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application

1 College of Information Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology,

Hangzhou 310032, China

2 State Key Lab of CAD&CG, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China

E-mail: gfei_jack@163.com

S.J.Matysiak et al. [9], Malak Naji et al. [10] and

Semi-similarity design is a reasonable and effective L.Afferrante et al. [11], are focused on brake part

approach for motorcycle-hydraulic-disk brake design, characteristics.

which is an indeterminate problem because of To fully use the firm’s existing product resources,

incomplete required parameters. First, equation of this paper investigates a method of semi-similarity

semi-similar level scale is set up through analyzing the design for motorcycle-hydraulic-disk brake.

design model of motorcycle-hydraulic-disk brake.

Second, algorithm of semi-similarity design and a 2. Design characteristics

fuzzy evaluation model for design scheme are

proposed. Third, work flowchart of semi-similarity Motorcycle-hydraulic-disk brake is usually

design based on the above strategy is given and a designed according to the equation as follows [3, 5]:

software system of motorcycle-hydraulic-disk brake F iF S 2 / S1 2 D / 2 P K M P (1-1)

semi-similarity design is developed. Finally, the Where F is the hand power, which should satisfy the

proposed strategy and method are effectively brake performance and is usually constant between

demonstrated in an instance of motorcycle-hydraulic- 80N and 120N [2]; iF is the lever ratio of hand power;

disk brake semi-similarity design. S1 is the sectional area of brake-pump piston, m2; S2 is

Key words: Semi-similarity Design, Fuzzy Evaluation, the Sectional area of brake-pincers piston, m2; D/2 is

Hydraulic-Disk Brake, Design System, Equation of the Effective radius of brake disk, m; is the friction

semi-similar level scale coefficient between brake disk and friction pieces and

usually between 0.3 and 0.45 [3]; is the working

1. Introduction efficiency of brake by considering mechanical and

hydraulic loss and usually between 0.71 and 0.78 [3].

Brake is an important component of motorcycle. In motorcycle-hydraulic-disk brake design, given

Hydraulic-disk brake, which is excellent in many key parameter of whole motorcycle, namely brake

aspects, is substituting for drum brake gradually and is torque M, four main parameters, iF, S1, S2, and D/2,

being widely used in recent years [1, 2]. should be derived from . However, equation (1-1) is

Although many factories in China are founded to indeterminate and it is difficult to determine iF, S1, S2,

produce hydraulic-disk brakes in recent years, they are and D/2. So, semi-similarity design is introduced to

short of self-design and mainly make copies of other help design motorcycle-hydraulic-disk brake.

hydraulic-disk brakes. Many researchers, such as

Liqun Zhou [2], Xiaobin Liu [3], Juntang Yuan et al. 3. Strategy of semi-similarity design

[5], Difeng Xu [6][7] and Bifu Liu [8] et al., studied

the hydraulic-disk brake about its working principle, Equation (1-1) is an indeterminate equation under

structure characters and design methods. They mainly such circumstances that motorcycle part firms usually

focused on the checking and calculating model of only know brake torque, M, and then the brake is

motorcycle-hydraulic-disk brake. However, it is designed according to designer’s experiences. To help

difficult to capture the necessary parameters needed by designers to design a reasonable scheme rapidly and

the checking and calculating model, so it cannot be

_____________________________

978-1-4244-3701-6/09/$25.00 ©2009 IEEE

help the firm to avoid too much depending on the Where D1/2 is the searched effective radius of brake

designer’s experience so that the design knowledge disk, m.

can be easily continued and inherited, a strategy of (4) The sets of the sectional area of brake-pump piston,

how to derive the main four parameters from given S10, and the sectional area of brake-pincers piston, S20,

brake torque according to equation (1-1) is proposed. are collected through arranging the existing brake

pump modules and brake pincers modules, respectively:

3.1 Equations of semi-similar level scale SS1= {S11, S12, …, S1i, …, S1n}

SS2= {S21, S22, …, S2j, …, S2m}

Exponent equation can be derived from equation Where SS1 is the set of existing brake pump modules;

(1-1) according to semi-similar geometry increasing SS2 is the set of existing brake pincers modules; n is

product design principle [4] as follows: the number of existing pump modules; m is the number

Fe iFe S2e S1e De Pe Ke MPe (1-2) of existing brake pincers modules; S1i is the sectional

area of ith brake-pump piston, i=1, 2, …, n; S2j is the

In brake design, hand power is usually constant,

sectional area of jth brake-pincers piston, j=1, 2, …, m.

so level scale MF=1 and level exponent Fe=0. Powder

It is difficult to design and machine brake pumps

metallurgy or semi-metal friction pieces are usually

and brake pincers since their structures are complex,

used in motorcycle-hydraulic-disk brake, of which the

and then the cost of their dies is high. So, the existing

friction coefficient changes little, so level scale M=1 modules of brake pumps and brake pincers should be

and level exponent e=0. On the other hand, brake chosen in brake design as possible as designers can,

efficiency also changes little, so level scale M=1 and namely S10ęSS1 and S20ęSS2.

