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chapter 4 of lectures of prof. Muzio M. Gola on fatigue - Politecnico di Torino

chapter 4 of lectures of prof. Muzio M. Gola on fatigue - Politecnico di Torino

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Gola

Costruzione di macchine - Machine Design

Fatigue - Chapter 4

a

ol

Chapters

.g

1 History and problem overview

2 Stress-life: material properties

m

3 Stress-life: component - infinite life

4 Stress-life: finite life io

5 Strain-life

6 Crack propagation and fracture

uz

m

Pierluigi Lenoci

These slides are a support to the Machine Design, and related, classes held by prof. M.M. Gola at POLITO, Technical University of Torino – For educational purposes and classroom use only

Chapter 2 - Stress-life: finite life

m.gola

2011

2014

Finite life

1. Linear Damage or Miner's Rule

a

2. Cycle counting

ol

3. Finite life and stress spectra

4. Finite life and the exceedance diagram

.g

5. Appendix: the Haibach extension

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io

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March 2014 Politecnico di Torino - Italia

Sections 1, 2 - Finite life

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tensile, but compressive stress could be included as well without

difficulty). They deal with variable stresses that sooner or later will

a

produce a failure, i.e. life is finite.

ol

Section 1 defines the Miner’s rule for cumulative damage at multiple

.g

stress levels applied during the component life. A numerical example

is worked out for better clarity.

m

First the concept of “equivalent stress amplitude” is introduced.

Then it is shown how the simplified interpolation formulas

io

introduced in Ch. 2 Sect. 8 can extend the power of this concept.

uz

Section 2 shows one “cycle counting” method (the bath-tub version

of the rain-flow), and its practical application when a stress

m

March 2014 Politecnico di Torino - Italia

1. Linear Damage or Miner's Rule (1/11)

m.gola

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2008

and was further developed by Miner** in 1945. Today the method is

commonly known as Miner's Rule.

a

The linear damage rule is based on the concept of cumulative

ol

damage.

.g

* A. Palmgren, “Die Dauerhaftigkeit der Kugellager,” Z. Ver. Deutsch. Ing.,

68 (1924)

** M. A. Miner, “Cumulative damage in fatigue,” J. Appl. Mech., 12 (1945)

m

Read also: io

M. A. Miner, “Estimation of fatigue life with Particular Emphasis on

uz

Cumulative Damage , ch. 12 in ” Metal Fatigue”, G. Sines and J.L.

Waisman editors, Mc Graw Hill, USA, (1959)

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March 2014 Politecnico di Torino - Italia

1. Linear Damage or Miner's Rule (2/11)

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the fraction of the total damage W necessary to produce a crack.

a

the sum of the wi ’s reaches the limit W: ∑ wi = W

ol

i

i : index of each set of applied load cycles at constant stress

.g

level σi

wi : damage fraction accumulated during the load cycles of

m

interval i at constant stress level σi

W : total damage constant

io

uz

The linear damage rule states that the damage fraction at a given

constant stress level σi is equal to a mathematical fraction:

m

n

divided by the fatigue life Ni at stress level σi , i.e. : w i = i

Ni

Version Muzio M. Gola - DIMEAS 5

March 2014 Politecnico di Torino - Italia

1. Linear Damage or Miner's Rule (3/11)

m.gola

2011

2008

ni

∑N = 1

a

i i

ol

When there is only one level σi , i=1, final failure occurs for ni = Ni

(of course...what else?): then, according to Miner, the damage

.g

constant W is assumed to be equal to 1.

m

The results of Miner's original tests showed that the damage

constant W corresponding to failure ranged from 0.61 to 1.45,

io

other researchers have shown variations as large as 0.18 to 23.0,

uz

with most results tending to fall between 0.5 and 2.0,

it seems to be true that the average value is close to Miner's

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March 2014 Politecnico di Torino - Italia

1. Linear Damage or Miner's Rule (4/11)

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By far the largest effort in this respect, however, was spent by Kotte

and Eulitz of the Technical University of Dresden … who collected

hundreds of test programmes, i.e. many thousands of variable-

amplitude and corresponding constant-amplitude tests and carried

a

out new Miner calculations.

ol

One outstanding result of all these checks was that Miner's rule

.g

generally proved wildly unconservative; that is, the specimens -- in

the case of the IABG programme, the components -- failed long

m

before their predicted lives; factors of 10 and more on the

unconservative side were not uncommon.

io

from: Walter Schütz, A History of Fatigue, Engineering Fracture

Mechanics Vol. 54, No. 2, pp. 263-300, 1996

uz

m

damage constant less than 1 prescribed.

