HEALTH AND SAFETY AT WORK ETC ACT 1974 Part Part Part Part 1 2 3 4 relates to HW&W at the workplace

relates to EMAS relates to Building Regs contains misc. & general provisions

PRACTICABLE – capable of being carried out or feasible (given current knowledge, finance, information etc.) REASONABLY PRACTICABLE – must be technically possible, and the risk assessed against the cost. Where cost is disproportionately high, can be deemed not to be reasonably practical. H&S Inspectorate powers include: Investigation, Advisory, Enforcement (Imp. Not, Pro. Not, Seize/destroy substances/articles, Prosecute) PART 1 HSWA DUTIES OF EMPLOYERS Section 2(1) Employer must protect the HS&W at work of all their employees Section 2(2)a Provide & maintain plant & systems of work that are safe & without risk to health Section 2(2)b Ensure safety and absence of risks in the use, handling, storage and transportation of articles and substances Section 2(2)c Provide information, supervision & training to ensure the H&S of employees Section 2(2)d Provide safe place of work, safe access/egress, safe working environment Section 2(2)e Provide adequate welfare facilities and arrangements Section 2(3) Produce written H&S policy where 5 or more persons employed Section 3(1) & 3(2) Ensure that activities do not endanger persons NOT in their employment who may be affected by their operations Section 2(4), (6) & (7) Consult union safety reps & establish safety committee when requested by 2 reps Section 9 Do not levy charge for anything provided in pursuance of the statutory provisions DUTIES OF SELF-EMPLOYED Section 3(2) & (3) Same general duties as Employers through a general duty to ensure as far as reasonably practical that they and other persons are not exposed to risks to H&S DUTIES OF EMPLOYEES Section 7(a) Exercise reasonable care for the H&S of themselves and others who their actions may affect Section 7(b) Co-operate with the employer Section 8 Not to interfere with anything provided in the interests of HS&W DUTIES OF MANUFACTURERS, DESIGNERS, IMPORTERS AND SUPPLIERS

Section 6(1) Articles to be safe and without risk to H&S Section 6(2) Carry out tests, research etc. to provide adequate info on conditions to ensure its safety when in use Section 6(3) Similar as above but for installers and erectors Section 6 (General) Info on noise levels SECTION 2 – Duties of SECTION 3 – Duties of SECTION 4 – Duties of SECTION 5 – Duties to SECTION 6 – Duties of SECTIONS 7-9 – Duties employers to employees employers to others persons concerned with premises to others control harmful emissions into the atmosphere those producing articles for use at work that affect employees

Breaches of HSWA can lead to: Max. £20K fine and/or 6 months imprisonment (Summary Conviction – Magistrates Court) Unlimited fine and/or 2 years imprisonment (Indictable Offence –Crown Court) Civil Law – Prosecution on Balance of Probabilities (Civil Law established by case precedence) Criminal Law – Prosecution beyond all reasonable doubt (Statute & legislation) THE SIX PACK REGULATIONS Management of Health and Safety at Work Regs 1999 (MHSWR) Workplace (Health, Safety and Welfare) Regs 1992 (WHSWR) Health and Safety (Display Screen Equipment) Regulations 1992 (DSE Regs) Personal Protective Equipment at Work Regulations 1992 (PPE Regs) Manual Handling Operations Regulations 1992 (MHOR) Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations 1998 (PUWER) MANAGEMENT OF HEALTH AND SAFETY AT WORK REGS 1999 Regulation 3 Risk assessment (significant risks to be recorded) Regulation 4 Implementation of protective or preventive measures: 1. Avoid risk 2. Evaluate risk 3. Combat risk at source 4. Adapt the work of an individual 5. Adapt to technical advances 6. Replace dangerous with non/less dangerous 7. Develop policy which influences the factors relating to working environment 8. Give collective measures priority 9. Give appropriate instructions to employees Regulation 5 Make proper arrangements for all aspects of H&S Regulation 6 Health surveillance (where appropriate) Regulation 7 Appointment of competent persons Regulation 8 Procedures to be developed for particular dangers which may arise (ie: fire) Regulation 9 Information for employees Regulation 10 Information to be provided to employees for:· Identified risks· Preventive/protective measures· Procedures and name of nominated responsible person as required under Fire

