You are on page 1of 12

An organic product is made from materials produced by organic agriculture.

There are different types of organic


products. However organic product is more known for food items like organic grocery, organic vegetables,
organic certified food etc. Most appropriately organic products can be explained as any products that is made or
cultivated organically should be treated as organic product. Most of the country has a very strict food safety and
security guidelines to protect the consumers from consuming harmful products. Most of the country has their
own standard to define products as organic. USA uses USDA certification - NOP National Organic Program to
defined a cultivated products as organic. Indian Organic - NPOP (National Program for Organic Production).

3.1 INTRODUCTION Increasing awareness has caused effective shifts in consumers’ tastes and preferences which have
led to the domestic as well as global rise in demand for organic products. The country’s organic food market is
transforming into world’s fastest growing organic food market backed by a shift in consumer behavior and spending
patterns. Due to this effective shift from conventional to organic products ,Organic food industry has been blossoming in
India. The present research work attempted to gain knowledge about consumer awareness and opinion about organic
food products . it was noted while studying level of knowledge and awareness regarding organic food products that
majority of the respondents associated organic products being without chemical fertilizers and healthy and safe ,
however majority were unaware about the availability of organic products and had not ever tried it. Majority of them
gave importance to certification as a way to be assured that the product was organic and were willing to pay a price
premium. This preview suggested lack of knowledge and information as important variables playing important roles in
consumption of the organic products. Awareness about negative externalities generated by conventional production
system is gaining momentum with consumers around the world, opting for alternatively, namely organically, produced
food products. Information about consumers’ awareness is an essential element for farmers, producers and marketing
agencies to successfully plan production that can capture a greater market share and grab the opportunities .the
effective factors influencing consumers’ awareness about the benefits of organic food are specific socioeconomic
determinants that changes awareness about organic food products in Indian households. 2 Awareness about organic
food is influenced by more effective factors such as gender, nationality, and education as well as income, occupation
and age. These factors clears the concept of higher spending on organic food, but also where people are highly sensitive
to information provided about organic food including research beneficiaries like food marketing planners, researchers,
and agricultural and food policy makers. Consumers’ awareness about organic food is influenced only by the level of
education, income and the degree by which a consumer is nutrition-conscious. That is, all the stated variables are
positively associated with consumers’ awareness about organic food. Theoretically, awareness about a product can be
measured by using two techniques:  Brand recall and  Brand recognition. In brand recall tests, researchers measure
the ability of consumers to recall brand names in a particular product category. In a brand recognition test, researchers
provide consumers with a list of brands and ask them if they can remember seeing any of the brands before. For
empirical studies, both techniques can be used to provide simple descriptions (i.e., average, range of response, mode,
and standard deviation) or to provide more detail by using factor analysis. The Specific influence of non-income and non-
occupation status variables such as gender, education, and nationality could be more relevant to changes on the
dependent variable (i.e., awareness for organic food products). Variables such as household income and occupation
status are important to make the an effective demand. We all know that organic products are good for health, tastes
great and organic agriculture, farming is even better for the farmers . It helps in maintaining the productivity of soil, but
also good income wise, because organic farming involves the use of modern techniques and latest technology for
reducing costs and help in sustaining energy. It is good for the environment also including land, water and air, which
means good for all types of ecosystem and can’t cause any kind of harm to any species. 3 Stated that there is general
consumer awareness around the world, the literature also suggests that consumers have inconsistent interpretations
about ‘organic’. For example, organic consumers associated organic products with no pesticides, no artificial fertilizer,
no growth regulators, and residue-free products, absence of chemicals, ‘absence of growth hormones’, and ‘products
grown naturally’. In other words, both buyers of organic and non-organic products felt that organic alternatives have no
pesticides and/or use no chemical fertilizers, and are natural and healthy. Consumer knowledge and awareness will
continue to be important in the organic food market in two respects. First, there is still a segment of the potential
market that is not yet informed about organic foods. Second, knowledge and awareness about organic products can
affect attitudes and perceptions about the product and, ultimately, buying decisions of customers. Generally, organic
food is better for the environment because the produce is grown naturally, or as close to it as possible. It makes sense
that if the soil from which food comes is richer, the produce would have more nutrients. If the soil is richer, the food
would be richer, also. Taste is important, but it is also subjective. Organic food consumers says that their food tastes
better, and they may be right because the soil is richer. But the key to taste is more likely to be freshness than method
of production. Fresh foods, often more available from local, organic farmers, taste better than those that have been
produced far away, stored, and transported over long distances. Foods that sit in a truck for days are going to lose flavor
and nutrients. The transportation and storage of those foods will also have a greater negative impact on the
environment. 3.2 VARIOUS AWARENESS PROGRAMS Government of India has been conducted various awareness
program to get the people aware about the organic food products .These awareness programs gives us immense
knowledge regarding the new trends in organic food industry. The programs includes various seminar, international
conferences and national conference, trade fairs, trade union, trade meeting, organic get together, farmers meeting
hub, bio diversity statues and many more .It will help us to gain more knowledge regarding effects of organic food on
health and fruitful achievements of Eco friendly Environment. 4 FIGURE: 3.1 3.3 OBJECTIVE & SUBJECTIVE KNOWLEDGE
There are two type of knowledge regarding organic food generally can be seen .first, objective and second, subjective.
