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2. Syllabus

Definition, history, scope and development of Pharmacognosy. General introduction to
alternative systems of medicine like Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani and Homeopathy.
Brief introduction to natural sources of drugs with examples: Plant
Source, Animal Source, Mineral Source, Marine Source and microorganisms.
Classification of Crude Drugs: Alphabetical, morphological, pharmacological, chemical,
taxonomical and chemotaxonomical methods of classification with suitable examples.

Cultivation, collection, processing, drying and storage of medicinal plants:
• Factors influencing cultivation of medicinal plants.
• Plant hormones and their applications.
• Definitions and examples for polyploidy, mutation and hybridization with reference to
medicinal plants.
Good Agriculture Practices: Strategies of obtaining improved cultivation of medicinal plants.

Adulteration &Evaluation of crude drugs: Adulteration of crude drugs: Different methods of
adulteration of crude drugs and general methods for detection of adulterants. For example
i) Organoleptic ii) Microscopic iii) Physical iv) Chemical and Biological methods of
Systematic pharmacognostic study of the following carbohydrates and
derived products: Acacia, tragacanth, agar, starch, guargum, pectin, isabgol and honey.
Systematic Pharmacognostic study of the following Lipids: Castor oil, cod liver oil, shark
liver oil, linseedoil, cocoa butter, kokum butter, bees wax, wool fat, hydrocarpus oil, spremaceti,
lard and olive oil.
Systematic Pharmacognostic study of the following volatile oils: Mentha, coriander,
cinnamon, lemon oil,nutmeg, eucalyptus, ginger, cardamom, tulsi, lemon grass, caraway, cumin,
dill, clove, fennel and black pepper.
Lecture Plan
Lecture Unit Topic No of hrs
no. Number required
1. Definition and history of Pharmacognosy 1
2. Scope and development of Pharmacognosy 1
3. General introduction to alternative systems of 1
4. Ayurveda, Siddha, 2
5. I Unani and Homeopathy 1
6. Brief introduction to Natural sources of crude 2
Plant Source
7. Animal Source, Mineral Source 1
8. Marine Source and microorganisms 1
9. Summary of unit-I 1
10. Alphabetical, morphological methods of 1
II classification
11. Chemical, taxonomical methods of classification 2
12. Pharmacological and chemo taxonomical methods 1
of classification
13. Summary of unit-II 1
14. III Advantages and methods of Cultivation 1
15. Factors influencing cultivation of medicinal plants 2
16. Plant hormones and their applications 2
17. Definitions and examples for polyploidy, mutation 3
and hybridization with reference to medicinal
18. Good Agricultural Practices 2
19. Summary of unit-III 1
20. Different methods of adulteration of crude drugs 2
21. General methods for detection of adulterants 1
22. Evaluation of crude drugs introduction 1
23. Organoleptic and microscopic methods of 2
IV evaluation
24. Physical methods of evaluation 1
25. Chemical methods of evaluation 2
26. Biological methods of evaluation 1
27. Summary of unit- IV 1
28. Carbohydrates and derived products 2
29. Acacia, Tragacanth 2
30. Agar, Honey, Isabgol 2
31. V Starch 2
32. Guargum, Pectin 1
33. Lipids and fixed oils introduction 1
34. Castor oil, linseed oil. 1
35. Cod liver oil, shark liver oil. 1
36. Cocoa butter, kokum butter. 1
37. Bees wax, wool fat. 1
38. Hydrocarpus oil, spermaceti. 1
39. VI Lard and olive oil. 1
40. Summary of unit- V 1
41. Volatile oils Introduction 1
42. Mentha, coriander. 2
43. Cinnamon, lemon oil. 1
44. Nutmeg, eucalyptus. 2
45. Ginger, cardamom. 2
46. Tulsi, lemon grass. 1
47. Caraway, cumin. 1
48. VI Dill, clove. 2
49. Fennel and black pepper. 2
50. Summary of unit-VI 1
1. Unit-wise course material

1.1. Unit – I History and Natural sources of Crude drugs

Definition, history, scope and development of Pharmacognosy. General

introduction to alternative systems of medicine like Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani
and Homeopathy.
Brief introduction to natural sources of drugs with examples: Plant
Source, Animal Source, Mineral Source, Marine Source and microorganisms.
1.1.1. Unit Objectives

After reading this Unit, you should be able to understand:

- Importance of pharmacognosy
- History of pharmacognosy
- Development of pharmacognosy
- Applications of pharmacognosy
- Alternatives systems of Medicine
- Various sources of crude drugs
- Natural drugs used in indigenous medicine

1.1.2. Unit Outcomes

- Give an outline of pharmacognosy

- Explain the progression of Natural history
- Extract the scope of pharmacognosy
- Elucidate various systems of traditional medicine
- Give different sources of crude drugs
- Debate on alternative and allopathic systems of medicine
- Trace the principles of unani and homeopathy
- Bring out the difference between ayurveda and siddha
- Give the meaning of pharmacognosy

1.1.3. Unit Lecture Plan

Lecture no. Topic Methodology Quick reference
1. Definition and history of Chalk & Board Text book of
Pharmacognosy Pharmacognosy of
Biren shah and Avinash
seth 2
2. Scope and development of Chalk & Board Text book of
Pharmacognosy Pharmacognosy of
Biren shah and Avinash
seth 3
3. General introduction to Chalk & Board Text book of
alternative systems of Pharmacognosy of
medicine Biren shah and Avinash
4. Unani and Ayurveda, Chalk & Board Text book of
Pharmacognosy of
Biren shah and Avinash
seth 2
5. Siddha and Homeopathy Chalk & Board Text book of
Pharmacognosy of
Biren shah and Avinash
seth 2
6. Brief introduction to Natural Chalk & Board Internet
sources of crude drugs
Plant Source
7. Animal Source, Mineral Chalk & Board Internet
8. Marine Source and Chalk & Board Internet
9. Summary of unit-I Chalk & Board Internet

1.1.4. Teaching Material / Teaching Aids as per above lecture plan.


The term comes from two Greek words: "pharmakon" meaning drug or medicine, and "gnosis"
meaning knowledge. Pharmacognosy is "the study of the physical, chemical, biochemical and
biological properties of drugs, drug substances or potential drugs or drug substances of natural
origin as well as the search for new drugs from natural sources". Pharmacognosy is the study of
medicinal uses of various naturally occurring drugs and its history, sources, distributions, method
of cultivation, active constituents, medicinal uses, identification test, preservation methods,
substituents and adulterants. Plant preparations are said to be medicinal or herbal when they are
used to promote health beyond basic nutrition. The study of drugs from plants includes the
subjects of botany, chemistry and pharmacology. Botany includes the identification (taxonomy),
genetics, and cultivation of plants. Chemical characterization of includes the isolation,
identification and quantification of constituents in plant materials. Pharmacology is the study of
the biological effects that the chemicals in medicinal plants have on cell cultures, animals and


 In the early period, primitive man went in search of food and ate at random, plants or
their parts like tubers, fruits, leaves, etc.
 As no harmful effects were observed he considered them as edible materials and used
them as food.
 If he observed other effects by their eating they were considered inedible, and according
to the actions he used them in treating symptoms or diseases.
 If it caused diarrhoea it was used as purgative, if vomiting it was used as memtic and if it
was found poisonous and death was caused, he used it as arrow poison.
 The knowledge was empirical and was obtained by trial and error. He used drugs as such
or as their infusions and decoctions.
 The results were passed on from one generation to the other, and new knowledge was
added in the same way.

Ancient China:

 Chinese pharmacy, according to legend, stems from Shen Nung (about 2700 B.C.),
emperor who sought out and investigated the medicinal value of several hundred herbs.
 He reputed to have tested many of them on himself, and to have written the first Pen T-
Sao, or Native Herbal, recording 365 drugs.
 These were subdivided as follows: 120 emperor herbs of high, food grade quality which
are non-toxic and can he taken in large quantities to maintain health over a long period of
time, 120 minister herbs, some mildly toxic and some not, having stronger therapeutic
action to heal diseases and finally 125 servant herbs that having specific action to treat
disease and eliminate stagnation.
 Most of those in the last group, being toxic, are not intended to be used daily over a
prolonged period of weeks and months.
 Shen Nung, conceivably examined many herbs, harks and roots brought in from the
fields, swamps and woods that are still recognized in pharmacy (podophyllum, rhubarb,
ginseng, stramonium, cinnamon bark and ephedra).
 Inscriptions on oracle bones from thc Shang Dynasty ( 1766-1122 B.C.), discovered in
Honan Province have provided a record of illness, medicines and medical treatment.
 Furthermore, a number of medical treatises on silk banners; and bamboo slips were
excavated from the tomb number three at Ma-Huang-Tui in Changsha, Hunan Province.
 These were copied from hooks some tune between the Chin and Han periods (300 B.C.—
A.D. 3) and constitute the earliest medical treatises existing in China.
 The most important clinical manual of traditional Chinese medicine is the Shang Hang
Lun (Treatise on the Treatment of Acute Diseases Caused by Cold) written by Chang
Chung-Ching (142-220).
 The fame and reputation of the Shang Han Lun as well as its companion hook, Chin Keui
Yao Lueh (Prescriptions from the Golden Chamber), is the historical origin of the most
important classical herbal formulas that have become the basis of Chinese and Japanese-
Chinese herbalism (called 'Kampo').
 With the interest in alchemy came the development of pharmaceutical science and the
creation of a number of hooks including Tao I long Jing's (456-536) compilation of the
Pen nth) Jing Ji Zhu (Commentaries on the Herbal Classic) based on the Shen Nong Pen
T'sao in 492.
 In that book 730 herbs were described and classified in six categories: (1) stone
(minerals), (2) grasses and trees, (3) insects and animals, (4) fruits and vegetables, (3)
grains and (6) named but unused.
 During the Sui dynasty (589-61s) the study of herbal medicine blossomed with the
creation of specialized books on plants and herbal medicine.
 Some of these set forth the method for the gathering of herbs in the wild as well as their
 Over 20 herbals were chronicled in the Sui Shu JittgJi Zhi (Bibliography of the History of
Sui). These include the books Zhong Zhi Yue Fa (How to Cultivate Herbs) and the Ru
Lin Cat Yue Fa (How to Collect Herbs in the Forest).
 From the Sung Dynasty (960-1276) the establishment of pharmaceutical system has been
a standard practice throughout the country.
 Before the ingredients of Chinese medicine can be used to produce pharmaceuticals, they
must undergo a preparation process, e.g. baking, simmer-ing or roasting.
 The preparation differs according to the needs for the treatment of the disease.
 Preparation methods, production methods and technology have constantly been improved
over time.
 In 1552, during the later Ming Dynasty, Li Shi Zhen (1518-1593) began work on the
monumental Pen T'sao Kan Mu (Herbal with Commentary).
 After 27 years and three revisions, the Pen T'sao Kan Mu was completed in 1578.
 The book lists 1892 drugs, 376 described for the first time with 1160 drawings. It also
lists more than 11,000 prescriptions.

Ancient Egypt:

 The most complete medical documents existing are the Ebers Papyrus (1550 B.C.), a
collection of 800 prescriptions, mentioning 700 drugs and the Edwin Smith Papyrus
(1600 B.C.), which contains surgical instructions and formulas for cosmetics.
 The Kahun Medical Papyrus is the oldest—it comes from 1900 B.C. and deals with the
health of women, including birthing instructions.
 However, it is believed that the Smith Papyrus was copied by a scribe from an older
document that may have dated back as far as 3000 B.C.
 Commonly used herbs included: senna, honey, thyme, juniper, cumin, (all for digestion);
pomegranate root, henbane (for worms) as well as flax, oakgall, pinetar, manna,
bayberry, ammi, alkanet, aloe, caraway, cedar, coriander, cyperus, elderberry, fennel,
garlic, wild lettuce, nasturtium, onion, peppermint, papyrus, poppy-plant, saffron,
watermelon, wheat and zizyphus-lotus.
 Myrrh, turpentine and acacia gum were also used.

Ancient India:

 In India knowledge of medicinal plants is very old, and medicinal properties of plants are
described in Rigvcda and in Atharvaveda (3500-1500 B.C.) from which Ayurveda has
 The basic medicinal texts in this world region—The Avurvedic writings—can be divided
in three main ones (Charaka Samhita, Susruta Samhita, Astanga Hrdayam Samhita) and
three minor ones (Sarngadhara Samhita, Bitava Prakasa Sattihita, Madhava Nidanatn
 Ayurveda is the term for the traditional medicine of ancient India. Ayur means life and
veda means the study of which is the origin of the term.
 The oldest writing—Charaka Samhita—is believed to date back six to seven centuries
before Christ. It is assumed to be the most important ancient authoritative writing on
 The Susruta Sauthita is thought to have arisen about the same time period as the Charaka
Samhita, but slightly after it Astanga Hrdayam and the Astanga Satwaha have been dated
about the same time and are thought to date after the Charaka and Susruta Sauthitas.
 Most of mentioned medicines origin from plants and animals, e.g. ricinus, pepper, Lilly,
valerian, etc.

Ancient Greece and Rome:

 Greek scientists contributed much to the knowledge of natural history.

 Hippocrates (460-370 B.C.) is referred to as father of medicine and is remembered for his
famous oath which is even now administered to doctors.
 Aristotle (384-322 B.C.), a student of Plato was a philosopher and is known for his
writing on animal kingdom which is considered authoritative even in twentieth century.
 Theophrastus (370-287 B.C.); a student of Aristotle, wrote about plant kingdom.
Dioscorides, a physician who lived in the first century A.D., described medicinal plants,
some of which like belladonna, ergot, opium, colchicum are used even today.
 Pliny wrote 37 volumes of natural history and Galen (131–A.D. 200) devised methods of
preparations of plant and animal drugs, known as 'galenicals' in his honour.
 Pharmacy separated from medicine and materia medica, the science of material
medicines, describing collection, preparation and compounding, emerged.
 Even upto the beginning of twentieth century, pharmacognosy was more of a descriptive
subject akin mainly to botanical science, and it consisted of identification of drugs both in
entire and powdered conditions and concerned with their history, commerce, collection,
preparation and storage.
 The development of modern pharmacognosy took place later during the period 1934-
1960 by simultaneous application of disciplines like organic chemistry, biochemistry,
biosynthesis, pharmacology and modern methods and techniques of analytic chemistry
including paper, thin layer, and gas chromatography and spectophotometry.



 Crude drugs of natural origin that is obtained from plants, animals and mineral sources
and their active chemical constituents are the core subject matter of pharmacognosv.
These are also used for the treatment of various diseases besides being used in cosmetic,
textile and food industries.
 During the first half of the nineteenth century apothecaries stocked the crude drugs for
the preparation of herbal tea mixtures, all kinds of tinctures, extracts and juices which in
turn were employed in preparing medicinal drops, syrups, infusions, ointments and
liniments. The second half of the nineteenth century brought with it a number of
important discoveries in the newly developing fields of chemistry and witnessed the rapid
progress of this science.
 Pharmacognosy also gives knowledge of chemotaxonomy, biogenic pathways for the
formation of acute ingredients.
 A vital link between pharmacology and medicinal chemistry: Concepts of biochemistry
and chemical engineering help in the improvement of collection, processing and storage
technologies of pharmaceuticals.
 This has done by the advanced technologies of cultivation, purification, identification
(characterization) of pharmaceuticals from nature. This includes a variety of substances
that are accumulated by plants and synthesized by plants. A vital contribution to the
advancement of natural science:
 Nowadays phytochemistry (plant chemistry) has undergone the significant improvement.
It also includes plant taxonomy, plant breeding, plant pathology, and plant genetics and
by this knowledge one can improve the cultivation methods for both medicinal and
aromatic plants.
 Pharmacognosy gives a sound knowledge of the vegetable drugs under botany and
animal drugs under zoology.
 As a research tools and in new drug delivery systems, and all the departments of
pharmaceuticals and one can improve the healthcare facilities across the world.
 In other way the complete knowledge of Pharmacognosy will help in the recent trend
that is in industries,
 Pharmacognosy is a science of active principles of crude drugs and which can be help in
dispensing, formulating, and manufacturing of dosage forms.
 In short Pharmacognosy is an important link between pharmaceuticals and basic science
as well as ayurvedic and allopathic system of medicines.
 Pharmacognosy is essential for the evolution of new medicines because crude drugs are
used for the preparation of galenicals or as a source of therapeutically active metabolites.
 Newly detected plant drugs are converting into medicine as purified phytochemicals.



For human beings disease threatens not only the well being of sufferers and their fellows, but
also the integrity of the community. Illness and death are disruptive events that impose high
economic, social and psychological costs wherever they occur. Therefore it is of primary
importance to the members of every group to try to maintain their health and to restore to health
those who fall ill.

Every human community has responded to this challenge by developing a medical system that
can be used to store health. A system of medicine or medical system can be defined as the pattern
of social institution and cultural traditions that evolved from deliberate behaviour to enhance
health. Several traditional medical systems exist along with contemporary scientific medicine
system. The published accounts of world’s medical system make the subject matter of
Ethnomedicine which is concerned with the beliefs and practices relating to disease that are
products of indigenous cultural developments and are not derived from conceptual framework of
modern medicine. Let us discuss the health and casualty concepts, therapist and therapy concept
of various system of medicine practiced in India. The major systems of medicine widely
practiced are enlisted below:

1. Unani system of medicine

2. Ayurvedic system of medicine

3. Homoeopathic system of medicine

4. Siddha system of medicine


Unani System of Medicine

Introduction: Unani system of medicine may be traced to that system of Greek medicine that
was developed during the Arab civilization. It was the Greek philosopher-physician Hippocrates
on whose teachings the theoretical framework of medicine is based. After him a number of other
Greek scholars enriched the system considerably. Of them Galen stands out as the one who
stabilized its foundation, on which Arab physicians like Razes and Avicenna constructed the
imposing edifice. It is now practiced in the Indo-Pakistan subcontinent after being introduced by

The basic philosophy of Tibb is that the body is composed of matter and spirit. Human body is
taken as a totality because harmonious life is possible only if there is a proper balance between
bodily and spiritual functions. Thus Tibb aims at restoring the original state of body. It also
provides counseling service and attempts to treat the whole person within a family context.

Concepts and Principles of Unani System of Medicine: Unani system of medicine believes
that there is a power of self preservation or adjustment called defence constitution of an
individual that gets affected when ill and need restoration to normal by the use of various therapy
prescribed in the system. The basic framework consists of theory of Hippocrates, which
presupposes the presence of four humours in the body namely blood, phlegm, yellow bile and
black bile. Unani medicine strives to find the best possible ways by which a person can lead a
healthy life with the least sickness. The logic behind maintaining good health is based on the
concepts of hygiene or Hifzan-e-Sehat and the six essential causes to maintain health or Asbab
eSehat Zaruriah. The body is regarded as comprising of following seven principles:

1. Arkan (Elements)- Comprising different states of matter and material entering into and
forming a part of every thing in Universe. These are simple and irreducible individual
substances that provides the primary component for a compound. They can not be further
dissolved into simpler entities. According to ancient percepts of Unani theory, there are four
primary elements namely Nar or fire, Hawah or air, Ma or water and Arz or earth.

This is a widely accepted theory among all schools of thoughts of Unani medicine. Air stands for
gaseous state, water for liquid state, earth for solid state while fire stands for matters that has
been transformed into heat. The properties of these four elements are: Nar- hot and dry, Hawah-
hot and wet, Ma-cold and wet and Arz-cold and dry

2. Mizaj (Temperament)- It occupies a very important place in Unani Tibb and forms the basis of
pathology, diagnosis and treatment. The temperament of the person to be treated is expressed by
the Galenic concept of its being sanguine, phlegmatic, choleric or melancholic, according to the
respective pervalence of the humours. In other words, temperament of the individual is equal to
the uniqueness of the individual or, in modern terminology, the psycho-neuro-endocrinal system
with its orientation tempered differently in each individual. Any change in the temperament
brings about a change in the person’s state of health. Thus disease is an expression of an
imbalance of the humours or the disturbance to their harmony and of the failure of one or more
parts of the body to eliminate pathogenic waste. There are two types’ temperaments:
(a) Equal temperament: When the contrary qualities of elements present in a compound are equal
in quantity and perfectly balanced according to the required properties and functions of that
compound, it is known as equal temperament.

(b) Unequal temperament: When the opposite qualities of the elements in a compound are
quantitatively unequal and unbalanced, it is known as unequal temperament.

3. Akhlat- It constitutes the structural components of the body.

4. A’da- It represents the fully developed and mature organs.

5. Ruh- It refers to the vital force or life force.

6. Quwa- The bodily power/energy is represented by this principle.

7. Af’al- The physiology of the body including biochemical processes make the Af’al.

The ancient Unani scholars based their study on the theory of humours which combined both
physiology and pathology. According to them there are three types of matter in the human body
namely solid, liquid and gas. The solid parts are known as organs or A’da, liquid parts are known
as humours or Akhlat and the gaseous parts are known as pneuma or Ruh. The body fluids,
which are humours, are further sub-divided into four types: Dam (Blood), Balgham (Phlegm),
Safra (Yellow bile) and Sauda (Black bile). On the basis of different constitution, people can be
categorized under four basic temperaments. The four are damwi, bilious, phlegmatic and
melancholic temperament.

Diagnosis: Diagnosis in the Unani system is carried out in the following manner:

(1) Body heat is measured by pulse, palpitation and thermometer.

(2) Urine gives many indications of disorders in kidney and liver and in the organs of digestion
and plays an important part in the Unani system.

(3) Examination of stools helps in the diagnosis of certain diseases (laboratory examination of
urine and stools are made).

(4) Observation, palpitation and percussion are used to diagnose disease of the internal organs.

Every disease is fully described in Unani literature with its symptoms, points of differential
diagnosis and all its complications. A detailed examination of a patient entails studying the
person as a whole. The tongue gives an indication of the condition of the blood and functions of
the digestion. The eyes, lips, teeth, throat and tonsils have all indicative signs together with other
physical conditions and secretions. Sleep, fear or grief, anger or happiness also provides
indicative signs.

Treatment: The humours are assigned temperaments i.e. blood is hot and moist, phlegm is cold
and moist, yellow bile is hot and dry and black bile is cold and dry (in their physical
temperaments). Drugs are also assigned temperaments and there are degrees of these
temperaments. The temperament of a given drug is assessed by its action on the temperament of
the body itself. Thus, a drug said to be hot means that when it enters the body and interacts with
the vital faculties. It produces a temperament which is hot. Hence drugs are principally used to
correct the abnormal pathological temperament of the body itself or any particular system or

The practitioners of Tibb are known as Tabibs or Hakims. In the Unani system of medicine
various types of treatment employed are:

1. Regimental therapy (Ilaj bid-Tadber)

2. Dietotherapy (Ilaj bil-Ghiza)

3. Pharmacotherapy (Ilaj bid-Dawa)

4. Surgery (Jarahat)

The regimental therapy includes venesection, cupping, diaphoresis, diuresis, Turkish bath,
massage, metastasis, cauterization, purging, emesis, exercise, leaching etc. Dietotherapy aims at
treating certain ailments by administration of certain diets or by regulating the quantity and
quality of food. Pharmacotherapy deals with the use of naturally occurring drugs of herbal,
animal and mineral origin. The naturally occurring drugs are usually free from side effects and
are symbolic of life. If such drugs are toxic in crude form then they are processed and purified in
many ways before use. In Unani medicine both single and compound formulations are used inthe
treatment of various complex and chronic disorders.

