Segal (1999) et. al. [6] research on considerable effect of
braking operation such as the type of braking, the geometric temperature on brakes. In braking process brake rotor disc,
design of the disc and the used material. The numerical brake shoe friction liner & support system heat considerably.
simulation for the coupled transient thermal field and stress In this research they found braking should not last longer than
field is carried out by sequentially thermal-structural coupled 10-15 seconds on test because brake element heats upto 80°C.
method based on ANSYS to evaluate the stress fields and At this higher temperature braking system & properties of
deformations which are established in the disc with the brake material become worse.
pressure on the pads. The results obtained by the simulation Gracia-Pozuelo Ramos (2010) et. al. [7] studied deformation
are satisfactory when compared with those of the specialized disc brake while braking a vehicle. Deformation of brake disc
literature is one major negative factor occurs in disc brake rotor while
Lee & Barber (1993) et. al. [2,3] studied the thermo elastic braking. It is main cause in wear & tear of disc brake rotor
phenomenon occurring in the disk brakes, the occupied heat while braking & it reduces life of disc brake rotor. The
conduction and elastic equations are solved with contact performed research shows deformation may be measured by a
problems. The numerical simulation for the thermo elastic roller brake tester. In this research they found that at 125
behaviour of disk brake is obtained in the repeated brake micron run out of brake disc there is 50% deformation occurs
condition. during test.
International Engineering Research Journal Page No 288-300

Alyazeed Albatlan (2012) et. al. [8] study effect of brake brake during short and emergency braking with four different
pipes thickness on brake efficiency & disc brake components. materials. The distribution of the temperature depends on the
The performed research shows braking efficiency to be various factors such as friction, surface roughness and speed.
different at different loads on vehicle. At lower load it will The effect of the angular velocity and the contact pressure
reduces & at higher load it will increase upto considerable induces the temperature rise of disc brake. The finite element
amount. In research they get result at load of 9200 N, the simulation for two-dimensional model was preferred due to
pressure of braking system before wheel blocking is over 50 the heat flux ratio constantly distributed in circumferential
bar & when load is 11200N, the pressure in system is over 70 direction. We will take down the value of temperature, friction
bar. contact power, nodal displacement and deformation for
Nagurnas (2001) et. al. [9] study on relative axial braking different pressure condition using analysis software with four
force on front axle of vehicle. It is one of main requirement materials namely cast iron, cast steel, aluminium and carbon
while braking how much axial force applied on axle & disc fibre reinforced plastic. Presently the Disc brakes are made up
rotor. Axial force ensures stability of vehicle with good life of of cast iron and cast steel. With the value at the hand we can
disc rotor. In research they found relative force on front axle is determine the best suitable material for the brake drum with
considerably bigger than rear axle. higher life span. The detailed drawings of all parts are to be
Xiaojing Z., Dongsheng. W. (2011) et. al. [10] study furnished by Daniel Das. A et. al. [12]
experimentally on braking process. For test of braking system Oder, G. et. al. [13] present paper shows a thermal and
, stationary brake tester are used. The braking stand classified stress analysis of a brake disc for railway vehicles using the
according to their sizes, braking force & other parameters. The finite element method (FEM). Performed analysis deals with
result of test affects by friction coefficient, duration between two cases of braking; the first case considers braking to a
repetitively application of brake while running & structure of standstill; the second case considers braking on a hill and
stand also. maintaining a constant speed. In both cases the main boundary
Atul sharma et. al. [11] studies Disc brake basics like, Disc condition is the heat flux on the braking surfaces and the
brake, are often used in automobile transmission system to holding force of the brake callipers. In addition the centrifugal
stop moving machine. Due to space constraint and load1 is considered.
performance requirement, disc brakes have fluctuating load DESIGN OF DISC BRAKE
characteristics, resulting in local stress and deflections. Calculation - Disc Brake Standard
Friction temperature in brake disc can cause material In this project study standard of two wheeler name
carbonization and debonding. This research paper explains the ―BAJAJ‖ model PULSAR Factor;
design and finite element analysis (FEA) model of brake disc Rotor disc dimension = 240 mm.
by which deflections in X, Y, Z direction and Von-mises (Rotor disc material = Gray cast iron)
stress can be calculated by applying boundary conditions. The Pad brake area = 2000 mm2 (2000×10-6 m)
FEA outcomes are correlated with experimental data. A good Pad brake material = Asbestos
agreement, with 5% discrepancy in the experimental data Coefficient of friction (Wet) = 0.08-0.12
during the first engagement is obtained. The developed Coefficient of friction (Dry) = 0.2-0.5
method improves the understanding of the structural failure, Maximum temperature = 250 ºC
modal prediction, operating conditions, and reduces product Maximum pressure = 1 MPa (106 Pa)
development time and cost
The aim of this work was to investigate the
temperature fields and also structural fields of the solid disc
International Engineering Research Journal Page No 288-300

