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What is covers by the | Biological — pees Act? ‘ Ie Act covers conservation, use of biological resources and associated knowledge | ‘ocourring in India for commercial or research purposes or for the purposes of bio- survey and bio-utilisation. It provides a framework for access to biological resources and sharing ‘the benefits arising out of such access and use. ‘The Act also includes in its ambit the transfer of research results and application for Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs) relating to Indian Biological foreigners, non-resident Indians, association or organization that entities require the approval of the Nati Biodiversity Authority when they use biological resources and associated knowledge occurring in India for commercial or research purposes or The Role of National Insect-Honey Bee in Sweet Revolution in India Naresh Kadyan wth Mrs. Sukanya Beal ‘or the purposes of bio-survey or bio-utlisation. Indians and Indian institutions do not require the approval of the National Biodiversity Authority when they engage in the above mentioned activities. However, they would need to inform the State Biodiversity Boards prior to undertaking such activities. Any commercial application related to use of biological resources should be ‘approved by the Authority. Who and what is excluded by the Biological Diversity Act? The Act excludes Indian biological resources that are normally traded as commodities. Such exemption holds only so far the biological resources are used as commodities and for no other purpose. The Act also excludes traditional uses of Indian biological resources and associated knowledge and when they are used in collaborative research projects between Indian and foreign institutions with the of the central government. What is the National Biodiversity Authority required to do when it receives an application for approval to use Indian biological resources and associated knowledge? The National Biodiversity Authority shall give approval, based on agreement with State Biodiversity Boards (SBBs), only after establishing mutually agreed terms and an equitable benefit sharing agreement between the users of the biological resources and associated knowledge and concerned local bodies and benefit claimers. What are the consequences of lack of compliance with the Biological Diversity Act? In cases where an approval of the National Biodiversity Authority is required for the use of Indian biological resources and associated knowledge and such approval is not obtained, the punishment can extend to five years imprisonment or a fine of ten lakh rupees or both. In cases where the State Biodiversity Board neads to be intimated about the use of Indian biological resources and associated knowledge and this is not done, the punishment can extent to three years imprisonment or a fine of five lakh rupees or both. Any offence under the Act is cognizable and non-bailable. Relevant definitions for the purposes of the Biological Diversity Act: Biological resources: means plants, animals, microorganisms, genetic material and by- products of value but excluding human genetic material. Bio-survey and bio-utilization: means survey or collection of species, sub-species, genes, components and extracts of biological resources for any purpose including for characterisation, inventories and bioassay. Benefit claimers: means conservers of biological resources and their by-produets and creators and holders of knowledge relating to the use of such biological resources. Commercial utilization: means using biological resources as drugs, industrial enzymes, food flavours, fragrances, cosmetics, emulsifiers, oleoresins, colours, extracts and genes used for improving crops and livestock through genetic intervention. Honey and beekeeping have a long history in India. Honey was the first sweet food tasted by the ancient Indian inhabiting rock shelters and forests. The raw materials for the beekeeping industry are mainly pollen and nectar that come from flowering plants. Both the natural and cultivated vegetation in India constitute an immense potential for development of beekeeping. About 500 flowering plant species, both wild and cultivated, are useful as major or minor sources of nectar and pollen. There are at least four species of true honey bees and three species of the stingless bees. Several sub-species and races of these are known to exist. In recent years the exotic honey bee has been introduced. Together these represent a wide variety of bee fauna that can be utilized for the development of honey industry in the country. There are several types of indigenous and traditional hives including logs, clay pots, wall niches, baskets and boxes of different sizes and shapes. Varieties: Rapeseed / Mustard Honey, Eucalyptus Honey, Lychee Honey, Sunflower Honey, Karanj / Pongamea Honey, Multi-flora Himalayan Honey, Acacia Honey, Wild Flora Honey, Multi and Mono floral Honey are some of the major varieties of Natural Honey. Areas of Production: North East Region of India and Maharashtra are the key areas for natural honey production. India Facts and Figures The country has exported 51547.31 MT of Natural Honey to the world for the worth of Rs. 653.58 crore/ 101.32 USD Millions during the year of 2017-18. Major Export Destinations (2017-18): U S A, Saudi Arab, U Arab Emts, Canada and Qatar. Product: Natural Honey USA 99,649.63] 61,895.10 42,654.52 | 50,962.43, ‘Saudi Arab 1.17365] 1,826.75 770.72 2,554.71| 4,018.69 U Arab Emts 95037| _1,774.31| _1,260.16| 2,084.89] 1,726.16| 2,743.52 Canada 31779 672.41 453.34 755.97 604.64 998,02 Qatar 128.20 466.93 236.34 524.77 370.55 917.52 Bangladesh Pr 516.67 774.84 717.45 299.83 614.83 776.87 Nepal 297.01 499.16 309.48 434.39 515.02 642.50 Kuwait 182.92 343.64 255.47 595.60 220.80 496.45 ‘Morocco 492.88 826.02 319.03 aa4.17 355.68 462.56 Germany 40.23 85.96 281.75 428.77 308.29 423,79 ‘Oman 100.86 222.84 180.16 960.20 209.08 411.87 Belgium (0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 236.36 329.30 ‘Yemen Republe 20.80 42.16 175.02. ‘371.01 127.44 267.77 Iraq 36.90 102,03 113.84 155.96 105.25 197.50 Poland 0.00 0.00 0.02 (0.05 153.00 474.73 Singapore 16.00) 48.77 42.51 162.78 50.41 180.91 Kenya 10.76 15.10 62.13 104.50 90.91 142.74 Libya 209.47 491.85 283.61 513.61 81.62 132.96 ‘Japan 23.70 87.05 78.34 300.16 30.92 109.55 Malaysia 23.18 52.86 47.89 100.08 47.52 95.91 Baharain is 29.40 64.05 40.08 56.42 56.67 94.28 ‘Sudan 0.00 0.00 55.28 95.85 49.12 79.94 Uruguay 0.00 (0.00 (0.00 0.00 74.00 78.88 Bhutan (0.00 0.00 40.50 84.24 52.81 78.63 Bahamas 40.00 97.99 10.46 28.11 29.24 68.52 Mauritius 8.32 198.84 24.99 57.43 27.60 68.06) Jordan 26.32 64.93 45.93 105.58 25.33 58.02 Australia 25:38 77.18 28.39 49.63 2851 55.07 Sri Lanka Dsr 22.73 48.91 10.05 21.08 21.34 618