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1. Linear Damage or Miner's Rule (5/11)

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case for σm=0 and eight blocks 1 61 1,0E+04 4,8E+04

of stresses. 2 58 1,0E+04 7,5E+04

3 55 1,5E+04 1,3E+05

a

4 50 1,7E+05 3,5E+05

We shall employ non dimensional

ol

5 43 2,0E+05

values sa=σa/Rm*100 for stresses. 6 38 1,6E+06

.g

7 29 8,0E+06

100

sa 8 25 2,0E+07

90

m

80

70

60

io sa,3 The cycles to

50 be taken into

account are

uz

40

30

20

only the blue

ones, i=1 to 4

m

10

n3 N3 Log N

0 for which Ni

1,E+03 1,E+04 1,E+05 1,E+06 1,E+07 1,E+08

exists.

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1. Linear Damage or Miner's Rule (6/11)

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can be calculated and summed. 1 61 1,0E+04 4,8E+04 0,21

2 58 1,0E+04 7,5E+04 0,13

In this case the sum is 0,93. 3 55 1,5E+04 1,3E+05 0,12

a

4 50 1,7E+05 3,5E+05 0,47

Then no failure should occur.

ol

Σ=0,93

.g

100

sa

90

m

80

70

60

50

io

uz

40

30

20

m

10

Log N

0

1,E+03 1,E+04 1,E+05 1,E+06 1,E+07 1,E+08

March 2014 Politecnico di Torino - Italia

1. Linear Damage or Miner's Rule (7/11)

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2011

2012

of valid cycles, nTOT, the utilisation 1 61 1,0E+04 0,049

fraction αi is now introduced: 2 58 1,0E+04 0,049

3 55 1,5E+04 0,073

a

ni 4 50 1,7E+05 0,829

αi =

ol

n TOT nTOT= 2,05E+05 Σ=1,000

.g

100

ssaa,i

90

m

80

The aim is to

70

60

50

io obtain an

“equivalent stress

uz

40

30

amplitude” acting

for the total

20

m

10

Log N

0 number of cycles

1,E+03 1,E+04 1,E+05 1,E+06 1,E+07 1,E+08

nTOT.

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1. Linear Damage or Miner's Rule (8/11)

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The “equivalent stress amplitude” σ a,eq when applied for the total

number of nTOT (valid) cycles would produce the same damage of all

the single stress σ a levels applied each for its own n cycle number.

a

k

n ≤ σDk −1 106 is here written in the

Wöhler equation σ a N

ol

alternative form s ka N k

n ≤ sD −1 10

6

with: sa=σa/Rm*100 .

.g

100

sa σ a,eq The developments

90

N in the example of

m

80

next slide are valid

70

io only for the

60

simplest case,

50

where σm is the

uz

40

same for all σa

30

20 (in the example

m

10 σm=0; it could be

0 σm=any but equal

1,E+03 1,E+04 1,E+05 1,E+06 1,E+07 1,E+08 for all )