With the assumption of equal coefficients of friction and


normal forces FR on the inner and outer faces:
TB = FT.R ……………………………… (2)
Where TB = Brake torque
μ = Coefficient of friction
FT = Total normal forces on disc brake, FTRI + FTRO
FT = 1000 N.
R = Radius of rotor disc.
So, TB = (1000) (120×10-3)
TB = 120 N.m

Fig. 3 Forces act on disc brake during rotation


BRAKE DISTANCE (x)
We know that tangential braking force acting at the point of
contact of the brake, and
Work done = FT. x ………………….. (3)
Where FT = FTRI + FTRO
x = Distance travelled (in meter) by the vehicle before it come
to rest.
We know kinetic energy of the vehicle.
Kinetic energy = (mv2) / 2 ………………(4)
Where m = Mass of vehicle
v = Velocity of vehicle
In order to bring the vehicle to rest, the work done against
Fig.4 Forces act on disc brake during rotation with lever
friction must be equal to kinetic energy of the vehicle.
TANGENTIAL FORCE BETWEEN PAD AND ROTOR Therefore equating (Equation 3) and (Equation 4)
(Inner face), FTRI FT. x = (mv2) / 2
FTRI = μ1.FRI …………….……………… (1) Assumption v = 100 km/hr = 27.77 m/s
Where FTRI = Normal force between pad brake and rotor M = 132 kg. (Dry weight)
(inner) So we get x = (mv2) / 2 FT
μ1 = Coefficient of friction = 0.5 x = (132×27.772)/ (2×1000) m.
FRI = Pmax / 2 × Apad brake area x = 50.89 m
So, FTRI = μ1.FRI ROTOR DISC NON STANDARD CALCULATION
FTRI = (0.5) (0.5) (1×106 N/m2) (2000×10-6 m2) In this case calculate same rotor disc standard but difference
FTRI = 500 N. rotor dimension.
TANGENTIAL FORCE BETWEEN PAD & Rotor (outer ~ Rotor disc dimension = 275 mm
face), FTRO FTRI = 500 N.
In this FTRO equal FTRI because same normal force and FTRO = 500 N.
same material. FT = 1000 N.
BRAKE TORQUE (TB) TB = 137.5 N.m
International Engineering Research Journal Page No 288-300

