Using What-If Analysis Using what-if analysis, you can compare the changes in the results of a formula if you

change the input values. In Excel 2010, you can perform what-if analysis by using scenarios, goal seek, and data table. The following table describes the different methods to perform what-if analysis.

Method

Description

Scenario In Excel 2010, you can save different sets of values as scenarios that you can substitute as required in a • worksheet. You can switch between the different scenarios to compare the different results. To create scenarios, perform the following steps: Goal Seek In Excel 2010, if you know the result of a formula, you can work backwards to the exact input value required to achieve the result by using the Goal Seek tool. However, you can only find one input value for a formula by using Goal Seek. To use Goal Seek, the cell that displays the results should contain a formula. To perform what-if analysis by using Goal Seek, perform the following steps: 1. On the Data tab, in the Data Tools group, click What-If Analysis, and then click Goal Seek. The Goal Seek dialog box appears. 2. In the Goal Seek dialog box, in the Set cell box, type the result cell reference. 3. In the To value box, type the result of the formula. 4. To find the input value of the formula, in the By changing cell box, type the reference of the cell containing the other input value, and then click OK. Excel 2010 displays the input value in the second cell referenced in the formula Data Table In Excel 2010, you view different results of a formula by modifying the values of one or two input values of the formula by using a data table. Excel 2010 replaces the values in the formula and calculates the new result by using the new values. Data tables can be either a one-variable data table or a two-variable data table. Use a one-variable data table to check how different values of one variable change the results of a formula. A two-variable data table helps you view how different values of two variables change the results of a formula. To use a data table, perform the following steps: • On the Data tab, in the Data Tools group, click the What-If Analysis button, and then click Data Table.

Performing Calculations
Create and edit a formula: You can use two types of cell referencing in formulas: relative referencing and absolute referencing. Let’s learn more about the two types. Relative reference. In relative referencing, you use the cell name—for example, C1—to refer to a cell in a formula. When you move or copy the formula to another cell, Excel 2010 automatically changes the reference of the cell in the formula according to the new location of the cell. Suppose that cell A4 contains the following formula: =(A1+A2+A3)/F1 When you copy the formula from cell A4 to cell B4, Excel 2010 changes the formula to =(B1+B2+B3)/G1. Predefined functions in Excel 2010 use relative referencing of cells. Absolute reference. If you want to prevent Excel 2010 from automatically updating the cell references when you move or copy a formula, use absolute referencing. To use absolute referencing in a formula, insert a dollar symbol before the row and the column number in the cell name.

Error Checking. you can audit formulas in a worksheet by tracing precedents and dependents. edit the formula. Excel 2010 helps you to easily edit formulas in a worksheet. TipTo view all the formulas in a worksheet. use the Evaluate Formula command in the Formula Auditing group on the Formulas tab. if required. To trace precedents of a formula. select the cell that contains the value. Similarly. click Show Formulas in the Formula Auditing group on the Formulas tab. in the Formula Auditing group. in the formula bar. checking errors. The Error Checking dialog box displays the errors in the formulas. You can evaluate the value of each expression in the formula and then calculate the final result. To step through complex formulas. Creating and editing Pivot Tables . and then on the Formulas tab. and ignore the error if required. The Trace Precedents option in Excel 2010 helps you find all the cells that a formula depends on. Audit A formula: Using the auditing commands in the Formula Auditing group on the Formulas tab. Tracing precedents and dependents. Use the Previous and Next commands to view the other errors in the worksheet. click Trace Precedents. double-click the cell containing the formula. You can find help about the error. Excel 2010 displays the formula. click the cell that contains the formula. in the Formula Auditing group. and evaluate the final result for the formula. Excel 2010 marks all the dependent cells with blue tracer arrows. one expression at a time. Excel 2010 copies the formula without changing the referencing of the cells in the formula. and then press ENTER. Stepping through a formula. To edit a formula. Excel 2010 helps you step through the formula. click Trace Dependents. To view cells that contain formulas that depend on the value of a cell. Using the Error checking option in the Formula Auditing group. In the Evaluate Formula dialog box.Suppose that cell A4 contains the following formula: =($A$1+$A$2+$A$3)/$G$1 When you copy the formula from cell A4 to cell B4. change the formula as required. a worksheet can contain several formulas that are dependent on the value of one cell. and then on the Formulas tab. A formula that you add in a cell is always dependent on other cells referenced in the formula. and stepping through a formula. You can use the Remove Arrows command in the Formula Auditing group on the Formulas tab to clear the arrows displayed when tracing precedents and dependents in the worksheet. you can find errors in a formula.

