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Write short notes on phased array and adaptive arrays.

A phased array, in antenna theory, is an array of antennas in which all of the phases of
each signal that feeds each antenna are set in such a way that the effective radiation pattern of the
entire array is set toward the desired direction and that the signals emanating toward undesired
directions are suppressed. It is a way to direct waves of radiation toward a desired direction. A
phased array is also known as a phased antenna system.
A phased array antenna has multiple radiating elements, each having a phase shifter of its
own. The beams are then formed through the shifting of the signal's phase that is emitted from
each radiating element; this serves as constructive interference toward the desired direction for
the waves and as destructive interference for undesired directions. The main beam in a phased
array antenna always points in the direction of the increased phase shift.
Because of the phase shifting and directional nature of the application, a phase array
antenna usually has a flat surface that can be moved, unless it is meant as a stationary antenna, in
which case it always broadcasts in a single direction. These antennas are often large installations,
with some of them being as large as buildings. Mobile installations can be found on warships
where the phased array antenna is used for radar systems in the detection and tracking of planes,
ships and even missiles. These radar installations are also used to steer a missile during the mid-
course phase of its flight.
Phased array antennas are used in AM broadcasting to provide more power and range,
and so that they will only serve their area of license and not interfere in others. The Messenger
spacecraft mission to Mercury in 2011 to 2015 was the first deep-space mission to use a phased
array antenna for communication. Phased array antennas are also used in weather research and
tracking of storms.
Advantages:
• It has the ability to provide a highly movable and agile beam under computer control.
• It has multifunction operation through the emission of several beams simultaneously.
• The system remains operational even with errors and faults in a few areas.

Applications of phased arrays


Phased array antennas can be electrically steerable, which means the physical antenna
can be stationary. This concept can eliminate all the headaches of a gimbal in a radar system. It
can keep an antenna locked onto a satellite, when the antenna is mounted on a moving platform.
It is what allows a satellite to steer its beam around your continent without having to deal with
the "slight problem" associated with trying to point things in space where every movement
would require an equal and opposite mass to move in order to keep the satellite stabilized. A
phased array receiver can be flush-mounted on the top of a commercial airplane's fuselage so that
all of the happy passengers can receive satellite television.

Adaptive array:
The adaptive array antenna system can commence with subsequent meaning…. First, all
incoming signal and the multipath signal with interference are computed using a specific
direction of arrival algorithm. Second, a user most wanted signal is differentiates from a rests of
the unnecessary arriving signal. Lastly the desired signal is in the user path and nulls are place in
a obstruction signal direction. At the same time user is traced. The main beam radiation direction
is depends on the phase distinction of the elements used in phased array. Phase distinction of the
elements is adjusting gradually to guide main beam continuously in several direction. Adaptive
array using this idea produce maximum radiation by phase adjustment. Consider a digital
beamforming adaptive network in Figure which illustrates good working of adaptive array.

Typically in individual elements incident signals are combined smartly to get single
desired digital beamforming output. Intermediate or baseband frequencies are brought down first
and afterward incoming signals are weighted. The necessary frequency down conversion
performance is provided by receivers at the output of each element. Incoming signals are
weighted by digital signal processors in adaptive antenna array systems. Therefore down-
converted signal processed by the digital signal processor are transformed into digital format by
means of analog-to-digital converters.

Fig: Beam pattern in adaptive array


It is necessary for accurate performance to make changes in RF signal. The digital signal
processor is the key element of a system. This allows an IF signal to be process in digital format
using algorithm in the signal processor. This processor changes incoming information and computes
the composite weights and array pattern is optimizing by each element output multiplied with these
weights. Optimization used specific technique which reduces noise or interference and gives highest
beam increase in preferred direction. Number of algorithms are used which based on different
techniques for calculating and altering the finest weights.
What is the basic principle of antenna synthesis?
The array synthesis is the reverse process of array analysis. It starts from a given requirement
specified on the array radiation pattern and ends with an array design to approximately (or exactly)
satisfy the requirement and the other system constraints. The synthesis method depends on the
category of requirements. Two categories of requirements are studied: 1. The array radiation pattern
exhibits a desired distribution in the visible region - beam shaping. 2. The array radiation pattern has
low side lobes and a narrow main beam.
Name some numerical tools that can be used to analyze an antenna.
CADD is the numerical tool used for the analysis of an antenna.

Discuss in detail the concept, design principles and types of phased array. (10)
Phased array is an array of many elements with the phase ( and also amplitude) of each
element being a variable, providing control of the beam direction and pattern shape including side
lobes.

Specialized phased arrays are


1) Frequency scanning array
2) Retro array
3) Adaptive array

1) Frequency scanning array


In frequency scanning array, phase change is accomplished by varying the frequency. These
frequency scanning arrays are among the simplest phased arrays since no phase control is required at
each element.
Consider a line fed array of uniformly spaced elements with a receiver connected at the right
end of the line. Each element is fed from the transmission line via a directional coupler that are fixed.
The transmission line is matched to eliminate reflections and ensure an essentially pure travelling
wave on the line.
Advantages:
The frequency scanning array has no moving parts, no phase shifters and ni switches, making
it one of the simplest types of phased arrays.