x = 50.89 m
~ Rotor disc dimension = 300 mm Table -1 : Relationships between Dimension of rotor disc
FTRI = 500 N. and Brake torque.
FTRO = 500 N. Design Of Disc Brake For Material Selection
FT = 1000 N. The Material Properties of grey Cast Iron:
TB = 150 N.m Thermal co-efficient of expansion (Kxx) = 1.7039e-5 /°C
x = 50.89 m. Thermal conductivity (K = 52.0 W / m k
~ Rotor disc dimension = 200 mm Specific heat (Cp) = 586.0 J/Kg k
FTRI = 500 N. Density of cast iron (ρ) = 7100 kg/m3
FTRO = 500 N. Tensile strength=137.8 MPa
FT = 1000 N. Compressive strength=571.87 MPa
TB = 100 N.m Poisson ratio (υ) = 0.25
x = 50.89 m. Modulus of Elasticit y =
~ Rotor disc dimension = 225 mm For Tension=66.144-99.46 MPa
FTRI = 500 N. For Torsion =26.87-38.58 MPA
FTRO = 500 N. Calculation-
FT = 1000 N. Factor Of Safety = (Material Strength)/(Working Stress)
TB = 112.5 N.m Assumption FOS = 2
x = 50.89 m. • FOS=137.8/Working Stress
~ Rotor disc dimension = 240 mm Working Stress = 68.9 MPa.
FTRI = 500 N. In computational analysis result shows that new disc 5 max
FTRO = 500 N. stress
FT = 1000 N. 25.653 MPa respectively.
TB = 120 N.m So design is safe for grey Cast Iron material
x = 50.89 m. Stress=68.9 MPa. ……….. (I)
RESULT CALCULATION AND DISCUSSION Properties Grey Cast Iron
Forces and torque analysis on the rotor disc was studied Modulus of elasticity of material(E)-
which, are divided by tangential force, brake torque, and the MPa 1.52 x 1011
motorcycle's stopping distance. Brake force that can be Material density (p)- (Kg/m3) 7400
converted into tangential force during rotation of disc brake.
Poisson’s ratio 0.211
The result of force value on rotor disc by tangential force and
Thermal Conductivity(k)-(w/m.k) 55
the motorcycle's stop distance are similar. When dimension of
disc brake was changed, the value of brake torque was Specific Heat Capacity - (KJ/Kg.K) 0.46
Melting Temp - (°K) 1403
different by rotor disc dimension at 300 mm, which has the
most value of brake torque, and rotor dimension at 200 mm,
Table - 2: Properties Of Grey Cast Iron
which has the least value of brake torque.
MECHANICAL MODELING
Dimensions Introduction
(mm) 200 225 240 275 300 CATIA V5 is mechanical design software, addressing
Brake advanced process centric design requirements of the
Torque(Nm) 100 112.5 120 137.5 150
International Engineering Research Journal Page No 288-300

mechanical industry. With its feature based design NEW DISC Original disc
solutions, CATIA proved to be highly productive for 1 brake has been
mechanical assemblies and drawing generation. CATIA, reduces 6 holes
with its broad range if integrated solutions for all dia 6mm. There
manufacturing organization. CATIA is the best solution are36holes
capable of addressing the complete product development Surround Dia
process, from product concept specification through 8mm arranged
product service in a fully integrated and associative equally.Original
manner. disc brake has
CATIA V5 users access the highest productivity for beenadded with 18
specific advanced processes with focused solutions. cut section&
 Sketcher changes central
 Part design structure.
 Assembly design NEW DISC Original disc
 Wireframe and surface design 2 brake has been 6
 Drafting holes dia 8 mm

DRAFTING (CAD MODEL) arranged equally


Drawings and documentation are the true products of design same & added
because they guide the manufacture of a mechanical device. with cut
CATIA automatically generate associative drafting from 3D section.Inlet &

mechanical designers and assemblies. Associability of the outlet airflow is


drawings to the 3D master representation enables to work large & small
concurrently on designs and drawings. CATIA enriches respectively. The
Generative Drafting with both integrated 2D interactive thickness has been

functionality and a productive environment for drawings 5mm.


dress-up and annotation. NEW DISC 15 Vanes have
NAME MODIFICATION DESCRIPTION 3 been arranged. 15

BASELINE Original disc Elliptical shapes


brake has been 6 arranged between
ORIGINAL
holes dia 8 mm
DISC arranged equally. Vanes clockwise
There are 36 holes Inlet of air flow &
Surrounding disc
Dia 8 mm outlet of air flow
arranged equally. between the vanes
Solid disc
is same.
International Engineering Research Journal Page No 288-300

NEW DISC Originaldisc brake


4 hasbeen Reduces6
holesDia6mm.
There is 36hole
urrounding disc
are not contain.
Originaldisc brake
has been added
with18 cut section
& changes central
structure.