Both shows a positive correlation. Higher levels of objective and subjective knowledge regarding organic food are
positively related to a more positive attitude towards organic food. It results in greater experience and a more frequent
use of information. Like, Membership of an “Ecological Organization” (VELT) is also related to higher levels of
knowledge. Some variables shows significant positive relationship with subjective knowledge, but not with objective
knowledge. 5 Attitude significantly and positively influence subjective knowledge Perceived barriers significant negative
influence on attitude subjective knowledge Likelihood of consuming organic vegetables, attitude, motivations, presence
of children. significantly and positively influence subjective knowledge Norm and female gender Significantly positive
influence . No significant influence on the likelihood of actually consuming organic objective knowledge TABLE: 3.1
Purchasing decisions are becoming increasingly complicated as consumers more aware and concerned about the quality,
safety, provenance and sustainability of the food they purchase. However, the level of awareness, interest and concern
varies significantly between consumer segments and across food categories. Our society is that source of information
where individuals are bombarded with hundreds competing messages every day. Policy makers and food manufacturers
are being challenged to find innovative and effective ways to communicate messages to their potential customers and
accomplish a variety of objectives. These stakeholders have different motivations for being interested in consumers
shifting their consumption towards organic products. Policy makers are interested in the wellbeing of the consumer and
the impact on natural resources, food manufacturers are fundamentally driven by profit and follows the growing
interest of consumers for environmental concerns might be a means to get to that end. In order to communicate the
products knowledge and for active awareness, various communication channels and Newspapers may be helpful. In
order to develop and 6 sustain innovative communication strategies, there is a need to understand targets’ needs and
behavior, markets trends and effectiveness of existing marketing communication. Organic knowledge depends mostly
on consumers health habits, suggesting that consumers who follow a healthy lifestyle are more likely to know organic
food products. On the other hand, consumers who have positive attitudes towards organic foods and towards
Environment, are more likely to purchase them. Actually, they believe that they are beneficial for their health, but also
they are environmentally friendly. Moreover, they think that it is good to buy them and they support to buy them.
However, Spanish consumers do not present a pro-social behavior because social norms were not found to be significant
on the intention to purchase organic foods. Future research must be addressed to investigate which factors drive
consumers to be more enthusiastic. Only once these factors have been identified, it would be possible to increase the
demand of organic foods in India, since the high competence between them and other healthy and functional food
products limit the expansion of the organic market. Providing significant evidence by the government that there is a low
level of risk requires a method of analyzing food risks that is evidence-based and transparent, thus it results in effective
management strategies which must be communicated clearly to consumers. Although awareness of organic products is
spreading in India and it started to gain more attention and thus there is still a huge need for information among the
consumers. More supermarkets and kirana stores do not yet sell organic products, although availability in supermarkets
is rapidly improving. Retailers are not able to offer a complete range of organic food products in the market. Consumers
in developed countries are more familiar with wide range of organic food products when compared to undeveloped and
developing countries. Organic retailers as well companies are making effort to expand their product range but due to
lack of supply, unavailability etc. Consumers are more reluctant in purchasing organic products as they prefer to
purchase only partly organic food items. Supplying a wide product range, organic retailers are also struggling to
guarantee a consistent product availability and quality of fresh organic products. 7 Organic stakeholders use several
marketing strategies to improve their product availability, improve supply chain integration, to provide training for
farmers and assist demand-based production planning as well. Organic companies and retailers with supply chains are
trying much to expand their product range. Local organic food products and seasonal products are marketed as a part of
enjoyable and sustainable food lifestyle. 3.4 HEALTH & SEASONALITY Awareness among the seasonality of agricultural
products is declining and people end up eating of new products and varieties. Several organic retailers and companies
are making an effort to make organic food available to local stores , so that it can reach a broad spectrum of consumers.
Organic produce is considered to be an elitist product. Hence, awareness must be spread among all classes of people.