Precautions (Workplace) Regs 1997 Regulation 11 Where more than one employer, they must co-operate over H&S matters Regulation 12 Working on other peoples premises – must provide them with info and details of risks etc. Regulation 13 Employers to take into account employees capabilities Regulation 14 Employees responsibilities to use tools and equipment etc safely Regulation 16-18 New & expectant mothers Regulation 19 Young persons MANUAL HANDLING OPERATIONS REGULATIONS 1992 Injury Includes muscoskeletal, cuts, bruises, broken toes etc. Load Anything to be moved (except tool when in use) Manual Handling Transporting, lifting, supporting, pushing, pulling, carrying, loading by hand or bodily force Regulation 4 Requires employers to avoid manual handling and to undertake risk assessment Regulation 5 Duty on employees to make full and proper use of all equipment provided PROVISION AND USE OF WORK EQUIPMENT REGULATIONS 1998 Regulation 4 Equip to be suitable Regulation 5 Properly and effectively maintained Regulation 6 Inspections and recording of inspections Regulation 7 Identified specific risks Regulation 8 Information & instruction Regulation 9 Training Regulation 11-20 Deal with machine guarding – basically requires all dangerous parts of any machine or piece of equipment to be effectively and properly guarded at all times Regulation 21 Suitable and sufficient lighting Regulation 22 Must be Safe to maintain Regulation 23 & 24 Markings an warnings Regulation 25 to 30 Deal with plant and plant safety PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT AT WORK REGULATIONS 1992 Regulation 4 Provision of PPE (Employers to ensure it is available and is suitable) Regulation 5 Compatibility Regulation 6 Assessment/Suitability – with regards to the nature of the task Regulation 7 Properly maintained, cleaned or replaced; and that Regulation 8 Suitable accommodation is provided Regulation 9 Employees are provided with all necessary information, instruction and training Regulation 10 Employees to use in accordance with training provided Regulation 11 To report any loss or defects THE HEALTH Regulation Regulation Regulation etc) Regulation Regulation Regulation & 1 2 3 SAFETY (DISPLAY SCREEN EQUIPMENT) REGS 1992 Definitions (user – someone who habitually uses DSE) Risk Assessment of workstations Specific workstation requirements (ie: adjustable chairs, screens

4 Rest breaks 5 Eyes and eye tests 6 Training

Regulation 7 Provision of information THE WORKPLACE (HEALTH, SAFETY AND WELFARE) REGS 1992 Regulation 5 Maintenance of the workplace Regulation 6 Ventilation Regulation 7 Temperature Regulation 8 Lighting Regulation 9 Cleanliness Regulation 10 Room dimensions and space (11m3 per person excluding area above 3m) Regulation 11 Workstations and seating Regulation 12 Condition of floors and traffic routes Regulation 13 Falls or falling objects Regulation 14 Windows and translucent surfaces Regulation 15 Windows, skylights and ventilators Regulation 16 Ability to clean windows etc safely Regulation 17 Organisation of traffic routes Regulation 18 Doors and gates Regulation 19 Escalators and moving walkways Regulation 20 Sanitary conveniences Regulation 21 Washing facilities Regulation 22 Drinking water Regulation 23 Accommodation for clothing Regulation 24 Facilities for changing clothes Regulation 25 Facilities to rest and eat meals AFR = No of lost time accidents x 100,000/No of man hours worked AIR = No of work related injuries x 1000/Average No of persons employed Severity Rate = No of Days lost x 1,000/Total No. of man hours worked Mean Duration Rate = Total No of Days Lost/Total No of Accidents Duration Rate = No of Man hours worked/Total No of accidents 4 C’s Competence Control Co-operation Communication 5 Steps to Successful Safety Management: (HSG65) 1. Policy 2. Organisation 3. Planning and implementation 4. Measure performance 5. Audit and Review Risk Assessment (5 Steps) 1. Identify Hazards 2. Identify Persons Exposed (particular attention to high risk groups – young persons, pregnant workers, disabled) 3. Evaluate Risks (Consider likelihood and severity) & Controls 4. Record the findings 5. Review and Revise

TYPES OF HAZARDS: CHEMICAL, BIOLOGICAL, PHYSICAL, ERGONOMIC, PSYCHO-SOCIAL Job Safety Analysis (JSA) SREDIM Process of identifying hazards in each component part of a job in order to assess the risk and decide on control measures for a SSW. Stages are: 1. Select the job/task to be reviewed 2. Record – Identify and record the sequence of steps and/or components in the process 3. Examine each component part of the job to identify the hazards/risks 4. Develop control measures 5. Install SSW/Control measures 6. Maintain. Carry out regular reviews. LEGAL ECONOMIC MORAL Planned Preventative Maintenance: Frequency of maintenance Statutory requirements Manufacturers Recommendations Operating Environment Age and Condition of Machinery Breakdown history Frequency of use/operation Critical components (effects of component failure) Effect of failure Timing of the works (ie: during shutdown periods) Disruption Maintenance staff competence Cost benefit Negligence: It is a common law tort Summarised as Careless Conduct/Breach of Duty of Care Tests to be satisfied: That a duty of care was owed That there was a breach of that duty That the breach led directly to the harm Mechanical Hazards: Crushing, Shearing, Cutting/Severing, Entanglement, Drawing In, Ejection of Material, Abrasion, Stabbing/Puncturing Non Mechanical Hazards: Noise, Temperature, Vibration, Electricity, Radiation, Hazardous Substances, Ergonomic Factors (inc. Manual Handling), Psycho-Social (Bullying, assault) Noise at Work Regulations 1989 Leq – Continuous Daily Equivalent Noise Level (8hrs) Lep,d – Daily Personal Exposure A Weighting Scale – Most commonly used, recognises that the human ear is less sensitive to low frequencies Gives greater importance to frequencies sensitive to the Human Ear