NEW DISC Originaldisc brake


5 has been Reduces
diameter of
Surrounding holes
7mmarranged
Figure -1 : CAD model of Disc brake profile
equally& ncreases
no of holes. There
FORCE ANALYSIS
are 60holes (NORMAL FORCE & BRAKE TOTQUE) :
Surrounding disc
area.
Table - 3: Different disc rotor profiles comparison with
original solid disc.

ANALYSIS OF DISC BRAKE ROTOR

DISC ANALYSIS :

Figure – 2 : Imported model in ANSYS


International Engineering Research Journal Page No 288-300

Figure - 5: Deformation result of Disc


Figure -3 : Meshed model of Disc (Tetrahedron elements)

Figure – 6 : Stress result of disc


Figure – 4 : Boundary Conditions
(Force 1 = 500N, Force 2 = 500N, Torque =120 N-m) THERMAL ANALYSIS :-
International Engineering Research Journal Page No 288-300

Figure – 7 : Imported model in ANSYS


Figure – 9 : Boundary Conditions

Figure – 8 : Meshed model of Disc (Tetrahedron elements)

Figure -10:Temperature distribution on Disc


International Engineering Research Journal Page No 288-300

Software results should be compared with appropriate


theoretical results whenever possible. In most cases, one
would use theory to obtain order-of-magnitude estimates
rather than to make a head-to-head comparison since
presumably FEA is being used because a theoretical solution
is not available.
Experimental Setup & Result:
Disc is rotating at constant rpm due to the motor arrangement.
Brake is applied periodically to reduce or to stop the disc.
While applying the break the friction takes place between the
disc and friction pad. These friction forces resist to the motion
of disc, due to the friction between the disc and friction pad
heat is generated in the disc and it distribute over the disc.

CONCLUSION AND FUTURE SCOPE

Conclusion:
1) Disc profile plays important role in thermal distribution and
should be carefully selected.
2) The results we got for selected profile 3, are showing
Figure - 11: Heat Flux for Disc
good improvement compare to other profiles.

Results based on analysis carried out: Future Scope:


1) Experimental Validation need to be done to verify
Profile of Deformation Stress Heat Flux
analysis result.
Disc (mm) (Mpa) (W/mm2)
2) Modal Analysis (Vibrations) can be included for further
1 0.0029405 13.149 0.56531
improvement.
2 0.0053579 14.399 0.93465
3) Transient Thermal Analysis can be scope for further work.
3 0.0038928 20.209 1.0538
4 0.0028292 12.742 0.49042 References ;-
5 0.0047418 13.326 0.58095 [1] Ali Belhocine Mostefa Bouchetara,‖Thermomechanical
modeling of dry contacts in automotive disc brake‖ at
International Journal of Thermal science 60 (2012) 161 el 70,
Table - 4: Result for various parameters applied to 2012 Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.
different disc rotor profiles.
[2] Lee. K. & Barber J.R. (1993), ―Frictionally excited
From above results it’s clear that profile 3 is giving higher thermoelastic instability in automotive disc brakes‖, Journal
heat flux among all profiles and hence its best. Stresses are on of Tribology,Transaction of ASME,vol.115,October, pp.607-
higher side but are within allowable limit - Cast Iron material 614
is used.
Validation and Results [3] Lee. K. & Barber J.R.(1995), ―Effect of intermittent
contact on the thermoelastc instability of automotive disc
brake system‖ ,AMD, Vol 198, Thermoelastc problem & the
Validation: Thermodynamics of Continum, ASME.
Validation or Verification, in engineering is, `confirming that
[4]Hartsock, D.L. &Fash, J.W. (1999), ―Effect of pad / caliper
a product or service meets the needs of its users.’ stiffness, rotor thickness on thermo-elastic instability in disc
brakes‖, Journal of Tribology, Vol. 129, No 1, 513–517.
International Engineering Research Journal Page No 288-300

[5] Dow, T.A.& Burton,R.A. (1972), ―Thermoelastic


instability of sliding contact in the absence of wear‖, Journal
of Wear, Vol.19, pp.315-328.