March 2014 Politecnico di Torino - Italia

1. Linear Damage or Miner's Rule (9/11)

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2011

2008

k

In cases when σm is the same for all σa,i , 6 s

formula (6 for the “equivalent stress” Ni = 10 D − 1 (1

s a ,i

s a,eq holds; it is the stress amplitude

ni

which would produce the same damage ∑ N ≡ ∑ wi ≤ 1 (2

a

if applied for all nTOT cycles, as stated in i i i

ol

formula (5 written for the case σm=0 ∑ ni = n TOT (3

.g

i

100

sa σ a,eq = 0,52 ⋅ R m

ni = αi n TOT (4

N = 2,19 E + 5

90

m

80

70 Put 1) and 4) in 2):

60

50

io s ka,eq n TOT ≤ sDk −1 106 (5

uz

40

30

with: 1/k

20

k

m

10 s a,eq = ∑ αi s a,i

(6

0 i

1,E+03 1,E+04 1,E+05 1,E+06 1,E+07 1,E+08

March 2014 Politecnico di Torino - Italia

1. Linear Damage or Miner's Rule (10/11)

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2011

2012

When, instead, each σa,i or sa,i has a different σm,i or sm,i , then:

[s a ,i (s m ,i )] Ni = [s D (s m ,i )]

k k

106 (1

a

[ (sm,i )] 106 (1'

ol

k

s

ni N = D

∑ N ≡ ∑ w i ≤ 1 (2 [s a ,i (s m ,i )]

.g

i k

i i i

m

∑ ni = n TOT (3 In this case the formulation of an

i io equivalent stress amplitude

ni = αi n TOT (4 acting for the total number of

cycles nTOT is not possible

uz

1’) and 4) in 2): because a term s ka,eq in:

[ (sm,i )]

k

m

n TOT ∑α a ,i

= 1 (5

i[s i

D (s m ,i )]

k

10 6

cannot be isolated.

Version Muzio M. Gola - DIMEAS 13

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1. Linear Damage or Miner's Rule (11/11)

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2012

sa

100

~

sa

If Haigh master curves are obtained 80

70

sD −1

a

60

Sect. 8 of Ch. 2, the formula of sl. 9 of N

50

sa 10^6

ol

40

~

30 sD

sa s (s )

.g

= a m which for the level i : 20

sD −1 sD (s m ) 10

sm

~ s (s )

0

sa,i 0 10 20

sm

30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

m

= a,i m,i (6

sD −1 sD (s m,i )

io ~

sak,i 1

Eq. (6 put in eq. (5 gives: n TOT ∑ αi k 6

= 1 (7

sD −1 10

uz

i

Now the denominator is no longer dependent on sm,i then:

α ~

m

n TOT ∑ s k = s k 106 (8

i a,i D −1

i

~

sak,eq

Version Muzio M. Gola - DIMEAS 14

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2. Cycle counting (1/8)

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2011

2008

or “counted”. The constant amplitude blocks used by whatever

cumulative damage theory are extracted from a non-uniform time

history, as it will be shown in this section.

a

ol

50

.g

30 σ3 illustrates a very simple

σ4 case of a “block”

20

σ1 σ5

m

10 spectrum, which is of

stress (ksi)

0

io course a gross

-10 simplification of reality

-20 for educational

uz

-30 purposes.

-40

m

number of cycles

from: http://www.engrasp.com/doc/etb/mod/fm1/miner/miner_help.html

March 2014 Politecnico di Torino - Italia

2. Cycle counting (2/8)

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detected) time history of stresses. It is necessary to find a method

to extract cycles which must be used for damage calculations.

a

ol

60

50

.g

40

30

stress (ksi)

20

m

10

0

-10

-20

io

uz

-30

-40

-50

m

0 5 10 15 20 25 t (s)

from: http://www.engrasp.com/doc/etb/mod/fm1/miner/miner_help.html

March 2014 Politecnico di Torino - Italia

2. Cycle counting (3/8)

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“bathtub” version. They extract constant amplitude cycles from a

non-uniform time history.

a

A section of the time history must be isolated so that it begins and

ends at the maximum value, points • .

ol

300 • •

.g

250 σ (MPa)

200

m

150

100 io

50

uz

0

-50

m

-100

-150

t

-200

March 2014 Politecnico di Torino - Italia

2. Cycle counting (4/8)

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2011

2008

The bottom point 1 is where liquid is spilled, and the basin partially

emptied…

a

ol

300

.g

σσ(MPa)

(MPa)

250

200

m

150

100 io

50

uz

0

-50

m

-100

-150

tt

-200 •1

Version Muzio M. Gola - DIMEAS 18

March 2014 Politecnico di Torino - Italia

2. Cycle counting (5/8)

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2011

2008

… the total level descent at point 1 (from +300 to –200 MPa , i.e.