Organic food consumption is increasing due to environmental and health concerns associated with food products. As
consumer awareness on organic food products and trust are increasing the most effective way for raising the market
share. Prime objective is to produce all varieties of organic products due to its various agro climatic regions. this holds
promise for the organic producers to tap the market which is growing progressively in the domestic market as well as in
export market. 3.5 CONSUMER ATTITUDE AND BEHAVIOUR 3.5.1 Consumer behavior analysis Consumer behavior is a
complex pattern and difficult to understand for marketing researcher, but simply it can be defined as a study of
psychological, social and physical actions when people buy, use and dispose products, services, ideas and
practices(Kotler2012). Basic idea behind the consumer research was questioning of buying reasons, however
researchers have to go for deeper study and also must ask people how and in which conditions they purchase and
consume the product. (Blackwell et al., 2011) Consumer behavior consists of ideas, feelings, experiences and actions of
consumers with additional environmental factors like advertisement, prices and quality of product. According to( Olson
and Peter, 2008 )consumer behavior is a dynamic 8 process, because of the continuous changes in ideas, perceptions
and activities of consumers as an individual or in a group. Major problem of marketing strategies is to answer
consumer’s response. Buyer‘s black box is the vital point that companies have to discover from various researches in
market. (Armstrong 2007 and Kotler, 2012) Source: Biofach, india, 2014 FIGURE: 3.2 3.5.2 Determinants of consumer
analysis According to Peter, Kotler and Olson, consumers must be analyzed by three objects; (i) Affection (ii) Cognition
(iii) Behavior (iv) Environment (v) Relations between above four objects. Each and every single element can affect other
elements or it can be a reason to realize. So, all elements should be considered when deciding for marketing strategy.
Every individual has his/her own way of understanding, perceiving and explaining of the surroundings in his own
environment. These qualities’ can be common depending on common attitude and beliefs. Affect and cognition “are
connected to each other intensively however they are originated totally in different ways as feelings and thoughts
(Kotler, 2012). 8 process, because of the continuous changes in ideas, perceptions and activities of consumers as an
individual or in a group. Major problem of marketing strategies is to answer consumer’s response. Buyer‘s black box is
the vital point that companies have to discover from various researches in market. (Armstrong 2007 and Kotler, 2012)
Source: Biofach, india, 2014 FIGURE: 3.2 3.5.2 Determinants of consumer analysis According to Peter, Kotler and Olson,
consumers must be analyzed by three objects; (i) Affection (ii) Cognition (iii) Behavior (iv) Environment (v) Relations
between above four objects. Each and every single element can affect other elements or it can be a reason to realize. So,
all elements should be considered when deciding for marketing strategy. Every individual has his/her own way of
understanding, perceiving and explaining of the surroundings in his own environment. These qualities’ can be common
depending on common attitude and beliefs. Affect and cognition “are connected to each other intensively however they
are originated totally in different ways as feelings and thoughts (Kotler, 2012). 8 process, because of the continuous
changes in ideas, perceptions and activities of consumers as an individual or in a group. Major problem of marketing
strategies is to answer consumer’s response. Buyer‘s black box is the vital point that companies have to discover from
various researches in market. (Armstrong 2007 and Kotler, 2012) Source: Biofach, india, 2014 FIGURE: 3.2 3.5.2
Determinants of consumer analysis According to Peter, Kotler and Olson, consumers must be analyzed by three objects;
(i) Affection (ii) Cognition (iii) Behavior (iv) Environment (v) Relations between above four objects. Each and every single
element can affect other elements or it can be a reason to realize. So, all elements should be considered when deciding
for marketing strategy. Every individual has his/her own way of understanding, perceiving and explaining of the
surroundings in his own environment. These qualities’ can be common depending on common attitude and beliefs.
Affect and cognition “are connected to each other intensively however they are originated totally in different ways as
feelings and thoughts (Kotler, 2012). 9 Peter and Olson defined consumer behavior consumer‘s activities which can be
analyzed by quantitative and qualitative methods. Successes of marketing strategies pass through not only changing of
this behavior of the consumers but also affection and cognition. Although a person likes a pro duct, it can be possible
that she/he does not purchase it. ( Peter and Olson, 2008) it depends on the purchasing priority and Consumer
environment is the surrounding and outside effects. All consumers are exposed to social pressure, culture, family,
personal influence and situation effects. (Blackwell et al., 2001 and Kotler 2007) . 3.5.3 LEARNING AND KNOWLEDGE
Learning is gained by experience and it is affecting behavior. Scientists thought that almost all behaviors are learnt.
