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Semi-similarity design of motorcycle-hydraulic-disk brake: strategy and


Fei Gao1, 2 Gang Xiao1 YUANMING Zhang1

1 College of Information Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology,
Hangzhou 310032, China
2 State Key Lab of CAD&CG, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China

Abstract used in real brake design. Other researchers, such as

S.J.Matysiak et al. [9], Malak Naji et al. [10] and
Semi-similarity design is a reasonable and effective L.Afferrante et al. [11], are focused on brake part
approach for motorcycle-hydraulic-disk brake design, characteristics.
which is an indeterminate problem because of To fully use the firm’s existing product resources,
incomplete required parameters. First, equation of this paper investigates a method of semi-similarity
semi-similar level scale is set up through analyzing the design for motorcycle-hydraulic-disk brake.
design model of motorcycle-hydraulic-disk brake.
Second, algorithm of semi-similarity design and a 2. Design characteristics
fuzzy evaluation model for design scheme are
proposed. Third, work flowchart of semi-similarity Motorcycle-hydraulic-disk brake is usually
design based on the above strategy is given and a designed according to the equation as follows [3, 5]:
software system of motorcycle-hydraulic-disk brake F ˜ iF ˜ S 2 / S1 ˜ 2 ˜ D / 2 ˜ P ˜ K M P (1-1)
semi-similarity design is developed. Finally, the Where F is the hand power, which should satisfy the
proposed strategy and method are effectively brake performance and is usually constant between
demonstrated in an instance of motorcycle-hydraulic- 80N and 120N [2]; iF is the lever ratio of hand power;
disk brake semi-similarity design. S1 is the sectional area of brake-pump piston, m2; S2 is
Key words: Semi-similarity Design, Fuzzy Evaluation, the Sectional area of brake-pincers piston, m2; D/2 is
Hydraulic-Disk Brake, Design System, Equation of the Effective radius of brake disk, m;  is the friction
semi-similar level scale coefficient between brake disk and friction pieces and
usually between 0.3 and 0.45 [3];  is the working
1. Introduction efficiency of brake by considering mechanical and
hydraulic loss and usually between 0.71 and 0.78 [3].
Brake is an important component of motorcycle. In motorcycle-hydraulic-disk brake design, given
Hydraulic-disk brake, which is excellent in many key parameter of whole motorcycle, namely brake
aspects, is substituting for drum brake gradually and is torque M, four main parameters, iF, S1, S2, and D/2,
being widely used in recent years [1, 2]. should be derived from . However, equation (1-1) is
Although many factories in China are founded to indeterminate and it is difficult to determine iF, S1, S2,
produce hydraulic-disk brakes in recent years, they are and D/2. So, semi-similarity design is introduced to
short of self-design and mainly make copies of other help design motorcycle-hydraulic-disk brake.
hydraulic-disk brakes. Many researchers, such as
Liqun Zhou [2], Xiaobin Liu [3], Juntang Yuan et al. 3. Strategy of semi-similarity design
[5], Difeng Xu [6][7] and Bifu Liu [8] et al., studied
the hydraulic-disk brake about its working principle, Equation (1-1) is an indeterminate equation under
structure characters and design methods. They mainly such circumstances that motorcycle part firms usually
focused on the checking and calculating model of only know brake torque, M, and then the brake is
motorcycle-hydraulic-disk brake. However, it is designed according to designer’s experiences. To help
difficult to capture the necessary parameters needed by designers to design a reasonable scheme rapidly and
the checking and calculating model, so it cannot be
978-1-4244-3701-6/09/$25.00 ©2009 IEEE