σa=250, σm=50 MPa) is the cycle n. 1 detected.

This leaves a number of secondary basins to empty by spilling at the

a

bottom point of each: 2 through 12 .

ol

300

.g

250 σB (MPa)

200

m

150

100 io

50

9

uz

0

2 4 8 12

-50

10

m

-100

5 7 11

-150

3 6 tt

-200

March 2014 Politecnico di Torino - Italia

2. Cycle counting (6/8)

m.gola

2011

2008

a

ol

300

.g

250 σB (MPa)

200

m

150

100 io 18

50

19 21

uz

0

17 20 22 23

-50

13

m

-100

14 15

-150

16 tt

-200

March 2014 Politecnico di Torino - Italia

2. Cycle counting (7/8)

m.gola

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2008

a

ol

300

.g

250 σB (MPa)

200

m

150

100 io

50

27

uz

0

-50

24 25 26

m

-100

-150

tt

-200

March 2014 Politecnico di Torino - Italia

2. Cycle counting (8/8)

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2014

stresses (MPa)

σmin σmax ∆σ σa σm n σmin σmax ∆σ σa σm

n

1 -200 300 500 250 50 22 0 100 100 50 50

a

2 0 200 200 100 100 23 0 200 200 100 100

24 -50 50 100 50 0

ol

3 -150 200 350 175 25

25 -50 0 50 25 -25

4 0 100 100 50 50

26 -50 50 100 50 0

5 -100 100 200 100 0

.g

27 50 150 100 50 100

6 -150 100 250 125 -25

7 -100 100 200 100 0 These cycle counts can be grouped in

8 0 150 150 75 75 blocks. See colours: in this example

m

9 50 200 150 75 125

10 -50 250 300 150 100 they are not numerous, but in the real

11 -100 250 350 175 75 cases and with digit rounding they may

12 100 250 150 75

io 175 number up to thousands. One group is

13 -50 100 150 75 25

14 -100 100 200 100 0 missing: which one?

uz

15 -100 50 150 75 -25

16 -150 100 250 125 -25

To each block a “total occurrence”

17 0 50 50 25 25 number will be associated:

m

19 50 200 150 75 125 α=2/27 α=2/27

20 0 150 150 75 75 α=3/27 α=2/27

21 50 150 100 50 100

α=2/27 α=2/27 others α=1/27

March 2014 Politecnico di Torino - Italia

Sections 3, 4 – Applications of finite life concepts

m.gola

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but compressive can be included) stresses,

Section 3 shows how a stress spectrum can be used to assess finite

a

life at fatigue, deepening the tool presented in Section 1.

ol

Section 4 introduces advanced matters on the exceedance diagram.

.g

m

io

uz

m

March 2014 Politecnico di Torino - Italia

3. Finite life and stress spectra (1/9)

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one shown on the right is a very simplified sm sa ni

example of spectrum of stresses (expressed as 0 50 50

1,1E+05

a

1,5E+04

18 50 61

ol

6,7E+03

We shall not use the results from the cycle 40 35 58

6,7E+03

.g

30 30 43

2,3E+05

have a smaller and more treatable, yet

20 32 1,2E+06

representative of the concept, number of

m

0 25 25

1,3E+07

points.

io 30 20 29

5,3E+07

sx = σx / Rm

the extended Haibach form explained in Sect. 5,

uz

Appendix to this chapter, so to become familiar

with it.