Regulation 4 Assess Noise Regulation 5 Competent person to complete the assessment Regulation 6 Employer to reduce risk of hearing damage to lowest reasonably practical level Regulation 7 Take steps to reduce noise exposure as far as reasonably practicable Regulation 8 Provide suitable protective equipment Regulation 9 Identify hearing protection zones and erect appropriate signage Regulation 10 PPE to be repaired and maintained & PPE provided to be used Regulation 11 Information, Instruction and Training Regulation 12 Specifies action levels COSHH Assessments: Type of substance (Toxic/Harmful/Sensitiser/Irritant) Chronic (prolonged exposure, long term effects) Acute (Short term exposure, immediate effect) Routes of entry into body (Absorbtion/indegstion/inhalation) Concentration in relation to exposure limits No of persons exposed (identify vulnerable persons) Duration of exposure Adequacy of control measures Compliance with control measures Hierarchy of Control: Elimination by design Substitution with less hazardous substance Automation of process Reducing exposure by process change Engineering controls (ie: LEV) Minimising exposure PPE Monitoring/Health surveillance Permit to Work: Permit title Reference No. Job location Plant/Task identification Description of work and any limitations Identified hazards Necessary precautions Protective equipment Authorisation Acceptance Extension Hand back/completion Cancellation Risk Assessment: PEME People, Equipment, Material, Environment Develop a system: ERIC PD Eliminate, Reduce (by Monitoring Substitution), Isolate, Control, PPE, Discipline Human Factors: SPAME Skill Personality Attitude Motivation Experience Machine Hazards: ENTICCE

Entanglement Nips Traps Impact Contact Cutting Ejection Manual Handling: TILE Task Individual Load Environment Machine Guarding: FIAT Fixed or fixed distance Interlocks (elect, air, mech, hydr) Automatic Trip Training: IITS Instruction Information Training Supervision Accident Factors: relate to Domino Theory Attitude Fault Unsafe Accident Injury Safety Management Systems (SMS) – HSG65 1. Policy – written statement of policy, procedures and commitment to HSW. Assigns responsibilities and explains duties etc. 2. Organising – structures to assist in: - Control - Co-operation - Communication - Co-ordination - Competence 3. Planning and Implementation – establish, operate and maintain systems that: - Identify objectives and targets - Set performance standards - Consider and control risks - Document performance - React to change - Sustain positive safety culture 4. Monitoring – Active and Reactive systems: Active: Measuring achievements against specified standards before things go wrong. Ensures controls are working correctly. Reactive: Collection of information about failures. Involves learning from mistakes. 5. Review and Audit – Ensures policy is being carried out and is having the desired effect. HAZARD PREVENTION 1. Eliminate the hazard 2. Substitution 3. Use of barriers (Isolation/segregation) 4. Procedures (SSW/Dilution) 5. Warning systems (Instruction/Training/Signs/Markings) 6. PPE 5 STEPS IN DEVISING A SSW (AIDIM) 1. Assess the task 2. Identify the Hazards and assess the risks 3. Definition of the Safe Method 4. Implementation of the SSW 5. Monitoring the System

MAINTENANCE ACCIDENTS CAUSED BY: 1. Poor Design 2. Poor perception of risk 3. No SSW 4. Poor communications 5. Failure to brief and supervise contractors MAINTENANCE ACCIDENTS CAN BE PREVENTED BY: 1. Planning 2. Evaluation 3. Controls 4. Monitoring Audit – looks at systems and the way they function in practice Inspection – looks at physical conditions 6 PART STRATEGY TO CONTROLLING CONTRACTORS 1. Identify suitable contractors 2. Identification of hazards within specification 3. Contractor competence & selection 4. Contractor acceptance of H&S Rules 5. Control of contractors on site 6. Completion checks SAFETY CULTURE (KEY ELEMENTS): Good communications between and with employees and management Ensuring a real and visible commitment to high standards by senior management Maintaining good training standards to achieve competence Achievement of good working conditions WORKPLACE ISSUES Ventilation: / 5l/s/person for mechanical systems Temperature: 16-30oC (13oC for physical work) Windows: Glass below shoulder height – safety glass Cleanliness: Working Space: 11m3 Seating: Ergonomic and adjustable Slips/Trips/Falls: Traffic Routes: Welfare Facilities: Toilets – Privacy/Ventilation/lighting/cleanliness/location/quantity Washing facilities Drinking water Accommodation for clothing Rest Facilities WORK EQUIPMENT 1. Suitable for the purpose 2. Installed, located and used so as to reduce the risk to operators & others 3. Substances – safe supply and/or removal 4. Maintained 5. Inspected by competent persons 6. Information, instruction and training TYPES OF GUARDS Fixed Interlocked Control

Automatic Distance guard Adjustable Self adjusting Trip devices Two handed devices GUARD MATERIAL DEPENDS ON: Strength/stiffness/durability Effects on reliability (eg: closed guard causing M/C to overheat) Visibility Need to control secondary hazards (ie: Noise) Hope this is of some use to all you NEBOSHers out there Enjoy