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Campbell Biology, 11e

Chapter 10 Photosynthesis

1) In which of the following organisms did the process of photosynthesis most likely originate?
A) in plants
B) in prokaryotes
C) in fungi
D) three separate times during evolution

2) In autotrophic bacteria, where is chlorophyll located?


A) in chloroplast membranes
B) in the cell wall
C) in the nucleoid
D) in infolded regions of the plasma membrane

3) Under what conditions do photosynthesis and cellular respiration occur in plants?


A) Photosynthesis and cellular respiration occur only in the light.
B) Photosynthesis occurs only in the light, and cellular respiration occurs only in the dark.
C) Photosynthesis occurs only in the light, and cellular respiration occurs in both the dark and
the light.
D) Photosynthesis and cellular respiration occur in both the dark and the light.

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4) Use the following figure to answer the question.

If photosynthesizing green algae are provided with CO2 containing heavy oxygen (18O), which
of the following molecules produced by the algae (refer to the accompanying figure) will fail to
contain 18O in later biochemical analyses?
A) glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P)
B) 3-phosphoglycerate
C) ribulose bisphosphate (RuBP)
D) ADP

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5) The oxygen released by photosynthesis is produced by which of the following processes?
A) splitting water molecules
B) chemiosmosis
C) the electron transfer system of photosystem I
D) the electron transfer system of photosystem II

6) Which of the following statements correctly describes a distinction between autotrophs and
heterotrophs?
A) Cellular respiration is unique to heterotrophs.
B) Only heterotrophs have mitochondria.
C) Autotrophs, but not heterotrophs, can nourish themselves beginning with CO2 and other
nutrients that are inorganic.
D) Only heterotrophs require oxygen.

7) Use the following figure to answer the question.

The figure shows the absorption spectrum for chlorophyll a and the action spectrum for
photosynthesis. Why are they different?
A) Green and yellow wavelengths inhibit the absorption of red and blue wavelengths.
B) Oxygen given off during photosynthesis interferes with the absorption of light.
C) Other pigments absorb light in addition to chlorophyll a.
D) Aerobic bacteria take up oxygen, which changes the measurement of the rate of
photosynthesis.

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8) Use the following figure to answer the question.

What wavelength of light in the figure is most effective in driving photosynthesis?


A) 420 nm
B) 575 nm
C) 625 nm
D) 730 nm

9) Theodor W. Engelmann illuminated a filament of algae with light that passed through a prism,
thus exposing different segments of algae to different wavelengths of light. He added aerobic
bacteria and then noted in which areas the bacteria congregated. He noted that the largest groups
were found in the areas illuminated by the red and blue light. What did Engelmann conclude
about the congregation of bacteria in the red and blue areas?
A) Bacteria congregated in these areas due to an increase in the temperature of the red and blue
light.
B) Bacteria congregated in these areas because these areas had the most oxygen being released.
C) Bacteria are attracted to red and blue light and thus these wavelengths are more reactive than
other wavelengths.
D) Bacteria congregated in these areas due to an increase in the temperature caused by an
increase in photosynthesis.

10) Theodor W. Engelmann illuminated a filament of algae with light that passed through a
prism, thus exposing different segments of algae to different wavelengths of light. He added
aerobic bacteria and then noted in which areas the bacteria congregated. He noted that the largest
groups were found in the areas illuminated by the red and blue light. Which of the following
statements describes a relationship that Engelmann's experiment helped to determine?
A) the relationship between wavelength of light and the rate of aerobic respiration
B) the relationship between wavelength of light and the amount of heat released
C) the relationship between wavelength of light and the rate of photosynthesis
D) the relationship between carbon dioxide concentration and the rate of photosynthesis
Prism棱鏡

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11) A spaceship is designed to support animal life for a multiyear voyage to the outer planets of
the solar system. Plants will be grown to provide oxygen and to recycle carbon dioxide. Since the
spaceship will be too far from the sun for photosynthesis, an artificial light source will be
needed. What wavelengths of light should be used to maximize plant growth with a minimum of
energy expenditure?
A) full-spectrum white light
B) green light
C) a mixture of blue and red light
D) UV light

12) A spaceship is designed to support animal life for a multiyear voyage to the outer planets of
the solar system. Plants will be grown to provide oxygen and to recycle carbon dioxide. Since the
spaceship will be too far from the sun for photosynthesis, an artificial light source will be
needed. Suppose a plant has a unique photosynthetic pigment and the leaves of this plant appear
to be reddish yellow. What wavelengths of visible light are absorbed by this pigment?
A) red and yellow
B) blue and violet
C) green and yellow
D) green and red
voyage航程
reddish yellow红黄色

13) Use the following figure to answer the question.