m

March 2014 Politecnico di Torino - Italia

3. Finite life and stress spectra (2/9)

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80

sm sa ni

70

0 50 50

1,1E+05

a

60

15 47 55

1,5E+04

ol

50 10^4 18 50 61

6,7E+03

10^5

.g

40 35 58

6,7E+03

40 10^6

10^7 30 30 43

2,3E+05

30 10^8

m

20 32 1,2E+06

20

0 25 25

1,3E+07

10

io 30 20 29

5,3E+07

uz

0

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 sx = σx / Rm

m

March 2014 Politecnico di Torino - Italia

3. Finite life and stress spectra (3/9)

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80 ni

70 0 50 50

15 47 55

60

0 18 50 61

15 50 40 35 58

18 30 30 43

40

20

30 30 20 32

40 0 25 25

20

30 20 29

10

0

1,E+03 1,E+04 1,E+05 1,E+06 1,E+07 1,E+08

Wöhler curves are traced for each sm, and ni’s represented for

each sa . Mind the colour code coupling each sa to its sm

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3. Finite life and stress spectra (4/9)

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1,3 E+5

80 sm sa ni

sa = σa / Rm

70 0 50 50

1,1E+05

15 47 55

1,5E+04

60

18 50 61

6,7E+03

sm 50 40 35 58

6,7E+03

15 40 30 30 43

2,3E+05

30 20 32 1,2E+06

0 25 25

1,3E+07

20

30 20 29

5,3E+07

10

0

1,E+03

ni,15

1,E+04 Ni,15

1,E+05 1,E+06 1,E+07 1,E+08

(here shown for wi,15 , i.e. wi,15=ni,15/Ni,15= 1,5E+4 /1,29E+5 )

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3. Finite life and stress spectra (5/9)

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principle, but has the disadvantage that Wöhler sm sa ni

curves for each sm must be calculated. Then, 0 50 50

1,1E+05

1,5E+04

6,7E+03

40 35 58

6,7E+03

This is not terribly inconvenient, but there is a

30 30 43

better way, in that it simplifies the graphics, and 2,3E+05

makes use of the only Wöhler curve for the life 20 32 1,2E+06

106 cycles. 0 25 25

1,3E+07

30 20 29

5,3E+07

March 2014 Politecnico di Torino - Italia

3. Finite life and stress spectra (6/9)

m.gola

2011

2008

sm sa ~

sa

80

sa ~

sa sa

70 0 50 50

sD −1 sD 15 47 55

60 *

18 50 61

61

50 10^4

10^5 40 35 58

40 10^6 30 30 43

10^7

30 20 30 38

10^8

0 25 25

20

30 20 29

10

0 sm sx = σx / Rm

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

~ 6

As shown in sl.7-Sect.8-Ch.2, s a / sD = sa / sD −1 = 10 / N

1/k

( )

so for the same life N we can use ~ sa at sm=0 instead of s a .

Version Muzio M. Gola - DIMEAS 29

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3. Finite life and stress spectra (7/9)

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80 sm sa ~

sa *

sa

70 0 50 50

15 47 55

60 *

*

* 18 50 61

50 10^4

10^5 40 35 58

40 *

* 10^6 30 30 43

10^7

30 20 32 40

* 10^8

0 25 25

20

30 20 29

10

0 sm sx = σx / Rm

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

Let us now remark that for life calculation s a / sD ≡ σ a / σD , then

Haigh and Wöhler diagrams in non-dimensional form are useful.

Version Muzio M. Gola - DIMEAS 30

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3. Finite life and stress spectra (8/9)

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2008

80 s m* ~

sa * ni

sa

70 0 50 50

1,1E+05

0 55 55

1,5E+04

60 *

*

*

50 * 10^4

0 61 61

6,7E+03

10^5 0 58 58

6,7E+03

40 *

* 10^6 0 43 43

2,3E+05

10^7

30 0 40 40

1,2E+06

* 10^8

20

* 0 25 25

1,3E+07

0 29 29

5,3E+07

10

0 sm sx = σx / Rm

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

All points to consider are now those listed and marked with *

March 2014 Politecnico di Torino - Italia

3. Finite life and stress spectra (9/9)

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sm ~

sa ni

80

~

sa

70 0 50 50

1,1E+05

0 55 55

1,5E+04

60

0 61 61

6,7E+03

~

sa

sm 50 0 58 58

6,7E+03

0 40 0 43 43

2,3E+05

0 40 40

1,2E+06

30

0 25 25

1,3E+07

20 0 29 29

5,3E+07

10

0

1,E+03 1,E+04 ni,50

1,E+05 Ni,50

1,E+06 1,E+07 1,E+08

the only Woehler curve used is the one for σm=0 .