Leaning stands between a stimuli and a response and consumer behavior as learnt attitude and ho w it is learnt and
experienced is really vital for marketers. ( Solomon, 2006) Companies must examine the consumer knowledge about a
product primilarly and to find out how consumers shopping habits; from where they buy, how often they purchase,
which product groups have importance and how much they are aware of the products or brands help companies to
motive and reinforce consumer for buying behavior. (Blackwell et al., 2001) For example, a person is willing to buy a
latest version of mobile phone and the idea of this buying behavior can come into mind maybe from an advertisement
or by friend. This is called “cues” which determines how, where and when a consumer responds. Finally, our consumer
decides for a certain brand and buys after using several times and if the consumer is satisfied, probably from the
experience and positive image of the previous one he would buy the same brand as well. (Armstrong and Kotler, 2007,
2012). She/he Consumers think about a product according to desired properties, probable risks and advantages and
came towards a product. Relative buying attributes are connected to personal values and needs, consumer s build
knowledge bridges and this is examined by marketing strategies. Peter &Olson(008,2013) said that Some features are
highly connected to personal values and belief while others are less. 10 3.5.4 Internal factors affecting consumer
behavior  Demographics and personal choices Demo graphics is special character to see how population is changing in
numbers, and distribution of genders, age, economic situation, birth rates and etc are changing frequently. According to
Black well ,(2011)For example, increased women economic activities put them in the first place for companies as women
purchase much more than men. Furthermore, distribution of wealth is in focus as it has importance to determine buying
power and market potential of the targeted consumers. (Solomon, 2006) . “Family structure, marriage and divorce
rates” have also specific effects on consumption habits example couples with children buy much more health concern
food than singles which can prefer junky food. Also, children have effects on changing buying decisions of the parents
when they are shopping in a supermarket, therefore advertisements are more relevant to children with young
population. (Solomon et al., 2012) Another important factor is the “personality” that separates a single consumer from
the whole society. Personality is described as consistent responses to stimuli. It is having a certain personal values in
many ways. It could be a marketing tool to connect some people with definite products and brands. (Chisnall, 1995 )
According to a marketing research, people who prefer strong coffee seem to be more social and aggressive than the
consumers who prefer light and milky coffee segments. So according to customer behavior some coffee companies has
to shift on light coffee segments also. (Solomon, 2006) “Lifestyle” of a person is a further key for buying habits and this
attribute is important to be measured to know how consumers spend money, time and in which way. (Solomon, 2012)
Lifestyle can be more adaptable to new circumstances than personality. If a person changes his job, that also affects his
purchasing power and as buying behavior due to changed income pattern (Armstrong and Kotler, 2007) 11 3.5.5 External
factors affecting consumer behavior  Behavioral Variables : Culture and Subculture Culture important external factors
that have a big effect on consumer behavior , ideas and wishes. As we know, Behavior is learnt process and culture has
power on our behavior as we all grown up in a certain group of society with peculiar cultural properties. (Armstrong and
Kotler, 2007) Culture is the combination of the values, norms and tradition between the generations. A product which is
going to be introduced in a market that carries cultural specialties it is for the wellbeing for the targeted society.
Furthermore, a product can point out the on going changes in the culture although it does not belong to pointed
population. For example, frozen products or pre-cooked foods are marketed in some cultures that targets the changes in
the household lifestyle like both parents are working or decrease of housewife in the population. (Solomon et al., 2002)
When consumers buy a product, they expect it to perform to co-ordinate their needs. But these needs are
differentiating various cultures. For instance, a organic food produe company gets the higher performance and lasting
effect for a decade by selling the organic food frequently as compared to conventional food but in some area they could
not find such big customers. This is all related to different culture. As the society is mobile and continuously changing
the life style and food choices, they do not want to spend too much on conventional category of food instead they
prefer rather healthier one. (Blackwell et al., 2001,Zonalim,2012) A growing and big trend in developing countries is the
change of eating habits. Most of the societies start to choose more healthy diets especially with balanced nutritional
meals. This health awareness movement has boomed organic foods on the shelves of the supermarkets. (Peter and
Olson, 2008) as well as big bazar and co-operative societies now a days (survey 2016). Cultures can be also divided into
various groups called subculture. These people belonging to the same subculture have more common values, religion
and mostly coming from same region and ethnicity. (Armstrong and Kotler , 2007,2012) Age 12 groups can be a
subculture in the society. For example while some brands are targeted to teen-age groups the others can be offered to
matured market like health care products, home decoration, travel and so on. (Blackwell et al., 2001) Race groups in a
society can show diverse consumption habit an diverse selection system. For example, a doll company had characteristic
to show that all black women have different appearance. (Peter and Olson, 2008).License the organic food companies
had introduced to the market changed taste and characteristics to show that all organic foods have different
appearance.  Social class Social class represents the consumer’s position in a society with income level, family back
growth and profession. The amount of money spent and the way of this expenditure are both considered in the social
class. Societies are generally having social hierarchies like low, middle and high income consumer groups. The people in
the common groups seemed to have similar lifestyles, jobs and tastes, preferences and they mostly socialized between
each other and affect their behavior in the same manner. (Solomon et al., 2002, 2011) Consumer behavior and social
class can be inter linked in different ways. For example, wealthy consumers mostly prefer magazines about fashion,
techno logy, some specific sport branches like sailing or art and decoration. Because these group of people have mostly
interest on these subjects in common and these magazines considered as high segment in the market and sold in special
shops with higher prices. (Armstrong and Kotler, 2007). Social classes and their needs are continuously changing. Today,
even factory workers can drink quality wines, go to holidays to another countries and becoming middle class with