Halobacterium has a photosynthetic membrane that appears purple. Its photosynthetic action
spectrum is the inverse of the action spectrum for green plants (see figure). That is, the
Halobacterium action spectrum has a peak where the green plant action spectrum has a trough.
What wavelengths of light do the Halobacterium photosynthetic pigments absorb?
A) red and yellow
B) violet and blue
C) green and yellow
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D) blue and red
photosynthetic action spectrum光合作用光譜
inverse相反
trough波谷

記14) Why are the reaction centers of photosystems composed of several structurally different
pigments?
A) Excited electrons must pass through several pigments before they can be transferred to
electron acceptors of the electron transport chain.
B) This arrangement enables the plant to absorb light energy of a variety of wavelengths.
C) This arrangement enables the plant to absorb more photons from light energy, all of which are
at the same wavelength.
D) This arrangement enables the reaction center to excite electrons to a higher energy level.

15) Paper chromatography is a technique used to separate molecules based upon their size and
solubility in a particular solvent. If pigments from a particular species of plant are extracted and
subjected to paper chromatography, which of the following results is most likely?
A) Paper chromatography would produce a single band of pigment that is characteristic of that
particular plant.
B) Paper chromatography would separate the pigments into two bands that appear green.
C) Paper chromatography would separate the pigments into several bands that appear green or
yellow/orange.
D) Paper chromatography would separate the pigments into two bands, one that appears blue and
one that appears red.

16) In autumn, chlorophyll is degraded in the leaves of deciduous trees. Why do the leaves
change color to shades of yellow, orange, or red?
A) Sugars from sap fill the leaves prior to winter.
B) Degraded chlorophyll changes into many other colors.
C) In the absence of photosynthesis, the leaves produce energy exclusively by aerobic cellular
respiration.
D) Other pigments such as carotenoids are still present in the leaves.

17) Which of the following events accompanies absorption of energy by chlorophyll molecules
of the reaction-center complex?
A) ATP is synthesized from the energy absorbed.
B) An electron is excited.
C) NADP+ is reduced to NADPH.
D) A molecule of water is split.

18) What happens to the free energy released as electrons are passed from photosystem II to
photosystem I through a series of electron carriers?
A) It excites electrons of the reaction center in photosystem I.
B) It is used to establish and maintain a proton gradient.
C) It is used to synthesize ATP through substrate-level phosphorylation.
D) It is used to phosphorylate NAD+ to NADPH.
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19) Which molecule is the final electron acceptor for electrons from photosystem I?
A) oxygen
B) chlorophyll in photosystem II
C) carbon dioxide
D) NADP+

20) What is the function of the pigment molecules in a light-harvesting complex in the thylakoid
membranes?
A) They split water and release oxygen from the reaction-center chlorophyll.
B) They absorb and transfer light energy to the reaction-center chlorophyll.
C) They synthesize ATP from ADP and i.
D) They transfer electrons to NADP+.

21) Which of the following processes is directly associated with photosystem I?


A) receiving electrons from the thylakoid membrane electron transport chain
B) generation of molecular oxygen
C) extraction of hydrogen electrons from the splitting of water
D) passing electrons to NADP+

22) Some photosynthetic organisms contain chloroplasts that lack photosystem II, yet are able to
survive. Which of the following approaches would be the best way to detect the lack of
photosystem II in these organisms?
A) Determine whether they have thylakoid membranes.
B) Determine whether they consume CO2 in the dark.
C) Determine whether they produce O2 in the light.
D) Determine the action spectrum for photosynthesis in these organisms.

23) What are the products of linear electron flow during the light reactions of photosynthesis?
A) heat and fluorescence
B) ATP and P700
C) ATP and NADPH
D) ADP and NADP+

24) What are the products of cyclic electron flow during the light reactions of photosynthesis?
A) heat and fluorescence
B) ATP
C) ATP and NADPH
D) ADP and NADP+

25) As a research scientist, you measure the amount of ATP and NADPH consumed by the
Calvin cycle in one hour. You find that 30,000 molecules of ATP were consumed, but only
20,000 molecules of NADPH were consumed. What is the source of the extra ATP molecules?
A) photosystem II
B) photosystem I
C) cyclic electron flow
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D) linear electron flow
26) Which of the following processes would be most directly affected if a thylakoid membrane is
punctured so that the interior of the thylakoid is no longer separated from the stroma?
A) splitting of water
B) flow of electrons from photosystem II to photosystem I
C) synthesis of ATP
D) reduction of NADP+
Punctured被刺破

27) Where are ATP synthase complexes located in plant cells?