Version Muzio M. Gola - DIMEAS 32

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4. Finite life and the exceedance diagram (1/12)

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2011

2008

80

~

s a,i ni Σ ni

~

sa 61 2,0E+04

1,4E+04 2,0E+04

1,4E+04

70 58 2,0E+04

1,4E+04 4,0E+04

2,8E+04

0

55 3,0E+04

2,1E+04 7,0E+04

4,9E+04

60

50 2,3E+05

3,3E+05 2,8E+05

4,0E+05

43 2,8E+05

4,0E+05 5,6E+05

8,0E+05

50

38 2,2E+06

3,2E+06 2,8E+06

4,0E+06

40 29 1,1E+07

1,6E+07 1,4E+07

2,0E+07

25 2,8E+07

4,0E+07 4,2E+07

6,0E+07

30

3,2E+06

3,3E+05

2,0E+04

3,0E+04

2,0E+04

4,0E+05

1,6E+07

4,0E+07

20

10

Log N

0

1,E+03 1,E+04 1,E+05 1,E+06 1,E+07 1,E+08

diagram”, which comes from the cycle count of a typical time

history of stresses. Stresses are re-ordered in descending order,

and are represented against the total cycle number Log(∑ ni ) .

Version Muzio M. Gola - DIMEAS 33

March 2014 Politecnico di Torino - Italia

4. Finite life and the exceedance diagram (2/12)

m.gola

2011

2008

80

~

sa

70

0

•

60

50

40

30

3,2E+06

3,3E+05

2,0E+04

3,0E+04

2,0E+04

4,0E+05

1,6E+07

4,0E+07

20

10

6,0E+07

7,0E+04

8,0E+05

2,0E+04

4,0E+06

2,0E+07

4,0E+04

4,0E+05

0

1,E+03 1,E+04 1,E+05 1,E+06 1,E+07 1,E+08

many cycles n the stress amplitude ~ sa is exceeded.

The block-diagram version is a simplification of a continuos

curve, typical of a service condition (dotted grey line).

Version Muzio M. Gola - DIMEAS 34

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4. Finite life and the exceedance diagram (3/12)

m.gola

2011

2008

80

~

s a,2 : value of stress at level 2

0 ~

sa n2 : number of cycles spent al level 2

N2 : max life at ~

70

s a,2 for σm=0

~

s a,2 60 o o o Log(n1 + n2 ): total cycles for levels 1+2

50

s D −1

40

s II

30

2,0E+04

2,0E+04

20

10

Log N

0 o o

4,0E+04

1,E+03 1,E+04 1,E+05 1,E+06 1,E+07 1,E+08

superimposed to the σm=0 Wöhler curve, here in the Haibach

form (see Appendix). Remark the meaning of points for the

example of level i=2, which can easily extended to any level i.

Version Muzio M. Gola - DIMEAS 35

March 2014 Politecnico di Torino - Italia

4. Finite life and the exceedance diagram (4/12)

m.gola

2011

2008

80

0 ~

sa

70

2,0E+04

60 2,0E+04

3,0E+04

50 3,3E+05

s D −1 4,0E+05

40

s II 3,2E+06

30 1,6E+07

4,0E+07

2,0E+04

20 2,0E+04

10

Log N

n

0 o

4,0E+04

1,E+03 1,E+04 1,E+05 1,E+06 1,E+07 1,E+08

exceedance diagram the bars representing the ni , i.e. number

of applied cycles – at each level.

Version Muzio M. Gola - DIMEAS 36

March 2014 Politecnico di Torino - Italia

4. Finite life and the exceedance diagram (5/12)

m.gola

2011

2008

From: k 0

80

~

sa

6

sD −1

70

Ni = 10 ~ ••

sa,i 60

•

we can ssDD−1−1

50 •

calculate Ni •

ssIIII

40

•

and then the 30

2,0E+04

2,0E+04

ratio ni/Ni i.e.