modern life styles. In mobile societies, the women are also contributing to house income, so that the low class consumer
behavior can switch to middle consumption. However, this does not mean that all habits of consumption will change, so
marketers must to aware of these interactions. (Chisnall, 2014) 13  Family and Group Influence A group is a cumulative
of people that have and distinctive relations between each other. The most common and natural group in the society is
the family that mostly act together. Marriage is for forming family. Family is one of the important factors to change
buying and consumption behavior of an individual. (Chisnall, 2014) Family members have different roles like initiator,
influencer, decider, buyer customer, consumer and user. The impacts of family members on different assortments of
products are changing depending on family size, structure and hierarchy in buying decision process. Moreover, women
are targeted in developed societies as their income and responsibilities are increasing day by day and result of
togetherness in house work affects buying behavior of men. (Blackwell et al., 2001) The other group of people can be
formed by sharing the same profession, beliefs and hobbies. (Chisnall, 2014) Reference group consists of one or more
people and this group is taken as a reference when evaluating peoples ‘values and attitudes. Reference groups not only
affect the values but also they can change buying behavior of person such as; products that are consumed, placed to
shop and brands which is to (Olson and Peter, 2012). As an example, down to Earth, Sanjeevani and Morarka are famous
players in their field of organic food to attract more consumers that admire these people most. After the above
discussion, we can conclude that the group influence plays a vital role in consumer behavior. To know the effect of
reference group on consumer behavior, first marketer should analyze why people are dedicated to these groups. Their
managers and producers should know the leaders of these reference groups and they need to consider their ideas and
behavior while concluding. It is well known factors that, leaders are affecting group members with their ideology and
distinctive abilities. (Armstrong and Kotler, 2007, 2012). Half of the preference is directed by the leaders to convince
specific organic food free from chemicals and pesticides. 14  Consumer Attitude Attitude has been simply defined by All
port “A mental and natural state of readiness, organized through experience, exerting a directive or dynamic influence
upon the individual‘s response to all objects and situations with which is related”. Attitude is shaped to compromise
consumers’ needs and it could be changed by external effects like; entrance in new community, more knowledge and
environment. (Chisnall, 2014) Attitude measurement is necessary for finding out how marketing strategies and
advertisements are influencing people, new products introduced in the market or existing product‘s future demand can
be predicted by measuring consumers‘ attitude. (Blackwell et al. , 2013) Due to the various marketing strategies to
increase consumer portfolio in the market, companies conduct large scale consumer attitude surveys to find out
changes over time. Several example has been seen how the companies ended up with failure due to their lack of interest
in society‘s attitude changes toward their product or service. (Peter and Olson, 2014), in the conclusion attitude is not
the exact fore runners that can conclude which consumption behavior will be positive in the future, and what buyers are
likely to buy in defined situation. (Chisnall, 1995) Source: : NaturaLink: Unique Segmentation of Organic related to
attitude (SPINS 2015) FIGURE: 3.3 14  Consumer Attitude Attitude has been simply defined by All port “A mental and
natural state of readiness, organized through experience, exerting a directive or dynamic influence upon the individual‘s
response to all objects and situations with which is related”. Attitude is shaped to compromise consumers’ needs and it
could be changed by external effects like; entrance in new community, more knowledge and environment. (Chisnall,
2014) Attitude measurement is necessary for finding out how marketing strategies and advertisements are influencing
people, new products introduced in the market or existing product‘s future demand can be predicted by measuring
consumers‘ attitude. (Blackwell et al. , 2013) Due to the various marketing strategies to increase consumer portfolio in
the market, companies conduct large scale consumer attitude surveys to find out changes over time. Several example
has been seen how the companies ended up with failure due to their lack of interest in society‘s attitude changes
toward their product or service. (Peter and Olson, 2014), in the conclusion attitude is not the exact fore runners that can
conclude which consumption behavior will be positive in the future, and what buyers are likely to buy in defined
situation. (Chisnall, 1995) Source: : NaturaLink: Unique Segmentation of Organic related to attitude (SPINS 2015)
FIGURE: 3.3 14  Consumer Attitude Attitude has been simply defined by All port “A mental and natural state of
readiness, organized through experience, exerting a directive or dynamic influence upon the individual‘s response to all
objects and situations with which is related”. Attitude is shaped to compromise consumers’ needs and it could be
changed by external effects like; entrance in new community, more knowledge and environment. (Chisnall, 2014)
Attitude measurement is necessary for finding out how marketing strategies and advertisements are influencing people,
new products introduced in the market or existing product‘s future demand can be predicted by measuring consumers‘
attitude. (Blackwell et al. , 2013) Due to the various marketing strategies to increase consumer portfolio in the market,
companies conduct large scale consumer attitude surveys to find out changes over time. Several example has been seen
how the companies ended up with failure due to their lack of interest in society‘s attitude changes toward their product
or service. (Peter and Olson, 2014), in the conclusion attitude is not the exact fore runners that can conclude which
consumption behavior will be positive in the future, and what buyers are likely to buy in defined situation. (Chisnall,
1995) Source: : NaturaLink: Unique Segmentation of Organic related to attitude (SPINS 2015) FIGURE: 3.3 15 3.6
CONSUMER MOTIVATION TOWARDS ORGANICS  Health Every consumer indicates health as a —health “as a dominant
motivation towards organic consumption. People want to use organic products for better health. Moreover, preventing
and treating illnesses or food allergies is another health related attribute who encourage to use organic food keeping
the health condition, avoiding chemical residues is also one of the motive that is mentioned in surveys. Especially less
addictive, pesticide, fertilizer and more vitamin and mineral content of fruits and vegetables are responsible for health
protection of individual. One of the consumers stated that; eating fruits and vegetables without pealing the skin
contributes to dietary nutrition. In that case, organic products take attention from consumers with natural and
uncontaminated production methods. health is the most important factor to have an organic food for the older people.
