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Unit 12 Vital functions III: reproduction

3. Teaching resources

Unit summary:

■■ Asexual reproduction in animals can occur through

fragmentation or budding.
■■ Sexual reproduction occurs in all groups of animals and includes
the following phases: first, gametogenesis occurs in the
gonads. The male gonads are the testicles and they produce
male gametes called sperm. The female gonads are the ovaries
and they produce female gametes called eggs. Fertilisation is
the second phase and is the union of an egg and a sperm to
form a zygote. Embryonic development is the third phase and
it can be oviparous, ovoviviparous or viviparous. Finally, post-
embryonic development can be direct or indirect.
■■ Asexual reproduction in plants can occur through sporulation
or vegetative reproduction, thanks to a variety of reproductive
structures in plants.
■■ Sexual reproduction occurs in flowering plants, which have
stamens and pistils, where gametes produce seeds after being
■■ If the seeds are inside the fruit, they are angiosperms; if not,
they are gymnosperms.
■■ Pollination can occur due to the wind (anemogamous) or to
insects (entomogamous).

algaida editores, S.A. Authorized photocopiable material.