The use of sugar to mask bitter and unpleasant taste is a characteristic of Unani medicine that
was attributed to this system by Arab physicians. The candy coated pills were first introduced by
Avicenna. The role of many drugs of India such as musk, cloves, cubebs, galanga, beetle
nut,chandan, rhubab, nutmeg, imli, nux-vomica and cassia bark was first acknowledged
and introduced by Unani medicine.
Ayurvedic System of Medicine

Introduction: Ayurveda originated in India long back in pre-vedic period from Vedas, which is
the most ancient text and gives more information on the health and diseases than any other
documented knowledge. Ayurveda born out of intuition and revelation, developed in due course
into a complete system of medicine. The term Ayurveda means ‘Science of Life’. It deals
elaborately with measures for healthful living during the entire span of life and its various
phases. Besides, dealing with principles for maintenance of health, it has also developed a wide
range of therapeutic measures to combat illness. These principles of positive health and
therapeutic measures relate to physical, mental, social and spiritual welfare of human beings.
This is one of the oldest formulated systems of medicine widely practiced in India, Nepal,
Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and Pakistan. The basic theories of Ayurveda arise from the concept of
Tridosha that embraces the process of creation and evolution of Universe and laws of life. The
function of the body is considered to be the complementary work of body, sense organs, mind
and soul. Health in Ayurveda is defined as a well balanced and a happy state of being. Disease is
also considered four folds i.e. body, mind, external factors and natural intrinsic causes. The
treatment is done by use of drugs, diet and practices. Ayurveda considers humans beings in their
totality and in their relationship with the universe. Its approach is that disease occurs due to
imbalance in the equilibrium of three doshas, restoration of which eliminates the disease. Thus it
aims at not only curing the disease but also enhancing the body vitality to combat the disease
and strengthen the immune system so the disease is automatically cured or prevented. Ayurveda
also gives due consideration to observation like daily routine, sleep, diet and gratification of
senses. Thus it can safely be said that Ayurveda epitomizes the philosophy of complete and total
healthcare and it is not merely a medical science but is in fact a way of life.

Concepts and Principles of Ayurvedic System of Medicine: According to Ayurveda there are
three basic constituents of the physiological system. These constituents are called Doshas. They
are the ultimate irreducible basic metabolic elements constituting the body and mind of living
organisms. These are classified into Vata, Pitta and Kapha. These correspond primarily to
elements of air, fire and water. They determine the life processes of growth and decay. There are
seven Dhatus or tissues in the body. These are: Rasa- body fluids, Rakta- blood, Mansa-
muscular tissue, Meda- adipose tissue, Asthi- bone tissue, Majja- nerve tissue and bonemarrow,
and Shukra- generative tissue. There are also waste products (Malas). There are many malas in
the body- stool, urine, sweat, nails, hair etc. Health depends on balanced state of all dhatus,
doshas and malas both in quantity and quality. Vata: The biological air humour is called Vata. It
is primary dry, cold and light. It is most important or primary of three biological humours. It
governs the other two and is responsible for all physical process in general. It sustains effort,
exhalation, movement, the equilibrium of tissues and the coordination of senses. An aggravated
Vata causes debility, tremors, distention, constipation, insomnia and sensory disorientation. Vata
is located in the colon, thighs, hips, ear, and bones.

Pitta: The biological fire humour is called Pitta (bile) . It is responsible for all the chemical and
metabolic transformation in the body. Pitta exists in the acid form and is essentially hot, moist
and light. It governs digestion, heat, visual perception, hunger, thirst, lusture, courage and of
stool, urine, eyes and skin, burning sensation and difficulty in sleeping. An aggravated Pitta
results in accumulation of internal heat or fever with inflammation and infection. Pitta is located
in small intestine, stomach, sebaceous glands, blood and lymph.

Kapha: The biological water humour is called Kapha (phlegm) that holds things together. It
provides substances and gives support and makes up the bulk of bodily tissues. It also governs
emotional traits, passion, patience and modesty. Kapha is primarily cold, moist and heavy.
These are groups of enzymes which are responsible for digestion and metabolism in the body. It
gives stability, lubrication and holding together of joints. Excessive Kapha causes depression of
the digestive fire, nausea, lethargy, heaviness, white colour, chills, cough, difficulty in breathing
and excessive sleeping. Higher Kapha content in the body causes accumulation of weight and
gravity in the body, inhibits normal function and causes hypoactivity because of tissue

According to Ayurveda all objects in the universe including human body are composed of five
basic elements called Panchamahabhutas namely, earth, water, fire, air and sky. There is a
balance of these elements in different proportions to suit different structures and functions of the
body and its parts. The tissues of the body are the structural whereas humours are physiological
entities, derived from different combinations of Panchamahabhutas. The food is considered to be
basic building material of human body which gets processed into humours, body tissues and
waste products. The equilibrium of humours is considered as health and its disturbance or
imbalance leads to disease or sickness

Diagnosis : Ayurvedic methods of diagnosis are extremely simple. Stress is given on urine,
stool, semen, vomiting, sneezing, yawning, hunger, thirst, tears, sleep and heavy breathing for
diagnosis of a disease. It also stresses upon the use of a wholesome diet along with the use of
drugs for successful treatment of diseases. Knowledge of the site of manifestation of the
diseaseis essential. Pulse examination is carried out through the help of radial artery. It is carried
out early morning when the patient is in empty stomach. The diagnosis also involves the
following examinations:

• Pulse examination

• Urine examination

• Stools examination

• General physical examination

• Examination of tongue and eyes

• Examination of skin and ear including tactile and auditory functions


There are many different therapies applied in Ayurveda. They can all be grouped as follows:

(a) Tonification (Supplementation- make heavy)

(b) Reduction (Elimination- to lighten)

Reduction therapies decrease the body weight and are indicated for heavy weight, accumulation
of toxins and aggravated humours. It is indicated in acute stages of disease, when the attack is
strong and primarily for Kapha. Tonification methods nourish deficiencies in body and are
indicated in debility or tissue weakness. They are indicated in chronic diseases, in convalescence
or after reduction methods have been used, and primarily for Vata. A mixed therapy is required
for Pitta. Vata is treated by mild application of oils, mild sweating and purification methods.

Pitta is treated with the ingestion of ghee by purgation with sweet and cold herbs, by sweet, bitter
and astringent foods and herbs, by applying cool, delightful and fragrant essential oils, by
amounting the heart with camphor, sandalwood, vetivert oils, etc. Kapha is treated by strong
emetic and purgation methods according to the rules, by all kinds of exercises, by smoking of
herbs and by doing physical hard work. Treatment of diseases in Ayurveda is accomplished by
any of the following methods:

(a) Shamana therapy: Elimination of vitiated doshas or humours. The process by which the
vitiated dosha subsides or returns to normal without creating imbalance or other doshas is known
as shamana. The administration of carminatives, digestives, creation of hunger or thirst, exercises
and exposure to sun are classified under shamana therapy.

(b) Shodhana therapy: Emesis, purgation, enemas and blood letting come under shodhana.

They are also called Panchakarma.

(c) Surgical treatment: Ayurveda advocates surgical treatment for those diseases which are not
curable by medical treatment or in case where surgical treatment may provide immediate relief.

(d) Diet: Ayurveda lays emphasis on regulation of diet and other regimens as part of the

(e) Drug sources: In Ayurveda drugs are classified depending on their taste, attributes. potencies,
taste after digestion, and therapeutic effect. In addition to single drugs, compound formulations
are used for the treatment of diseases in the form of pills,powders, decoction, infusions, tinctures,
alcoholic preparations, medicated ghee, and fractional distillates. Several pharmaceutical
processes are followed for the preparation of medicines for easy administration, making the
products delicious to taste, easily digestible and assimilatable, therapeutically more efficacious,
rendering them non toxic and more tolerable and for preservation of medicine for a long time.
Ayurvedic drugs are administrated both externally in the form of ointments, dusting powders,
collyrium, ear drops and eye drops, and internally as tablets, pills, powders, syrups. Along with
medicine some regiments like sleep, walk, rest, physical excretion are also prescribed to the
patient. Thus herbal medicine play major role in the treatment of vitiated Vata, Pitta and Kapha.


Homoeopathic System of Medicine

Introduction: This system of medicine is a medical discipline whose primary emphasis is on

therapeutics. It is a low cost system employing non toxic drug exclusively. This system derives
its name from two Greek words Homoios (like) and Pathos (treatment). This system of medicine
is a holistic approach that takes into consideration the whole person and the relation of lifestyle
to disease. Its aim is to bring back the lost equilibrium of the sick individual by stimulating and
strengthening the defence mechanism. Homoeopathy emerged as an important therapeutic
modality during the later half of the nineteenth centuary and has undergone periods of expansion
and decline during this centurary. It has been serving suffering humanity for over two centuries
and has withstood the upheavals of time and has emerged as a time-tested therapy. In India it has
become a household name due the safety of its pills and gentleness of its cure. It is more than a
century and a half now that Homoeopathy is being practiced in India.

Homoeopathic system of medicine was started by the chemist, physician and pharmacist Samuel
Hahnemann of Germany. He put forward the law of similar which says that like cures like. He
believed that the symptoms are no more than an outward reflection of the body’s fight to
overcome illness and not a manifestation of illness. He stated that the medicine given to cure
should reinforce these systems. He initiated the treatment of a disease with a low dose of drug
which themselves produced similar symptoms of the disease in normal individuals. According to
Hahnemann there is not any normal and natural method for diagnosis of disease except its
symptoms. He further noted that no two substances produced exactly the same set of symptoms.
Each provoked its own unique pattern of symptoms. Furthermore the symptoms were not just
confined to the physical plane. Every substance tested also affected the mind and the emotions
apart from the body.

According to Homoeopathic medical system the health of a person is governed by power of the
body that controls the functions of all organs. A disease produced in the body and the brain will
affect the other body organs. The habits of telling lie, theft, deceit, evil, under diet, anger, etc. are
the symptoms of mental disease. After collecting the information about diseases, stress is given
to know its basic cause and its rectification.

In Homoeopathy, the process whereby the healthy individual takes doses of an extract (mother
tincture) to assess the symptoms it induces is known as Proving. The person proving the drug,
the Prover, maintains the precise, detailed and accurate record of physical, mental and emotional
changes that various doses induce. For proving mother tincture of freshly gathered material are
used. For treatment purposes these concentrated mother tinctures are diluted to enhance their
healing power. Mother tinctures are further diluted to decimal and centidecimal potencies. The
more the drug is diluted, or potentized, the greater is the ability to cure. This process is known as
Potentiation. Another essential part of preparation of homeopathic drug is vigorous rubbing,
shaking or tapping- known as Succussion- that is believed to release the power to heal and
develop the action of drug.

Hahnemann’s proving involve Cinchona that produced symptoms similar to those of malaria in
normal individuals for which the drug was used. In the same way, Belladonna on administration
produce symptoms similar to scarlet fever. If the symptoms of disease is considered a
manifestation of body’s own defence mechanism against the disease then the Homoeopathy
system serve to stimulates such innate defensive and curative process. Hahnemann prepared a list
of drug with their effects on healthy individuals. Later findings by his associates showed that
Nux vomica simulated the common cold while as Gelsemium, (yellow jasmine) gave an
influenza like response and thus became the drugs for the treatment for respective disease.

Concepts and Principles of Homoeopathic System of Medicine: Homoeopathy is the system

of treatment based on scientific methods and demonstrable laws and principles, which are –

a) Law of Similars-The law stated as “Let the same substance which can produce specific
symptoms in a healthy individual cure those same symptoms in a sick individual”. It is also
called the Law of Cure. This law demonstrates that the selected remedy is able to produce a
range of symptoms in a healthy person similar to that observed in the patient, thus leading to the
principle of Similia Similibus Curentur i.e. let likes be treated by likes. The effects of peeling an
onion are very similar to the symptoms of acute cold. The remedy prepared from the red onion,
Allium cepa, can be used to treat the type of cold in which the symptoms resemble those we get
from peeling onion.

b) Law of Direction of Cure-It states that in the progressive movement towards cure the
symptomology moves from more vital to the least vital functional centers within the organism.
In other words, from the vital organs to the skin and, in the higher context of the whole
individual, from the mental to the emotional to the physical centers.

c) Law of Single Remedy - This law directs to choose and administer such a single remedy,
which is most similar to the symptom complex of the sick person at a time. Any other remedy
will have no real curative effect as it will not bear the necessary sensitivity towards the particular
response of the defence mechanism of the patient.

d) Law of Minimum Dose - In Homoeopathy, treatment is arrived at in conjunction with the

patient’s very detailed case history and constitutes the use of often very active drugs in extremely
low doses. The remedy selected for a sick should be prescribed in minimum dose, so that when
administered there is no toxic effects on the body. It just acts as a triggering and catalytic agent to
stimulate and strengthen the existing defence mechanism of the body. It does not need to be
repeated frequently. This law accounts for the alleged lack of side effects of Homoeopathic

Thus Homoeopathy is a holistic as well as individualistic approach and articulates the concept of
vital force which according to Hahnemann is the force that reacts against the forces, which
produce disease. It becomes deranged during illness and the best-selected Homoeopathic
remedies stimulate this failing vital force so that, as Hahnemann said "It (vital force) can again
take the reins and conduct the system on way to health.

Hahnemann’s fundamental propositions peculiar to Homoeopathy may be stated as:

a) That the action of drugs are demonstrable by observing the subjective symptoms, objective
symptoms and pathological changes that occur when they are administered to healthy human

b) That the action of drugs so observed in a healthy human being constitutes their therapeutic
potentiality with respect to sick individual.

c) That a similarity between disease process in a particular individual and the known effects of a
particular drug in healthy human being will lead to its successful application in the treatment of
diseased individual.

d) The conception of dynamism is applicable in respect of health and disease.

Diagnosis and Treatment: The skill of a Homoeopath (a practitioner of Homoeopathy) lies in

his ability to illicit from his patient the precise nature of symptoms of illness. Only then can he
determine the key substance to stimulate innate healing response in the patient and assist the vital
force of healing. After the process of diagnosis, the determination of appropriate remedy
involves a fundamental principle of homeopathy called Individualization. Here every case is
treated as peculiarly individual. Although the disease for which different patients are consulting
the physician may be the same, the indicated Homoeopathic remedy may be different for each
one. A highly refined individualizing process is used. A Homoeopath interviews the patient to
know the unique way in which patient reacts to his illness. The whole range of mental, emotional
and physical pathology is considered in order to understand the reaction of the patient defence
mechanism. He seeks the most suitable remedy for these reactions. Physician’s interest is not
only to alleviate patients present system but also long term well being. Therefore, in the
interview physician has to probe deeply into the unique response of patients defence mechanism
to stress and to have a thorough understanding of the totality of the patient’s disequilibrium.

Homoeopathic medicines are used in the form of mother tinctures, small pills, powders and
distilled water. They have the distinct advantage of being free from side effects. The patient
should not take any kind of food or drink before and after one hour of the dose.

Siddha System of Medicine


The Siddha system of medicine owes its origin to the Dravidian culture which is of pre-vedic
period. According to Indian history prior to Aryans migration, the Dravidian was the first
inhabitant of India of whom the Tamilians were the most prominent. The languages of India
were divided into two great classes, the northern with Sanskrit and the southern with Dravidian
language. The Siddha was prevalent in south and Ayurveda flourished in the north.

The Siddha System is largely therapeutic in nature. The origin of Siddha system of medicine is
attributed to the great Siddha Ayastiyar. The term Siddha refers to saints and persons known as
Siddhars who achieved results in medicine. The Siddhars were great scientists in ancient times.
Eighteen Siddhars are believed to have contributed towards the development of this medical
system. An examination of the ancient literature would reveal that the vedic Aryas owed
allegiance to the cult of Shiva and the worship of linga which later on absorbed by and
incorporated into the vedic culture. The Shiv cult is associated with its medical counterpart, the
Siddha system of medicine. Siddha system is one of the oldest systems of medicine in India.
Siddha literature is in Tamil and it is practiced largely in Tamil speaking part of India, Sri Lanka,
Malaysia ad Singapore where the Dravidian civilization was dominant.

Concepts and Principles of Siddha System of Medicine: The concept and the practice of the
Siddha system have a close similarity to Ayurveda, with specialization in iatrochemistry.
According to this system all the objects in the universe are composed of five basic elements
namely, earth, water, fire, air and sky. The food, human body and the drugs are all, made of these
five elements. The proportion of the elements present in the drugs varies which is responsible for
their varied actions and therapeutic results. This system believes that the human body, foods and
drugs are the replica of the universe. This system also considers the human body as a
conglomeration of three humours, seven basic tissues and the waste products of the body such as
stool, urine and sweat, quite similar to Ayurvedic concepts. This system also deals with an
additional concept of salvation in life and the possible achievement of this state by medicines
and meditation. This concept is uniquely advocated by this system of medicine.

The equilibrium of humours is considered as health and its disturbance or imbalance leads to
disease or sickness. The food is considered to be basic building material of human body which
gets processed into humours, body tissues and waste products.

Diagnosis and Treatment: It is holistic in approach and the diagnosis i.e. identification of
causative factors involves the study of person as a whole as well as his disease. The Siddha
system of medicine emphasizes that medical treatment should be not only disease-oriented but
has to take into account the patient, environment, age, sex, race, habits, mental frame,
habitat,diet, appetite, physical and pathological condition. This means the treatment has to be
individualistic, which ensures that mistakes in diagnosis or treatment are minimal. The diagnosis
of diseases is done through the examination of pulse, urine, eyes, study of voice, colour of body
and tongue.

Siddha system believes in the principle of food itself being medicine. The Siddha system is
effective in treatment of liver, skin diseases especially psoriasis, rheumatic problems, anemia,
prostate enlargement, bleeding piles and peptic ulcer. The system has developed a rich and
unique treasure of drug knowledge in which use of metals and minerals is very much advocated.

The system uses mercury, iron, copper, silver, gold, red, white and yellow arsenic, lead and
sulphur and other mineral drugs as well as vegetable poisons in its medicine that have been
found to be effective in treating certain infectious diseases including venereal diseases. The

Siddha system also deals with the problems affecting the women’s health and a lot of
formulations are available which can counter the problems especially menopausal syndrome. The
system claims its effectiveness in treating urinary tract infections, diseases of liver and gastro
intestinal tract, general debility, postpartum anemia, diarhhoea and general fevers in addition to
arthritis and allergic disorders.

The knowledge of plants and minerals from all the branches of science is used in preparation of
medicine. In Siddha system chemistry had been found well developed into a science auxiliary to
medicine. The practitioners of Siddha use several operations divided into several processes such
as calcinations, sublimation, distillation, fusion, separation, conjunction or combination,
fermentation, purification, incineration of metals, liquefaction and extraction.



Drug is a substance which is used for the following purposes:

Diagnosis of the diseasePrevention of the diseaseTreatment or palliation (relief of symptoms) of

diseasePrevention of pregnancy (i.e. contraception)Maintenance of optimal health

1: Symptomatic:

Relieve disease symptoms. Aspirin, Tylenol.

2: Preventative:

To avoid getting a disease. Hepatitis B vaccine, Flu vaccine.

3: Diagnostic:

Help determine disease presence. Radioactive dyes.

4: Curative:

Eliminate the disease. Antibiotics.

5: Health Maintenance:

Help keep the body functioning normally. Insulin.

6: Contraceptive:


Sources of Drugs

Drug- (fr. Drogue- dried herbs), medication, and medicament: Substance

administered tohumans and animals for diagnosis or treatment of diseases.Sources of drugs are
as follows:


I. NATURAL SOURCES Most primitive and abundant.

Drugs are obtained from the following natural sources:


Following categories of drugs are derived from roots, leaves or barks of plants:

a) Alkaloids

These are nitrogenous heterocyclic bases, which are pharmacologically active principlesof
plants.They are composed of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen.They are bitter in taste and
are often poisonous. These are, therefore, used in small doses.They are insoluble in water.
However, they form salts with acids which are soluble inwater.

Some examples of alkaloids and their sources are listed in the table:


Atropine Atropa belladonna

Quinine Cinchona bark

Morphine Papavarum somniferum

Reserpine Rauwolfia serpentine

Nicotine Tobacco

Digoxin Digitalis lanata

Caffeine Coffee, Tea, Cocoa

b) Glycosides

They are ether-like combination of sugar moiety with non-sugar moiety.They are called
glycosides, if the sugar moiety is glucose.

Sugar moiety is not essential for the pharmacological activity but it governs thepharmacokinetic
properties of the glycoside. In the body it may be removed to liberateaglycone.Pharmacological
activity resides in the non-sugar moiety that is called aglycone (orgenin).Some examples are
digitoxin, digoxin and ouabain.

c) Oils
They are liquids which are insoluble in water. They are of three types and are used for
variousmedicinal purposes.

i) Essential Oils (or volatile oils):

Essential oils are obtained from leaves or flower petals bysteam distillation, and have an
aroma.They have no caloric or food value.They do not form soaps with alkalis.They do not leave
greasy stain after evaporation.On prolonged stay, they do not become rancid (foul smell).They
are frequently used as carminatives and astringents in mouth-washes.Some of these oils are solid
at room temperature and sublime on heating e.g. menthol andcamphor.Other examples are clove
oil, peppermint oil, eucalyptus oil and ginger oil.

ii) Fixed oils

are glycerides of stearic, oleic and palmitic acid.They are obtained from the seeds that are
present within the cells as crystals or droplets.They are non-volatile and leave greasy stains on
evaporation.They have caloric or food value.They form soaps with alkalies.On prolonged stay,
they become rancid

They do not have marked pharmacological activity and have little pharmacological useexcept
castor oil (purgative) or arachis oil (demulcent).They may be of vegetable origin e.g. olive oil,
castor oil, croton oil and peanut oil or of animal origin e.g. cod liver oil, shark liver oil and lard

iii) Mineral Oils

are mostly petroleum products and extracted by fractional distillation.These are mixtures of
hydrocarbons of the methane and related aliphatic series.These are extracted in various
consistencies - hard paraffin, soft paraffin and liquidparaffin.Hard and soft paraffins are used
as vehicles for preparation of ointments while liquidparaffin is employed as a purgative.

d) Gums

are colloidal exudates from plants which are polysaccharides chemically and yieldsimple sugars
on hydrolysis.Upon addition of water, some of them swell or dissolve or form adhesive mucilage
or remain unchanged.


In gut agar and psyllium seeds act as hydrophilic colloids and function as bulk purgatives.Gum
acacia and gum tragacanth are used as suspending agents in making emulsions andmixtures.
e) Resins

are well-defined solid substances found in plants, and are polymers of volatile oil.They are
produced by oxidation and polymerization of volatile oils.They are insoluble in water but soluble
in alcohol, chloroform and ether.Examples: oleoresins (aspidium); gum resins (asafoetida);
oleogum resin (myrrh);balsams (benzoin, tolu, peru); benzoin shellac, podophyllum.


O Benzoin is used as inhalation in common cold.

O Tincture benzoin is applied as antiseptic protective sealing over bruises.

O Colophony (an oleoresin) is used as an ingredient in various plasters.

O Shellac (from Lucifer lacca) is used for enteric coating of tablets.

O Balsams are used in the treatment of cough and bronchitis for their antiseptic andprotective

O Podophyllum is used as an irritant purgative.

f) Tannins

are non-nitrogenous phenolic plant constituents which have an astringent action.Pyrogallol

tannins are glycosides of glucose that occur in oak galls

Pyrocatechol tannins are sugar-free derivatives of catechol that are present in catechu
andeucalyptus.Tannic acid is tannin that is obtained from oak galls and is used for treating burns



Some animal sources continue to be used to procure some modern drugs because of
cumbersomeand expensive procedures for the synthesis of such chemicals.For example:Insulin,
extracted from pork and beef pancreas, is used for the treatment of diabetesmellitus.Thyroid
powder for treating hypothyroidism.Heparin is used as an anticoagulant.Hormones and vitamins
are used as replacement therapy.Vaccines (cholera, T.B., smallpox, polio and antirabic) and sera
(antidiptheria and antitetanus) are used for prophylaxis/treatment.