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ROW Labels: Country . Month .

VALUES Label: Sum of year. see the very top at left hand side Move Year Field to Row Label: since you don’t want to calculate the year . Sum of sales To select Country separately: Move Country field to Report Filter.

Move Year field on top of Moth field so you can view details of the year in order Formatting Pivot Table .

click Conditional Formatting. and then specify the appropriate criteria for formatting the range of cells. 3. contextual tooltips. you can select the PivotTable style elements to display in the worksheet. Alt Text tab. specify a name for the style. and select the width options to be applied on PivotTable updates. On the Home tab. click Options. On the Data tab. and field captions and filter drop downs. if you select the Banded Columns check box. perform the following steps: 1. you first need to select the required range of cells. You can also apply conditional formatting to the PivotTable. Display tab. select the Set as default PivotTable quick style for this document check box. Similarly. 2. the even-numbered columns will have a different formatting from the oddnumbered columns. In the New PivotTable Quick Style dialog box. For example. On the PivotTable Tools Design tab. Notice that by default Custom Lists are set to be used when sorting data in a PivotTable. On the Printing tab. . and display options. in the Table Element list. select the required PivotTable element. Totals & Filters. in the PivotTable Style Options group. in the PivotTable Styles gallery. printing. 4. To create a new PivotTable style. To view the PivotTable options. To apply the conditional formatting. you can select the required elements to apply the selected style to. You can also set print titles on this tab. click the More button. You can also specify the text to be displayed in empty cells in a PivotTable. On the PivotTable Tools Design tab. You can choose to hide the subtotals in a PivotTable. specify the number of fields in the report filter area. such as the layout. • Layout & Format tab. The new style that you create appears in the gallery in the PivotTable Styles gallery. you can specify display options such as displaying expand/collapse buttons. You can display grand totals for rows. and then click New PivotTable Style. columns. You can also select the Classic PivotTable layout. On the Display tab. or both. On the Layout & Format tab. you can also hide the grand totals in the table. Data tab. On the Alt Text tab. in the PivotTable group. You can also choose to allow multiple filters per field. you can view and change the options for the layout and formatting of the PivotTable. and then click Format. The Title and the Description fields can be read to the person with the disability • • • • • Setting layout options You can customize the layout of a PivotTable by using the options in the Layout group on the PivotTable Tools Design tab. you can set printing options such as printing expand/collapse buttons and repeating row labels on each printer page. To modify or delete the new custom style. Setting PivotTable options You can set various options for the PivotTable. Printing tab. On the Totals & Filters tab. in the PivotTable Styles group. in the Styles group. In addition. You can merge and center cells with labels. The PivotTable Options dialog box opens. on the PivotTable Tools Options tab. To set the new style as the default style for the current worksheet. You can also specify where you want the subtotals to appear in the PivotTable—at the top or bottom of data groups. you specify whether grand totals are displayed for rows and columns. You can choose to save source data with file and refresh data when opening a file. you need to right-click the style and select the appropriate option.Creating and formatting PivotTable styles: You can enhance a PivotTable in Excel 2010 by applying a predefined style or creating a new style. you can specify how Excel 2010 works with PivotTable data. To specify the formatting for a PivotTable element. you can provide alternative text for the PivotTable data to help people with visual or cognitive impairments that may not be able to see or understand the data in the table.

