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ABSTRACT

Retaining wall is a structure constructed and designed to resist lateral


pressure exerted by the backfill soil on the wall. The backfill material is retained
by the wall at a slope steeper than it would actually adopt in absence of the wall.
For many centuries, retaining walls has been used for stabilization of slopes.
During events of an earthquake, backfill material exerts a dynamic force on the
wall in addition to static forces and the passive resistance offered to the
retaining wall by soil against sliding reduces. Increase in dynamic lateral active
earth pressure and the decrease in dynamic lateral passive earth pressure on
retaining wall during an earthquake has caused several major damages of
retaining structures in the past years. Thus, the estimation of seismic force
acting on retaining wall from backfill is an important problem.
Lateral earth pressure exerted by the soil backfill on the wall is a major
concern in the retaining wall design. For estimation of lateral earth pressure
acting on the wall, various approaches i.e. Static Approach and Pseudo Static
Approach are being used. In static approach, only static forces acting on the wall
are considered while in pseudo-static approach, static as well as seismic forces
acting on the wall are considered. In pseudo-static approach, seismic forces are
taken as inertial body forces acting on the wall.
Lateral earth pressure in active and passive case exerted on the wall,
supporting cohesionless or cohesive soil backfill has been studied by various
researchers under static and dynamic loading conditions. In the present study,
an attempt has been made to compare active and passive earth pressures given
by various researchers considering the static and pseudo-static approach. Effect
of angle of internal friction of backfill soil, cohesion, surcharge, horizontal
seismic acceleration coefficient, a ratio of vertical to horizontal seismic
acceleration coefficient, submerged soil backfill and angle of friction between
the wall and soil backfill on lateral earth pressure has been studied. The results
of the study are shown
Retaining wall is a structure constructed and designed to resist lateral
pressure exerted by the backfill soil on the wall. The backfill material is retained
by the wall at a slope steeper than it would actually adopt in absence of the wall.
For many centuries, retaining walls has been used for stabilization of slopes.
In design of the retaining wall, earth pressure distribution behind
retaining wall has been assumed to be varying linearly

Nature of lateral earth pressure distribution along the height of the wall
has been shown in the present study. Structural design and detailing of the
retaining wall has been done as per relevant Indian Standards and as per lateral
earth pressure obtained from the present parametric study.