Many life-saving drugs are obtained from fungi, moulds and bacteria e.g. penicillin from
Penicillium notatum, chloramphenicol from Streptomyces venezuelae ,grisofulvin (an anti-fungal
drug) from Penicillium griseofulvum ,neomycin fromStreptomyces fradiae And streptomycin
from Streptomyces griseus.



Minerals or their salts are useful pharmacotherapeutic agents.For example:Ferrous sulfate is

used in iron deficiency anaemia.Magnesium sulfate is employed as purgative.Magnesium
trisilicate, aluminium hydroxide and sodium bicarbonate are used as antacidsfor hyperacidity and
peptic ulcer.Kaolin (aluminium silicate) is used as adsorbent in antidiarrheal
mixtures.Radioactive isotopes of iodine, phosphorus, gold are employed for the
diagnosis/ treatment of diseases particularly malignant conditions.


Sometimes semi-synthetic processes are used to prepare drugs when the synthesis of
drugs(complex molecules) may be difficult, expensive and uneconomical or when the natural
sourcesmay yield impure compounds. In these situation this methods plays an important
role.Some examples are semi synthetic human insulin and 6-aminopenicillanic acid
derivatives.Prepared by chemically modifying substances that are available from natural source
improve toimprove its potency, efficacy and also reduce side effects

Eg. i) Semi synthetic drugs from plant sources

Heroine from MorphineBromoscopolamine from scopolamineHomoatropine from atropine.

ii) Semi synthetic drugs from animal sources:

Animal insulin changed to be like human insulin6-aminopenicillanic acid derivative


At present majority of drugs used in clinical practice are prepared synthetically, such as
aspirin,oral antidiabetics, antihistamines, amphetamine, chloroquine, chlorpromazine,
general and localanaesthetics, paracetamol, phenytoin, synthetic corticosteroids, sulphonamides
and thiazidediuretics.Most of the synthetic drugs are prepared synthetically i.e. by chemical
process ( reaction) withthe help of the knowledge of phytochemical investigation.

Alterations are made on the naturally found structure of the drug to improve its effect
andto improve the finances of pharmaceutical companies.

Advantages of synthetic drugs are:

They are chemically pure.The process of preparing them is easier and cheaper.Control on the
quality of the drug is excellent.

Since the pharmacological activity of a drug depends on its chemical structure andphysical
properties, more effective and safer drugs can be prepared by modifying thechemical structure of
the prototype drug.

IV. BIOSYNTHETIC SOURCES (genetically engineered drugs)

This is relatively a new field which is being developed by mixing discoveries from
molecularbiology, recombinant DNA technology, DNA alteration, gene splicing, immunology
andimmunopharmacology.Some of the recent developments are genetically engineered novel
vaccines (Recombinex HB - ahepatitis-B vaccine), recombinant DNA engineered insulins
(Humulin- human insulin) fordiabetes and interferon-alpha-2a and interferon-alpha-2b for hairy
cell leukaemia.

Test Questions

1. Pharmacognosy is derived from ________________language

2. The scope of pharmacognosy was given by________________

3. Name of Ph.D. thesis of Seydler _________________________

4. First herbal china____________________________ contains _________ how many drugs

5. Last herbal of china__________________

6. Traditional Chinese and Japanese herbalism is called_____________________

7. Herbal of Egypt_______________________

8. Surgical instructions and formulas for cosmetic are present in ___________________herbal of


9. Kahun medical papyrus contains__________________

10.Hippocrates Methods of proper of

11. Pliny Writing on animal

12. Theophrastus 37 Volume of natural

13. Galen Father of medicine

14. Aristotle Write about plant king dome

17. Kitab-al-shifa is called as

a) Book of heating b) Book of crude drugs c) Book of surgery

18. Avicenna belongs to …………….. country

19. Islamic treatise on agriculture _____________

20. Popular and most copied herbal work in Europe – ----------------------

23. Which of the following is not a plant source of drug

a) theophylline b) vincristine c) Penicillin d) vinblastin

25. Give an example for semi-synthetic antibiotic

26. Basic nitrogenous compounds of plant origin

a) Glycosides b) Alkaloids c) gums d) Mucilage

27. If a glycoside is named as fructoside then it contains ___________ sugar

28. A glycone part in glycoside is made up of -----------------

29. Chloramphenicol Nocardia mediterranae

Erythromycin Streptomyces venezulae

Rifarmycin S. venezulae

Chlortetracycline P.urticae

Griesofulvin S.aurofaciens

31. Name the sea squirt used as anticancer compound

32. Animal oils used in perfumes ……………

33. Sulphur is used externally in -----------diseases

34. Those whose practice unani are called _______________________

35. Name the four humors of the body

39. Ayurveda means __________

40. Name the Tridoshas
41. Diagnosis in Ayurveda is called ____________

45. Father of homeophathy------------

48. Panchakaranm is the diagnosis of __________ system of medicine

54. Asafoetida is a resin while catechu is a ________

55. The drugs from tobacco are alkaloids while those from squill are __________

56. Pick out the cardiac depressant (T/F)

a) liquorice b. cascara c. cinchona d. kurchi

57. Papain fixed oil

Gelatin carbohydrate

Olive oil alkaloid

Agar Enzyme

ergot protein

58. Anti-tussive of opium __________

Review Questions

Very short questions

1. Define Pharmacognosy.
2. Name the two books that contain most important classical herbal formulas that have
become the basis of Chinese and Japanese-Chinese herbalism (called 'Kampo').
3. Mention various types of treatments employed in Unani system of medicine.
4. What is the most important clinical manual of traditional Chinese medicine?
5. What are the three major and minor ayurvedic writings of India?
6. Who is the first to describe medicinal plants, some of which like belladonna, ergot,
opium, and colchicum are used even today?
7. Enlist the major alternative systems of medicines used widely.
8. What are the seven principles of body in Unani system of medicine
9. List out the panchamahabuthas
10. What do you mean by “astasthana pariksha”
11. Food itself is medicine is the principle of which system of medicine.
12. Define crude drug.

Short questions

1. History of pharmacognosy in Ancient Egypt

2. Write a note on scope of pharmacognosy.
3. Give general introduction to alternative systems of medicine
4. Explain Law of similar
5. How treatment is accomplished in Ayurveda
6. Explain how diagnosis is carried out in Unani system of medicine.
7. Write a note on the concept of Tridoshas in Ayurveda
8. What are the various crude drugs from animal source?
9. Explain the concept and principle of siddha system of medicine.
10. Write a short note on resins
11. Name different mineral sources of crude drugs
12. Development of herbal drugs in Ancient Greece and Rome

Long questions

1. Write in detail the history of pharmacognosv?

2. Define Ayurveda and explain the principle of ayurveda
3. Explain in detail the Homeopathic system of medicine
4. Write a detailed note on principle, diagnosis and treatment of Unani medicine
5. Explain in detail the siddha system of medicine
6. Write in detail the Tridosha concept.
7. What are the various souces of crude drugs explain?
8. Elaborate the plsnt source of crude drugs
9. Explain the treatment concept of Unani system of medicines
10. Write in detail the various Laws associated with Homeopathy


Prepare an assignment on the impact of Western medicine on Alternative systems of

medicine and the need for improvement of alternative systems of medicine.

Previous Questions

1. Write briefly the scope and History of Pharmacognosy. April – 2011

2. Describe various sources of crude drugs with examples April – 2011
3. List out important contributions of Pharmacognosy March 2014
4. Explain in brief natural sources of drugs with examples March 2014
5. Describe the history and scope of Pharmacognosy - September 2014.
6. Describe the development of Novel Drugs from Marine and Microorganisms
-September 2014.
7. Discuss the Indian system of medicine? December 2014
8. Define Pharmacognosy? Write a brief note on history of Pharmacognosy? December
9. Discuss about Unani system of medicine? December 2014
10. Define Pharmacognosy Dec 2015
11. Explain theory, diagnosis and practice of Ayurveda Dec 2015
12. Describe the history and scope of Pharmacognosy nov 2012.
13. Explain in brief natural sources of drugs with examples nov 2012.
14. Write the history ,scope and development of of Pharmacognosy Nov 2011
15. Mention various sources of Natural drugs with examples Nov 2011
16. Write a detailed note on alternative systems of medicine April 2012
17. Write the history, scope and development of Pharmacognosy April 2010
18. Give various sources of crude drugs with examples - April 2010

Alphabetical, morphological,
pharmacological, chemical, taxonomical and chemotaxonomical
methods of
classification with suitable examples..
19. Give an account on history, scope and development of Pharmacognosy June 2007

Reference Text Books

1. Text book of Pharmacognosy by C.K.Kokate and Purohit

2. Trease and Evan’s text book of pharmacognosy.
3. Pharmacognosy by Taylor, Brady and Robbers

Unit – II Classification of Crude Drugs

Unit Objectives

After reading this Unit, you should be able to understand:

- Importance of Crude drugs.

- Criteria for crude drugs classification.
- Systems of crude drug classification .
- Need for the classification of crude drugs.
- Classification used in Official books.
- Inter relationship between plant based on chemical constituents and
- External features of crude drugs.
- Chemical nature of crude drugs
- Medicinal use of crude drugs

Unit Outcomes

- Give an outline of various systems of classification.

- Explain how crude drugs are classified based on several criteria.
- Extract the pharmacological actins of various crude drugs.
- Elucidate morphological characters of crude drugs
- Give different families and relationship among various crude drugs
- Debate on pharmacological and chemical systems of classification
- Trace the chemical nature of crude drugs
- Bring out differences between organized and un organized crude drugs.
- Give the merits and demerits of various systems of classification

Unit Lecture Plan

Lecture no. Topic Methodology Quick reference

10. Definition of crude drug and Chalk & Board Text book of
introduction to classification Pharmacognosy of
of crude drugs Biren shah and Avinash
seth 2
11. Alphabetical, morphological Chalk & Board Text book of
methods of classification Pharmacognosy of
Biren shah and Avinash
seth 2
12. Taxonomical methods of Chalk & Board Text book of
classification Pharmacognosy of
Biren shah and Avinash
seth 3
13. Chemical methods of Chalk & Board Text book of
classification Pharmacognosy of
Biren shah and Avinash
seth 3
14. Pharmacological and chemo Chalk & Board Text book of
taxonomical methods of Pharmacognosy of
classification Biren shah and Avinash
15. Summary of unit-II Chalk & Board

Teaching Material / Teaching Aids as per above lecture plan

Lecture -1
Crude drugs of vegetable, animal and mineral sources form the subject matter of pharmacognosy.
Although pharmacognosy is concerned mainly with naturally occurring substance of medicinal
importance, it is not entirely limited to such substances. Thus, surgical dressings prepared from
natural fibres, flavouring and suspending agents, disintegrants, filtering and support media etc.
are included within the subject along with poisonous and hallucinogenic plants and raw materials
for oral contraceptives.
The term crude drug generally applies to the products from plant and animal origin found in a
raw form. However, the term is also applied to include pharmaceutical products from mineral
kingdom in original form and not necessarily only of organic origin such as kaolin, bentonite etc.
Crude drugs can thus be defined as to the natural products that has not been advanced in value or
improved in condition by any process or treatment beyond that which is essential for its proper
packing and prevention from deterioration.
Classification of Crude Drugs
The most important natural sources of drugs are higher plant, microbes and animals and marine
organisms. Some useful products are obtained from minerals that are both organic and inorganic
in nature. In order to pursue (or to follow) the study of the individual drugs, one must adopt some
particular sequence of arrangement and this is referred to a system of classification of drugs. A
method of classification should be

(a) Simple

(b) Easy to use

(c) Free from confusion and ambiguities.

Because of their wide distribution, each arrangement of classification has its own merits and
demerits, but for the purpose of study the drugs are classified in the following different ways:

1. Alphabetical classification

2. Morphological classification

3. Taxonomic classification

4. Pharmacological classification

5. Chemical classification

6. Chemotaxonomical classification

Lecture -2
Alphabetical Classification
Alphabetical classification is the simplest way of classification of any disconnected items. Crude
drugs are arranged in alphabetical order of their Latin and English names (common names) or
sometimes local language names (vernacular names).
Some of the pharmacopoeias, dictionaries and reference books which classify crude drugs
according to this system are as follows.

1. Indian Pharmacopoeia

2. British Pharmacopoeia

3. British Herbal Pharmacopoeia

4. United States Pharmacopoeia and National Formulary

5. British Pharmaceutical Codex.

6. European Pharmacopoeia
In European Pharmacopoeia these are arranged according to their names in Latin where in U.S.P.
and B.P.C., these are arranged in English.
• It is easy and quick to use
• There is no repetition of entries and is devoid of confusion.
• In this system location, tracing and addition of drug entries is easy.
Demerits:There is no relationship between previous and successive drug entries.

Examples: Acacia, Benzoin, Cinchona, Dill, Ergot, Fennel, Gentian, Hyoscyamus, Ipecacuanha,
Jalap, Kurchi, Liquorice, Mints, Nuxvomica, Opium, Podophyllum, Quassia, Rauwolfia, Senna,
Vasaka, Wool fat, Yellow bees wax, Zeodary.

Morphological Classification

In this system, the drugs are arranged according to the morphological or external characters of
the plant parts or animal parts i.e. which part of the plant is used as a drug e. g. leaves, roots,
stem etc. The drugs obtained from the direct parts of the plants and containing cellular tissues are
called as organized drugs e. g. Rhizomes, barks, leaves, fruits, entire plants, hairs and fibres. The
drugs which are prepared from plants by some intermediate physical processes such as incision,
drying or extraction with a solvent and not containing any cellular plant tissues are called as
unorganized drugs. Aloe juice, opium latex, agar, gambir, gelatin, tragacanth, benzoin, honey,
beeswax, lemon grass oil etc. are examples of unorganized drugs.

Organised Drugs

Woods– Quassia, Sandalwood, Red Sandalwood.

Leaves– Digitalis, Eucalyptus, Gymnema, Mint, Senna, Spearmint, Squill, Tulsi, Vasaka, Coca,
Buchu, Hamamelis, Hyoscyamus, Belladonna, Tea.

Barks– Arjuna, Ashoka, Cascara, Cassia, Cinchona, Cinnamon, Kurchi, Quillia, Wild cherry.

Flowering parts– Clove, Pyrethrum, Saffron, Santonica, Chamomile.

Fruits– Amla, Anise, Bael, Bahera, Bitter Orange peel, Capsicum, Caraway, Cardamom,
Colocynth, Coriander, Cumin, Dill, Fennel, Gokhru, Hirda, Lemon peel, Senna pod, Star anise,
Tamarind, Vidang.

Seeds– Bitter almond, Black Mustard, Cardamom, Colchicum, Ispaghula, Kaladana, Linseed,
Nutmeg, Nux vomica, Physostigma, Psyllium, Strophanthus, White mustard.

Roots and Rhizomes– Aconite, Ashwagandha, Calamus, Calumba, Colchicum corm, Dioscorea,
Galanga, Garlic, Gention, Ginger, Ginseng, Glycyrrhiza, Podophyllum, Ipecac, Ipomoea, Jalap,
Jatamansi, Rauwolfia, Rhubarb, Sassurea, Senega, Shatavari, Turmeric, Valerian, Squill.

Plants and Herbs– Ergot, Ephedra, Bacopa, Andrographis, Kalmegh, Yeast, Vinca, Datura,

Hair and Fibres– Cotton, Hemp, Jute, Silk, Flax.

Unorganised Drugs.

Dried latex– Opium, Papain

Dried Juice– Aloe, Kino

Dried extracts– Agar, Alginate, Black catechu, Pale catechu, Pectin

Waxes - Beeswax, Spermaceti, Carnauba wax

Gums – Acacia, Guar Gum, Indian Gum, Sterculia, Tragacenth.

Resins– Asafoetida, Benzoin, Colophony, copaiba Guaiacum, Guggul, Mastic, Coal tar, Tar, Tolu
balsam, Storax, Sandarac.

Volatile oil– Turpentine, Anise, Coriander, Peppermint, Rosemary, Sandalwood, Cinnamon,

Lemon, Caraway, Dill, Clove, Eucalyptus, Nutmeg, Camphor.

Fixed oils and Fats– Arachis, Castor, Chalmoogra, Coconut, Cotton seed, Linseed, Olive,
Sesame, Almond, Theobroma, Cod-liver, Halibut liver, Kokum butter.

Animal Products – Bees wax, Cantharides, Cod-liver oil, Gelatin, Halibut liver oil, Honey,
Shark liver oil, shellac, Spermaceti wax, wool fat, musk, Lactose.

Fossil organism and Minerals– Bentonite, Kaolin, Kiesslguhr, Talc.

Difference between organized and unorganized drugs

Organized Drugs Unorganized Drugs
These may be of plant or animal origin. These may be of plant, animal or
mineral origin.
These are direct part of plant or animal. These are the product of plant or
These have cellular structure. These do not have well defined
cellular structure.
Generally identified by morphological Generally identified by
character. organoleptic properties.
Examples: Digitalis leaf, cinchona bark and Examples: Agar, gelatin, honey.
ephedra stem.

Merits: :Morphological classification is more helpful to identify and detect adulteration. This
system of classification is more convenient for practical study especially when the chemical
nature of the drug is not clearly understood.
• The main drawback of morphological classification is that there is no co-relation of chemical
constituents with the therapeutic actions.
• Repetition of drugs or plants occurs.

Lecture -3
Taxonomical Classification
Taxonomical classification is purely a botanical classification and is based on principles of
natural relationship and evolutionary developments. They are grouped in Kingdom, phylum,
order, family genus and species. As all the entire plants are not used as drugs, part of the plant is
used as a drug, for example, cinnamon bark. Thus it is of no significance from identification

point of view to put plants in a taxonomic order. Table 1 give the account of main characters of
various taxon that contribute crude drugs while as Table 2 gives the taxonomical classification of
some drugs.

Table 1: Main Characters of Various Taxon that Contribute Crude Drugs

Plant Kingdom

Thallophyta Pteridophyta Gymnosperm Angiosperm

• Alage and fungi are • This group of plant • The gymnosperm • The term
consider together derives its name from the (Gymnos-naked angiosperm means
fern, Pteris which also and sperma-seed enclosed seed
• They differ in mode of
represent salient features i.e. plant with a because the ovules or
of group (Pterido- pteris, naked seeds) are potential seed are
• Alage exhibit Phyton- plant) comparatively enclosed within a
autotropic and fungi more ancient than hallow ovary.
• They occur is humid and
exhibit heterotrophic the angiosperm in
tropical climates and • The angiosperms
nutrition. evolutionary terms
usually ground on soil, constitute the most
Example: Rhodophyta rocks, in ponds etc. • The living dominant and
(Red algae) agar gymnosperms are ubiquitous vascular
• These plant are also
widely distributed plants of present day
raised in pots as
in the cold climates flora
• The plant body is • Dicots and
Example: Male fern
sporophyte and monocots are its sub
differentiated into divisions.
roots, stem and

Example: Ephedra,

Dicot Monocot

They have two cotyledons They have one cotyledons Example: Vanilla, Colchicum
Example: Coriander,

Table 2: Taxonomical Classification of Some Crude Drugs

Phyllum Order Family Drugs
Thallophyta (Bacteria, Gelidiales Gelidiaceae Agar
fungi, Lichens)
Pteridophyta Filicales Polypodiaceae Male fern
(Liverhorts, Mosses
and Ferns)
Gymnosperms Genetales Ephedraceae Pinaceae Ephedra
Coniferae Colophon
Angiosperms Liliflorae Liliaceae Colchicu
(Moncotyledons) Microspermae Dioscoreaceae m
Orchidaceae Dioscorea

Merits:- Taxonomical classification is helpful for studying evolutionary developments.

Drawback: This system also does not co-relate in between the chemical constituents and
biological activity of the drugs.

Lecture -4
Chemical Classification
The crude drugs are divided into different groups according to the chemical nature of their most
important constituent. Since the pharmacological activity and therapeutic significance of crude
drugs are based on the nature of their chemical constituents. The chemical classification of drugs
is dependent upon the grouping of drugs with identical constituents. An out of this classification
is as follows:
1. Carbohydrates– Carbohydrates are polyhydroxy aldehydes or ketones containing an
unbroken chain of carbon atoms.
Gums Acacia, Tragacanth, Guargum
Mucilages Plantago seed
Others Starch, Honey, Agar, Pectin, Cotton
2. Glycosides – Glycosides are compounds which upon hydrolysis give rise to one or more
sugars (glycone) and non-sugar (aglycone).
Anthraquinone Glycosides Aloe, Cascara, Rhubarb, Senna
Saponins Glycosides Quillaia, Arjuna, Glycyrrhiza
Cyanophore Glycosides Wild cherry bark
Isothiocyanate Glycosides Mustard
Cardiac Glycosides Digitalis, Strophantus
Bitter Glycosides Gentian, Calumba, Quassia, Chirata, Kalmegh
3. Tannins– Tannins are complex organic, non-nitrogenous derivatives of polyhydroxy benzoic
acids. Examples- Pale catechu, Black catechu, Ashoka bark, Galls, Myrobalan, Bahera, Amla
4. Volatile oils– Monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes obtained from plants
Examples- Cinnamon, Fennel, Dill, Caraway, Coriander, Cardamom, Orange peel, Mint, Clove,
5. Lipids
Fixed oils – Castor, Olive, Almond, Shark liver oil
Fats – Theobroma, Lanolin
Waxes – Beeswax, Spermaceti
6. Resins– Complex mixture of compounds like resinols, resin acids, resinotannols, resenes.
Examples Colophony, Podophyllum, Cannabis, Jalap, Capsicum, Turmeric, Balsam of Tolu and
Peru, Asafoetida, Myrrh, Ginger
7. Alkaloids – Nitrogenous substance of plant origin
Pyridine and Piperidine – Lobelia, Nicotiana
Tropane - Coca, Belladonna, Datura, Stramonium, Hyoscyamus, Henbane
Quinoline – Cinchona
Isoquinoline – Opium, Ipecac, Calumba
Indole – Ergot, Rauwolfia
Amines – Ephedra
Purines – Tea, coffee

8. Protein – Gelatin, Ficin, Papain

9. Vitamins - Yeast
10. Triterpenes – Rasna, Colocynth
Merits : It is a popular approach for phytochemical studies .
Demerits: Ambiguities arise when particular drugs possess a number of compounds belonging to
different groups of compounds.

Lecture -5
Pharmacological Classification
Grouping of drug according to their pharmacological action or of most important constituent or
their therapeutic use is termed as pharmacological or therapeutic classification of drug. This
classification is more relevant and is mostly followed method. Drugs like digitalis, squill and
strophanthus having cardiotonic action are grouped together irrespective of their parts used or
phylogenetic relationship or the nature of phytoconstituents they contain. Table 3 gives an
outline of pharmacological classification of drugs .

Table 3: Classification of Drugs based on Pharmacological action.

Pharmacological Action Drugs

Anticancer Vinca, Podophyllum, Taxus

Anti-inflammatory Colchicum, Turmeric

Antiamoebic Ipecac root, Kurchi bark

Antiasthmatic Ephedra, Lobelia

Anthelminthic Male fern, Quassia wood

Antispasmodic Datura, Hyoscyamus

Astringent Catechu

Analgesic Opium, poppy

Bitter tonic Quassia wood, Nux-vomica,

Coriander, fennel, clove,
Purgatives peppermint

Expectorant Senna, Rhubarb

Cardiotonic Tulsi, Balsam of Tolu, Vasaka

Tranquilizers Digitalis, Squill, Strophanthus

Rauwolfia Roots

Merits: This system of classification can be used for suggesting substitutes of drugs if they are not
available at a particular place or point of time.