 Environmental protection Environmental resources are motives for majority of organic consumers but not the main or
strong reason as health. Environmental attitude include respecting and protecting environment, sustainability and
production in harmony with nature. (Zanoli et al., 2004,2014) According to Alvensleben 1997 ecological reasons for
buying organic products is the second biggest attitude regarding the health motivation in India. Moreover, younger
people usually prefer organic food products due to environmental friendly production methods. Environmental concerns
are very strongly expressed in consuming fresh and organic fruits and vegetables. Majority of the Europeans are not
highly motivated due to environmental- friendly production methods in the case of meat products and cereals except
Switzerland and Denmark.  Animal welfare Appropriate husbandry is mentioned and given importance by organic
consumers. It is mentioned in all kind of consumer surveys. Most of the western European 16 consumers agree on
motives for buying organic dairy products is animal welfare as a second value after health. It means the health is the
prime factor and animal welfare is secondary, Swiss consumers buy organic dairy products especially linked to animal
welfare and they feel responsible from the animals on the farms. It is survey that, Except French consumers animal
welfare is the dominant reason for European organic meat consumption (Eurpean survey,2013). Organic lamp meat is
purchased as outbreak of values; animal welfare together with taste. Swiss and Danish consumers are affected by animal
husbandry methods and, they feel happy when animals are live happy as well. Animal welfare motivation is also
connected with safety, healthiness, taste and high quality. Meat scandals like BSE and antibiotic residues have boomed
up the demand for organic meat products. According to a India consumer study, people are concerned about animal
welfare and this directs them to purchase and use animal friendly products. According to Harper and Makatouni 2002
organic consumers are more concerned to ethical issues and mostly following a vegetarian diet. So finally we can say
that people whether organic user or non-organic users are highly concern with the animal welfare.  High quality Due to
special production methods Organic products are perceived as high quality and premium products. Some authors argued
that there should be a price difference between organic and conventional products to reflect high quality. For Indians
consumers, high quality is the second most important attribute after health to consume organic products.  Origin Lots
of organic consumers pay attention of the products coming from regional agricultural practices. Basically it is the point
of debate, where the organic food comes from. Worldwide consumer survey finds out that; Australian, British, German
and Swiss people prefer buying products from their local area. They believe to contribute to environmental protection
by decreasing the food miles especially in 17 Switzer land and Denmark. And , regular consumers of these European
countries have stated that they have problem when consuming products coming from distant lands. Moreover, buying
from the region is closely related with supporting small organic farmers and assurance of quality and safety. It also
prohibits the international big food producers in their region. Marketers are aiming to satisfy the consumer’s needs that
frequently changes in certain time or period. People‘s needs and motivations are intensively connected to each other.
Motivations changes the behavior and direct specific action. A motivated person’s involvement to an activity is obviously
more than the unmotivated. The most common idea of motivation was propounded by Abraham Maslow and Sigmund
Freud. Maslow has developed a theory that classifies the needs as lower and higher wishes. 3.7 CONSUMER BUYING
DECISION PROCESS Consumer buying decision starts with a need recognition and end up with divestment process. These
paths of purchase behavior enable marketers to interpret the buyer in one of these steps and change his decision.
(Blackwell et al., 2001)  Need recognition: The first stage is the need of consumer towards a product. These needs can
emerge from individual cause like physical necessities or environment of the person. (Armstrong and Kotler, 2007)
Manufactures should continuously trace the consumers ‘need and problems. It is compulsory stage to be aware of
introducing wrong products to the market, where almost no demand is raised. (Blackwell et al., 2001)  Information
Search: After recognition of a need consumer start to seek for information in the external area. Consumer probably buys
the product instead of searching when the information came to mind or he is close to target. On the other side, some
consumer s like to go for shopping and spend time for inquiring. In many cases search takes short time and consumer’s
actions depend on their memories such as remembering a brand or a price or they just repeat their old purchases. (
Solomon, 2006; Armstrong and Kotler, 2007.2012) 18  Pre-purchase evaluation of alternatives: Consumer spends much
of the time to choose in between alter natives. Some product groups have hundreds of different brands like if we take
about organic food, brands are Morarka, Sanjeevani and on the other hand, some brands have so many different sorts
like cereals, dry fruits. (Solomon, 2006) Before purchasing consumer will get sured himself then select the best. Mostly
consumers use the predefined evaluation in the memory like; price, brand or services and choose between them.