[6] L. Segal(1999), ―Diagnostic method for vehicle brakes‖,


Journal of NDT&E, International 32, Isreal Institute of
Technology, pp.369-373. Prof. Vikas R. Deulgaonkar
Born in 23rd December 1981.
[7] Garcia-Pozuclo Ramos, D. (2010), ―New procedure to estimate the brake He had done his BE in Mechanical engineering from
warping in roller test‖, International Journal of Automotive Technology,, Vol Marathawada University in 2004.
No.1,pp. 691-69, Madrid, Spain. He completed his Masters Mechanical Design from Pune
[8] Alyazeed Albatlan, A. (2012), ―Automotive Brake system & pipe University in 2007.
assembly characteristics & their effect on Brake performance‖, Ain Shams He completed Ph.D in Approved Vehicle design area from
engineering Journal, Vol. 3,279 – 287. Amaravati University in 2015. During his Ph.D. he published
28 papers in Journals & conferences.
[9] Nagumas, S.(2001),‖ Automobile Axial Braking Force & it’s effect while
Tranportation‖, Technical Journal, pp.26-31, Regulation No.13, Approval of He having 10 years of teaching experience. Currently working
vehicle category M,N & O regarding to Braking, Geneva, 1995. Elsewhere. in MMCOE, Karve nagar, Pune.
[10] Xiaojing, Z., Dongsheng, W. (2011),‖The Theoretical Analysis of Test
Results Error for roller type automobile Brake Tester‖,International
Federation for Information Processing, Nanchang, China, Vol. No. 3, pp. 382
– 389. 891150, pp. 1138–1146.

[11] Mackin, T.J.: Thermal cracking in disc brakes. Engineering Failure


Analysis (2002), no.9, str.63-76.
Dr. P.A.Makasre was born in 1968 in Maharashtra.
[12] Oder, G.: Determination of non stationary thermal and stress fields in He had received BE in Mechanical engineering from
brake discs.Maribor: Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, 2008. Amaravati University in 1989. He had done Masters in
[11] Atul Sharma & M.L. Aggrawal (2012),‖Deflection & Stress Analysis of
Mechanical Design engineering from Pune University in
Disc Brake using FEM‖, at National Conference on Trends & Advances in 2010 & completed Ph.D. in Mechanical Engineering.
Mechanical Engineering, YMCA University of Science & Technology, He has 16 years of teaching experiencein various
Faridabad, Haryana. institutions. He is author of 4 National & 12 International
[12] Daniel Das, A., Christo Reegan Raj, V., Preethy, S., Ramya Bharani, Technical papers.
G.,‖Structural Analysis of Disc Brake in Automobiles‖,at International
Journal of Latest Trends in Engineering & Technology, ISSN:2278-621 ,
Vol. 2.

[13] Oder,G., Reibenschuh, M., Lerher,


T.,Sraml,M.,Samec,B.;Potrc,I(2009),‖Thermal And Stress Analysis of Disc
Brake in Railway Vehicle‖, at International Journal of Advance Engineering,
Vol.-3, ISSN 1846-5900.

Yogesh H. Mishra (1st August 1987)

Was Born in 1st August 1987 in Ballarshah city, India.


Completed BE in Mechanical Engineering from Amaravati
University in 2009. Now Pursuing ME in Mechanical Design
from Pune University.
Currently working in KGC Engg. Projects pvt. Ltd. As Sr.
Production engineer. Having 6 years of working experience.
International Engineering Research Journal Page No 288-300