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Fourth group

Hairummufli (40300117005)

Alifya Budi Karelita (40300117018)

Mery Anggara Putri (40300117034)

Nurul Rahmi (40300117019)





Intercultural communication is a scientific fields whose object of interest is the

interaction between individuals and groups from different cultures, and which examine s the
influence of culture on who people are, how they act feel, think and, evidently, speak and
listen (Dodd in Aneas and Sandin, 2009:2)

Intercultural communication focuses on social attributes, thought patterns, and the

cultures of different groups of people. It also involves understanding the different cultures,
languages and customs of people from other countries.

The need for increased intercultural understanding and improved intercultural

communication has become increasingly important to a world of blending culture,
experiences, business practices. We must improve our understanding and acceptance of, and
increase our participation in other cultures and development of intercultural competence itself
is mostly based on the individual's experiences while he or she is communicating with
different cultures.

Vila in Aneas and Sandin (2009:2) also said that intercultural communication may be
difened as a communicative procces involving individuals from reference cultures which are
sufficiently different to be perceived as such, with certain personal and/ or contextual barriers
having to be overcome in order to achieve effective communication.
It can be said that intercultural communication is a form of communication that aims to
share information across different cultures and social groups.


According to Hugenberg et al (1996:3) intracultural communication is the interaction

than take place between members of the same culture. At the foundation of these interactions
are the roles and norms governing a particular culture or subculture. Norms and roles form
the ‘cues’ each member uses to receive, interpret, and send messages. Intracultural
communication is an important component of intracultural communication because it forms
the basis for these transactions.

This orientation is supported by the views of researchers who believe that intracultural
communication operate on the same set of principles but in differing degrees, thereby
making them a combined study. Kochman in Hugenberg et al ( 1996:3) writes, “within
cultural pluralism [intracultural communication], A plus B is a better choice than A or B,
both for the individual and for the society as a whole, especially when the climate is set for
culturally different people to become cultural resources for each other”. Thus, the two, intra-
cultural and interculturecommunication, are intertwined.

The importance of intracultural communication must be stressed, therefore people

must understand and appreciate the many aspects of the different culture.
C. Barriers to Intercultural Communication

1. Language and Usage

• Words as symbols become barrier when their meaning is not shared.

• Language becomes a barrier is when the use of particular language is forced on people
by those with more power. (Jandt, 1995:109)
• Result of communication are influenced by language usage and how people interpret
that language.

2. Non-verbal communication

• Non-verbal communication is the silent language of a culture. Nonverbal patterns

include gestures, facial expression, eye contact, body movement, touching, and the
use of space and time.
• Non-verbal communication is also rooted in a person’s culture.

3. The value within specific cultures

• Values are usually presented as universal absolutes—accepted by everyone in a

culture, including organizational cultures.
• Values determine what we think right, good, important, beautiful-that is difficult to
accept that what is right or good is as relative to culture as the word for book or
stove, or as the way our food is prepared or our clothes are made.

4. Common fear and misunderstanding

• Fear of participating in intercultural communication experiences can be based on fear

of change, fear of the unknown, fear of threatened identity, ect.
• Misunderstanding arise when people are unaware of cultural differences, or even the
possibility of such differences. (Tubbs and Moss, 1987:406)
• This situation reflects a mono-cultural perspective that denies cultural differences,
views cultural interactions as filled with errors not diversity, and forms cultural
boundaries in which people remain their entire lives, unable to wander out. (Pearce &
Kang, 1987: 22)

D. The problems in intercultural communication usually come from problems in message


• In communication between people of the same culture, the person who receives the
message interprets it based on values, beliefs, and expectations for behavior similar to
those of the person who sent the message. Hence, the message is interpreted by the
receiver is similar to what the speaker intended.
• When the receiver of the message is a person from a different culture, the receiver
uses information from his or her culture to interpret the message. The message that
the receiver interprets may be very different from what the speaker intended.

The successful intercultural communication process best begins with goodwill on both

• In order to come to appreciate and understand people from different cultures, empathy
is vital. Through putting yourself in someone else's shoes you come to see or
appreciate their point of view.

• Involving others in tasks or decision making empowers and builds strong

relationships. Using intercultural diversity is in essence a more creative approach to
problem solving as it incorporates different points of view.

• The development of intercultural competence itself is mostly based on the individual's

experiences while he or she is communicating with different cultures.

Nur, Serliah. Desember 2014. Cross Cultural Understanding.

Pujiyanti, Umi & Rhina Fatkhunaimah. 2014. Cross Cultural Understanding : A Handbook
To Understand Others’ Cultures. Yogyakarta: CV. Hidayah.