help the firm to avoid too much depending on the Where D1/2 is the searched effective radius of brake
designer’s experience so that the design knowledge disk, m.
can be easily continued and inherited, a strategy of (4) The sets of the sectional area of brake-pump piston,
how to derive the main four parameters from given S10, and the sectional area of brake-pincers piston, S20,
brake torque according to equation (1-1) is proposed. are collected through arranging the existing brake
pump modules and brake pincers modules, respectively:
3.1 Equations of semi-similar level scale SS1= {S11, S12, …, S1i, …, S1n}
SS2= {S21, S22, …, S2j, …, S2m}
Exponent equation can be derived from equation Where SS1 is the set of existing brake pump modules;
(1-1) according to semi-similar geometry increasing SS2 is the set of existing brake pincers modules; n is
product design principle [4] as follows: the number of existing pump modules; m is the number
Fe  iFe  S2e  S1e  De  Pe Ke MPe (1-2) of existing brake pincers modules; S1i is the sectional
area of ith brake-pump piston, i=1, 2, …, n; S2j is the
In brake design, hand power is usually constant,
sectional area of jth brake-pincers piston, j=1, 2, …, m.
so level scale MF=1 and level exponent Fe=0. Powder
It is difficult to design and machine brake pumps
metallurgy or semi-metal friction pieces are usually
and brake pincers since their structures are complex,
used in motorcycle-hydraulic-disk brake, of which the
and then the cost of their dies is high. So, the existing
friction coefficient changes little, so level scale M=1 modules of brake pumps and brake pincers should be
and level exponent e=0. On the other hand, brake chosen in brake design as possible as designers can,
efficiency also changes little, so level scale M=1 and namely S10ęSS1 and S20ęSS2.
level exponent e=0. Then, equations can be derived as
The increasing level scale of brake torque M is as 4. Evaluation of design scheme
M M M L3 (1-3) 4.1 Model of fuzzy evaluation

MM P M D3 (1-4) How satisfactory in brake design is a fuzzy

M Pe 3 ˜ De (1-5) concept given only key parameters of whole
motorcycle. So, fuzzy evaluation [12] is introduced as
MS 1
MS 2
M L2 M D2 (1-6) follows:
S1e S2e 2 ˜ De (1-7)
4.1.1 Evaluation of rationality of lever ratio of
3 / 2 ˜ iFe 3 ˜ De M Pe (1-8)
hand power
M i3 / 2
M D3 MM P (1-9)
Where ML is the effective radius of brake disk. It is necessary to choose a reasonable lever ratio
of hand power. How reasonable the lever ratio of hand
power is is a fuzzy set. The membership grade function
3.2 Algorithm of reasoning design scheme can be determined according to frequency of use of all
existing types of lever ratio of hand power scaled by a
Suppose the brake torque of a motorcycle is M0, step, s. Suppose all intervals of lever ratio of hand
N·m, the main four parameters can be determined power be a set as follows:
using equations from (1-3) to (1-9) as follows: U S ^u s1 , us 2 , ", u si , ", usn `
(1) Search a brake whose brake torque is M1 which is
most close to M0, where M1ıM0. Where usi=(asiˈcsi] denotes ith interval of lever ratio
(2) The lever ratio of hand power, i F , is derived from of hand power and s= csi – asi, so
usi as1 ˜ Os ˜ (i  1), as1 ˜ Os ˜ i @
equation (1-9):
Suppose the set of frequency of use of all intervals of
iF0 iF1 ˜ 3 / 2 M 0 / M 1 (1-10)
lever ratio of hand power be
Where i F1 is the searched lever ratio of hand power. BS ^bs1 , bs 2 , ", bsi , ", bsn ` . The corresponding
(3) The effective radius of brake disk, D0/2, is derived relation between Us and Bs is usi to bsi.Let fuzzy set
from equation (1-9): defined in US be
A1= {Reasonable lever ratio of hand power}
D0 / 2 D1 / 2 ˜ 3 M 0 / M 1 (1-11)
Where how reasonable the lever ratio of hand power is
can be denoted as follows:

A1 (usi ) bsi / max(U s ) Considering real adhesive coefficient of a road in a
case of anti-lock and letting Mmin=m1·a·r1· and
4.1.2 Evaluation of hand bar stiffness Mmax=m1·M ·g·r1·, the brake negative acceleration
must satisfy M min d M P d M max , where M is the
The requirement about hand bar stiffness means esigned brake torque, N·m, m1 is the mass of whole
that elastic deformation of hand bar is less than 3mm motorcycle, kg, r1 is the effective radius of wheels of
when it is put on 200N hand power. How good the motorcycle, m,  is the partition coefficient of front-
stiffness performance of hand bar is a fuzzy set: wheel brake torque,M is the adhesive coefficient of a
A2={Good stiffness performance of hand bar} road,g is the Acceleration of gravity, 9.8 m/s2. Then, A
And the membership grade function is fuzzy set is defined as follows:
­1  u g / 3, 0 d u g  3 A5= {Good brake efficiency}
A2 (u g ) ® Where the membership grade function is:
¯0, u g t 3
­0, M P  M min
Where ug is the elastic deformation of hand bar. °° M  M
A5 ( M P ) ® P min
, M min d M P d M max
4.1.3 Evaluation of redundancy of hand bar M
° max  M min