Consumers are mostly sensible to price, size, and quantity changes of the preferred brands. If there is a slight price raise
in their certain brand, they will evaluate if it is proper or not. If they perceive the change inconvenient, they will
probably shift to another (Blackwell et al., 2011) Marketers should survey how consumers evaluate the alternatives in
the market. (Armstrong and Kotler, 2007)  Purchase: After evaluating the different products, a person came to know a
decision of purchasing. This is not a end with the selected product. One of the factor can be, influence of the other such
as a person close to us recommends strongly another product o r a salesman in the shop can convince the consumer
that other brand is better than the selected product of the consumer. Another factor is the unexpected changes during
the purchase. For Example:- In super market, if sales man convince for the organic food at the place of conventional one.
 Consumption: It is important to find out how consumers use the products as this will decide the satisfaction level of
the consumer and affect the pre-purchasing activities. Moreover, how the product is used and for which purpose it is
purchased will be the indicator of long lasting purchase behavior. (Blackwell et al., 2001,2012)  Post-consumption
Evaluation: There are several surveys shows that satisfaction of the consumers is decreasing in many sectors. When
dissatisfaction arises, this will change attitude and behavior towards that brand and will affect negatively the future
consumption of the same product. (Solomon, 2006) Dissatisfaction sometimes occurs due to the big expectations of the
consumed good and marketer advice seller’ s not to exaggerate the properties of the products to reduce the same
problem. 19  Divestment: This is the last step in the consumer decision process. Consumer can dispose, recycle or sell
the product after they use. They can decide on whether to dispose or recycle the packing of the consumed good
depends on concerns. Philip Kotler (2007,2012,2016) FIGURE-3.4 Maslow’s Need Recognition, Self Actualization Model,
Hieratical Model of Maslow s, buying decision model of Maslow. 3.8 VARIABLES RESPONSIBLE FOR THE DEMAND 3.8.1.
CONVENTIONAL VARIABLE: INCOME & PRICE  Income Several studies has been done on organic consumers regarding
are diverse. Some nations are well familiar with organic food, other especially developing countries INFORMATION
SEARCH PRE- PURCHASE EVOLUTION O PURCHASE CONSUMPTION POST CONSUMPTION EVOLUTION DIVESTMENT NEED
RECOGNITION STEPS OF BUYING DECISIONS 20 involved in newly. There are some studies regarding to non-users of
organic food and trying to dissolve and understand the reasons of not consuming. Today, income and price differences
are no longer the only barriers and also green movement is no longer the only motive in the sector. Marketers and
companies have to be aware of that organic consumption is rapidly expanding among the people so products produced
must be price effective.. In the field of organic new ideology and new individual needs are rising. These factors bring
new demand on the market. Organic food consumers are represented across income and educational levels. Purchasing
of organic product is closely related to health and environmental concerns, leading to the new ideas that values and
personal interests play a role in making one an organic shopper.  Price Organic food price differences are the major
barrier for most of the people to keep buying the same. iEspecially in developing countries markets and organic food
prices can be really high that only high income group can consume. In mature markets such as, India even the price
reductions can be seen in a period of time to attracted more people through various environmental programs and trade
fairs and seminars. Most of the Indians are willing to pay price premium around 5-10 %. When the premiums increase,
Demand is rapidly decreasing. Especially upper class consumers have high interest to pay considerable price premiums
to organic products. On the other hand, upper class consumers are willing to pay more for organically produced if they
follow a health conscious eating style. Price generally has a negative effect on quantity of organic product demanded.
Most stores do not charge a higher mark-up for organic produce; rather, the premium most often comes from the
producer or wholesaler. By definition, those currently purchasing organic produce are willing to pay this premium. While
most shoppers are willing to pay more for organic product, demand quickly decreases 21 as the price premium for
organic produce increases. So lastly we can say there are different relations of demand and premium for upper class or
upper middle class. 3.8.2 DEMOGRAPHIC VARIABLES: Several researchers aimed to distinguish organic consumers by
considering demographic factor like age, sex, income, presence of children and education. Most studies use terms of
regular and occasional buyers while other uses terms; unaware consumers, unaware non- buyers, buyers of organic
food. Indian organic consumers into four groups such as; (1) Explorers who are highly exploratory and (2) Married older
female buyers; who are environmental conscious, educated and (3) Young middle age groups; motivated people are in
young middle age groups very motivated towards organic idea; (4) Price sensitive youngsters , low educated and married
female. The demographic traits of organic buyers are quite interesting and different from what one might expect. (1)
One might expect that those with higher incomes and more affluent lifestyles, who could devote more resources to
buying the best quality products, would be prime organic shoppers. (2) One might expect that those who were better
educated would be more likely to have strong health and environmental concerns . (3) One might expect that families
with children would demand more produce grown in “healthier” ways. These ideas may be confusing because of the
Income and education are not necessarily related to organic produce demand in the India market. Also, people who hold
strong health or environmental concerns are likely to be organic shoppers. 22  Gender Many surveys find out that
women are more disposed organic foods than men. A consumer study showed that females feel more responsible for
the health of the family than males. So this led women to buy more organic products while men mostly purchase due to
taste. Women think more about the family and health and concludes organic food has better taste and quality.  Age
Most of the studies cannot find the exact difference between age groups For instance; in India it is estimated that
regular organic consumers are older and especially 45- 54 years old people who prefer cereals and organic vegetables
than other age groups. However, the same study found that younger people spend more money on organics. youngest
and oldest showed less interest and people reaching to 30 years of age and have no children show high interest. Indian
organic consumer forum found that organic buyers are generally younger than 45 years old.  Presence of children
Having Children in the household seem to have positive effect on organic food consumption. claim families with children
focus on health more than other others. This statement can be powered by a NPOP, Indian survey which is declaring
that; couples and families with babies and small children are more interested in consuming organic food products. On
the other hand a UK study described regular consumers as having fewer children than others. (Padel and Foster, 2005)
Moreover, Wier and Calverley (2002) stated that families with teenagers have lower intention to buy.  Education
Regular consume are found to be high educated than occasional and non-buyers. Regular organic consumers have more
information about products. In addition, there is positive relation between product knowledge and buying frequency.