level exponent e=0. Then, equations can be derived as

follows:

The increasing level scale of brake torque M is as 4. Evaluation of design scheme

follows:

M M M L3 (1-3) 4.1 Model of fuzzy evaluation

P

M Pe 3 De (1-5) concept given only key parameters of whole

motorcycle. So, fuzzy evaluation [12] is introduced as

MS 1

MS 2

M L2 M D2 (1-6) follows:

S1e S2e 2 De (1-7)

4.1.1 Evaluation of rationality of lever ratio of

3 / 2 iFe 3 De M Pe (1-8)

hand power

M i3 / 2

F

M D3 MM P (1-9)

Where ML is the effective radius of brake disk. It is necessary to choose a reasonable lever ratio

of hand power. How reasonable the lever ratio of hand

power is is a fuzzy set. The membership grade function

3.2 Algorithm of reasoning design scheme can be determined according to frequency of use of all

existing types of lever ratio of hand power scaled by a

Suppose the brake torque of a motorcycle is M0, step, s. Suppose all intervals of lever ratio of hand

N·m, the main four parameters can be determined power be a set as follows:

using equations from (1-3) to (1-9) as follows: U S ^u s1 , us 2 , ", u si , ", usn `

(1) Search a brake whose brake torque is M1 which is

most close to M0, where M1ıM0. Where usi=(asiˈcsi] denotes ith interval of lever ratio

(2) The lever ratio of hand power, i F , is derived from of hand power and s= csi – asi, so

0

usi as1 Os (i 1), as1 Os i @

equation (1-9):

Suppose the set of frequency of use of all intervals of

iF0 iF1 3 / 2 M 0 / M 1 (1-10)

lever ratio of hand power be

Where i F1 is the searched lever ratio of hand power. BS ^bs1 , bs 2 , ", bsi , ", bsn ` . The corresponding

(3) The effective radius of brake disk, D0/2, is derived relation between Us and Bs is usi to bsi.Let fuzzy set

from equation (1-9): defined in US be

A1= {Reasonable lever ratio of hand power}

D0 / 2 D1 / 2 3 M 0 / M 1 (1-11)

Where how reasonable the lever ratio of hand power is

can be denoted as follows:

A1 (usi ) bsi / max(U s ) Considering real adhesive coefficient of a road in a

case of anti-lock and letting Mmin=m1·a·r1· and

4.1.2 Evaluation of hand bar stiffness Mmax=m1·M ·g·r1·, the brake negative acceleration

must satisfy M min d M P d M max , where M is the

The requirement about hand bar stiffness means esigned brake torque, N·m, m1 is the mass of whole

that elastic deformation of hand bar is less than 3mm motorcycle, kg, r1 is the effective radius of wheels of

when it is put on 200N hand power. How good the motorcycle, m, is the partition coefficient of front-

stiffness performance of hand bar is a fuzzy set: wheel brake torque,M is the adhesive coefficient of a

A2={Good stiffness performance of hand bar} road,g is the Acceleration of gravity, 9.8 m/s2. Then, A

And the membership grade function is fuzzy set is defined as follows:

1 u g / 3, 0 d u g 3 A5= {Good brake efficiency}

A2 (u g ) ® Where the membership grade function is:

¯0, u g t 3

0, M P M min

Where ug is the elastic deformation of hand bar. °° M M

A5 ( M P ) ® P min

, M min d M P d M max

4.1.3 Evaluation of redundancy of hand bar M

° max M min

The coefficient of redundancy of hand bar design 4.1.6 Evaluation of size of brake disk

can be defined as KF=[Fb]/F, 1KF, Where [Fb]

denotes admissible flexural stress of material of hand Outer radius R3 of a brake disk is usually

bar and F is the maximum of flexural stress of hand between 0.4 and 0.45 times of motorcycle wheel

bar design. A fuzzy set is defined as follows under the

circumstances that F is smaller than [Fb]:

hub radius R4. The ratio of inner radius to

A3={Lower redundancy of hand bar design } outer radius of brake pieces is R1=0.7·R2, and

Where the membership grade function is R3=R2+2. So, there is an experience equation about

the effective radius of brake disk as follows:

°0, K F 1 0.34·R4-1.7Re0.39·R4-1.7

A3 ( K F ) ®

°̄1 / K F , 1 d K F d f Let Remin=0.34·R4-1.7 and Remax=0.39·R4-1.7, a fuzzy

Smaller KF is, closer to 1 A3(KF) is, which means that set is defined as follows:

the design is closer to ‘lower redundancy of hand bar A6= {Smaller size of brake disk}

design’. Where the membership grade function is

0, Re Re min

4.1.4 Evaluation of rationality of hydraulic °° R Re min

A6 ( Re ) ®1 e , Re min d Re d Re max

magni-scale ° Re max Re min

¯°0, Re ! Re max

Reasonable hydraulic magni-scale is a fuzzy set,

of which the membership grade function can be 4.2 Optimization model

determined through analyzing existing frequency of

use of each combination of brake pump and brake Suppose i is the weight corresponding to Ai, which

pincers. Let set of all hydraulic magni-scale can be determined using Analytic Hierarchy Process

be U Y {u y1 , u y 2 , ", u yi , ", u yn } , and set of frequency [12]. Then, the optimization target is

of use be BY {by1 , by 2 , " , byi , " , byn } . The 6

max{Fsat ¦Z

i 1

i Ai }

A4= {Reasonable hydraulic magni-scale} 5. Case study

Where the membership grade function is:

A4 (u yi ) byi / max( BY ) Information about more than 200 motorcycles and

brikes is collected in a motorcycle-hydraulic-disk

brake firm of Zhejiang province and is inputted into

4.1.5 Evaluation of brake efficiency

the PDM system. Modular design is also executed.

According to modules base, membership grade curves

of lever ratio of hand bar and hydraulic magni-scale

are also gathered.

An instance of motorcycle-hydraulic-disk brake Acknowledgments

semi-similarity design in a motorcycle firm is given. This work is being supported by the National Natural

The motorcycle model is GS125 and its key Science Foundation of China under Grant No.

parameters are shown in table 1. 50705087 and the Open Project Program of the State

Key Lab of CAD&CG (Grant No. A0903), Zhejiang

Table 1 Key parameters of GS125 University.

Item Value

Fully loaded mass of motorcycle(kg) 178 References

Front-wheel outer diameter(m) 0.613

Outer diameter of wheel hub(m) 0.4 [1] Huaxin Chen, Shen Wu. “Application actuality and

Designed brake negative acceleration(m/s2) 4.96 development foreground of motorcycle-disk brake”.

Required lowest brake torque(N·m) 200 Motorcycle technology, 1998, 1, pp. 31-33

Hand power(N) 100 [2] Liqun Zhou. “The key technology of hydranlic dish

Elastic ratio of hand bar material(GPa) 73 Type Front Brake for Motorcycle”. Shanghai auto, 2002,

Tensile strength of hand bar material(MPa) 195 9, pp. 12-14

Friction coefficient of brake pieces 0.3 [3] Xiaobin Liu. “Motorcycle disk brake design”.

Motorcycle technology, 1998, 1, pp. 4-6

Seven feasible design schemes are obtained [4] Paul G, Beitz W. Engineering Design. London:

Springer-Verlag, 1996

through reasoning in the semi-similarity design system

[5] Juntang Yuan, Yulin Wen. “Design calculation of

and descending ordered by satisfactory degree. One of hydraulic disk brake for motorcycle”. Motorcycle

the feasible design schemes is chosen as the final technology, 1998, 6, pp. 3-6, 9

scheme, and then, other main performance and [6] Difeng Xu. Motorcycle disk brake (First). Motorcycle,

structure parameters will be reasoned and shown in 2002, 1, pp. 17-19

form of parametric picture, as depicted in Figure 1 and [7] Difeng Xu. Motorcycle disk brake (Second).

Figure 2, respectively. Motorcycle, 2002, 2, pp. 18-20

[8] Bifu Liu, Bailin Cai, Minglang Gao. Principles for

designing motorcycle hydraulic disk brake. Motorcycle

technology, 1997, 7, pp. 4-6

[9] S.J.Matysiak, A.A.Yevtushenko, E.G.Ivanyk. Contact

temperature and wear of composite friction elements

during braking. International Journal of Heat and Mass

Transfer, 2002, 45, pp. 193-199

[10] Malak Naji, M.AL-Nimr. DYNAMIC THERMAL

BEHAVIOR OF A BRAKE SYSTEM. Int. Comm. Heat

Mass Transfer, 2001, 28(6), pp. 835-845

Figure 1 Main performance Figure 2 Main parameters of [11] L.Afferrante, M.Ciavarella, P.Decuzzi, G.Demelio.

parameters of brake hand bar Transient analysis of frictionally excited thermoelastic

instability in multi-disk clutches and brakes. Wear, 2003,

7. Closing remarks 25(4), pp. 136-146

[12] Hong Chen. Fuzzy mathematics and its application in

This paper investigates a method of semi- national economy. Wuhan: publishing company of

similarity design for motorcycle-hydraulic-disk brake Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1994

and also advances a strategy of fuzzy evaluation of

design scheme. Then, based on PDM and knowledge

base of information about whole motorcycles, software

of motorcycle-hydraulic-disk brake semi-similarity

design is developed. The proposed methodology can

not only fully use existing product resources, but also

change the actuality that motorcycle-hydraulic-disk

brake design depends too much on designers’

experiences. Finally, the proposed methodology is

demonstrated to be effective in an instance of

motorcycle-hydraulic-disk brake design in a factory of

Zhejiang Province of China.

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