Demerits: Drugs having different action on the body gets classified separately in more than one
group that causes ambiguity and confusion. Cinchona is antimalarial drug because of presence of
quinine but can be put under the group of drug affecting heart because of antiarrythymic action
of quinidine.

Chemotaxonomic Classification
This system of classification relies on the chemical similarity of a taxon i.e. it is based on the
existence of relationship between constituents in various plants. There are certain types of
chemical constituents that characterize certain classes of plants. This gives birth to entirely new
concept of chemotaxonomy that utilizes chemical facts/characters for understanding the
taxonomical status, relationships and the evolution of the plants. For example, tropane alkaloids
generally occur among the members of Solanaceae thereby, serving as a chemotaxonomic
marker. Similarly other secondary plant metabolites can serve as the basis of classification of
crude drugs. The berberine alkaloid in Berberis and Argemone; Rutin in Rutaceae members,
ranunculaceous alkaloids among its members etc are other examples.
It is the latest system of classification and gives more scope for understanding the relationship
between chemical constituents, their biosynthesis and their possible action.

Test questions

Fill in the blanks

1. ______ is not used as expectorant.

a) Ipecacuanha b) Vasaka
c) Liquorice d) atropine
Ans: d
2. ______ is not used as cardiotonics
a) Digitalis b) Cinchona
c) Squill d) Stropanthus
3. --------- Drugs is used as Antihypertensive :
a) Rauwolfia b) Digitalis
c) squill d) Stropanthus
Ans : c

4. ____is used as adrenergic drug.

a) Ephedra b) Physostigma
c) Pilocarpus d) belladonna
Ans : d
5. ____is not used as CNS depressant.
a) Hyoscyamine b) Belladonna
c) coffee d) Opium

6. Alkaloids are ________ type of substances.

a) Acid b) Neutral
c) Chemical d) Basic nitrogenous
Ans : d
7. ----------Drug do not used as anticancer :
a) Podophyllum b) Curare
c) Camptotheca d) Taxus
Ans : b
8. --------- Drug is not used as antirheumatic :
a) Quassia b) Aconite
c) Colchicum d) Guggul
Ans : d
9. ---------- Drug is used as emetic :
a) Agar b) Isapghul
c) Ipecas d) Banana
Ans : c
10. ------------ Drug is used as bronchodilator :
a) Tea b) Liquorice
c) Ipecacuanha d) Vasaka
Ans : c
11. ------------- Drug is used as antimalerial :
a) Ashwagandha b) Tulsi
c) Ginseng d) Artemesia
Ans : d

Multiple choice questions

1. Drug is not under the class of organized drug :

a) Leaves b) flowers
c) Fruits d) Gums
Ans: d
2. Drug is not under the seed class :
a) Nux vomica b) Digitalis
c) stropanthus d) Ispgol
Ans: b
3. Drug which does not belong to leaves class :
a) Senna b) Digitalis
c) Eucalyptus d) turmeric
Ans: d
4. Drug which does not belong to fruit class :
a) Artemesia b) fennel
c) Coriander d) Colocynth
Ans: a
5. Dried latex of the drug is used, except :
a) Opium b) Gatta parcha
c) Papain d) Balsam
Ans: b
6. The roots of following drugs are effective, except :
a) Rauwolfia b) Ipecacuanha
c) Turmeric d) Aconite
Ans: d
7. Leaves of the following drugs are affective, except:
a) Senna b) Digitalis
c) Clove d) Vasaka
Ans : c
8. Entire parts of the following drugs are effective, except:
a) Ergot b) Belladonna
c) Ephedra d) Clove
9. Select the drug, which is not belonging to glycoside class?
a) Digitalis b) senna
c) Nux vomica d) Cascara
Ans: b
10. select the drug, which is not belonging to tannin class?
a) Myrobalam d) Pale catechu
c) Ashoka d) Peppermint
Ans: d
11. Drug not belonging to volatile oil class:
a) Peppermint b) Clove
c) Castor oil d) Garlic
Ans : c
12. Select the does not belong to tannin class:
a) Colophony b) Guar gum
c) Acacia d) Agar
Ans : c
13. Select the drug, which is not showing carminative property?
a) dill b) Mentha
c) senna d) Cardamom
Ans : a

Choose the correct pairs

1 Types of drug Example
a) Vegetable drug i) Honey bees
b) Animal drug ii) Arsenic oxide
c) Mineral and metal iii) Belladonna
Ans : a) iii b) i. c) ii
2 A
a) Hippocrates i) 384-322 B.C.
b) Aristotle ii) 40-80 A.D.
c) Discorides iii) 400-360 B.C.
d) Galen iv) 131-200 A.D.
Ans: a) iii b) i. c) ii d) iv
3. Morphological class of drug Example
a) Roots i) Quassia
b) Woods ii) Turmeric
c) Rhizomes iii) Karachi
d) Bark iv) Rauwolfia
Ans: a) iv b) i. c) ii d) iii

4. Morphological class of drug Example

a) Gums i) Acacia
b) Dried extract ii) Gelatin
c) Dried juice iii) Kino
Ans : a) i. b) ii c) iii

5. Class Example
a) Seeds i) Vasaks
b) Leaves ii) Coriander
c) Fruits iii) Pyrethrum
d) Flowers iv) Isapgol
Ans: a) iv b) i. c) ii d) iii

6. Class Example
a) Lipids i) Bees wax
b) Resins ii) Bees was
c) Volatile oil iii) Garlic
Ans : a) i. b) ii c) iii
7. Class Example
a) Glycosides i) Cinchona
b) Alkaloids ii) Digitalis
c) Tannins iii) Ashoka
d) Carbohydrates iv) Guar gum
Ans: a) ii b) i. c) iii d) iv
8. Class Example
a) Emetics i) Castor oil
b) Purgative ii) Cardamom
c) Carminative iii) Cinchona
d) Bitters iv) Ipecacuanha
Ans : a) iv b) i. c) ii d) iii
9. Class Example
a) Expectorant i) Tea
b) Antitussive ii) Opium
c) Anitexpectorant iii) Starmonium
d) Bronchodilator iv) Vasaka
Ans : a) iv b) ii c) iii d) i
10. Pharmacological action Example
a) Anticholinergic i) Physostigmina
b) Cholinergic ii) Datura
c) Adrenergic iii) Opium
Ans : a) ii b) i. c) iii

11. Drug Epidermal structure

a) Digitalis i) Wavy
b) Hyoscyamus ii) Wavy and striated cuticle
c) belladonna iii) striated walled and polygonal
d) Senna iv) Thick walled beaded
Ans : a) iv b) i. c) ii d) iii

Review Questions

Very short questions

1. Define crude drugs.

2. Enlist various systems of classification.
3. What are the qualities required for a method of classification.
4. Mention various official books that use alphabetical classification.
5. Mention some examples of volatile oil containing crude drugs.
6. Write the merit and draw backs of Taxonomical classification.
7. Define organized crude drugs
8. Define un organized crude drugs
9. Give example for anti spasmodic crude drug
10. What is chemo taxonomical classification?

Short questions

1. Write a short note on classification of crude drugs

2. Differentiate between organized and un organized crude drug
3. Explain alphabetical classification.
4. Write a note on pharmacological classification.
5. Give taxonomical classification of some crude drugs.
6. Enlist various types of alkaloid containing crude drugs
7. Write various glycosides with one example each.
8. What are merits and demerits of morphological and pharmacological classifications?
9. Write a short note on chemo taxonomical classification.

Long questions

1. Explain in detail about morphological classification of crude drugs.

2. Give a detailed note on chemical classification along with merits and demerits.
3. Explain in detail about classification of crude drugs based on pharmacological action.
4. Explain in detail about various systems of classification.
5. Write about alphabetical and chemo taxonomical classification


Prepare an assignment by correlating different systems of classification of crude drugs.

Previous Questions

1. How the crude drugs are classified. Write a detailed note on Chemical classification-
April 2011
2. Write the chemical classification of crude drugs with suitable examples?- Dec 2014
3. Define organized and unorganized drugs. Explain Morphological classification with
suitable examples. Mar & Sept 2014
4. Classify crude drugs and discuss them in detail with examples – June 2007
5. Give few examples of drugs obtained as barks, seeds, flowers and leaves. –June 2007
6. What are the different methods of classification of crude drugs? Give the merits and
demerits of each system of classification- June 2007
7. Classify crude drugs. Write in detail on any two such classifications with examples- April
8. Classify crude drugs with examples and write a note on any such classification- Nov
9. Define crude drug. Explain the merits and demerits of alphabetical and taxonomical
classification with suitable examples- Nov 2012
Reference Text Books

1. Text book of Pharmacognosy by C.K.Kokate and Purohit

2. Trease and Evan’s text book of pharmacognosy.
3. Pharmacognosy by Taylor, Brady and Robbers

Factors influencing cultivation of medicinal plants.

• Plant hormones and their applications.
• Definitions and examples for polyploidy, mutation and hybridization
with reference to medicinal plants.
Good Agriculture Practices: Strategies of obtaining improved cultivation of
medicinal plants.

Unit – III Cultivation, collection, processing, drying and storage of medicinal Plants

Unit Objectives

After reading this Unit, you should be able to understand:

- Disadvantages of collection of crude drugs from wild source.

- Importance and necessity of cultivation.
- Exogenous and endogenous factors influencing cultivation.
- Applications of plant hormones in improving the yield of medicinal plants
- Methods of cultivation
- Various plant breeding techniques.
- Methods of collection of crude drugs
- Different Processing techniques.
- Reasons for deterioration of crude drugs.
- Importance of storage of medicinal plants.

Unit Outcomes

- Give an outline of good agricultural practices.

- Explain the difference between asexual and sexual methods of propagation.
- Extract standard agricultural methods to get persistent yields.
- Elucidate various plant growth regulators.
- Give different factors influencing storage of crude drugs.
- Debate on advantages and disadvantages of wild source and cultivated plants
- Trace the factors affecting collection of crude drugs.
- Bring out application of polyploidy and mutations in improving the plant
- Give the importance of hybridization in the development of disease resistant

Unit Lecture Plan

Lecture no. Topic Methodology Quick reference

16. Advantages and methods of Chalk & Board Text book of
Cultivation Pharmacognosy of
Biren shah and Avinash
seth 2
17. Factors influencing Chalk & Board Text book of
cultivation of medicinal Pharmacognosy of
plants Biren shah and Avinash
seth 3
18. Collection of crude drugs Chalk & Board Text book of
Pharmacognosy of
Biren shah and Avinash
seth 3
19. Processing of crude drugs Chalk & Board Text book of
Pharmacognosy of
Biren shah and Avinash
seth 3
20. Deterioration of crude drugs Chalk & Board Text book of
Pharmacognosy of
Biren shah and Avinash
seth 3
21. Storage of crude drugs Chalk & Board Text book of
Pharmacognosy of
Biren shah and Avinash
seth 3
22. Plant hormones and their Chalk & Board Text book of
applications Pharmacognosy of
Biren shah and Avinash
23. Definitions and examples Chalk & Board Text book of
for polyploidy with Pharmacognosy of
reference to medicinal plants Biren shah and Avinash
seth 2
24. Definitions and examples Chalk & Board Text book of
for mutation with reference Pharmacognosy of
to medicinal plants Biren shah and Avinash
seth 2
25. Definitions and examples Chalk & Board Internet
for hybridization with
reference to medicinal plants
26. Good Agricultural Practices Chalk & Board Internet

27. Summary of unit-III Chalk & Board Internet

Teaching Material / Teaching Aids as per above lecture plan

Lecture -1


• Sparse distribution e.g. Sceletium tortuosum

• Potentially difficult to transport herb to area of processing.

• Difficult access (e.g. Forests, Mountains etc)

• Collector ignorance admixture of other plants, collection of undesired plant parts or stage of
development or during an incorrect season loss of medicinal activity.

• The losses occur due to natural conditions like storms,earthquakes, flood, droughts, snowfall,
tsunami etc.

• Cost of crude drugs is more compared to that of drugs collected from wild plants.

• Land, labour and money are required.


• Cultivation of medicinal plants requires intensive care and managements.

• The quality and growth of medicinal plants can be affected by other plants, other living
organisms and by human activities.
• Medicinal plant materials derived from the same species can show significant differences
in quality when cultivated at different sites, owing to the influence of soil, climate and
other factor. Crude drugs cultivated or uncultured plants
 Some cases: pharmacopoeias specify cultivated spp. Such as Fennel, ginger, cinnamon &
 Opium: only official growers may legally produce herbs.
 Other herbs: senna, tragacanth etc, may be collected from wild or cultivated species

Advantages of cultivation:-

• It ensures quality and purity of medicinal plants.

• Collection of crude drugs from cultivated plants gives a better yield and therapeutic quality.

• Cultivation permits application of modern technological aspects such as mutation, polyploidy

and hybridization.

• The cultivation of medicinal and aromatic plants also leads to industrialization to a greater

• Cultivation ensures regular supply of a crude drug.


High cost Losses due to ecological imbalance

Cultivation of Crude Drugs:

Cultivation of medicinal plants requires intensive care and management. The conditions and
duration of cultivation required vary depending on the quality of medicinal plant materials

Methods of Propagation:

Vegetative propagation (Asexual propagation):

Vegetative propagation can be defined as regeneration or formation of a new individual from any
vegetative part of the plant body. The method of vegetative propagation involves separation of a
part of plant body, which develops into a new plant.
Methods of vegetative propagation:

They are two types:

1. Methods of natural vegetative propagation:

2. Methods of artificial vegetative propagation.

A. Methods of natural vegetative propagation:

a. Vegetative propagation by stem:

Following examples:

Runner: peppermint.

(i) Bulb: Allium, Squill.

(ii) Corms: Colchicum.

(iii) Tuber: Potato, aconite.

(iv) Offset: Valerian.

(v) Rhizome: Ginger and haldi.

b. Vegetative propagation by root: examples: Asparagus

2. Methods of artificial vegetative propagation:

Various parts developed for natural vegetative propagation have also been used for artificial
vegetative propagation.

Following methods are used:

1. Cutting:

These are the parts of the plant (stem, root or leaf) which, if grown under suitable’ conditions,
develop new plants. Stem cutting are generally used to obtained new plants. Examples:
Sugarcane and rose, etc.

2. Layering:

Roots are induced on the stem while it is still attached to the parent plant. This part of stem is
later detached from the parent plant and grown into a new plant.
3. Grafting:

New variety is produced by joining parts of two different plants. The rooted shoot of one plant,
called stock, is joined with a piece of shoot of another plant known as scion. Examples: Rose,
citrus and rubber, etc.

4. Micro propagation:

This method consists of growing cell, tissue and organ in culture. Small pieces of plant organs or
tissues are grown in a container with suitable nutrient medium, under sterilized conditions. The
tissue grows into a mass of undifferentiated cells called callus which later differentiates into
plantlets. These are then transferred into pots or nursery beds and allowed to grow into full

Importance of asexual propagation:

1. It is a cheaper, easier and rapid method of multiplication. Many fruit trees usually require 4-5
years to bear the fruits when developed from seeds. The plants developed by vegetative methods,
take only a year to bear fruits.

2. Plants like roses and chrysanthemum, etc do not form viable seeds. Thus, vegetative
propagation is the only method of propagation is the only method of reproduction and
continuation of species in such plants.

3. All the plants developed by these methods will be generally similar to the parent plant.

4. Micro propagation is useful in raising disease free plants, homozygous diploids, and those
without viable seeds.

Disadvantages of Asexual Propagation

• Diversity is lost in asexual propagation which is the main reason behind occurrence of diseases
in future plant species.

• As many crops are produced with this process, it leads to overcrowding & lack of nutrients.

• New varieties of crops cannot be developed in this type of propagation.

• Asexual propagation is an expensive process that requires special skills for successful
cultivation of crops.

• Crops produced through this process have shorter life-span than those grown through sexual

• Species involved in this process are less likely to resist pests and diseases.

II. Sexual Propagation

The process of sexual propagation:

(i) Pollination: This is the transfer of pollen grains from the anther to the stigma.
(ii) Fertilization: Fusion of male and female gametes takes place, resulting in the formation
of zygote
(iii) Seedling: Multiplication of plants by using seed is called as seed propagation

Dormancy: It is term used to describe a seed that will not germinate because of any

condition associated either with the seed itself or with existing environmental factors

such as temperature and moisture. Rest Period: Some seeds will not germinate

immediately after harvest even if conditions are favorable. This failure to germinate is

due to physiological condition. This is said to be the seeds are in the rest period. Seed

viability and longevity: Viability means the presence of life in the seed. Longevity refers

to the length of time that seeds will retain their viability. Some seeds are short lived.


Pre – germination Seed Treatments to improve germination rate

1. Chemical (Acid scarification) : The purpose is to modify hard or important or impermeable

seed covering generally soaking seed in concentrated sulphuric acid is an effective method. The
time of treatment may vary from 10 minutes to 6 hour according to species sometimes phyto
hormones like gibberellins, ethylene, Cytokinins are also used. Other chemicals like Potassium
nitrate, Thiourea, Sodium hypochlorite also used.

2. Mechanical (Scarification): Seeds of a few species with impermeable seed coat. i.e. hard
seed coat can be rendered permeable to water and gases their germination is greatly improved by
mechanical scarification in taking care that seeds should be injured *not be injured heavily. This
can be achieved by i) Placing the seeds between two sand paper doses, one station and other
revolving. ii) Passing seeds through machine that scratches the surface. iii) Filling and notching
to make the seed coat permeable to water.

3. Seedling (Boiled Water Treatment): Pouring boiling water over seeds and getting it to cool
gradually for about 12 hour to soften hard shelled seeds.E.g. Coffee.

4. Soaking in Water: The purpose of soaking seeds in water is to modify hard seed coats, to
remove inhibitors to soften seed and to reduce the time of germination. The time of soaking
seeds in cold water depend upon the hardness of the seed coat. E.g beans.

5.Moist Chilling: Seed of many woody trees or shrubs are exposed to low temperature to bring
about prompt and uniform germination.

Germination rate measured by 1. Rolled towel test 2. Excised embryo test

Advantages of Sexual Propagation

•Simplest, easiest and the most economical process

•Some plants, trees, vegetables or fruits species can propagate only through sexual propagation.
E.g. – marigold, papaya, tomato.

•This type of propagation leads to better crop species that are stronger, disease- resistant and
have longer life-span. •Viral transmission can be prevented in this type of propagation.

•It is the only propagation process in which resultant offspring have genetic variation and exhibit
diversity of characters from parent crops.

•This genetic variation is responsible for continuous evolution that keeps on producing better &
better offspring.

•Easy storage and transportation of seeds.

Disadvantages of Sexual Propagation

•Seeds take a long time to turn into mature plants i.e. time interval between sowing and
flowering is longer.
•Seedlings propagated through sexual propagation are unlikely to have same genetic
characteristics as that of parent plants

•Some plant species do not produce viable seeds through sexual propagation and hence are
unsuitable to propagate for the same.

•Plants that do not have seeds can’t be propagated through this process.

•There are many factors that can affect the viability of seeds, including moisture, air,
temperature, and light.

III. Micro propagation / Plant Tissue Culture

This method consists of growing cell, tissue and organ in culture. Small pieces of plant organs or
tissues are grown in a container with suitable nutrient medium, under sterilized conditions. The
tissue grows into a mass of undifferentiated cells called callus which later differentiates into
plantlets. These are then transferred into pots or nursery beds and allowed to grow into full
plants. Plant tissue culture is widely used to produce clones of a plant in a method known as
micropropagation to conserve rare or endangered plant species. Micro propagation is useful in
raising disease free plants, homozygous diploids, and those without viable seeds.

Lecture -2

Factors Influencing the Cultivation of Medicinal Plants

The following factors are influencing of cultivation:

1. Light:

Light is the only external source of energy for the continuation of life of the plant. It influences
photosynthesis, opening and closing of stomata, plant movements, seed germination, flowering
and vegetative growth like tuber formation. Dry sunny weather increases the proportion of
glycosides in digitalis and of alkaloids in belladonna.

2. Temperature:

Temperature is the major factor influencing the cultivation of the medicinal plant. The sudden
decrease in temperature caused the formation of the ice crystals in intercellular spaces of the
plant. As a result, water comes out of the cells and ultimately plants die due to drought and
desiccation. The ice crystals also mechanical injury to the cells temperature stimulates the
growth of seedlings. Water absorption decreases at low temperatures. The rate of photosynthesis
is affected by change in temperature. The rate of respiration increases with increase in
temperature. Examples; Cinchona- 58-73°F; Tea- 75-90°F and coffee- 55-70°F

3. Atmosphere humidity:

It is present in the form of water vapours. This is called atmospheric humidity. Clouds and fog
are the visible forms of humidity. The major sources of water vapours in the atmosphere are
evaporation of water from earth surface and transpiration from plants the major effect of
humidity on plant life and climate. Evaporation of water, its condensation and precipitation
depends upon relative humidity and humidity affects structure, form and transpiration in plants.

4. Altitude:

The altitude is the most important factor influencing of cultivation of medicinal plants. The
increase the altitude, the temperature and atmospheric pressure decreases while the wind
velocity, relative humidity and light intensity increases.

Thus, as the climatic conditions change with height, they also produce change in the vegetation
pattern. The bitter constituents of Gentiana lutea increase with altitude, whereas the alkaloids of
Aconitum nacelles and lobelia inflate and oil content of thyme and peppermint decrease.
Pyrethrum gives the best yield and Pyrethrum at high altitude.
Examples: Tea- 9500-1500 meters; cinnamon- 300-1000 meters and saffron- up to 1250 meters.,
Clove up to 900 , Camphor 1500-2000 , Cinchona 1000-2000

5. Rainfall:

The rainfalls are most important factor influencing of cultivation of medicinal plants. The main
source of water for the soil is rain water. Rainfall and snowfall have a large effect the climate
condition. The water from rainfall flows into the rivers and lakes percolates into the soil to form
ground water and remaining is evaporated. The minerals in the soil get dissolved in water and are
then absorbed by plants. Water influences morphological and physiology of plant. Examples:
continuous rain can lead to a loss of water- soluble substance from leaves and root by leaching;
this is known to apply to some plants producing glycoside and alkaloids.

6. Soil:

Soil is defined as surface layer of the earth, formed by weathering of rocks. The soil is formed as
a result of combined action of climate factors like plants and microorganisms. The soil should
contain appropriate amounts of nutrients, organic matter and other elements to ensure optimal
medicinal plant growth and quality. Optimal soil conditions, including soil type, drainage,
moisture retention, fertility and pH, will be dictated by the selected medicinal plant species
and/or target medicinal plant part.

The soil made of five components:

(i) Mineral matter.

(ii) Soil air.

(iii) Soil water.

(iv) Organic matter or humus.

(v) Soil organisms

Plants depend on soil for nutrients, water supply and anchorage. Soil influences seed
germination, capacity of plant to remain erect, form, vigour and woodiness of the stem, depth of
root system, number of flowers on a plant, drought, frost, etc.

Classification of soil particles:

1. Clay

2. Loamy.

3. Silt loam

4. Sandy loam

5. Sandy soil.

6. Calcareous soil.

a. Clay soil:

Clay particle are very small. These fit together very closely and therefore, leave very less pore
space. These spaces get filled up with water very easily. Hence, the clay soil becomes quickly
waterlogged. Such soil have practically no air, therefore, the plants growing in these soil are not
able to absorb water. This soil known as physiologically dry soil clay soil is plastic and forms a
colloid when moist. It cracks and shrinks when conditions are dry the soil rich in nutrient
elements and therefore, acts as a negatively charged colloidal system.

b. Sandy soil:

Sand particles are large sized. These leave large pore spaces which do not have capillary action
and therefore, water is not retained by them. Most of the water is quickly drained off and reaches
deep into the soil. As a result, roots spread and also reach a great depth. The sandy soil is poor in
nutrient elements; it is less fertile and plants growing in this soil have less dry weight.

c. Loam soil:

The mixture of clay, silt and sand is known as loam. Loam is very useful for growth. It is fertile
soil because it contains available nutrient elements in sufficient amounts. It has a high water
retention capacity and appropriate amount of soil air is also present. The plants growing in loam
are vigorous and have very high weight.

d. Sandy loam:

The amount of sand particles is more than other types of loam.