20

the damage

10

0 Log

index. 1,E+03 1,E+04 4,0E+04

1,E+05 1,E+06 1,E+07 n

1,E+08

~

s a,i ni Σ ni Ni ni/Ni

It is easily seen that it is absolutely 61 2,0E+04 2,0E+04 4,8E+04 0,4173

58 2,0E+04 4,0E+04 7,5E+04 0,2680

sa 55 3,0E+04 7,0E+04 1,3E+05 0,2354

43

3,3E+05

4,0E+05

4,0E+05

8,0E+05

3,5E+05

2,5E+06

0,9464

0,1583

it is then customary to truncate the 38 3,2E+06 4,0E+06 3,2E+07 0,1002

values ~

25 4,0E+07 6,0E+07 7,1E+10 0,0006

sa< s II.

Version Muzio M. Gola - DIMEAS 37

March 2014 Politecnico di Torino - Italia

4. Finite life and the exceedance diagram (6/12)

m.gola

2011

2008

Both in numerical 80

~

sa

simulations and in 70

0

laboratory tests the 60

exceedance diagram

is truncated by

50

eliminating the 40

small cycles which

3,2E+06

3,3E+05

2,0E+04

3,0E+04

2,0E+04

4,0E+05

1,6E+07

4,0E+07

20

do not contribute to 10

damage.

0

1,E+03 1,E+04 1,E+05 1,E+06 1,E+07 1,E+08

It takes as much computer time (and testing time) to deal with one small cycle as

with one large cycle. Thus the small cycles at the lower end of the exceedance

diagram consume most of the time (cost) while their effect may be very small.

Therefore, it would be advantageous if their number could be reduced. This is

called truncation.

Quoted from: David Broek, The practical use of fracture mechanics, Kluwer

Academic Publishers, 1989 (a warmly suggested reading!)

Version Muzio M. Gola - DIMEAS 38

March 2014 Politecnico di Torino - Italia

4. Finite life and the exceedance diagram (7/12)

m.gola

2011

2008

0

80 The total

70

number of

•• effective cycles

•

60

• history is then:

s II40 •

30

nTOT=4x106.

20

10

0

1,E+03 1,E+04 1,E+05 1,E+06 1,E+07 1,E+08

s a,i ni Σ ni Ni ni/Ni αi

level i is αi : 61 2,0E+04 2,0E+04 4,8E+04 0,4173 0,005

αi = 55 3,0E+04 7,0E+04 1,3E+05 0,2354 0,0075

n TOT 50 3,3E+05 4,0E+05 3,5E+05 0,9464 0,0825

i.e. the ratio between applied 43 4,0E+05 8,0E+05 2,5E+06 0,1583 0,1

38 3,2E+06 4,0E+06 3,2E+07 0,1002 0,8

cycles ni and nTOT.

nTOT = total cycle number

March 2014 Politecnico di Torino - Italia

4. Finite life and the exceedance diagram (8/12)

m.gola

2011

2008

80 80

nTOT=4*106 nTOT=1*106

70 70

60 60

50 50

0,0825

0,0075

0,0825

0,0075

40 40

0,005

0,005

0,005

α1 = 0,005

0,8

0,1

α6 = 0,8

0,1

30 30

20 20

10 10

0 0

1,0E+03 1,0E+04 1,0E+05 1,0E+06 1,0E+07 1,0E+03 1,0E+04 1,0E+05 1,0E+06 1,0E+07

cycle number nTOT may change but, as the type of service of the

mechanical part repeats in time over and over in the same way,

the distribution of the values of αi remains the same.

Version Muzio M. Gola - DIMEAS 40

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4. Finite life and the exceedance diagram (9/12)

m.gola

2011

2008

max stress

principal stresses MPa

min stress

cumulated cycles

spectra for stresses at the inner radius of a propeller shaft due

to an hydraulic device for the variation of propeller pitch-

angle during flight.