design scheme °¯0, M P ! M max

The coefficient of redundancy of hand bar design 4.1.6 Evaluation of size of brake disk
can be defined as KF=[Fb]/F, 1KF, Where [Fb]
denotes admissible flexural stress of material of hand Outer radius R3 of a brake disk is usually
bar and F is the maximum of flexural stress of hand between 0.4 and 0.45 times of motorcycle wheel
bar design. A fuzzy set is defined as follows under the
circumstances that F is smaller than [Fb]:
hub radius R4. The ratio of inner radius to
A3={Lower redundancy of hand bar design } outer radius of brake pieces is R1=0.7·R2, and
Where the membership grade function is R3=R2+2. So, there is an experience equation about
the effective radius of brake disk as follows:
°­0, K F  1 0.34·R4-1.7Re0.39·R4-1.7
A3 ( K F ) ®
°̄1 / K F , 1 d K F d f Let Remin=0.34·R4-1.7 and Remax=0.39·R4-1.7, a fuzzy
Smaller KF is, closer to 1 A3(KF) is, which means that set is defined as follows:
the design is closer to ‘lower redundancy of hand bar A6= {Smaller size of brake disk}
design’. Where the membership grade function is
­0, Re  Re min
4.1.4 Evaluation of rationality of hydraulic °° R  Re min
A6 ( Re ) ®1  e , Re min d Re d Re max
magni-scale ° Re max  Re min
¯°0, Re ! Re max
Reasonable hydraulic magni-scale is a fuzzy set,
of which the membership grade function can be 4.2 Optimization model
determined through analyzing existing frequency of
use of each combination of brake pump and brake Suppose i is the weight corresponding to Ai, which
pincers. Let set of all hydraulic magni-scale can be determined using Analytic Hierarchy Process
be U Y {u y1 , u y 2 , ", u yi , ", u yn } , and set of frequency [12]. Then, the optimization target is
of use be BY {by1 , by 2 , " , byi , " , byn } . The 6

corresponding relation between UY and BY is uyi to

max{Fsat ¦Z
i 1
i ˜ Ai }

byi.A fuzzy set is defined in UY as follows:

A4= {Reasonable hydraulic magni-scale} 5. Case study
Where the membership grade function is:
A4 (u yi ) byi / max( BY ) Information about more than 200 motorcycles and
brikes is collected in a motorcycle-hydraulic-disk
brake firm of Zhejiang province and is inputted into
4.1.5 Evaluation of brake efficiency
the PDM system. Modular design is also executed.
According to modules base, membership grade curves

of lever ratio of hand bar and hydraulic magni-scale
are also gathered.
An instance of motorcycle-hydraulic-disk brake Acknowledgments
semi-similarity design in a motorcycle firm is given. This work is being supported by the National Natural
The motorcycle model is GS125 and its key Science Foundation of China under Grant No.
parameters are shown in table 1. 50705087 and the Open Project Program of the State
Key Lab of CAD&CG (Grant No. A0903), Zhejiang
Table 1 Key parameters of GS125 University.
Item Value
Fully loaded mass of motorcycle(kg) 178 References
Front-wheel outer diameter(m) 0.613
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This paper investigates a method of semi- national economy. Wuhan: publishing company of
similarity design for motorcycle-hydraulic-disk brake Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1994
and also advances a strategy of fuzzy evaluation of
design scheme. Then, based on PDM and knowledge
base of information about whole motorcycles, software
of motorcycle-hydraulic-disk brake semi-similarity
design is developed. The proposed methodology can
not only fully use existing product resources, but also
change the actuality that motorcycle-hydraulic-disk
brake design depends too much on designers’
experiences. Finally, the proposed methodology is
demonstrated to be effective in an instance of
motorcycle-hydraulic-disk brake design in a factory of
Zhejiang Province of China.