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# Tutorial-1 : Novel separation techniques Time: 1 hr

Q. 1 A silica-glass membrane, 2-μm thick with pores <10 A in diameter, has been developed
for separating H2 from CO at a temperature of 500℉. From laboratory data, the membrane
permeabilities for H2 and CO respectively, are 200,000 and 700 barrer, where the barrer, a
common unit for gas permeation, is defined by:

## 1 barrer = 10-10 cm3 (STP)-cm/cm2-s-cmHg

where cm3 (STP)/(cm2-s) refers to the volumetric transmembrane flux of the diffusing species
in terms of standard conditions of 0℃ and 1atm; cm refers to the membrane thickness; and
cmHg refers to the transmembrane partial-pressure driving force for the diffusing species.

If the transmembrane, partial-pressure driving forces for H2 and CO, respectively, are 240 psi
and 80 psi, calculate the transmembrane fluxes for H2 and CO in kmol/m2-s.

## Tutorial- 2 : Novel separation techniques Time: 1 hr

Q.1 It is desired to pass water at 70℉ through a supported polypropylene membrane, with a
skin of 0.003-cm thickness and 35% porosity, at the rate of 200 m3/m2 membrane surface
area/day. The pores can be considered straight cylinders of uniform diameter equal to 0.2 𝜇m.
If the pressure on the downstream side of the membrane is 150 kPa, estimate the required
pressure on the upstream side of the membrane. The pressure drop through the support is
negligible

## Ans : 309 kPa

Tutorial -3. Novel separation techniques Time : 1 hr.

Q. 1. A hollow-fiber module has 4,000 ft2 of membrane surface area based on the size of the
fibers, which are 42 μm I. D × 85 μm O. D × 1.2 m long each. Determine the: (a) number of
hollow fibers in the module; (b) diameter of the module, assuming the fibers are on a square
spacing of 120 μm center-to-center; and (c) membrane surface area per unit volume of module
(packing density) m2/m3. (5)
Ans: (a) 2350000 fibers (b) 20.8 cm. (c) 9150 m2/m3.
Q.2. A hollow-fiber module has 3,500 ft2 of membrane surface area based on the size of the
fibers, which are 42 μm I. D × 85 μm O. D × 1.2 m long each. Determine the: (a) number of
hollow fibers in the module; (b) diameter of the module, assuming the fibers are on a square
spacing of 110 𝜇𝑚 center-to-center; and (c) membrane surface area per unit volume of module
(packing density) m2/m3. (5)

## Tutorial-4 : Novel separation techniques Time: 1 hr

Q.1 Porous membrane with pressure differential, Water at 70℃ is passed through a
polyethylene membrane of 25% porosity with an average pore diameter of 0.3 𝜇m and an
average tortuosity of 1.3. The pressures on the downstream and upstream sides of the
membrane are 125 kPa and 500 kPa, respectively. Estimate the flux of water in m3/m2-day. In
addition, check it whether laminar or turbulence flow. Assume membrane is 1 micron thick
and flow is fully developed laminar flow. At 70℃, viscosity of water is 0.42 cP.
Ans T4 : 41,700 m3/m2-day. and laminar, velocity = 2.51 m/s

## Tutorial-5 : Novel separation techniques Time: 1 hr

Q.1 Beck and Schultz  measured effective diffusivities of urea and different sugars, in
aqueous solutions, through microporous mica membranes especially prepared to give almost
straight, elliptical pores of almost uniform size. Based on the following data for a membrane
and two solutes, estimate transmembrane fluxes for the two solutes in g/cm2-s at 25°C. Assume
the aqueous solutions on either side of the membrane are sufficiently dilute that no
multicomponent diffusional effects are present. Supporting data given below:
Figure : Data for membrane materials

Ans: For urea: N1 = 2.16 × 10-7 gm/cm2.s and For 𝛽-dextrin: N2 = 1.90 × 10-8 gm/cm2.s

## Tutorial-6 : Novel separation techniques Time: 1 hr

Q.1 A gas mixture of hydrogen (H) and ethane (E) is to be partially separated with a composite
membrane having a 1-µm-thick porous skin with an average pore size of 20 angustrom (10-10
m) and a porosity of 30%. Assume τ = 1.5. The pressure on either side of the membrane is 10
atm and the temperature is 100 °C. Estimate permeability’s of the components in barrer
Ans: 𝑃𝑀𝐻 = 220, 000 barrer and 𝑃𝑀𝐸 = 63400 barrer.

## Q.2 Solute Flux Through a Membrane:

A dilute solution of solute A in solvent B is passed through a tubular- membrane separator,
where the feed flows through the tubes. At a certain location, solute concentrations on the feed
and permeate sides are 5 × 10-2 kmol/m3 and 1.5 × 10-2 kmol/m3 respectively, the permeance
of the membrane for solute A is given by the membrane vendor as 7.3× 10-5 m/s. If the tube-
side Reynolds number is 15,000, the feed-side solute Schmidt number is 500, the diffusivity of
the feed-side solute is 6.5 × 10-5 cm2/s, and the inside diameter of the tube is 0.5 cm, estimate
the solute flux through the membrane if the mass-transfer resistance on the permeate side of
the membrane is negligible.
Ans: NA = 0.875 (87.5 %).
Tutorial-7 : Novel separation techniques Time: 1 hr
Electrodialysis of Brackish Water:
Estimate membrane area and electrical-energy requirements for an electro-dialysis process to reduce
the salts (NaCl) content of 24,000 m3/day of brackish water from 1,500 mg/L to 300 mg/L with with a
50% conversion. Assume each membrane has a surface area of 0.5 m2 and each stack contains 300 cell
pairs. A reasonable current density is 5 mA/cm2, and the current efficiency is 0.8 (80%). Ans: Am =
6876 m2 and P = 344 kW