2) Retro array
If a wave incident on an array is received and transmitted back in the same direction, the
array acts as a retro reflector or retro array.
In general, each element of a retro array re radiates a signal which is the conjugate of the
received signal. The 8 identical elements may be dipoles with element pairs (1 and 8, 2and 7, 3 and 6,
4 and 5) connected by identical equal length cables, a wave arriving at any 2λ angle
3) Adaptive array
By processing the signals from the individual elements, an array can become active and react
intelligently to its environment, steering its beam toward a desired signal while simultaneously
steering a null toward an undesired, interfering signal and thereby maximizing the signal to noise
ratio of the desired signal. Such a kind of array is called as an adaptive array. By suitable signal
processing and by appropriate sampling and digitizing the signals at the terminals of each element
and processing them with a computer, a very intelligent or smart antenna can be built. This type
antenna gives enhanced, stimulated patterns of higher resolution and lower side lobes.
For a given number of elements, such antenna’s capabilities are limited by the programming
power and computer available. Thus multiple beams may be simultaneously directed toward many
signals arriving from different directions within the field of view of the antenna. These antennas are
called as digital beam forming (DBF) antennas.
Consider a two element adaptive array with spacing between the elements at the signal
frequency with elements operating in phase, the beam is broadside. Consider the signal 2 λ φ is
transmitted back in the same direction, the array looks like square corner reflector, is passive. is at
300 from broadside so that the wave arriving at elements 2 travels
The phase detector compares the phase of the downshifted signal with the phase of the
reference oscillator and produces a voltage proportional to the phase difference. This voltage
advances or retards the phase of the VCO output so as to reduce the phase difference to zero. 4 λ
farther than to element 1, thus retarding the phase of the signal by 900 at element 2. Each element is
equipped with its own mixer, voltage controlled oscillator (VCO), intermediate frequency oscillator
and phase detector. An oscillator at the intermediate frequency is connected at each phase detector as
reference.

Write short note on tapered array and phased array. (8)


Phased array antennas are can be electrically steerable, which means the physical antenna can
be stationary. This concept can eliminate all the headaches of a gimbal in a radar system. It can keep
an antenna locked onto a satellite, when the antenna is mounted on a moving platform. It is what
allows a satellite to steer its beam around your continent without having to deal with the "slight
problem" associated with trying to point things in space where every movement would require an
equal and opposite mass to move in order to keep the satellite stabilized. A phased array receiver can
be flush-mounted on the top of a commercial airplane's fuselage so that all of the happy passengers
can receive satellite television.
The principle of the phased array is to synthesize a specified electric field (phase and
amplitude) across an aperture. The resulting beam approximates the Fourier transform of the E-field
distribution. The individual antennas are frequently space about a half-wavelength apart. Sparse
arrays use much larger element spacing of course but their behavior and utility are probably outside
the scope of what you want to learn here.
Adding a phase shift to the signal received or transmitted by each antenna in an array of
antennas allows the collective signal of these individual antennas to act as the signal of a single
antenna with performance vastly different from the individual antennas in the array. Here is a list
illustrating the some of the results of arraying many antennas.
1. Power: The signal collected is the combined signal of all the individual antennas and so is stronger.
2. Beam Shaping: The antenna pattern of the combined antennas can be much narrower than any of
the individual antennas.
3. Beam Steering: The direction of the peak sensitivity collective antenna can be altered without
mechanically re-positioning the individual antennas. For an array with electronically variable phase
shifters, you can switch the beam position as fast as you can switch the phase shifts. Big antennas
more rather slowly.
4. Reliability: For a single antenna, if the positioning system fails, you can’t point to anything except
down the line of sight of the antenna. For the array antenna, if one antenna fails, all the rest continue
to function and the collective pattern is modified slightly (called graceful degradation.)
5. Weight: For airborne applications the weight of an phased array is less than that of a comparable
rapidly-steerable, gimbaled, single antenna.
6. Cost: A very large mechanically steered antenna may be replaced with a collection of less
expensive smaller antennas without loss of resolution (although a single cryogenic receiver may cost
less than a collection of cryogenic receivers) but cost comparisons are difficult without looking at the
detailed system requirements.
7. Multiple Beams: Utilizing the wide range of control provided by the phase shifters, you can
synthesize multiple beam responses if you desire.
8. Digital or mixer Option: You can actually do without the analog phase shifters by down-converting
to the base band and then filtering and shifting the signal digitally. On the other hand you could shift
the phase of the IF or LO signal instead of the RF signal. In either the Digital or IF/LO mode of
operation, the complexity and expense of the individual receivers goes up as you have to distribute
the LO signal to every antenna. For large arrays I’m not sure that it’s worth it but some automotive
radars are frequency scanned.