Silt loam:
Silt loam is considered to be the most fertile as it contains more amount of organic substances
than others.

7. Fertilizer:

The fertilizers are two types:

1. Biological origin fertilizer.

2. Synthetic fertilizers

3. Chemical fertilizer

Biological origin fertilizer:

Soil is generally poor in organic matter and nitrogen. The substances of biological origin used as
fertilizer are thus selected if these could provide the elements required. These are two types:

(i) Green manures:

Manure is material, which are mixed with soil. These supply almost all the nutrients required by
the crop plants. This results in the increase in crop productivity.

Manures are three types:

Farmyard manure:

This is a mixture of cattle dung and remaining unused parts of straw and plants stalks fed to

Composited manure:

This consists of a mixture of rotted or decomposed and useless parts of plants and animals.

Green manure:

It is a herbaceous crop ploughed under and mixed with the soil while still green to enrich the
soil. The plants used as green manure are often quick growing. These add both organic as well as
nitrogen to the soil. It is also forms a protective soil cover that checks soil erosion and leaching.
Thus, the crop yield increases by 30-50%.

(ii) Bio-fertilizer:

It can be defined as biologically active products or bacteria, algae and fungi which useful in
bringing about soil nutrient enrichment. These mostly include nitrogen fixing microorganisms.

Some of the Bio-fertilizer are as follows:

(i) Legume- Rhizobium symbiosis

(ii) Azolla- Anabaena symbiosis.

(iii) Free- living bacteria.

(iv) Loose association of nitrogen fixing bacteria.

(v) Cyanobacteria (blue green algae).

(vi) Mycorrhiza.

1. Ectomycorrhizae. Increase the interface surface between plant root and soil. Mycorrhizae
absorb and store nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium and calcium.

2. Endomycorrhizae

2. Chemical fertilizers:

(i) Macronutrients:

(a) Nitrogen

(b) Phosphorous

(c) Potassium

(d) Calcium

(e) Magnesium
(f) Sulpher.

(ii) Micronutrients:

(a) Iron

(b) Magnese

(c) Zinc

(d) Boron

(e) Copper

(f) Molybdenum

Carbon, oxygen, hydrogen and chorine are provided from water and air.


Urea, Potash

8. Pest & pest control

A pest is on organism that causes on epidemic disease associated with high mortality.

Types of pest- The different types of pests infecting medicinal plant are.

Fungi and viruses:

Fungi and viruses Ascochyta atropae- leaf necrosis Cercospora atropae- leaf spot Phytophthora
nicotianae- Phytophthora root-rot.


Insects Agrotis species Heliothis armigera Caterpillar, cutworms, termites, grass-hoppers,

spiders, mites, Lepidopterus larvae.

Non-insect pests:
Non-insect pests Vertebrates like rats, monkeys, birds, rabbits, squirrels, pigs. Invertebrates like
nematods, snails.

Methods of pest control

Mechanical Methods:

It employs manual labour along with different devices for collection and destruction of pest.
Examples include: 1. Hand picking to remove insects 2. Pruning 3. Burning 4. Trapping of pests

Agricultural Methods

It covers advance plant breeding techniques capable of inducing genetic manipulation resulting
in production hybrid varieties, which are resistant to fungal and bacterial attack. Another aspect
in agricultural control is ploughing which should be sufficiently deep so as to eradicate weeds, as
well as early stages of insects.

Chemical Methods

Pests are controlled by using chemical pesticides. 1. Insecticides: DDT, gammaxine, parathione,
malathione 2. Fungicides: Bordeaux mixture, chlorophenols, antibiotics 3. Herbicides: to control
weeds (2, 4-di chlorophenoxy acetic acid, Sulphuric acid) 4.Rodenticides: Warfarin, Strychnine,
Red squill

Biological Control methods

This method is practiced by combating the pests, mostly the insects, which other living
organisms. If this method is properly designed, it may emerge as an effective, safe and
economical method of pest control. The chemical substances produced and released by some
female insects are capable to elicting (reaction) a sexual response from the opposite sex, which
could be exploited for biological control of pests called sex pheromones. Example: 7, 8-epoxy 2-
methyloctadecane from gypsm moth. Natural pest control agents: Tobacco, Nux-vomica, Neem


It is a hormone like synthetic organic compound. In small amounts, it modifies the growth and
development either by promoting or inhibiting the growth. General plant hormones: The phyto-
hormones are broadly grouped under five major classes namely (1) Auxins (cell elongation) (2)
Gibberellins (cell elongation + cell division - translated into growth) (3) Cytokinins (cell division
+ inhibits senescence) (4 ) Abscisic acid (abscission of leaves and fruits ) (5) Ethylene (promotes
senescence, epinasty , and fruit ripening)


The specific no. of chromosomes is a character of each species and is called genome which is
observed in all types of organism. [ Set of chromosomes = Genome]. The term euploidy is a type
of ploidy in which genome contain whole set of chromosomes and euploidy includes
monoploidy , diploidy and polyploidy . When some plants contain more than two genomes it is
called as polyploidy . For 3,4,5,6,7 genome no. = polyploidy may be triploid, tetraploid,
pentaploidy, hexaploidy, heptaploidy , plants.

Polyploidy is caused by artificially induced methods/ agents : Physical agents like: X-rays
centrifugation temperature chocks Specific chemical agents like: (a) C olchicine (b) Veratrine (C)
Sulphanilamide and (d) Mercuric chloride.

Significant Effects of polyploidy:

Greater significance to medicinal plants, It may cause formation of new species, Adaptability of
medicinal plant to various habitat and mainly accumulation of vitamins. Useful effects on
Digitalis, opium & Mentha. And also Useful effects on Commercial crops (wheat, oats, cotton).


Sudden change in genotype causing qualitative or quantitative alteration of genetic material

called MUTATION. OR Sudden heritable change in the structure of a gene or chromosomes or
change the chromosome number.

Types of Mutations:

Spontaneous and induced mutations. Recessive and dominant mutations Somatic and germinal
mutations. Forward, back and suppressor mutation. Chromosomal, genomic and point mutation.

Mutation can artificially produced by certain agents called mutagenes or mutagenic agent . Types
of mutagenes: (A) Physical Mutagenes: Ionizing radiations: x-rays, gamma radiation and cosmic
rays. Non Ionizing radiations: UV radiation (B) Chemical Mutagenes: Alkylating agents:
nitrogen and sulphur mustard. Acridines: acridines and proflavins. Nitrous acid.

There is a "natural" greenhouse effect that keeps the Earth's climate warm and habitable.
Normally sun rays reaches the earth and heat is radiated back in to space. However, when Carbon
di oxide concentration increses in the atmosphere, it forms a thick cover and prevents the heat
from being re-radiated. Consequently, the atmosphere gets heated and the temperature increases.
This is called GREEN HOUSE EFFECT.

There is also the "man-made" green house effect, which is the enhancement of Earth's natural
greenhouse effect by the addition of greenhouse gases from the burning of fossil fuels (mainly
petroleum, coal, and natural gas). Greenhouse gases include water vapour , carbon dioxide,
methane, nitrous oxide, ozone and some artificial chemicals such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs).

Lecture -3


Medicinal plant materials should be collected during the appropriate season or time period to
ensure the best possible quality of both source materials and finished products. It is well known
that the quantitative concentration of biologically active constituents varies with the stage of
plant growth and development.

This also applies to non-targeted toxic or poisonous indigenous plant ingredients. The best time
for collection (quality peak season or time of day) should be determined according to the quality
and quantity of biologically active constituents rather than the total vegetative yield of the
targeted medicinal plant parts.

In general, the collected raw medicinal plant materials should not come into direct contact with
the soil. If underground parts (such as the roots) are used, any adhering soil should be removed
from the plants as soon as they are collected.

Collected material should be placed in clean baskets, mesh bags, other well aerated containers or
drop cloths that are free from foreign matter, including plant remnants from previous collecting
activities. After collection, the raw medicinal plant materials may be subjected to appropriate
preliminary processing, including elimination of undesirable materials and contaminants,
washing (to remove excess soil), sorting and cutting.
The collected medicinal plant materials should be protected from insects, rodents, birds and other
pests, and from livestock and domestic animals. If the collection site is located some distance
from processing facilities, it may be necessary to air or sun-dry the raw medicinal plant materials
prior to transport.

If more than one medicinal plant part is to be collected, the different plant species or plant
materials should be gathered separately and transported in separate containers. Cross-
contamination should be avoided at all times.

Collecting implements, such as machetes, shears, saws and mechanical tools, should be kept
clean and maintained in proper condition. Those parts that come into direct contact with the
collected medicinal plant materials should be free from excess oil and other contamination.

Time of collection:

The period of growth or development at which medicinal activity is highest has been carefully
determined for many plants. The proportion, of alkaloid in the leaves of Hyocyamus Niger and of
belladonna is largest at the beginning of flowering, whilst with Stromonium the peak coincides
with full bloom.


Stromonium leaves, gathered in the morning, contain a higher proportion of alkaloids than those
collected in the evening.
Harvesting/ Method of collection

Medicinal plants should be harvested during the optimal season or time period to ensure the
production of medicinal plant materials and finished herbal products of the best possible quality.
The time of harvest depends on the plant part to be used. Detailed information concerning the
appropriate timing of harvest is often available in national pharmacopoeias, published standards,
official monographs and major reference books.

However, it is well known that the concentration of biologically active constituents varies with
the stage of plant growth and development. This also applies to non-targeted toxic or poisonous
indigenous plant ingredients.

The best time for harvest (quality peak season/time of day) should be determined according to
the quality and quantity of biologically active constituents rather than the total vegetative yield of
the targeted medicinal plant parts during harvest, care should be taken to ensure that no foreign
matter, weeds or toxic plants are mixed with the harvested medicinal plant materials.
Medicinal plants should be harvested under the best possible conditions, avoiding dew, rain or
exceptionally high humidity. If harvesting occurs in wet conditions, the harvested material
should be transported immediately to an indoor drying facility to expedite drying so as to prevent
any possible deleterious effects due to increased moisture levels, which promote microbial
fermentation and mould.

Cutting devices, harvesters, and other machines should be kept clean and adjusted to reduce
damage and contamination from soil and other materials. They should be stored in an
uncontaminated, dry place or facility free from insects, rodents, birds and other pests, and
inaccessible to livestock and domestic animals.

Contact with soil should be avoided to the extent possible so as to minimize the microbial load of
harvested medicinal plant materials where necessary, large drop cloths, preferably made of clean
muslin, may be used as an interface between the harvested plants and the soil.

If the underground parts (such as the roots) are used, any adhering soil should be removed from
the medicinal plant materials as soon as they are harvested.

The harvested raw medicinal plant materials should be transported promptly in clean, dry
conditions they may be placed in clean baskets, dry sacks, trailers, hoppers or other well-aerated
containers and carried to a central point for transport to the processing facility.

All containers used at harvest should be kept clean and free from contamination by previously
harvested medicinal plants and other foreign matter. If plastic containers are used, particular
attention should be paid to any possible retention of moisture that could lead to the growth of

When containers are not in use, they should be kept in dry conditions, in an area that is protected
from insects, rodents, birds and other pests, and inaccessible to livestock and domestic animals.
Any mechanical damage or compacting of the raw medicinal plant materials, as a consequence,
for example, of overfilling or stacking of sacks or bags that may result in composting or
otherwise diminish quality should be avoided. Decomposed medicinal plant materials should be
identified and discarded during harvest, post-harvest inspections and processing, in order to
avoid microbial contamination and loss of product quality.
As per WHO Guidelines

1. Medicinal plants/herbal drugs should be harvested when they are at the best possible quality
for the proposed use.

2. Damaged plants or parts plants need to be excluded.

3. Medicinal plants/herbal drugs should be harvested under the best possible conditions avoiding
wet soil, dew, rain or exceptionally high air humidity. If harvesting occurs in wet conditions
possible adverse effects on the medicinal plant/herbal drug due to increased moisture levels
should be counteracted.

4. Cutting devices or harvesters must be adjusted such that contamination from soil particles is
reduced to a minimum.

5. The harvested medicinal plant/herbal drug should not come into direct contact with the soil. It
must be promptly collected and transported in dry, clean conditions.

6. During harvesting, care should be taken to ensure that no toxic weeds mix with harvested
medicinal plants/herbal drugs.

7. All containers used during harvesting must be clean and free of contamination from previous
harvests. When containers are not in use, they must be kept in dry conditions free of pests and
inaccessible to mice/rodents, livestock and domestic animals.

8. Mechanical damage and compacting of the harvested medicinal plant/herbal drug that would
result in undesirable quality changes must be avoided. In this respect, attention must be paid to

(a) overfilling of the sacks,

(b) Stacking up of sacks.

9. Freshly harvested medicinal plants/herbal drugs must be delivered as quickly as possible to the
processing facility in order to prevent thermal degradation.

10. The harvested crop must be protected from pests, mice/rodents, livestock and domestic
animals. Any pest control measures taken should be documented.
Lecture -4

Processing of crude drugs

Processing aims at preservation of plant material

Primary processing:

Harvested or collected raw medicinal plant materials should be promptly unloaded and unpacked
upon arrival at the processing facility. Prior to processing, the medicinal plant materials should
be protected from rain, moisture and any other conditions that might cause deterioration.
Medicinal plant materials should be exposed to direct sunlight only where there is a specific need
for this mode of drying.

Medicinal plant materials that are to be used in the fresh state should be harvested/collected and
delivered as quickly as possible to the processing facility in order to prevent microbial
fermentation and thermal degradation.

The materials may be stored under refrigeration, in jars, in sandboxes, or using enzymatic and
other appropriate conservation measures immediately following harvest/collection and during
transit to the end-user. The use of preservatives should be avoided if used, they should conform
to national and/or regional regulations for growers/collectors and end-users.

Medicinal plant materials that are to be employed fresh should be stored under refrigeration, in
jars, in sandboxes, or using enzymatic or other appropriate conservation measures, and
transported to the end-user in the most expeditious manner possible.

The use of preservatives should be avoided. If used, this should be documented and they should
conform to national and/or regional regulatory requirements in both the source country and the
end-user country.

All medicinal plant materials should be inspected during the primary-processing stages of
production, and any substandard products or foreign matter should be eliminated mechanically or
by hand.

For example, dried medicinal plant materials should be inspected, sieved or winnowed to remove
discoloured, mouldy or damaged materials, as well as soil, stones and other foreign matter.
Mechanical devices such as sieves should be regularly cleaned and maintained.
All processed medicinal plant materials should be protected from contamination and
decomposition as well as from insects, rodents, birds and other pests, and from livestock and
domestic animals.


When medicinal plant materials are prepared for use in dry form, the moisture content of the
material should be kept as low as possible in order to reduce damage from mould and other
microbial infestation.

Medicinal plants can be dried in a number of ways:

1. In the open air (shaded from direct sunlight);

2. Placed in thin layers on drying frames, wire-screened rooms or buildings.

3. By direct sunlight, if appropriate.

4. In drying ovens/rooms and solar dryers.

5. By indirect fire; baking; lyophilization; microwave; or infrared devices.

6. Vacuum drying

7. Spray dryer: Examples: Papaya latex and pectin’s, etc.

Reasons for drying:

1. To help in their preservation.

2. To fix their constituents, by preventing reactions that may occur in presence of water.

3. To prevent the growth of micro-organisms such as bacteria and fungi.

4. To facilitate their grinding.

5. To reduce their size and weight.

6. Insufficient drying favors spoilage by micro-organisms and makes it possible for

enzymatic destruction.
When possible, temperature and humidity should be controlled to avoid damage to the active
chemical constituents. The method and temperature used for drying may have a considerable
impact on the quality of the resulting medicinal plant materials.

For example, shade drying is preferred to maintain or minimize loss of colour of leaves and
flowers; and lower temperatures should be employed in the case of medicinal plant materials
containing volatile substances. The drying conditions should be recorded. In the case of natural
drying in the open air, medicinal plant materials should be spread out in thin layers on drying
frames and stirred or turned frequently.

In order to secure adequate air circulation, the drying frames should be located at a sufficient
height above the ground. Efforts should be made to achieve uniform drying of medicinal plant
materials and so avoid mould formation.

Drying medicinal plant material directly on bare ground should be avoided. If a concrete or
cement surface is used, medicinal plant materials should be laid on a tarpaulin or other
appropriate cloth or sheeting. Insects, rodents, birds and other pests, and livestock and domestic
animals should be kept away from drying sites.

For indoor drying, the duration of drying, drying temperature, humidity and other conditions
should be determined on the basis of the plant part concerned (root, leaf, stem, bark, flower, etc.)
and any volatile natural constituents, such as essential oils.

If possible, the source of heat for direct drying (fire) should be limited to butane, propane or
natural gas, and temperatures should be kept below 60°C. If other sources of fire are used,
contact between those materials, smoke and medicinal plant material should be avoided.

Vacuum drying

This is conducted in steam- heated ovens with perfect closure, and a pump is used to exhaust the
air. The low pressure maintained within the oven ensures rapid and complete drying.

Example: Digitalis

Advantages of vacuum drying:

(i) Rapid drying.

(ii) Relatively low temperature.

(iii) Cleanliness and freedom from odour and dust.

(iv) Independence of climate conditions.

(v) Control of temperature.

(vi) Elimination, of risk of fire.

(vii) Compactness.

Lyophilization (Freeze drying):

Frozen material is placed in an evacuated apparatus which has a cold surface maintained at -60 to
-80 °C. Water vapour from the frozen material passes rapidly to the cold surface.

It is used for drying heat-sensitive substances e.g. antibiotics and proteins.

Chemical drying using desiccators

An absolutely dried drug is that completely freed from water, when exposed to air it
absorbs 8-10% of moisture and is called air-dry drug.

Other methods of preservation are


• On long storage, enzymatic reactions will slowly destroy the constituents, because the
last traces of water can never be removed.

• In order to avoid this degradation, the enzymes should be destroyed before drying, a
process usually called stabilization.

• The most common method being brief exposure (a few minutes only) of the plant
material to ethanol vapor under pressure (0.5 atm).

• Stabilization may be of value for the isolation of compounds that are very susceptible to
enzymatic degradation.

• Enzymatic transformation of the original plant constituents is sometimes desirable.

• The fresh material is then placed in thick layers, sometimes covered and often exposed
to raised temperatures (30-40 °C) and humidity, so as to accelerate the enzymatic
processes. (This treatment is usually called fermentation).

• The fermented product must, of course, be dried afterwards to prevent attack by

microorganisms, e.g. moulds.

• Fermentation is mostly used to remove bitter or unpleasant-tasting substances or to

promote the formation of aromatic compounds with a pleasant smell or taste.

• It is mainly applied to drugs used as spices or stimulants, e.g. vanilla, tea and cacao.

Specific Processing:

Some medicinal plant materials require specific processing to: improve the purity of the plant
part being employed; reduce drying time; prevent damage from mould, other microorganisms
and insects; detoxify indigenous toxic ingredients; and enhance therapeutic efficacy.

Common specific processing practices include pre selection, peeling the skins of roots and
rhizomes, boiling in water, steaming, soaking, pickling, distillation, fumigation, roasting, natural
fermentation, treatment with lime and chopping. Processing procedures involving the formation
of certain shapes, bundling and special drying may also have an impact on the quality of the
medicinal plant materials.

Antimicrobial treatments of medicinal plant materials (raw or processed) by various methods,

including irradiation, must be declared and the materials must be labelled as required.

Only suitably trained staff using approved equipment should carry out such applications, and
they should be conducted in accordance with standard operating procedures and national and/or
regional regulations in both the grower/collector country and the end-user country. Maximum
residue limits, as stipulated by national and/or regional authorities, should be respected.

Lecture -5

The crude drugs are prone to deterioration on storage. The shelf-life of crude drugs are
influenced by many factors which include not only the quality of storage conditions but also the
stability of the secondary (2°) metabolites present therein. Several factors are to be considered
for the detrimental effects on the stored products.

Primary Factors for Deterioration

• Several environmental factors relating to storage e.g. light, humidity, oxygen,

temperature etc. can produce detrimental effects on stored products, but more
deterioration usually results from a combination of these factors, which leads to the
development of living organism including molds, mites, bacteria etc. The primary factors
leading to the deterioration can be summarized as follows:

1. Light

Photo-decomposition occurs with santonin, the principal constituents of wormseed,

which on exposure to light darkens and eventually becomes black. In general, drugs should be
protected by suitable light-proof wrapping or by the use of amber colour containers. Powdered
rhubarb stored in clear glass jars rapidly changes as the exposed surfaces turning from yellow to
more reddish colour.

For these detrimental effects, WHO has specified that medicinal plant materials requiring
protection from light should be maintained in a light resistant container that shields the contents
from the effects of light. Alternatively, the container maybe placed inside a suitable light resistant
(opaque) covering and/or stored in a dark place.

2. Moisture/Humidity

Moisture present in drugs depends largely upon the amount of moisture in the
atmosphere, which is usually expressed in the terms of humidity. When the atmosphere is
completely saturated, the humidity is 100%, when half saturated it is 50% and so on. Drugs
stored in non-airtight containers are termed air-dry and contain about 10-12% of water depending
on the humidity of the atmosphere. This amount of water is sufficient to activate the enzymes
present in some dried plant materials, such as Digitalis and bring about the decomposition of the
active glycosides. Such drug should therefore be stored with a dehydrating agent or in sealed
containers immediately after drying. Squill contains a hygroscopic mucilage and the powder
therefrom, if exposed to the atmosphere, will pickup moisture and become a sticky mass.
Therefore strict humidity control is necessary while storing; low moisture may be maintained, if
necessary by the use of desiccant in the container provided that direct contact with the product is

3. Temperature

It has a marked effect which is sometime unsuspected. Many enzymatic changes in the
plant secondary metabolites proceed more rapidly at the slightly raised temperature up to about
45°C. Obviously those drugs containing volatile constituents in unprotected structures, e.g.
plants belongs to Labiatae family and the petals of rose and chamomile all loose oil with an
increase in temperature. Absorbent cotton wool contains a small amount of fatty material which
is the residual component from the natural fiber. At a raised temperature this molecules become
re-orientated, spreading themselves over the surface of the fiber to form an impervious layer.
Thus cotton wool, ones fully absorbent will gradually become completely non-absorbent because
of the effect of temperature.

4. Airic Oxidation

Direct oxidation of the constituents of crude drug is sometime brought about by the
oxygen of the air, e.g. Linseed oil rapidly become resinified as like the oil of Turpentine and oil
of Lemon. Usually this conversion is applied to the essential oil with terpenoid derivatives and
we can find the resinous deposit build-up around the stoppers used in dispensing bottle
containing this oil. Beside this, the rancidification of fixed oils e.g. cod-liver oil, which involves
the formation of unstable peroxides, is also an oxidative process. Thus, these types of materials
require storage in a well-filled, airtight container.