Greater Than. In the Insert Slicers dialog box. and then click the appropriate operator. Excel 2010 provides a wide range of layouts such as compact. and then select the required sort order. 2. To summarize the data in a PivotTable report. 2. In the Label Filter dialog box. click Select. and then click the required summary function. containing buttons for the PivotTable data for that field. Using a calculated field. 2. To filter data. If you want to filter text. you can quickly filter data in PivotTables by using slicers. you can sort. Filtering PivotTable Data You can also filter the values in the PivotTable. Does Not Equal. To sort the data in labels. To filter text. If you need to work with the entire PivotTable. In a slicer. click Summarize Values By. you use the fields included in the PivotTable in the formula. and tabular forms for PivotTable reports. Similarly. Average. and then click OK. you can add a blank row between each group of data by using the Blank Rows command in the Layout group on the PivotTable Tools Design tab. on the PivotTable Tools Options tab. the data in the PivotTable is filtered by the corresponding value. you can select the entire table. On the PivotTable Tools Options tab. To filter numbers in a PivotTable. perform the following steps: To filter numbers. Sort smallest to largest and largest to smallest You can customize the sorting options by clicking More Sort Options. you can specify how you want to display the PivotTable report. click Insert Slicer. perform the following steps: 1. the value filter conditions include Equals. click the Row Labels or Column Labels arrow. point to Value Filters. Filtering Data in a PivotTable To filter text in a PivotTable. click the Row Labels or Column Labels arrow. Analyzing PivotTable Data: When analyzing data in a PivotTable in Excel 2010. and then click OK. and Less Than. In Excel 2010. type the criteria text in the box.Using the Report Layout command. you can select from the available sorting options: • • • • Numbers. Excel 2010 includes label filter conditions such as Begins with. and Contains. point to Label Filters. outline. In the Value Filter dialog box. Grouping Data . and then click the appropriate operator. Sort A to Z and Z to A Dates. in the PivotTable report. and group data to focus on specific data. in the Sort & Filter group. After you insert a calculated field. Excel 2010 displays the field in the PivotTable with the calculated value. select the fields for which you want to create a slicer. in the Calculations group. You can also create and modify calculated fields in the PivotTable. To create a slicer. Ends With. in the Actions group. Count. To emphasize the groups in the table. Observe that when you click a button in a slicer. When creating a calculated field. Performing Calculations on PivotTable Data You can use formulas and functions on PivotTable data to calculate values in a PivotTable report. and then click OK. You can then specify the required filter conditions for text or numbers. Max. perform the following steps: 1. you can create a custom field containing a formula that works with data in the PivotTable. filter. Select the required field in the Select field list. Sort oldest to newest and newest to oldest Time. Excel 2010 includes predefined summary functions such as Sum. use the Label Filters option. To filter numbers. use the Value Filters option. and then click Entire PivotTable. Sort smallest to largest and largest to smallest Text. Based on the type of data in the field. 1. Sorting PivotTable Data Sorting the data by using the row and column labels helps you reorder the PivotTable data. On the PivotTable Tools Options tab. and Min. A slicer appears for each field. click the button values by which you want to filter the PivotTable data. enter the criteria value in the box.

and pie charts. in the Group group. select the required style. click Change Chart Type. To group data. and then click PivotChart. in the Shape Styles gallery. Similarly. 2. WORKING WITH PIVOTCHARTS: A PivotChart is a graphical representation of the data in a PivotTable. In the Change Chart Type dialog box. select a cell in the existing table. specify a suitable name for the new field. in the Calculations group. on the PivotChart Tools Design tab. and then click OK. drag the field to the Values box. you can change the chart type to represent the data in a different format. according to your preferences. This table includes the sales figures from eight cities in two countries. Select the required chart type. Items. select the chart element. Suppose that you need to analyze data in a table that contains the annual sales of a product for two consecutive years. plot area. To modify an element. and then click OK. click Group Selection. and then use the commands on the PivotChart Tools Format tab to format it. you can choose various chart types such as column charts. and then click Calculated Field. in the Type group. Using a PivotChart you can easily analyze PivotTable data by sorting and filtering. . To pivot a PivotChart. select the legend. After creating a PivotChart. perform the following steps: 1. select the appropriate options. In the Formula box. For example. in the Tables group. If you need the summation of a field. On the PivotTable Tools Options tab. click Fields. select the required range of cells in the row or column labels. In the Create PivotTable with PivotChart dialog box. line charts. click the PivotTable arrow. in the Name box. you can add a field as the Legend in the chart by dragging the field in the Legend Fields box. You can decide the field you want to view along the x-axis in the chart by dragging the field to the Axis Fields box. drag the required fields to the boxes in the Drag fields between areas below section. and then on the PivotTable Tools Options tab. 3. type the formula with the respective field names.You can also group the data in the row labels and column labels of a PivotTable. and then in the Shape Styles group. A PivotChart consists of several elements such as the axes. and legend that you can modify by using the commands on the PivotChart Tools Format tab. if you want to change the style of the legend in the chart. You can select other fields to view in the chart. and then click OK. to focus on the data for each country. To change the chart type of a PivotChart. & Sets. Adding a Calculated Field To add a calculated field to the PivotTable. In the Insert Calculated Field dialog box. For example. On the Insert tab. To create a PivotChart. drag the Country field to the Report Filter box. You can either type the field names or double-click a field name in the Fields list.