High educated consumers are found to have better product knowledge. However, 23 sometimes labeling and brands in
the organic market can be problem for consumers half of the consumers are seeking for organic name on the label and
not searching for brands when buying a product. On the other hand, highly educated consumers have confusion with
different labels from private associations. Government had introduced national logo in 2001 to overcome this label
barrier after this labeling, that positive effect had shown in the market.  Income Studies have different results on
income variable. Some researchers claim that income has positive effect on organic food consumption, another claim is,
people who grown up and live in urban consume more than rural people. organic consumers mostly live in big cities and
urban area with higher socio-economical status and with higher income group. 3.8.3 SENSORY VARIABLES:  Taste Tasty
food is the desire of every person eating tasty food is a general motive for everybody to satisfy our needs. Most organic
consumers think that organic pro ducts taste more natural, intense and rich in flavor. Indian occasional buyers are
mostly affected from the taste of the organic products. On the other side, frequent buyers and elder people find organic
products tastier and this is the one of the main reason for customers to purchase organic food. Women find organic
products tastier than men. Taste is sensory property of the food, it can be diverse depending on the product group.
Organic fruit juice and milk were given to the respondents. Organic orange juice competed with conventional economy
and high quality products and at the end it is supported by the majority that organic juice taste different and better. On
the other hand, organic milk was failed in the sensory taste and there was no significant difference found by the
researchers. This study comes to the conclusion that, not all the product groups in organic assortments taste better than
conventional ones. However, as taste found to be a motive for consumers, 24 companies continue to put on the ads that
organic taste better without any scientific evidence which is later banned by Advertising Authority in India. 
Appearance Bad looking or poor appearance can be reason not to buy organic food. If appearance of an organic product
is not satisfying for consumers, they can feel cheated and additionally they can think that they are having low quality.
People mostly are not willing to pay more for low quality products and in case of organic food if they face with low
quality they think that it is really not good for healthy, even the regular buyers do not prefer bad looking pro ducts. 
Trust and food safety Consumers’ trust in organic products is one of the key elements to understanding their behavior.
People want to feel secure when paying a price premium to organic products. Moreover, purchasers want to be sure
that when they buy a product it is really coming from organic agriculture without any cheating in certification and
production side. Some consumers also want to trust organic products that they protect animal welfare and also their
food safety and health. Food safety is a major reason to buy organic products. Now a days people are less worried about
security of the food which can make people to change attitude towards consumption. A wide food survey by NPOP
found that food safety is more important factor to decide on organic products than ethical values.  Availability Even if
the customers want to buy organic, they cannot reach the products in daily life. Some consumers in surveys declared
that, after work when going to home they feel exhausted, starving and mostly in a rush to shop and cook immediately
after wards. So, there is not much time for paying special interest to look for organics. A logical survey found that in a
quarter of the surveyed consumers even do not know where to search for organic products and a 35 % of the consumers
find to look for organic products very hard..These are not easily available. 25 Consumers tend to have a generally-
positive view of organic products. However, buyers and managers tend to view organic product more negatively than
consumers. This view may contribute to the problem of availability since these are the people responsible for bringing
organic product to the retail marketplace The present study also concludes that, educational qualification plays a vital
role in analyzing the level of awareness among consumers towards organic food products. . To conclude this, the organic
food products will expand to grow and overcoming the hindrances and also problems on implementing agricultural
market in India. Organic Farming practices are in India for centuries and there are many parts of the country where
people only prefer to eat Organic (such as Sikkim). As the awareness level has been rising among people now a days at a
very fast pace because of easy access to mass information through the internet, people know how organic products are
produced and how they are beneficial for them. 3.9 CONCLUSION As a result of this, more and more people in India are
going for organic then traditional and organic market has been increasing. The rise in consumption of organic products is
so much that total consumption of organic products in the last years has exceeded total consumption of organic
products over the last few decades. But as per the statistical data available, the total percentage of the food market for
organic products in India is still not more than two percent. Whereas, in developed countries like USA, Germany, France,
China, Canada, and many others, the foodmarket for organic products is in multiple billion dollars.