A) thylakoid membrane only
B) inner mitochondrial membrane only
C) thylakoid membrane and inner mitochondrial membrane
D) thylakoid membrane and plasma membrane

28) In mitochondria, an electron transport chain pumps protons from the matrix into the
intermembrane space, whereas in chloroplasts, an electron transport chain pumps protons from
the ________.
A) matrix to the stroma
B) stroma to the thylakoid space
C) thylakoid space to the matrix
D) thylakoid space to the stroma

29) Which of the following events are associated with chemiosmosis in chloroplasts?
A) The pH of the stroma increases and ATP is synthesized.
B) The pH of the thylakoid space increases and ATP is synthesized.
C) The pH of the cytoplasm outside the chloroplast decreases and ATP is synthesized.
D) The pH of the stroma decreases and ATP is hydrolyzed.

30) Which of the following statements best describes the relationship between photosynthesis
and cellular respiration?
A) Cellular respiration runs the biochemical pathways of photosynthesis in reverse.
B) Photosynthesis stores energy in complex organic molecules; cellular respiration releases
energy from complex organic molecules.
C) Photosynthesis occurs only in plants; cellular respiration occurs only in animals.
D) Photosynthesis is catabolic; cellular respiration is anabolic.

31) In photosynthetic cells, synthesis of ATP by chemiosmosis occurs during ________.


A) photosynthesis only
B) respiration only
C) photosynthesis and respiration
D) photosynthesis, respiration, and fermentation

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32) Carbon dioxide is split to form oxygen gas and carbon compounds in which of the following
metabolic pathways?
A) only photosynthesis
B) only respiration
C) photosynthesis and respiration
D) neither photosynthesis nor respiration

33) What is the relationship between the wavelength of light and the quantity of energy per
photon?
A) They have a direct, linear relationship.
B) They are inversely related.
C) They are logarithmically related.
D) They are separate phenomena.

34) P680+ is said to be the strongest biological oxidizing agent. Given its function, why is this
necessary?
A) It is the receptor for the most excited electron in either photosystem of photosynthesis.
B) It is the molecule that transfers electrons to plastoquinone (Pq) of the electron transfer system.
C) It transfers its electrons to reduce NADP+ to NADPH.
D) It obtains electrons from the oxygen atom in a water molecule, so it must have a stronger
attraction for electrons than oxygen has.

35) Carotenoids are often found in foods that are considered to have antioxidant properties in
human nutrition. What related function do they have in plants?
A) They serve as accessory pigments to increase light absorption.
B) They protect against oxidative damage from excessive light energy.
C) They shield the sensitive chromosomes of the plant from harmful ultraviolet radiation.
D) They reflect orange light and enhance red light absorption by chlorophyll.

36) In a plant, which of the following reactions produce molecular oxygen (O2)?
A) the light reactions alone
B) the Calvin cycle alone
C) the light reactions and the Calvin cycle
D) neither the light reactions nor the Calvin cycle

37) The mechanism of photophosphorylation is most similar to which of the following


processes?
A) substrate-level phosphorylation in glycolysis
B) oxidative phosphorylation in cellular respiration
C) the Calvin cycle
D) reduction of NADP+

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38) Which of the following processes is most directly driven by light energy?
A) creation of a pH gradient by pumping protons across the thylakoid membrane
B) carbon fixation in the stroma
C) reduction of NADP+ molecules
D) removal of electrons from chlorophyll molecules

39) A gardener is concerned that her greenhouse is getting too hot from too much light and seeks
to shade her plants with colored translucent plastic sheets, the color of which allows passage of
only that wavelength. What color should she use to reduce overall light energy but still maximize
plant growth?
A) green
B) blue
C) orange
D) Any color will work equally well.