Version Muzio M. Gola - DIMEAS 41

March 2014 Politecnico di Torino - Italia

4. Finite life and the exceedance diagram (10/12)

m.gola

2011

2008

~

s a,i ni αi

Σ ni Ni ni/Ni

1 61 2,0E+04 2,0E+04 4,8E+04 0,417 0,005

2 58 2,0E+04 4,0E+04 7,5E+04 0,268 0,005

3 55 3,0E+04 7,0E+04 1,3E+05 0,235 0,0075

4 50 3,3E+05 4,0E+05 3,5E+05 0,946 0,0825

5 43 4,0E+05 8,0E+05 2,5E+06 0,158 0,1

6 38 3,2E+06 4,0E+06 3,2E+07 0,100 0,8

In the case shown here the sum ∑ ni / Ni 2,13

i

is much larger than 1.

n

Since all lives ni in the sum of damage fractions: ∑ i

i Ni

appear in linear form, to get a desired damage sum W it will be

sufficient to multiply all of them by the factor φ=W/2,13 .

March 2014 Politecnico di Torino - Italia

4. Finite life and the exceedance diagram (11/12)

m.gola

2011

2008

k Wöhler 2k −1 Haibach

s D −1 s D −1

Ni = 106 ~ (1a curve: Ni = 106 ~ (1b extension:

sa,i i=1,j sa,i i=j,n

n

The sum of damage fractions: ∑ i ≤ W (2

i Ni

with the “damage criterion” W usually equal to 1.

Moreover is: ∑ ni = n TOT (3 and: ni = αi n TOT (4

i

With (1a and (1b into (2 , and then (3 and (4 , we get:

W 106

n̂ TOT ≤ ≡W

αi ~ k ~ 2k −1

∑ Ni sa,i sa,i

∑ αi sD−1 + ∑ αi sD−1

i

i=1, j i= j,n

March 2014 Politecnico di Torino - Italia

4. Finite life and the exceedance diagram (12/12)

m.gola

2011

2008

~

s a,i ni αi

Σ ni Ni ni/Ni

1 61 9,4E+03

2,0E+04 9,4E+03

2,0E+04 4,8E+04 0,196

0,417 0,005

2 58 9,4E+03

2,0E+04 1,9E+04

4,0E+04 7,5E+04 0,126

0,268 0,005

3 55 1,4E+04

3,0E+04 7,0E+04

3,3E+04 1,3E+05 0,111

0,235 0,0075

4 50 3,3E+05

1,6E+05 4,0E+05

1,9E+05 3,5E+05 0,946

0,445 0,0825

5 43 4,0E+05

1,9E+05 8,0E+05

3,8E+05 2,5E+06 0,158

0,074 0,1

6 38 3,2E+06

1,5E+06 1,9E+06 3,2E+07 0,100

0,047 0,8

∑ ni / Ni 1,00

i

φ=0,47 . The table above shows the modified values.

March 2014 Politecnico di Torino - Italia

5. Appendix: the Haibach extension (1/2)

m.gola

2011

2008

fatigue limit (defined through experiments with single amplitude)

can contribute to damage provided there are also some stress

amplitudes which exceed the fatigue limit.

It is believed that the periodic overloads help overcome the grain

barrier which does not let crack propagate at stresses below the

fatigue limit, and cause them propagate the crack.

In order to allow for this, the original Miner’s rule was improved by

extending the fatigue curve beyond the fatigue limit life; following

Haibach, the fatigue curve of exponent k is extended below the

fatigue limit and towards zero stress with an exponent 2k-1 , as in

the example shown in next slide, ...

March 2014 Politecnico di Torino - Italia

5. Appendix: the Haibach extension (2/2)

m.gola

2011

2008

fatigue limit and towards zero stress with an exponent 2k-1 , as

in the example shown here below (case k=10).

80 s ka Ni = 106 sDk −1

70

0

60 s 2ak −1 Ni = 106 sD2k−−11

10 50

20

40

30

40 30

50

20

10

0

1,E+04 1,E+05 1,E+06 1,E+07 1,E+08

March 2014 Politecnico di Torino - Italia

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