Secondary Factors for Deterioration

• Living organisms usually develop in stored drugs where the conditions are satisfactory
for them. From a hygienic point of view, such contaminated material should be destroyed
irrespective of whether or not the active principles of drug have been effected. The more
common of such organisms belongs to the groups of bacteria, moulds, mites, nematodes,
worms, insects etc.
• 1. Bacteria and Moulds
Dried herbs are particularly liable to be contaminated with the spores of the bacteria and
moulds, which are always present in the air. Under satisfactory storage conditions their presence
causes no problem, but it is generally accepted that the viable count permissible for crude drugs
should be the same as that for the food stuff. The effect produced by bacteria are not always very
visible with the exception of some chromogenic species of bacteria, e.g. Bacillus prodigious,
which produced red patches in starchy materials. However, bacterial growth is usually
accompanied by the crude drug by growth of moulds whose presence is quickly evident by the
characteristic smell and by the mass of clinging particles entrapped in the mycelial hyphae.

Dusty cotton wool, which is formed by bacterial attack causing the trichomes to break into short
length, rendered it to be very brittle. In order to identify a particular mould or bacteria, which is
proliferating in a stored product, it is necessary to culture it on a suitable medium with a view to
obtain fruiting bodies for examination. However, if the drug to be examined is infested rapidly,
then it may be possible to make microscopical preparation directly from the sample. Usually the
moulds encountered with poorly stored drugs include the genera Mucor (e.g. grey mould, M.
mused), Rhizopus (e.g. black mould, R. nigricans), Penicillium (e.g. blue mould, P. glaucum],
Aspergillus (e.g. green mould, A. repens) and Saccharomyces.

2. Mites and Nematode Worms

If found in stored drugs, mites are usually present in countless numbers upto 1.0 mm in
length. Different mites found usually include Tyroglyphces siro (Cheese mite); Aleurobius
farinae (Flour mite) and Glycyphagus spinipes (Cantharides mite). All these mites can examined
microscopically by clearing the sample of powder containing them with chloral hydrate reagent.
The best known examples of nematode worms are "Vinegar eel" - Turbatrix aceti, Anguillula
aceti, Anguina tritici which are found in wheat flour or in the crude drug containing starchy
materials. These worms are visible to the unaided eye as minute threads continually curling and
twisting in the medium they inhabit.

3. Insects/Moths

A few species of the Lepidiptera attack the stored crude drugs and cause damage at the
larval stage, where the infestation can spread rapidly due to the mobility of the adults. The moths
involved are unspectacular in appearance, 22-30 mm in length with off-white wings e.g.
Ephestia kuehniella (Flour moth); E. ellutella (Cocoa moth). Besides this some other insects,
cockroaches, ants and others are sometimes found to cause deterioration to the stored products.
4. Coleoptera or Beetles

These are the insects that constitute the largest order of the animal kingdom comprising
about 2,50,000, species of which about 600 have been found to be associated with stored food
product or drugs. Stegobium paniceum is one beetle, which is found in many drugs including
gentian, liquorice and rhubarb as well as leafy drugs and seeds. Belonging to the same family is
Lasioderma serricorne (tobacco or cigar beetle) which is reddish brown in colour, 2 to 2.5 mm
in length and found in many stored crude drugs including ginger and liquorice.


• The container used for storage and its closure must not interact physically or chemically
with the material within in any way which would alter its composition. A well closed
container must protect the contents from extraneous matter or from loss of the material
while handling and a tightly closed container must protect the material from
efflorescence, deliquescence or evaporation under normal condition of handling or
storage. Storage area should be kept clean and spillages not allowed to enter cracks or in
accessible crevices. Periodic spraying of the premises with insecticides will help to
prevent the spread of infestation.
• The principles, which apply to the control of infestation in warehouses, are equally
applicable to small-scale storage. Good house keeping is utmost essential. Each stock
should be inspected regularly and the material found to be contaminated is best to be
destroyed by burning. In this respect a quick turn over to eliminate the effects of
deterioration due to both the primary and secondary factors as mentioned above are

• Cool, dry condition is the most suitable for the retardation of living organisms. As all
leaves organisms require water for the development, perfectly dry drugs should be
immune from secondary deterioration. Sometimes the crude drugs purchased by the
herbalist may already have been sterilized, which is most commonly achieved by
treatment of the bulk consignment with ethylene oxide or methyl bromide under
controlled conditions. Drugs so treated, should comply with an acceptable limit for toxic
residues e.g. for Senna pods 50 ppm of ethylene oxide is the limit.

Lecture -6
Storage represents the last stage of preparing crude drugs. Drugs usually deteriorate along the
time of storage, except in few cases e.g. Cascara and Frangula should not be used except after
certain period of storage.

Certain drugs as Nux vomica are hardly affected by storage.

Generally, changes that take place during storage of crude drugs are objectionable, e.g.
drugs containing volatile oils gradually lose their aroma.

Improper methods of storing and inadequate protection during storage can cause a pronounced

There are great differences in the stability of crude drugs because of slow enzymic changes in the

• Drugs containing glycosides and esters are usually less stable than those containing

• Drugs with essential oils deteriorate rather quickly through evaporation, oxidation and
polymerization of the substances constituting the essential oil.

• Tannins on the other hand, have an almost unlimited durability.

In order to keep crude drugs as long as possible:

1. It is essential to store them in a dry condition in carefully closed containers.

2. It is also advisable to exclude light, because - even if it does not affect the active
constituents - it almost always causes changes in the appearance of the drug,
especially loss of color.

3. It is also necessary to protect the drug against insect attack.

1. Storage facilities for medicinal material should be well aerated, dry and protected from light,
and, when necessary, be supplied with air-conditioning and humidity control equipment as well
as facilities to protect against rodents, insects and livestock.
2. The floor should be tidy, without cracks and easy to clean. Medicinal material should be stored
on shelves which keep the material a sufficient distance from the walls; measures should be
taken to prevent the occurrence of pest infestation, mould formation, rotting or loss of oil; and
inspections should be carried out at regular intervals.

3. Continuous in-process quality control measures should be implemented to eliminate

substandard materials, contaminants and foreign matter prior to and during the final stages of
packaging. Processed medicinal plant materials should be packaged in clean, dry boxes, sacks,
bags or other containers in accordance with standard operating procedures and national and/or
regional regulations of the producer and the end-user countries.

4. Materials used for packaging should be non-polluting, clean, dry and in undamaged condition
and should conform to the quality requirements for the medicinal plant materials concerned.
Fragile medicinal plant materials should be packaged in rigid containers.

5. Dried medicinal plants/herbal drugs, including essential oils, should be stored in a dry, well-
aerated building, in which daily temperature fluctuations are limited and good aeration is ensured

6. Fresh medicinal plant materials should be stored at appropriate low temperatures, ideally at 2-
8°C; frozen products should be stored at less than -20°C.

7. Small quantity of crude drugs could be readily stored in air tight, moisture proof and light
proof container such as tin, cans, covered metal tins or amber glass containers.

8. Wooden boxes and paper bags should not be used for storage of crude drugs.


1. Heat treatment: it is the simplest method and is done by exposing the drug to a
temperature of 60-65. it is effective especially for insect eggs which are not affected by
2. Fumigation: this is done by volatile insecticidal agents in closed areas e.g. CCL4, CS2,
CN. Most fumigants do not kill eggs of insects. It is advisable to repeat fumigation at
intervals to obtain better results.
3. Liming: liming of certain drugs as ginger, nutmeg to protect against insect attack
provides only partial protection.
4. Low temperature storage: this method is preferred to fumigants and liming. Adult
insects, pupae, larvae and eggs are sometimes killed by very low temperatures.
5. Exposure to alternate periods of low and high temperatures: frequently is more
effective for killing insects than a prolonged period of low temperature exposure.

Lecture -7
Plant hormones and their applications
 In plants, many behavioral patterns and functions are controlled by hormones. These are
“chemical messengers” influencing many patterns of plant development. – Plant
hormones – a natural substance (produced by plant) that acts to control plant activities.
 Chemical messengers are produced in one part of a plant and then transported to other
parts, where they initiate a response. – They are stored in regions where stimulus are and
then released for transport through either phloem or mesophyll when the appropriate
stimulus occurs.
 Plant growth regulators – include plant hormones (natural & synthetic), but also include
non-nutrient chemicals not found naturally in plants that when applied to plants,
influence their growth and development. – 5 recognized groups of natural plant hormones
and growth regulators. • 1. Auxins • 2. Gibberellins • 3. Cytokinins • 4. Ethylene • 5.
Abscisic acid
 Plant’s growth and development are under the control of two sets of internal factors.
Nutritional factors such as the supply of carbohydrates, proteins, fats and others
constitute the raw materials required for growth. Proper utilization of these raw materials
is under the control of certain “chemical messengers” which can be classified into
hormones and vitamins.
 Hormone 1) The site of synthesis is different from the site of action. 2) Plant hormones
are physiologically active. 1) Vitamins are used in the same part without being
transported. 2) Vitamins by themselves are not physiologically active. They act as co-
factor of enzyme.
 The term Hormone is derived from a Greek root ‘hormao’ which means ‘to stimulate’
( Beylis and Starling, 1902). Thimann (1948) suggested using the term ‘Phytohormone’
for Hormones of plant.
 Phytohormones are organic substances produced naturally by the plants which in
minute/low concentration increase, decrease modify the growth and development. Also
termed as growth hormones growth promoting substances growth substances growth
regulators growth factors etc.
 Plant Growth Regulators (PGR) refers to natural or synthetic substances influence the
growth and development. • IAA (Auxin)- Both natural and synthetic. • IBA (Auxin) -
Always synthetic. • All plant hormone are plant growth regulators but, • All plant growth
regulator are not plant hormones

• Natural hormone: Produced by some tissues in the plant. Also called Endogenous hormones.
e.g. IAA.

• Synthetic hormone: Produced artificially and similar to natural hormone in physiological

activity. Also called Exogenous hormones. e.g. 2,4-D, NAA etc.

On the Basis of Nature of Function

• Growth promoting hormones/Growth promoter: Increase the growth of plant. • e.g. Auxins.
Gibberellins, Cytokinins etc.

• Growth inhibiting hormones/Growth retardant: Inhibit the growth of plant. • e.g. ABA,


• Derived from the Greek word "auxein" means- "to grow/increase". • Auxins may be defined as
growth promoting substances which promote growth along the vertical axis when applied in low
concentration to the shoot of the plant.

Discovery of Auxins : The idea of existence of auxin was proposed by Charles Darwin (1880)
in his book “The Power of Movements in Plants”. Coleoptiles of Canary grass (Phallaris
canariensis) to unilateral light and observed it to bend towards light. He covered the coleoptiles
tip with tin foil or cut it off and observed that coleoptiles did not bend towards unilateral light.
Concluded - some stimulus is transmitted from upper to the lower part which induced bending of
the coleoptiles.

Occurrence and Distribution of Auxins : Occurs universally in all plants

 Where there is active growth there is auxin production

 Growing meristem and enlarging organs produces auxin.
 Shoot apex produces much auxin than root apex.
 Apical bud synthesizes more auxin than lateral buds.
 Developing seeds contain more auxin than matured seeds.
 Apical bud synthesizes six times more auxin than expanding leaves.
Structure of Auxins

1. Natural auxins- which are almost continuously produced by some tissues in the plant.
Also known as endogenous growth regulators Ex: Indole acetic acid (IAA)
2. Synthetic Auxins IPA (Indole Propionic Acid), IBA (Indole Butyric Acid), NAA
(Napthalene Acetic Acid), 2,4-D (2,4 – Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid), 2,4,5-T (2,4,5
– Trichlorophenoxy acetic acid) etc.
Effects of different Auxin on Plant Growth and Development

 Cell Elongation and Cell Division

• Causes growth in coleoptiles and stem due to elongation of already existing cells.
• The main causes of cell elongation- – By increasing the osmotic content, permeability of
cell to water, wall synthesis. – By reducing wall pressure. – By inducing the synthesis of
RNA & protein which in turn lead to an increase in cell wall plasticity & extension. •
Auxin also induces / promotes cell division within the cambial region.

 Apical Dominance

• Apical or terminal buds of many vascular plants are very active while the lateral
buds remain inactive.
• Removal of apical buds promotes lateral buds to grow.
• Apical dominance is due to much higher auxin content in the apical buds than
lateral buds.

 Phototropism • Plant bend towards unilateral light.

• This is due to higher concentration of auxin on the shaded side.
Geotropism • Movement of a plant’s organ in response to gravity is known as
geotropism/ gravitropism. • Stem and roots accumulate IAA on the lower side in
response to gravity. • Increased auxin concentration on the lower side in stems
causes those cells to grow more than cells on the upper side. – stem bends up
against the force of gravity • negative gravitropism • Upper side of roots grow
more rapidly than the lower side. – roots ultimately grow downward • positive

 Root initiation
• Application of IAA to cut end of a stem promotes root formation. Control or
Prevention of Abscission
• Abscission does not occur when auxin content is high on distal end and low in
the proximal end of abscission zone.

 Parthenocarpy
• Auxin induces Parthenocarpy.(development of fruit with out fertilization or

 Callus Formation
• Undifferentiated mass of parenchymatous tissue is known as callus.
• Application of IAA causes cells to elongate & adventitious root.
 Sex Expression• Auxin induced the changing of sex ratio of flowers towards
femaleness, i.e. increase the number of female flowers.


1. Rooting of Cuttings • Application of NAA (in Mango) and IBA (in Guava) in stem
cutting causes 100% success in vegetative propagation.
2. Seedless Fruit Production (Parthenocarpy) • In case of Banana, Grapes, Strawberry,
Brinjal, Grapes – Application of IAA, IBA, and NAA show 100% success.

3. Promotion of Flowering • Application NAA causes uniform flowering in Pineapple

leading to development of uniform sized fruits. • 2, 4 -D is also used to increase the
femaleness in monoecious Cucurbits.

4. Prevention of Premature Dropping of Fruits • In case of Apple and Cotton - NAA • In

case of Citrus fruits – 2,4–D/ 2,4,5-T

5. Germination • IAA, IBA, is most widely used in soaking seeds for germination.

6. Fruit Setting • 2, 4, 5-T is used for improved fruit setting in berries.

7. Thinning of Flower, Fruit and Leaves • 2, 4-D is used for defoliation of Cotton plant
before boll harvesting. • NAA is used for fruit thinning in Apple.

8. Prevention of Lodging in Cereals• 30-40% Yield loss in traditional tall varieties.

Alpha naphthalene acetamide is used to prevent lodging in cereals.

9. Weedicide • 2, 4-D, MCPA (Methyl Chloro-Phenoxy Acetic Acid) are weed killer. •
2,4-D is highly toxic to broad leaved plants or dicotyledons.

10. Tissue Culture • Auxin along with cytokinin shows successful callus formation, root-
shoot differentiation etc.


Discovered by Kurosawa, a Japanese Plant Pathologist in 1928. Rice plants infected by the
fungus Gibberella fujikuroi (Synonym: Fusarium moniliforme) showed excessive stem
elongation. Symptom is called ‘Bakane’ diseases. Chemical was extracted & purified and
named as Gibberellic Acid (GA).
Now 80 different Gibberellins are available- GA1 to GA80 is available. The most commonly
occurring gibberellins is GA3.Gibberellic Acid

• Have a regulatory function

• Are produced in the shoot apex primarily in the leaf primordial (leaf bud) and root
• Stimulates stem growth dramatically
 Stimulates cell division, cell elongation (or both) and controls enzyme secretions. Ex:
dwarf cultivars can be treated with GA and grow to normal heights – indicates dwarf
species lack normal levels of GA
 Involved in overcoming dormancy in seeds and buds.
 GA translocates easily in the plant (able to move freely) in both directions – because
produced in not only shoot apex but also in the root structure.
 Used commercially in: Increasing fruit size of seedless grapes , Stimulating seed
germination & seedling growth
 Promoting male flowers in cucumbers for seed production.
 Overcoming cold requirements – for some seed, application of GA foregoes the cold
requirements (some seed require to be frozen or placed in the refrigerator for a period of
time before they will germinate).


• Promotes cell division

• Found in all tissues with considerable cell division. – Ex: embryos (seeds) and germinating
seeds, young developing fruits

• Roots supply cytokinins upward to the shoots.

• Interact with auxins to influence differentiation of tissues (may be used to stimulate bud
 Auxin and Gibberellins increase growth mainly by increasing cell elongation.
 Growth involves another important process namely Cell division.
 Developing embryo shows active cell division.
 Liquid endosperm of coconut called Coconut Water / Milk contain cell division
causing factors (Kinetine).
 Similarly the developing endosperm of maize contain such factors (Zeatin).

• As roots begin to grow actively in the spring, they produce large amounts of cytokinins that are
transported to the shoot, where they cause the dormant buds to become active and expand.

• Tissue cultures use cytokinins to induce shoot development

• Cytokinins may slow or prevent leaf senescence (leaf ageing or leaf fall).

Growth inhibitors::

Growth inhibitors : Some organic substances produced in the plant inhibit the plant growth.
These substances are called growth inhibitors. They inhibit the elongation in roots, stems and
leaves. example: ethylene is a potent inhibitor of bud growth. ABA inhibits lateral bud growth in


 Growth retardant.
 Ethylene promotes ripening
 Gaseous hormone
 Produced in the actively growing meristems of the plant, in senescing ripening or ageing
fruits, in senescing (ageing or dying) flowers, in germinating seeds and in certain plant
tissues as a response to bending, wounding or bruising.
 Ethylene as a gas, diffuses readily throughout the plant.
 May promote leaf senescing and abscission (leaf fall).
 Increases female flowers in cucumbers (economically - will increase fruit production).
 Degreening of oranges, lemons and grapefruit – ethylene gas breaks down chlorophyll
and lets colors show through.


 Growth retardant.
 Induce stomata closing.
 Inhibition of bud growth and shoot formation.
 Abscisic Acid (ABA) Widespread in plant body – moves readily through plant
 ABA appears to be synthesized (made) by the leaves. I
 nteracts with other hormones in the plant, counteracting the growth – promoting the
effects of auxins & gibberellins.
 Involved with leaf and fruit abscission (fall), onset of dormancy in seeds and onset of
dormancy (rest period) in perennial flowers and shrubs
 ABA is effective in inducing closure of stomata in leaves, indicating a role in the stress
physiology in plants. (ex: increases in ABA following water, heat and high salinity stress
to the plant)

Lecture -9


The specific no. of chromosomes is a character of each species and is called genome which is
observed in all types of organism. [ Set of chromosomes = Genome]. The term euploidy
is a type of ploidy in which genome contain whole set of chromosomes and euploidy
includes monoploidy , diploidy and polyploidy . When some plants contain more than
two genomes it is called as polyploidy . For 3,4,5,6,7 genome no. = polyploidy may be
triploid, tetraploid, pentaploidy, hexaploidy, heptaploidy , plants.

Polyploidy is caused by artificially induced methods/ agents : Physical agents like: X-rays
centrifugation temperature chocks Specific chemical agents like: (a) Colchicine (b)

Veratrine (C) Sulphanilamide and (d) Mercuric chloride.

When four sets are present the plants are described as tetraploids and denoted by “4n”.

Tetraploidy is induced by treatment with colchicine, which inhibits spindle formation during cell
division, so that the divided chromosomes are unable to separate and pass to the daughter cells.
The two sets of chromosomes remain in one cell and this develops to give tetraploids plant.

Treatment with colchicine may be applied in various ways, but all depend on the effects
produced in the meristem. The seeds may be soaked in a dilute solution of colchicine, or the
seedlings, the soil around the seedling or the young shoot treated with colchicine solution. Fertile
seed and robust, healthy tetraploid plants were obtained, the tetraploid condition being indicated
by the increased size of the pollen grains and stomata; chromosome counts in root-tip
preparations confirm the tetraploid condition.

The average increase in alkaloids content compared with diploid plants of Datura stromonium
and Datura tatula was 68%, with a maximum increase of 211.6%. Similar results were obtained
with Atropa belladonna and Hyoscyamus niger, the average increase in belladonna being 93%.
Increased Alkaloidal content of tetraploids plants has been confirmed for Datura stromonium and
Datura tatula. The diploid of Acorus calamus is 2.1% of volatile oil content but they are
converted into tetraploid, they produce 6.8% of volatile oil contents.

Lecture- 10



Sudden heritable change in the structure of a gene on chromosome or change the chromosome

Type of mutations:

1. Spontaneous and induced mutations.

2. Recessive and dominant mutations.

3. Somatic and germinal mutations.

4. Forward, back and suppressor mutation.

5. Chromosomal, genomic and point mutations.

Mutations can be artificially produced by certain agents called mutagens or mutagenic agent.
They are two types:

a. Physical mutagens:

(i) Ionizing radiations:

X-rays, gamma radiation and cosmic rays.

(ii) Non-ionizing radiation:

U.V. radiation,

b. Chemical mutagens:

(iii) Alkylating and hydroxylating agents:

Nitrogen and sulpher mustard; methyl and ethylsulphonate, ethylethane sulphonates.

(iv) Nitrous acid:

(v) Acridines:

Acridines and proflavins. Ionizing radiation cause breaks in the chromosome. These cells then
show abnormal cell divisions. If these include gametes, they may be abnormal and even die
prematurely. Non-ionizing radiation like Ultra Violet rays are easily absorbed by purine and
pyrimidines. The changed bases are known as photoproducts. U.V. rays cause two changes in
pyrimidine to produce pyrimidine hydrate and pyrimidine dimmers. Thymine dimer is a major
mutagenic effect of U.V. rays that disturbs DNA double helix and thus DNA replication.


Penicillin, as an antibiotic was first obtained from Penicillium. However, the yield was very poor
and the preparation was commercially expensive. Since then mutants with higher yield of
penicillin have been selected and produced. Penicillium chrysogenum used in the production of
penicillin yielded about 100 units of penicillin per ml of culture medium.

By single-spore isolation, strains were obtained which yielded up to 250 units per ml of medium,
X-ray treatment of this strain gave mutants which produce 500 units per ml and ultraviolet
mutants of latter gave strain which produced about 1000 unit per ml. Similarly improvements
have been obtained with other antibiotic- producing organism. Mutant strains of Capsicum
annum with increasing yields (20-60%) of capsaicin have been isolated from M3 and M4
generations originating from seed treated with sodium azide and ethyl methane sulphonate.

Lecture -11

It is mating or crossing of two genetically dissimilar plants having desired genes or genotypes
and bringing them together into one individual called hybrid. The process through which hybrids
are produced is called hybridization.

Hybridization particularly between homozygous strains, which have been inbred for a number of
generations, introduces a degree of heterozygosis with resultant hybrid vigour often manifest in
the dimensions and other characteristic of the plants. A hybrid is an organism which results from
crossing of two species or varieties differing at least in one set of characters.

The following steps are involved in hybridization of plant:

1. Choice of parents:

The two parents to be selected, at least one should be as well adopted and proven variety in the
area. The other variety should have the characters that are absent in the first chosen variety.

2. Emasculation:

Removal of stamens or anthers or killing the pollen grains of a flower without affecting the
female reproductive organs is known as emasculation. Emasculation is essential in bisexual

3. Bagging:

Immediately after emasculation, the flowers or inflorescences are enclosed in bags of suitable
sizes to prevent random cross-pollination.

4. Pollination:

In pollination, mature, fertile and viable pollens are placed on a receptive stigma. The procedure
consists of collecting pollens from freshly dehisced anthers and dusting them on the stigmas of
emasculated flowers.

5. Raising F1 plants:

Pollination is naturally followed by fertilization. It results in the formation of seeds. Mature

seeds of F1 generation are harvested dried and stored these seeds are grown to produce F1 hybrid.
Hybrids of cinchona yield more amount of quinine. A hybrid developed by crossing Cinchona
succirubra with Cinchona ledgering yields a bark, which contains 11.3% of alkaloids. The parent
species produced 3.4% and 5.1% of alkaloids, respectively.