40) A flask containing photosynthetic green algae and a control flask containing water with no
algae are both placed under a bank of lights that is set to cycle between 12 hours of light and 12
hours of dark. The dissolved oxygen concentrations in both flasks are monitored. Predict what
the relative dissolved oxygen concentrations will be in the flask with algae compared to the
control flask. The dissolved oxygen in the flask with algae will ________.
A) always be higher
B) always be lower
C) be higher in the light, but the same in the dark
D) be higher in the light, but lower in the dark

41) Which of the following molecules are products of the light reactions of photosynthesis that
are utilized in the Calvin cycle?
A) CO2 and glucose
B) H2O and O2
C) ADP, i, and NADP+
D) ATP and NADPH

42) Where in a plant cell does the Calvin cycle take place?
A) stroma of the chloroplast
B) thylakoid membrane
C) interior of the thylakoid (thylakoid space)
D) outer membrane of the chloroplast

43) In the initial step in carbon fixation, a molecule of CO2 is attached to RuBP to produce a six-
carbon molecule, which is immediately split to produce two molecules of 3-phosphoglycerate.
After phosphorylation and reduction produces glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P), what more
needs to occur to complete the Calvin cycle?
A) addition of a pair of electrons from NADPH
B) regeneration of ATP from ADP
C) regeneration of RuBP
D) regeneration of NADP+
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44) Use the following figure to answer the question.

Refer to the accompanying figure and the molecules labeled A, B, C, D, and E. If the carbon
atom of each of the incoming CO2 molecules is labeled with a radioactive isotope of carbon,
which organic molecules will be radioactively labeled after one cycle?
A) C only
B) B, C, D, and E
C) C, D, and E only
D) B and C only

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45) To identify the molecule that accepts CO2, Calvin and Benson manipulated the carbon-
fixation cycle by either cutting off CO2 or cutting off light from cultures of photosynthetic algae.
They then measured the concentrations of various metabolites immediately following the
manipulation. How would these experiments help identify the CO2 acceptor?
A) The CO2 acceptor concentration would decrease when either the CO2 or light are cut off.
B) The CO2 acceptor concentration would increase when either the CO2 or light are cut off.
C) The CO2 acceptor concentration would decrease when the CO2 is cut off, but increase when
the light is cut off.
D) The CO2 acceptor concentration would increase when the CO2 is cut off, but decrease when
the light is cut off.

46) Which of the following sequences correctly represents the flow of electrons during
photosynthesis?
A) NADPH → O2 → CO2
B) H2O → NADPH → Calvin cycle
C) NADPH → chlorophyll → Calvin cycle
D) NADPH → electron transport chain → O2

47) Which of the following processes occurs during the Calvin cycle?
A) reduction of NADPH
B) release of oxygen
C) regeneration of the CO2 acceptor
D) production of ATP

48) The reducing power for Calvin cycle reactions is provided by which of the following
molecules?
A) ATP
B) NADH
C) NADP+
D) NADPH

49) What would be the expected effect on plants if the atmospheric CO2 concentration was
doubled?
A) All plants would have faster growth rates.
B) C3 plants would have faster growth rates; C4 plants would be minimally affected.
C) C4 plants would have faster growth rates; C3 plants would be minimally affected.
D) C3 plants would have faster growth rates; C4 plants would have slower growth rates.

50) Why are C4 plants able to photosynthesize with no apparent photorespiration?


A) They do not participate in the Calvin cycle.
B) They use PEP carboxylase to initially fix CO2.
C) They conserve water more efficiently.
D) They exclude oxygen from their tissues.

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51) CAM plants keep stomata closed in the daytime, thus reducing loss of water. They can do
this because they ________.
A) fix CO2 into organic acids during the night
B) fix CO2 into sugars in the bundle-sheath cells
C) fix CO2 into pyruvate in the mesophyll cells
D) use photosystem I and photosystem II at night

52) Why might the alternative pathways of photosynthesis using C4 or CAM systems be
described as metabolic compromises?
A) Both pathways increase the rate of photosynthesis but also increase the rate of water loss.
B) The CAM pathway allows more CO2 into the plant but also increases the rate of water loss.
C) The C4 pathway decreases water loss but also increases the rate of photorespiration.
D) Both pathways minimize photorespiration but also expend more ATP during carbon fixation.

53) What would be a likely consequence of a mutation in plants that results in a photorespiration
deficiency?
A) Photosynthetic efficiency would be reduced at low light intensities.
B) Cells would carry on the Calvin cycle at a much slower rate.
C) There would be more cellular damage from harmful products of the light reactions of
photosynthesis.
D) Less oxygen would be produced by photosynthesis.

