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Log Evaluation and QA/QC Seminar

Borehole Seismic

Lukas Wihardjo
Apr-2014
What is a VSP?

A VSP or Vertical Seismic Profile is the


process of recording seismic data in a
wellbore environment. The geophones
are vertical in the earth versus
horizontal along it as in surface
seismic.
SEISMIC SIGNAL IN THE BOREHOLE
Seismic Signal in the Borehole

Time
• Downgoing direct arrival
• Reflected upgoing primary
• Downgoing multiple
• Reflected upgoing multiple

Depth
Vertical Seismic Profile

• Time-Depth
• Seismic Reflections
Time

Depth
One-Way Time vs. Two Way Time

Surface Seismic VSP TWT = OWT + TT


Time

TWT
TT Reflecti
on
TWT

TT

OWT Transit Reflection


Time (TT) Time (OWT)

Depth
Borehole Multiples

Upgoing Multiples
Borehole Multiples

Downgoing Multiple
Borehole Multiples

All Multiples
Tube Wave Energy
Source

Tube waves are generated when surface


waves from the source come in contact
with the borehole fluid and become a
guided wave traveling up and down the At changes in the
borehole. borehole
dimensions some
As the tube wave travels vertically in the of the tube wave
borehole it pushes the wall horizontally. energy will be
When the geophones are properly reflected back to
the surface. This
clamped to the borehole wall most of the
will also occur
tube wave energy will be seen in the when the energy
horizontal geophones. reaches the
bottom of the
hole.
Tube Waves

Raw Data
One-Way Time
Y
Channel
Depth
Vertical

Tube
HODOGM wave
Horizontal

Y
Channel

Tube
HODOGM
wave
Surface Seismic Comparison

Surface Seismic VSP Data


Offset Depth
BOREHOLE SURVEY TYPES
Borehole Seismic History
Checkshot Single Trace 2-D Lateral Coverage
Geometry of surveys

CHECKSHOT ZERO OFFSET WALKABOVE OFFSET

HORIZONTAL WALKAWAY 3D VSP SALT PROX


Checkshot Surveys

CHECKSHOT
Source Formation Travel
Times
Depth (m)

Depth Model Surface


Seismic

Acoustic Formation
Impedance
Velocities
Geophones

Synthetic
Seismogram
Depth-Velocity
Model Inputs

Surface Seismic
Time (s)
Correlation

Wavelet
Processing
Zero Offset VSP

ZERO OFFSET Source Surface Seismic


Correlation
Depth (m)

Depth Model Surface


Seismic

Over-pressure
Zone Prediction
Geophones

Corridor
Stack
Multiple Pattern
Identification

Wavelet
Time (s)
Processing

Formation
Velocities
Vertical Incident VSP

WALKABOVE
Sources Surface Seismic
Correlation
Depth (m)

Depth Model Surface


Seismic

Lateral Coverage
Beneath Well
Geophones

VSP
Image
Multiple Pattern
Identification

Fault and Dip


Time (s)
Identification

Formation
Velocities
Offset VSP

OFFSET
Source Surface Seismic
Correlation
Depth (m)
Depth Model Surface
Seismic

Fault and Dip


Identification
VSP
Geophones

Image
Salt Proximity
Identification

Shear Wave
Time (s)
Analysis

Surface Seismic
Survey Design
Imaging Walkaway

WALKAWAY
Source Surface Seismic
Correlation
Depth (m)

Surface
Seismic
Geophones
Fault and Dip
Identification

Depth Model Shear Wave


VSP
Analysis
Image

Surface Seismic
Survey Design
AVO Walkaway
AVO WALKAWAY
Source Positions True Seismic
P-Wave S-Wave Amplitude
With Changing
Offset

P-P and P-SV


Analysis

Anisotropy
velocity model

Reflector Q factor analysis


Salt Proximity Survey
Provides Accurate
Salt Face Image

2D, 2.5D and 3D


Imaging Solutions
3D VSP
Very High Sub-
3-DVSP
3D VSP
Surface Imaging
Well 1 Well 2
Resolution

Exploration and
Development
Surface Applications
Well 1 Well 2
seismic 3D
PSDM Detailed Preplanning
and 3D Modeling
Required

3D-VSP Depth
Migration