Pyrethrum hybrids have been used for Pyrethrum production; these hybrids are produced either
by crossing two clones assumed to be self- sterile or planting a number of desirable clones
together and bulking the seed. The hybridization of plant to increase the Pyrethrin contents

Lecture -12
Good Agricultural Practices

Good agricultural and collection practices for medicinal plants (GACP) is a technical guideline
on the production of medicinal plant materials as starting materials for crude drugs, finished
crude drugs and deal with the following areas:

- Cultivation and collection of medicinal plants and production of medicinal plant materials;

- Post-harvest processing required for medicinal plant materials;

- Quality control of medicinal plant materials.

0.2 If produced in compliance with this guideline, the medicinal plant materials shall:

- be a high quality product;

- be produced and stored according to good practice and hygiene standards, such that the
microbiological load is below the minimum contamination level;

- be produced and stored according to good practice and hygiene standards, such that they should
be either free from pesticide residues and other foreign matter or below the minimum level of
contamination by pesticide residues and other foreign matter.

0.3 With regard to the minimum level of contamination by microbiological organisms, pesticide
residues and other foreign matter, the general principles given in The Japanese Pharmacopoeia
should be followed. The actual producer of medicinal plant materials should understand the
general principles and should bear in mind the issues associated with the cultivation of medicinal
plants as well as post-harvest processing of medicinal plants.

0.4 If medicinal plant materials are produced in compliance with this guideline, they should be
described as "products produced in compliance with the guideline" for the information of the
general public.

0.5 This guideline should be widely disseminated both nationwide and worldwide in order to
promote understanding of the importance of the issues involved.

1. Introduction

1.1 In the production processes, including cultivation and collection of medicinal plants and
post-harvest processing of the medicinal plant parts, undergone by the raw materials for use in
the production of Kampo medicines and crude drug products, the raw materials should be kept as
free as possible from microbial and other contaminants and residues such as pesticides.

1.2 In order to produce high quality raw materials, the following procedures should be

- Materials should be well washed in case of possible contaminants;

- The skin of the material should be peeled and the materials should be dried at low temperature
in order to avoid any change in the colour and odour of materials, where necessary and

1.3 The guideline serve as the standard for the level of microbial contamination in the production
of raw materials for crude drugs.

2. Cultivation

2.1 Medicinal plants should not be cultivated in areas where the land and/or the soil is in a
hazardous condition. By hazardous condition of land and/or soil is meant those that are at high
risk of contamination by hazardous substances, including heavy metals, agricultural chemical
agents, and other industrial waste.
2.2 The preferred soil conditions for the cultivation of medicinal plants are well drained and well
irrigated soils.

2.3 Water for irrigation should not be contaminated by domestic animals and human materials.

2.4 Organic compost: the land should be manured with well fermented organic compost either
prior to planting or immediately after the first harvest.

2.5 Cows should be prohibited from entering cultivation sites.

2.6 Contaminated water should not be used at the time of harvest.

2.7 Medicinal plants should be planted in an area of land where weeds can grow. Weeds could be
an indicator of good cultivation conditions.

2.8 Pesticides and herbicides should be handled only by experienced personnel. The spraying of
these chemical agents should be carried out by trained personnel, prior to the harvest at an
appropriate interval, and with consideration of the effective duration of the agent used.

3. Harvesting

3.1 Crop harvesting should not be carried out in wet conditions (dew or rain) or in conditions of
high humidity. Whenever possible, harvesting should be carried out in dry, low humidity

3.2 Harvesting equipment should be clean and well maintained.

3.3 Where mechanical cutters/harvesters are used, the machine parts in contact with the crop,
together with their housing, should be cleaned regularly and kept free from accumulated plant
material and other debris.

3.4 Cutter blades should be adjusted to avoid soil pick-up.

3.5 All containers used for primary collection of the crop must be kept free from previously
accumulated plant material, and when not in use they must be kept in a dry place free from
vermin and inaccessible to farm and domestic animals.

3.6 Damaged and spoiled crop material should be sorted and discarded.
3.7 Harvested material should be collected in dry sacks, baskets, trailers or hoppers. It must not
be collected on the ground.

3.8 Mechanical damage, high compaction and storage which promotes composting should be

- plastic sacks should not be used during harvesting;

- sacks must not be overfilled;
- stacking should avoid compaction.

3.9 The time between harvest and transport of crop to the drying site should be kept as short as
reasonably practicable.

3.10 The harvested crop should be protected from pests and farm and domestic animals.

4. Drying

4.1 The crop should be unpacked as soon as possible on arrival at the drying facilities. It must
not be allowed to stand for extended periods in direct sunlight and must be protected from rain.

4.2 Buildings used for drying crops should be well ventilated and never used for livestock.

4.3 The building should be constructed so as to protect the crop from birds, insects, farm and
domestic animals.

4.4 Drying racks should be kept clean and regularly maintained.

4.5 Crops should be placed in thin layers, on wire mesh racks standing off the floor to allow free
air circulation, and stirred intermittently to ensure uniform drying and prevent composting.

4.6 Drying on the floor and in direct sunlight is not recommended.

4.7 Dried crops should be inspected and sieved or winnowed to remove discoloured, mouldy and
damaged material and soil, stones and other foreign matter. Sieves should be kept clean and
maintained regularly.

4.8 Clearly marked waste bins should be provided, emptied daily and cleaned.
4.9 Dried and drying crops should be protected from pests and farm and domestic animals.

4.10 Dried crops should be packed as soon as possible for protection and to lessen the
opportunity of pest infestation.

5. Packing

5.1 After removal of damaged material and foreign matter, the sound dried crop should be
packed in clean, dry sacks, bags or boxes, preferably new.

5.2 Packing materials should be stored in a clean dry place free from pests and inaccessible to

5.3 Reusable packaging materials such as jute sacks, plastic bags, etc., should be well cleaned
and dried before re-use.

5.4 The packed crop should be stored in a dry place away from the wall and off the ground and
be protected from pests and farm and domestic animals.

5.5 Whenever possible, the packaging materials used should be agreed between the supplier and
the buyer.

6. Storage and Transport

6.1 Packed dried crop should be store in a dry, well ventilated building, with minimal variation in
diurnal temperature and with good air ventilation.

6.2 Shutter and door openings should be protected by wire screens to keep out pests and farm
and domestic animals.

6.3 It is recommended that packed dried crops should be stored:

- in a building with concrete floors;

- on pallets;
- away from the wall;
- well separated from all other crops.

6.4 For bulk deliveries, the use of vented containers for transport and storage in temporary
warehousing is highly recommended to minimize contamination risks. Alternatively, suitable
vented transport vehicles and temporary storage facilities are recommended.

6.5 Whenever possible, the conditions for transport and temporary storage should be agreed
between supplier and buyer.

6.6 Fumigation to control pests should be applied only where necessary; trained personnel should
carry out fumigation. Only approved fumigants should be applied (see also 9.2).

6.7 Chemicals used as pesticides, fumigants, etc., should be kept in a separate area.

7. Equipment

7.1 Equipment used for the production and handling of crops should be easily cleaned to
minimize contamination. Dry cleaning is recommended. Where the use of water is unavoidable,
equipment should be dried as quickly as possible.

7.2 All equipment should be installed to allow easy access and should be well maintained and
cleaned regularly.

7.3 The use of wood should be avoided wherever possible.

7.4 Wooden equipment (e.g., pallets, hoppers etc.), if used, should not have chemical treatments,
such as chemical fungicides, which could be the source of taint, e.g., chlorophenols.

8. Personnel

8.1 Personnel handling medicinal plant material should:

- Maintain a high degree of personal hygiene;

- be provided with suitable changing facilities and toilets with hand washing facilities.

8.2 Personnel should not be permitted to work in the herbal material handling area if they are
known to be suffering from, or to be carriers of, a disease likely to be transmitted through
medicinal plant materials, including diarrhoea.

8.3 Personnel with open wounds, sores, and skin infections should be transferred away from
herbal materials handling areas until completely recovered.
9. Documentation

9.1 Keeping records of fertilizer, pesticide and herbicide used on each batch of harvested
material is highly desirable.

9.2 The use of methylbromide or phosphine for fumigation of herbal materials should be:

- Notified to the buyer;

- recorded in shipment papers.

10. Training and Education

10.1 Training and education of personnel, whether handling crops or managing crop production,
in appropriate production techniques is highly recommended. This can be achieved by using
experts from local agricultural institutes or those provided by the buyers.

11. Quality Control

11.1 Compliance with the recommendations of the GACP should be checked through regular
inspection visits by the producer's and the buyer's representatives with expertise in good
agricultural and hygiene practice.

11.2 Specifications for herbal materials should be agreed between the producer and the buyer;
these may include, for example, active principles and characteristic constituents, microbial load,
visual and sensory properties, pesticide residues and heavy metals.

Test questions

1. Which factor not affects the cultivation of medicinal plant

a) Temperature b) Soil c) Plant growth harmones d) none of the
2. 2, 4 –D is

a) Auxin b) Cytokinins c) Gibbeerlins d) Ethylene DerivATIVE

3. Zeatin is

a) Natural- cytokinins b) Synthetic-Cytokinins c) Auxin d) Mutagen

4. Ethephon is
a) Auxin b) GA3 deerivative c) Ethylene analogue d) Mutagen

5. One of the following is not concerned in to increase in inter node elongation.

a) 1-Napthyl acetamide b) 2-Napthyloxy acetic acid c) a -Napthyl

acetic acid d) Zeatin

6. The mechanism of action of gibberellic acid is

a) Oxidation b) Gluconeogenisis c) Catalysis d) Breakdown of proteins

7. Zeatin is example for

a) Naturally occurring cytokinins b) Naturally occurring auxins

c) Synthetic occurring auxins d) Synthetic occurring cytokinins

8. The removing of sand, dirt and foreign organic matter from crude drug is known

a) Timbling b) Felling c) Garbling d) Dibbling

9. which type of material can be used for packing of an aloe

a) Gunny bags b) Goat skin c) Kerosene tins d) All of these

10. Belladonna roots are dried in

a) Tray dryers b) Vaccum dryers c) Spray dryers d) Decicator

11. Give an example for herbicides

a) Suphuric acid b) Phenol c) Gammaxine d) none

12. One of the following is not concern to the bio-fertilizer

a) Rhizobium b) Biogaslurry c) Azatobactor d) none

13. Give an example for mannure

a) FYM b) Karanj seed cake c) Molybdenum d) a & b

14. What is the favourable altitude for Tea

a) 100-500mtrs b) 500-1000mtrs c) 1000-1500mtrs d) above 2000mtrs

15. Nitrogen, potassium, phosphorous are

a) Pesticides b) Fertilizers c) Secondary nutrients d) Primary nutrients

16. One of the following is not concern to the rodenticide

a) Warfarin b) Strychnine c) Red Squill d) Indrin

17. One of the following method can used for collection of barks
a) Dressing b) Garbling c) coppicing d) All of these

18. Atropine belongs to

a) Alkaloids b) Glycosides c) Voltiloils
d) Tannins

19. Squill is a

a) Bulb b) Bark c) Root d) Leaf

20. Alkaloid concentration can be enhanced by applying

a) Gibberellins b) Auxins c) None

21. Which dryer is used for the crude drug sensitive to high temperature.
a) Vacuum dryer b) Tray dryer c) Oven d) All

22. The mechanism of action of Auxins involved in

a) Protein synthesis b) Protein degradationc) Gluconeogenis d) All

23. Which one of the following is not concerned to the primary nutrients?
a) Nitrogen b) Potassium c) Phosphorus d) Calcium

24. What is the disadvantage of the soil containing acidic PH

a) Soluble more iron b) Soluble more nitrogen

c) Soluble more phosphorus d) All

25. The internode elongation is promoted by

a) α-napthyl acetic acid b) 1-napthyl acetamide

c) N – Dimethyl dithiocorbomate d) All

26. What is the % clay present in loamy soil?

a) More than 50 b) 30 – 50 c) Lessthan 30 d) None

27. Give an example for plant growth inhibitor

a) Abscisic acid b) Maleic acid c) D - aminozide d) All

28. Give an example for chemical mutants.

a) Nitrogen mustard b) Formaldehyde c) Nitrouns acid d) All

29. Gibberellic acid is

a) Gibberellin -1 b) Gibberellin – 3 c) Gibberellin – 7 d) All

30. Removing off foreign organic parts of plants is called as

a) Dressing b) Coppicing c) Dibbling d) Drying

31. Give an example for Mannure.

a) Caster seed cake b) Poultry manure c) Neem d) All

32. Give an example for natural occurring cytokinines.

a) Zeatin b) Ethylene c) Kinetin d) All

33. Give an example for fungicide.

a) Chloramphenicol b) Acetone c) Red squill d) All

34. Which one of the following not comes under Biofertilizer.

a) Blue green algae b) Azotobactorc) Rhizobium d) Gammaxine

35. Which one of the following plant parts is not comes under Vegetative propagation.
a) Seeds b) Bulbs c) Rhizomes d) Tubers

36. The germination rate of henbane seeds enhanced by

a) Soaking in sulphuric acid b) Soaking in water C) Both a & b

37. Give an example for vegetative propagation

a) Acacia b) Nux- Vomica C) Ginger
38. One of the following advantages is not concern to sexual propagation
a) Seedlings are cheaper
b) Seedlings are long lives
c) They require more time to bear
d) can be produced from other parts

39. Rauwolfia is affected by the following insect

a) Diaphania nilgirica b)Cerocospora rauwolfia c) indomia cretaceous

40. The ph of acidic soil bring to neutral to treat with

a) By application of gypsum b) by application of lime c) Both a & b

41. Conservation of agriculture techniques involve especially

a) Build-up of organic matter b) Conservation of soil humidity c) Both a & b

42. Who established the role of auxins and vitamins as growth controlling factors
A) Welmore & Sorokin B) Wetmore & Rier C)
Barton D) None

43. The optimum temperature for growth of coffee plant is

a) 60-75 ⁰F b) 55-70⁰F c) 70-90⁰F d) 50-100⁰F

44. Cinchona grows at an altitude of

a) 1000-2000 mtr b) up to 900 mtr c) above 2000 mtr d) none of these

45. Which is not the asexual method of propagation?

a) Cutting b)Grafting c)Budding d) By seeds

46. Which of the following is not a synthetic auxins

a) IAA b) NAA c) IBA
d) 2, 4, D

47. Which is the sexual method of propagation?

a) Cutting b) Grafting c) Budding
d) By seeds

48. Which one of the following is not a bio fertilizer?

a) Rhizobium b) Azotobacter c) Sulphur d) None
of these

49. An example for mineral source of drugs is

a) Kaolin b) Asbestos c) Bentonite
d) All

Fill in the blanks

1. If an organic matter in a soil is between 1.5% & 5% - humus soil
2. Acidic soil dissolves Phosphorus from soil

3. The synthesis of a - amylase and hydrolytic enzymes are induced gibberellic acid and
inhibited by the auxins

4. Colophony is stored in Kerosene tin

5. Neem is an example for herbicide

6. Agar is an example for marine source for drugs
7. Change in amount of genetic material is termed as Chromosomal mutation

8. Dibbling is a Propagation method

9. Coppicing is a Collection method

Review Questions

Very short questions

1. Define cultivation
2. What is the disadvantage of cultivation?
3. Expand GAP.
4. What is layering?
5. What is seed propagation?
6. Write about moist chilling of seeds.
7. What are silt loam and sandy loam?
8. Mention the non insect pests.
9. Give examples of chemical mutagens
10. What is a plant growth regulator?
11. Define polyploidy.

Short questions

1. Mention the disadvantages of wild plant collection.

2. What are the advantages and disadvantages of cultivation?
3. Write a note on methods of vegetative methods of cultivation
4. What is the importance and disadvantage of sexual propagation?
5. Write a note on storage of crude drugs?
6. Explain lyophilization and Fermentation
7. What are the various methods of drying?
8. Write the reasons for drying.
9. What is micro propagation explain in brief.
10. Write a note on various methods employed to control pests
11. Write in brief the reasons and control measures for deterioration.
12. Explain about any two growth inhibitors.
Long questions

1. What are the factors influencing cultivation of crude drugs

2. Explain in detail the time and methods of collection of crude drugs
3. Write a note on processing of crude drugs
4. What are plant growth regulators? Explain any three with their applications.
5. Mention various plant breeding techniques and discuss them in detail.

Skill building exercise

Cultivate a plant in your botanical garden and note the influence of environmental
conditions on its growth.

Previous Questions

1. Define soil fertility and classify soils based on the size of mineral matter? Dec 2014
2. Explain the methods of pest control with suitable examples? Dec 2014
3. Define and discuss Mutation? Dec 2014
4. Explain the factors that influence the cultivation of medicinal plants. April 2010 , Dec
5. Briey describe the good agricultural practices in the cultivation of medicinal plants. Mar
6. Define cultivation. Write the advantages and disadvantages of obtaining drugs from
cultivated plants Sept 2014
7. Write a note on, affect of climatic conditions on cultivation of medicinal plants in good
agricultural practice. Sept 2014
8. What are the various strategies of obtaining improved cultivation of medicinal palnts
taking few examples – june 2007, april2010
9. Write briefly about collection, processing and storage of crude drugs with examples –
june 2007
10. What are the growth regulators and discuss the effect of auxins and cytokinins in
cultivation of medicinal palnts – june 2007
11. Write a note on different types of pests and what is their effect on the yield of medicinal
plants- june 2007
12. Discuss different types of soils and role of fertilizers in cultivation of medicinal palnts-
june 2007
13. What are the various factors affecting collection of crude drugs june 2007
14. Write a note on plant hormones , storage of crude drugs – june 2007, April 2010
15. Write a detailed account on plant hormones and their applications april 2011


1. Polyploidy is defined as GATE PHARMACY 2003

a) Addition of one chromosome

b) Multiplication of entire chromosome set

Adulteration of crude drugs: Different methods of adulteration of crude

and general methods for detection of adulterants.
i) Organoleptic ii) Microscopic iii) Physical iv) Chemical and Biological
methods of evaluation

c) Submicroscopic changes in DNA material.

d) Gross structural changes

2. Micropropagation of the plants is carried out through GATE PHARMACY 2004

a) Cross fertilization

b) Seed germination

c) Plant tissue culture

d) Grafting

Reference Text Books

1. Text book of Pharmacognosy by C.K.Kokate and Purohit

2. Trease and Evan’s text book of pharmacognosy.
3. Pharmacognosy by Taylor, Brady and Robbers

Unit – IV Adulteration &Evaluation of crude drugs

Unit Objectives

After reading this Unit, you should be able to understand:

- Adulteration of crude drugs.
- Importance of evaluation of crude drugs.
- Detection of adulterants.
- Identification of adulterants from genuine products.
- Production of quality herbal products.
- Various methods of evaluation of crude drugs
- Methods of adulteration of crude drugs.

Unit Outcomes

- Give an outline of methods of detection of adulteration of crude drugs.

- Explain the process of adulteration.
- Extract the methods of evaluation.
- Elucidate microscopical characteristics in the evaluation.
- Give the use of physical characters in the identification of adulterants.
- Debate on genuine and adulterated crude drugs.
- Trace the quality of crude drugs.
- Bring out the difference between chemical and chemo microscopical
- Give the meaning of pharmacological and biological evaluation.

Unit Lecture Plan

Lecture no. Topic Methodology Quick reference

28. Adulteration of crude drugs Chalk & Board Text book of
General introduction. Pharmacognosy by
C.K.Kokate 2
29. Different methods of Chalk & Board Text book of
adulteration of crude drugs Pharmacognosy by

30. General methods for Chalk & Board Text book of

detection of adulteration Pharmacognosy by
Evaluation of crude drugs
31. Organoleptic methods of Chalk & Board Text book of
evaluation Pharmacognosy by

32. Microscopic methods of Chalk & Board Text book of

evaluation Pharmacognosy by

33. Physical methods of Chalk & Board Text book of

evaluation Pharmacognosy by

34. Chemical methods of Chalk & Board Text book of

evaluation Pharmacognosy by

35. Biological methods of Chalk & Board Text book of

evaluation Pharmacognosy by

36. Summary of unit- IV Chalk & Board Text book of

Pharmacognosy by

Teaching Material / Teaching Aids as per above lecture plan.

Lecture -1 Adulteration of crude drugs General introduction

• Introduction

• The term 'adulteration' or debasement of an article covers a number of conditions, which

may be deliberate or accidental. Usually in crude drugs, this practice includes substitution
of the original crude drugs partially or fully with other substances which is either free
from or inferior in therapeutic and chemical properties.

• Inferiority is a natural substandard condition (e.g. where a crop is taken whose natural
constituent is below the minimum standard for that particular drug) which can be avoided
by more careful selection of the plant material.

• Spoilage is a substandard condition produced by microbial or other pest infestation,

which makes a product unfit for consumption, which can be avoided by careful attention
to the drying, and storage conditions.
• Deterioration is an impairment of the quality or value of an article due to destruction or
abstraction of valuable constituents by bad treatment or aging or to the deliberate
extraction of the constituents and the sale of the residue as the original drugs.

• Admixture is the addition of one article to another through accident, ignorance or

carelessness e.g. inclusion of soil on an underground organ or the co-collection of two
similar species.

• Sophistication is the deliberate addition of spurious or inferior material with intent to

defraud; such materials are carefully produced and may appear at first sight to be genuine
e.g. powder ginger may be diluted with starch with addition of little coloring material to
give the correct shade of yellow colour.

• Substitution is the addition of an entirely different article in place of that which is

required e.g. supply of cheap cottonseed oil in place of olive oil.

Lecture -2 Different methods of adulteration of crude drugs


Different methods used for adulteration may be grouped as follows:

1. Substitution with Inferior Commercial Varieties

Due to morphological resemblance to the authentic drugs, different inferior commercial

varieties are used as adulterant which may or may not have any chemical or therapeutic potential
as that original natural drug e.g. Arabian Senna (Cassia angustifolia), dog Senna (Cassia
obovata) and avaram (Cassia auriculata) have been used to adulterate Senna (Cassia senna);
Japanese ginger (Zingiber mioga) to adulterate medicinal ginger (Zingiber officinale).

2. Adulteration by Artificially Manufactured Substitutes

To provide the general form and appearance of various drugs, some materials are
artificially manufactured and are used as substitute of the original one, e.g. artificial invert sugar
for honey; paraffin wax after yellow coloration substituted for bees wax.
3. Substitution by Exhausted Drugs

Here the same plant material is mixed which is having no active medicinal components as
they have already been extracted out. This practice is most common in case of volatile oil
containing materials like clove, fennel etc., where the dried exhausted material resembles the
same like original drug (similarly with drugs like Cascara sagrada and ginger). Sometimes when
coloring matters have been extracted or removed during exhaustion, the residue is re-colored
with artificial dyes as is done with saffron and red rose petals.

4. Substitution by Superficially Similar but Cheaper Natural Substances

Usually here the adulterated product has no relation with the genuine article, may or may
not have any therapeutic or chemical component desired, e.g. leaves of species - Ailanthus are
substituted for belladonna, senna, mint etc.; Leaves of Phytolacca and Scopolia for belladona;
Leaves of Xanthium for stramonium and dandelion for henbane; Indian dill with European dill or
caraway etc.

5. Adulteration by Addition of Worthless Heavy Materials

A large mass of stone mixed with Liquorice root, pieces of limestone are found in
asafoetida and lead shot has occurred in pieces of opium etc.

6. Addition of Synthetic Principles

Sometimes to fortify inferior natural products, synthetic principles are added e.g. adding
citral to oil of lemon; benzyl benzoate to balsam of Peru etc.

7. Usage of Vegetative Matter from the Same Plant

This is done by mixing adventitious matters or naturally occurring with the drug in
excessive amount or parts of plant other than that which constitutes the drugs. For example liver
warts and epiphytes growing in bark portion are mixed with Cascara or Cinchona; stems of
buchu are sometimes cut into short lengths and added to the drug.