54) Compared to C3 plants, C4 plants ________.


A) can continue to fix CO2 even at lower CO2 concentrations and higher oxygen concentrations
B) have higher rates of photorespiration
C) do not use rubisco for carbon fixation
D) make a four-carbon compound, oxaloacetate, which is then delivered to the citric acid cycle in
mitochondria

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55) Use the following figure to answer the question.

Which of the following statements is true concerning the accompanying figure?


A) It represents a C4 photosynthetic system.
B) It represents an adaptation that maximizes photorespiration.
C) It represents a C3 photosynthetic system.
D) It represents a CAM photosynthetic system.

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56) Use the following figure to answer the question.

Referring to the accompanying figure, where would elevated concentrations of oxygen inhibit
carbon fixation reactions?
A) cell I only
B) cell II only
C) neither cell I nor cell II
D) both cell I and cell II

57) Which of the following statements summarizes the metabolic results of photorespiration?
A) It produces ATP and consumes oxygen and carbon dioxide.
B) It produces carbon dioxide and consumes ATP and oxygen.
C) It produces oxygen and consumes ATP and carbon dioxide.
D) It produces oxygen and ATP and consumes carbon dioxide.

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58) Students conducted an experiment to determine the effect of light intensity on the rate of
photosynthesis. They punched 40 leaf disks from spinach leaves and used a syringe partially
filled with water to pull the gases from the leaf disks so that all leaf disks sunk to the bottom of
the syringe. Ten leaf disks from the syringe were placed in each of four cups and covered with 50
ml of the solutions as indicated below. All leaf disks were resting on the bottom of the cups when
the experiment began. The volume of liquid in each cup and the temperature of the solutions
were held constant. All cups were placed 0.5 meters from the designated light source. A large
beaker of water was placed between the light and the cups to act as a heat sink to prevent a
change in temperature. At the end of 10 minutes, the number of disks floating in each cup was
recorded.

Grams of
baking soda Wattage of Disks floating
Trial
(CO2 source) light bulb at 10 minutes
1 0.5 25 3
2 0.5 50 5
3 0.5 75 9
4 0 75 0

Use your knowledge of the mechanism of photosynthesis and the data presented in the chart to
determine which of the statements is a correct explanation for the students' data.
A) Cup 1 had a low rate of photosynthesis because 0.5 grams of baking soda did not provide a
sufficient amount of CO2.
B) Cup 2 had the highest rate of photosynthesis because it had the highest ratio of disks floating
to wattage of light.
C) Cup 3 had the same rate of photosynthesis as Cup 1 because they had the same ratio of disks
floating to wattage of light.
D) Cup 4 had the lowest rate of photosynthesis because it had the least CO2.

1) The light reactions of photosynthesis supply the Calvin cycle with


A) light energy.
B) CO2 and ATP.
C) H2O and NADPH.
D) ATP and NADPH.

2) Which of the following sequences correctly represents the flow of electrons during
photosynthesis?
A) NADPH → O2→ CO2
B) H2O → NADPH → Calvin cycle
C) H2O → photosystem I → photosystem II
D) NADP → Helectron transport chain → O2

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3) How is photosynthesis similar in C4 plants and CAM plants?
A) In both cases, only photosystem I is used.
B) Both types of plants make sugar without the Calvin cycle.
C) In both cases, rubisco is not used to fix carbon initially.
D) Both types of plants make most of their sugar in the dark.

4) Which of the following statements is a correct distinction between autotrophs and


heterotrophs?
A) Autotrophs, but not heterotrophs, can nourish themselves beginning with CO2 and other
nutrients that are inorganic.
B) Only heterotrophs require chemical compounds from the environment.
C) Cellular respiration is unique to heterotrophs.
D) Only heterotrophs have mitochondria.

5) Which of the following does not occur during the Calvin cycle?
A) carbon fixation
B) oxidation of NADPH
C) release of oxygen
D) regeneration of the CO2 acceptor

6重複已刪.

7) Which process is most directly driven by light energy?


A) creation of a pH gradient by pumping protons across the thylakoid membrane
B) reduction of NADP+ molecules
C) transfer of energy from pigment molecule to pigment molecule
D) ATP synthesis

14.題目應改為
Why are the antenna complex of photosystems composed of several structurally different
pigments較好

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