Excel 2010 includes predefined layouts in the Chart Layouts group on the PivotChart Tools Design tab. For example. select the legend. and then in the Labels group. Suppose that you need to analyze data in a table that contains the annual sales of a product for two consecutive years. You can also customize the layout by using the commands on the PivotChart Tools Layout tab. click Legend. and data labels and change the position of the legend. to display the legend to the left of the chart. and then select Show Legend at Left. Select the Year Sale . This table includes the sales figures from eight cities in two countries. axis titles. You can add a chart title.You can change the layout of a PivotChart.

Report Filter box: Country Legend Field: City Axis Filter: Year Value: Sum of Sales .

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the chart is updated to include the new data points in the data series to the right of the current series. When you append data at the end of a data series. To view the added data. Editing Charts While using charts. drag the sizing handles of the chart to the right. you can use the various editing and formatting commands on the Chart Tools Design.EDITING CHARTS When working with charts in Excel 2010. . and Chart Tools Format tabs to change the layout and design of the charts. Chart Tools Layout. Let’s learn more about editing and formatting charts. you can add data to the chart in the worksheet at any time.

To insert an object. shapes. You can also insert objects such as pictures. in the Labels group. Also. the changes are automatically reflected in the chart. . you can format it by selecting the text and then using the formatting commands on the Home and the Chart Tools Format tabs. Show Axis in Billions. by selecting a cell or range of cells and then pressing the DELETE key. A text box appears above the chart. and text box in the chart. and then click Above Chart. USING TABLE STYLES After you create a table in Excel 2010. click Chart Title. and then make the changes. To add a chart title above a chart. To move the legend to the bottom of the chart. you can enhance the table by applying a table style. Formatting Chart Elements In addition to adding and editing data. in the Table Styles group. you can edit and format chart elements such as chart labels and chart axes by using the options and commands on the Chart Tools Layout tab. select the legend. and then point to Primary Horizontal Axes. you can change the position of the legend. When you click Axes. select the required style. using the options in the Axes group. you need to use the commands in the Insert group on the Chart Tools Layout tab. and Show Axis with Log Scale. you can specify the formatting options for the vertical and horizontal axes. Type the required title and then press ENTER. and then on the Table Tools Design tab. click Quick Styles. the gallery displays options such as Show without labeling and pointing to the Primary Vertical Axis option shows options such as Show Axis in Millions. After inserting the title. and then select Show Legend at Bottom. you can double-click the required cell in the worksheet. Similarly. To view the predefined table styles included in Excel 2010. in the Labels group. on the Chart Tools Layout tab. click a cell in the table.To edit the chart data. you can delete the chart data from the worksheet. Notice that each time you modify the chart data in the worksheet. click Legend. To apply a predefined table style. Similarly.

in the Quick Styles gallery. . type a name for the style and format the required table elements. In the Modify Table Quick Style dialog box. To modify a custom style.After selecting a style for the table. click the New Table Style option. you can select the Total Row check box if you want the worksheet to display the total number of rows present in the table. In the New Table Quick Style dialog box. you can also create custom table styles. To set a default style. make the required changes. right-click the appropriate style. right-click the style in the Quick Styles gallery. In the Quick Styles gallery. You can also set a table style as the default style for all the tables in the document. and then click OK. in the Quick Styles gallery. you can format the style elements by selecting options in the Table Style Options group. For example. right-click the custom style. and then click Set As Default. click OK. To delete a style. In the confirmation message box. After you save the new style. and then click Modify. In addition to the predefined styles. and then click Delete. You can also set the new table style as the default style for the active document. notice that it appears in the Quick Styles gallery.