Lecture -3 General methods for detection of adulteration of crude drugs and Evaluation
of crude drugs introduction
Several methods are employed in the detecting adulteration in genuine drugs. The form of drugs
provides a clue for the method of detection of adulteration to be followed. In ordinary course of
study, the morphological characters may suffice the need of detection. But in case of powdered
drugs the microscopic characters while in liquid drugs the chemical tests and one of the physical
standards such as specific gravity, optical rotation, solubility etc may helpful in detection of
adulteration. These methods are collectively termed as Drug evaluation.

Drug evaluation may be defined as the determination of identity, purity and quality of a drug.

 Identity – identification of biological source of the drug.

 Quality – the quantity of the active constituents present.
 Purity – the extent of foreign organic material present in a crude drug.

Importance of evaluation of crude drugs

• Determination of Biochemical variation in the drugs

• Identification of deterioration due treatment and storage

• Reporting Substitution and adulteration, as result of carelessness, ignorance and fraud.


The evaluation of a drug is drug done by studying its various properties.

The various properties are: The various properties are (1)Organoleptic property (2)Microscopic
property (3)Biological property (4)Chemical property (5)Physical property.

The various methods are: (1) Organoleptic evaluation (2) Microscopic evaluation (3) Physical
evaluation (4) Chemical evaluation (5) Analytical evaluation (6) Biological evaluation

Lecture -4 Organoleptic (Morphological) Evaluation

• It includes the study of morphology and other sensory characters.

(a) Study of Morphology • It includes the visual examination of drug.

(b) Study of sensory characters- This refers to drug evaluation by means of organs of sense
and includes other sensory organs like color, odour, taste ,size ,shape and texture.


1 Brown colour Cinnamon
2 Aromatic odour Umbelliferous fruits
3 Sweet taste Liquorice
4 Fractured surface Cinchona
5 Wavy shape Rauwolifia
6 7 to 8mm width
25 to 60 mm length (size) Senna leaf

1- Shape and size.

Floral parts: stigmas, corollas, anther, ovary, receptacle.
Leaves and leaflets:
Length, width, apex, margin, base, venation, the texture of the leaf and the hairs in upper
and lower surface. The feel of the surface described as soft, hairy smooth.
The barks occur in three shapes:
•Flat or curved pieces.
• Single quill.
•Double quills.
ii- Barks have two surfaces, an outer and inner.
iii- The inner surface is usually lighter in color than the outer surface
2- Odor and taste.
1- distinct 2- indistinct
Aromatic-balsamic,- spicy
1) Acidic (sour)
2) Saccharine (sweet): indicates sugar or sugar like substances
3) e.g., liquorice.
4) Saline (salty)
5) Alkaline
6) Bitter: indicates presence of substances such as bitter principle
7) e.g., glycoside, alkaloids.
8) Tasteless
9) Distinctive sensations to the tongue
I. Mucilaginous and oily (soft feeling) e.g., linseed.
II.Astringent indicates presence of tannin.
III.Pungent (warm biting sensation) e.g., ginger.
IV.Acrid (irritant sensation) e.g., Aconite, coca.
V.Nauseous (those tending to excite vomiting), Ipecac.
3- Color and external markings.
I. 1- White: e.g., starch,
II. 2- Pale yellow:e.g., ginger,squill,white pepper.
III. 3- Deep yellow: e.g., peeled liquorice.
IV. 4- Light pale brown e.g., nux-vomica, fennel.
V. 5- Dark brown: e.g., cloves buds.
VI. 6- Dark reddish brown: cinchona.
VII. 7- Red: (brick red). e.g., cinnamon bark inner portion
VIII. 8- Pale green e.g., lobelia.
IX. 9- Greenish brown: most of the leaf herbs.

Lecture -5 Microscopic or Anatomical Evaluation

• This method allows a more detailed examination of a drug and it can be used to identify
organized drugs by their known histological characters.
• Before examination through a microscope the material must be suitably prepared.
• This can be done by powdering, cutting thin sections of the drug or preparing a macerate.
1. Palisade Ratio
2. Stomatal Number
3. Stomatal Index
4. Stomata
5. Vein-islet Number
6. Vein-termination Number
7. Trichomes or plant hairs
8. Calcium oxalate crystals
Quantitative Microscopy
1.Lycopodium spore method
1.Palisade ratio:
• It represents the average number of palisade cells beneath one epidermal cell, using four
continuous epidermal cells for the count.
• It is determined from powdered drugs with the help of camera-Lucida.
• Examples: Atropa belladona – 05-70 Adhatoda vasica –5.5-6.5 Cassia angustifolia –5.5-10.0
upper,4.0-7.4 lower(senna) Digitalis lanata –2.5-6.5.
2.Stomatal Number:
• The average number of stomata present per square millimeter of the epidermis is known as
stomatal number
Examples: a)Atropa belladonna upper epidermis---07-10 lower epidermis---77-115
b)Datura metel upper epidermis---147-160 lower epidermis---200-209
c)Ocimum sanctum upper epidermis---64-72 lower epidermis---175-250.
3.Stomatal Index:
• It is the percentage proportion of the number of stomata to the total number of epidermal cells.
• Stomatal number varies considerably with the age of the leaf but stomatal index is relatively
constant for a given species.
• Stomatal index calculated by • S.I = S E+S S.I = Stomatal index S= Number of stomata per unit
area E=Number of epidermal cells in the same unit area
Example: a)Atropa belladonna upper epidermis--- nil lower epidermis---20.2-23-0
4.Stomata: (primary and important function is gaseous exchange) a minute epidermal opening
present on arial parts of plants, Stomata consists of central pore ,two kidney shaped similar
cells(guard cells) & varying number of subsidiary cells. Epidermis of leaf shows different
characteristics e.g.cuticle,stomata,trichomes,
Types of stoma:
1.Moss type
2.Gymnospermous type
3.Gramineous type
4.Dicoteyledonous---it is having diagnostic significance and classified based on form of
arrangement of subsidiary cells.
a) Paracytic or rubiaceous or parallel-cell stomata: in this stomata two guard cells covered by
two subsidiary cells, e.g. senna
b) Diacytic or caryophyllaceous or cross-celled stomata: in this stomata the guard cells are
covered by two subsidiary cells on right angle to that of stomata e.g. peppermint
c)Anisocytic or cruciferous or unequal-celled stomata: in this stomata number of guard cells
is two but covered by three subsidiary cells and in that one is small in size with other two
d) Anomocytic or ranunculaceous or irregular- celled:in this type stoma is surrounded by
varying number of subsidiary cells. e.g. digitalis
e)Actinocytic or radiate-celled stomata: two guard cells are surrounded by radiating
subsidiary cells.
5.Vein-islet Number:
• Vein-islet number is defined as the number of vein-islets per of leaf surface.

S.NO NAME OF DRUG Vein-islet Range

1 Andrograohis paniculata 9-12
2 Bacopa monniera 6-13
3 Cannabis sativa 18-243
4 Digitalis purpurea 2.5-3
5 Eucalpytus globules 8-13.5
6. Vein-termination Number:
It is defined as the number of veinlet terminations per.sq. mm of the leaf surface between
midrib and margin.
7. Calcium oxalate crystals:
Several cell contents present in vegetable drugs. the inorganic crystalline compounds by
virtue of their specific shapes can be utilized for the identification of herbal drugs. due to this
reason they are called as diagnostic characters of the plant.
1.Cubical (cube shape) e.g,senna,Glycyrrhiza.
2.Rhombic (diamond shape) e.g.,
3.Tetragonal e.g,onion.
4.Mono clinic(all three axes are un equal) e.g,Gall.
5.Acicular (long slender, pointed , budles) e.g, Squill, Cinnamon.
6.Rosettes –clusters (aggregation of crystals) e.g, Clove,Arjuna.
7.Microsphenoidal (minute in structures) e.g, Henbane.
8. Trichomes or plant hairs
Trichomes are the tubular elongated or glandular outgrowth of the epidermal cells. Trichomes are
also called as plant hairs.trichomes consists of two parts root and body.trichomes present in most
of plant parts and are function less but sometimes perform secretory function. Depending up on
the structure and the number of cells present in trichomes,they are classified in to following.
1.Covering Trichomes
2.Glandular Trichomes
3.Hydathode or special Trichomes.
The most basic terms used are glabrous—lacking hairs— and pubescent— having hairs. Details
are provided by:
a. glabrous, glabrate – lacking hairs or trichomes; surface smooth
b. hirsute – coarsely hairy
c. hispid – having bristly hairs
d. articulate – simple pluricellular-uniseriate hairs
e. downy – having an almost wool-like covering of long hairs
f. pilose – pubescent with long, straight, soft, spreading or erect hairs
g. puberulent – minutely pubescent; having fine, short, usually curly, hairs
h. pubescent – bearing hairs or trichomes of any type
i. strigillose – minutely strigose
j. strigose – having straight hairs all pointing in more or less the same direction as along a margin
or midrib
k. tomentellous – minutely tomentose
l. tomentose – covered with dense, matted, woolly hairs
m. villosulous – minutely villous.
n. villous – having long, soft hairs, often curved, but not matted.
Quantitative microscopy
Lycopodium spore method: it is used when especially chemical and other methods of
evaluation of drugs fails to determine quality. Lycopodium spores are very characterized in shape
and appearance and uniform in size(25μm) on avg,94000 spores present/mg of lycopodium
powder . it consists of
1.well defined particles which may be counted.
2.Single layered cells or tissues the area of which may be traced under suitable magnification
and actual area calculated.
3.The objects of uniform thickness, the length of which can be measured, and actual area
The percentage purity of an authentic ginger powder calculated as follows
N X W X 94,000 X 100 N = % Purity of drug



Lecture -6 Physical Evaluation

• Physical contents such as elasticity in fibres, viscosity of drugs containing gums, swelling
factor for mucilage containing materials, froth number of saponin drugs, congealing point of
volatile and fixed oils, melting and boiling points and water contents are some important
parameters used in the evaluation of drugs.
• Ultraviolet light is also used for determining the fluorescence of extracts of some drugs.
• Physical constants are extensively applied to the active principles of drugs, such as alkaloids,
volatile oils, fixed oils etc.
A few of them are
I. Moisture Content
II. Viscosity
III. Melting point
IV. Solubility
V. Optical Rotation
VI. Refractive Index
VII. Ash values
VIII. Extractive values
IX. Volatile oil Content
X. Foreign organic matter
XI. swelling factor

I. Moisture Content:
• Presence of moisture in a crude drug can lead to its deterioration due to either
activation of certain enzymes or growth of microbes.
• Moisture content can be determined by heating the drug at 150⁰C in an oven to a
constant weight and calculating the loss of weight.
1. Aloes Not more than 10
2. Digitalis Not more than 5
3. Starch Not more than 15

• Viscosity of a liquid is constant at a given temperature and is an index of its composition
. • Hence, it is used as a means of standardising liquid drugs.
i)Liquid paraffin-kinematic viscosity not less than 64-centistokes at 37.8° ii)Pyroxylin-
kinematic viscosity,1100-2450 centistokes.
III.Melting Point:
• It is one of the parameters to judge the purity of crude drugs containing lipids as constituents.
They may of animal or plant origin and contain fixed oils, fats and waxes. The purity of the
following crude drugs can be ascertained by determining their melting points in the range shown
against each of them.
2 BEES WAX 62-65
3 WOOL FAT 34-44

IV.Solubility :

The presence of adulterant in a drug could be indicated by solubility studies


1 Castor oil Soluble in 3 volumes of alcohol
2 Balsam of Peru Soluble in chloral hydrate solution
3 Asafoetida Soluble in carbon disulphide
4 Alkaloid bases Soluble in chloroform
5 colophony Soluble in light petroleum

V.Optical Rotation:
• Many substances of biological origin, having a chiral centre, can rotate the plane of polarised
light either to right(dextro rotatory)or to the left(laevo). The extent of rotation is expressed in
degrees, plus(+) indicating rotation to the right and minus(-) indication rotation in the left. Such
compound are optically active and hence called optical rotation.
S.NO Drugs Angles of Optical Rotation
1. Caraway oil + 75° to +80°
2. Clove oil 0° to +6.0°
3. Honey +3° to -15°

VI.Refractive Index:
When a ray of light passes from one medium to another medium of different density, it is bent
from its original path. Thus, the ratio of velocity of light in vacuum to its velocity in the
substance is said to the Refractive index of the second medium. It is measured by means of
RI of a compound varies with the wavelength of the incident light, temperature and pressure.
1 Arachis oil 1.4678 to 10470
2 Castor oil 104758 to 10527
3 Clove oil 1.527 to 10535

VII. Ash values

The residue remaining after incineration is the ash content of the drug.( inorganic salts of
carbonates, phosphates, silicates of sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium) is known as ash
Ash value is a criterion to judge the identity OR purity of the crude drug
S.NO Drugs total ash(% w/w) acid insoluble ash % (w/w)
1 Agar - - 1.00
2 Bael 03.5 -
3 Cannabis 15.0 5.00
4 Gelatin 03.6 -
5 Valerian 12.0 -
1. Total ash value
Useful for detecting low grade products, exhausted products, excess of sandy and earthy matter
with drug.
2. Acid insoluble ash value
Used for the determination of earthy matter present on roots, rhizomes, and also on the leaves,
Crude drugs contain calcium oxalate crystals the amount may varies depending on the
environmental conditions.
3. Sulphated ash value
Used for the detection of low grade products.
4. Water soluble ash value
Water soluble ash value Used to detect either material exhausted by water or not ( Tea
leaves, Ginger rhizomes).

Determination Total ash value

1.Weigh accurately about 3gms of the powdered drug in a tared silica crucible
2.Incinerate the powdered drug by gradually increasing the heat until free from carbon and cool.
Keep it in desiccators
Determination of Acid insoluble ash value
1. Boil the total ash obtained as above for 5 minutes with 25ml of dilute HCL
2.Filter and collect the insoluble matter on the ashless filter paper , wash the filter paper with hot
water, ignite in tared crucible, cool and kept in desiccators
3. Weigh the residue and calculate the acid insoluble ash of the drug 3. Weigh the ash and
calculate the % of the total ash with reference to the air dried sample.
VIII. Extractive values
In crude drugs, sometimes the active chemical constitutes cannot be determined by normal
procedures. In such cases, water, alcohol or ether soluble extractive values are determined for
evaluation of such drugs.
Significances :
1. Useful for the evaluation especially when the constituents of the drugs cannot be readily
estimated by any other means
2. It also helps to indicate the nature of chemical constituents present in the drug
3. Also helps in the identification of adulterants
Types of extractive values
A. water soluble extractive values
B. Alcohol soluble extractive values
C. Ether soluble extractive values
Determination of water soluble extractive value
1. Macerate about 5gm of the accurately weighed coarse powder with 100ml of chloroform water
in a 100ml volumetric flask for 24 hours .
2. Shake frequently for first 6 hours
3. Filter rapidly through filter paper and evaporate 25ml of water extract to dryness in a tared
flat-bottomed shallow dish.
4. Dry the residue at 105 and weigh. Keep it in a desiccators
5. Dry the extract to constant weight, finally, calculate the % W/W of Water soluble extractive
value with reference to the air dried drug.
A. Water soluble extractive value
Water soluble extractive value is applied for the drugs which contain water soluble constituents
such as tannins, sugars, plant acids and mucilage.
1 Aloe Vera NLT 25.0
2 Linseed NLT 20.0
3 Senna leaves NLT 30.0
4 Ginger NLT 10.0
5 Glycyrrhiza NLT 20.0
NLT= Not less than
Determination of Alcohol soluble extractive values
1. Macerate about 5gm of the accurately weighed coarse powder with 100ml of 90% alcohol in a
100ml stoppered flask for 24 hours .
2. Shake frequently for first 6 hours
3. Filter rapidly through filter paper and collect the filtrate evaporate 25ml of alcohol extract to
dryness in a tared flat-bottomed shallow dish.
4. Dry the residue at 105 and weigh. Keep it in a desiccators
5. Dry the extract to constant weight ,finally , calculate the % w/w of alcohol soluble extractive
value with reference to the air dried drug.

B.Alcohol soluble extractive value

Alcohol soluble extractive value is applied for the drugs which contain alcohol soluble
constituents such as tannins, resins and alkaloids .Official method for the assay of myrrh &
asafoetida. Generally,95% ethyl alcohol is used for determination of Alcohol soluble extractive.
S.NO DRUG Alcohol soluble extractive. (% W/W)
1 Aloe vera NLT 10.0
2 Benzoin NLT 90.0
3 Asafoetida NLT 50.0
4 Ginger NLT 04.0
5 Myrrh NLT 24.0
NLT= Not less than

C.Ether soluble extractive value

Ether soluble extractive value is applied for the extraction of volatile oils, fixed oils and resins.
1. Volatile ether soluble extractive value –(volatile oil)
2. Non volatile ether soluble extractive value –(resin, fixed oils, coloring matter)
NLT= Not less than

IX.Volatile oil content:

Efficiency of several drugs is due to their odorous principle (volatile oils).Such crude drugs are
standardized on the basis of their volatile oil contents. Weighed quantity of the drug is boiled
with water in a round bottomed flask fitted with clevenger apparatus. The distillate collected is
graduated into volatile oil. The amount thus obtained is recorded from the tube.
2 CLOVE NLT 15.0
5 DILL NLT 205
NLT= Not less than
X. Foreign organic matter:
 The parts of the organ or organs other than those named in the definition and description
of the drug are defined as foreign organic matter.
 The maximum limit for the foreign organic matter is defined in the monograph of crude
drug. If it exceeds the limits, deterioration in quality of the drug takes place.
 The physical or Physico chemical parameters useful in quality profile of a crude drug
XI.Swelling Factor
Useful in the evaluation of crude drugs containing mucilage.
Useful for the detection of purity of the crude drug.
1. Transfer 1 gm of the seeds to a 25ml stoppered cylinder
2. Fill up to the 20ml mark on the cylinder with water. Agitate gently and occasionally during 24
hours and allowed to stand
3. Measure the volume occupied by the swollen seeds.

4. Chemical Evaluation
• Determination of the active constituent in a drug by chemical tests is referred to as chemical
• The following are various methods of chemical evaluation
1. Instrumental methods
2. Chemical tests
3. Individual constituent chemical tests
4. Micro chemical tests

1. Instrumental methods: They make use of various instruments for evaluation like
colorimetry, flourimetry spectrophotometry etc.
2. Chemical constants tests: These are like acid value, iodine value and ester value etc are
used for the identification of fixed oils and fats.
3. Individual chemical tests: These are the tests which are used for identifying particular
4. Microchemical tests: These are the tests which are carried on slides. Example: Euginol in
clove oil is precipitated as potassium euginate crystals.
Method for chemical evaluation
 Extract obtained using petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol and water was prepared
using the respective solvent.
 These extracts along with positive and negative controls were tested for the
presence of active phytochemicals viz: tannins, alkaloids, phytosterols, triterpenoids,
falvonoids, cardiac glycosides, anthroquinone glycosides, saponins, carbohydrates,
proteins, amino acids and fixed oils & fats following standard methods

I. Tannins
1. Ferric chloride Test: Added a few drops of 5% ferric chloride solution to 2 ml of
the test solution. Formation of blue color indicated the presence of hydrolysable
2. Gelatin Test: Added five drops of 1% gelatin containing 10% sodium chloride to 1
ml of the test solution. Formation of white precipitates confirmed the test.
II. Alkaloids
Approximately 50 mg of extract was dissolved in 5 ml of distilled water. Further 2M
hydrochloric acid was added until an acid reaction occurred and filtered. The filtrate
was tested for the presence of alkaloids as detailed below
1. Dragendorff’s Test: To 2 ml of the filtrate was added 1 ml of Dragendorff’s
reagent. Formation of orange or reddish brown precipitate indicated the test as
2. Mayer’s Test: To 1 ml of test solution or filtrate was added a drop or two of the
Mayer’s reagent. White or a creamy precipitate confirmed the test as positive.
3. Hager’s Test: To 1 ml of test solution or filtrate, a drop or two of Hager’s reagent
formation of yellow precipitate indicated the test as positive.
4. Wagner Test: Two drops of Wagner’s reagent was added to 1ml of the test
solution. The formation of yellow or brown precipitate confirmed the test as positive
for alkaloids.
III. Phytosterols
1. Liebermann-Burchard’s Test:
The extract (2 mg) was dissolved in 2 ml of acetic anhydride, heated to boiling,
cooled and then 1 ml of concentrated sulfuric acid was added. A brown ring
formation at the junction and the turning of the upper layer to dark green color
confirmed the test for the presence of phytosterols.
IV. Triterpenoids
1. Salkowski Test: Approximately 2 mg of dry extract was shaken with 1 ml of
chloroform and a few drops of concentrated sulfuric acid were added. A red
brown color formed at the interface indicated the test as positive for triterpenoids.
V. Flavonoids
1. Shinoda test: A few magnesium turnings and 5 drops of concentrated
hydrochloric acid was added drop wise to 1 ml of test solution. A pink, scarlet,
crimson red or occasionally green to blue color appeared after few minutes
confirmed the test.
2. Alkaline reagent test: Addition of 5 drops of 5% sodium hydroxide to 1 ml of
the test solution resulted an increase in the intensity of the yellow color which
became colorless on addition of a few drops of 2 M hydrochloric acid which
indicated the presence of falvonoids.
3.Lead acetate test: A few drops of 10% lead acetate added to 1ml of the test
solution resulted in the formation of yellow precipitate confirmed the presence of
VI. Saponins
1.Foam Test: 5 ml of the test solution taken in a test tube was shaken well for five
minutes. Formation of stable foam confirmed the test.
2. Olive oil test: - Added a few drops of olive oil to 2ml of the test solution and
shaken well. The formation of a soluble emulsion confirmed the test.
VII. Cardiac glycosides
1.Keller -Killiani test: Added 0.4 ml of glacial acetic acid and a few drops of 5%
ferric chloride solution to a little of dry extract. Further 0.5 ml of concentrated
sulfuric acid was added .The formation of blue color in acetic acid layer
confirmed the test.
VIII. Test for carbohydrates

1.Molisch’s test: To 1 ml of test solution added a few drops of 1 % alpha-napthol and 2-3 ml
concentrated sulfuric acid. The reddish violet or purple ring formed at the junction of two liquids
confirmed the test.

2. Barfoed’s test: 2ml of reagent was added to 2 ml of the test solution, mixed & kept a in
boiling water bath for 1 min. Red precipitate formed indicates the presence of monosaccharide's.

3.Seliwanoffs test: To 3 ml of Seliwanoffs reagent was added to 1 ml of the test sample and
heated on a water bath for one minute. The formation of rose red color confirmed carbohydrates
4. Fehlings test: Dissolved 2 mg dry extract in 1 ml of distilled water and added 1ml of
Fehling’s(A+B) solution, shooked and heated on a water bath for 10 minutes. The brick red
precipitate formed confirmed the test

IX. Anthraquinone glycosides

Hydroxyanthraquinone Test To 1 ml of the extract, added a few drops of 10% potassium

hydroxide solution. The Formation of red color confirmed the test.

X. Test for proteins

1. Biuret test: To 2 ml of the test solution added 5 drops of 1% copper sulphate solution and 2
ml of 10% NaOH .Mix thoroughly. Formation of purple or violet color confirmed proteins.

XI. Test for amino acids

1. Millon’s test: Added 5 drops of millons reagent to 1 ml of test solution and heated on a
water bath for 10 min, cooled and added 1% sodium nitrite solution. Appearance of red
color confirmed the test.
XII. Fats and fixed oils
To 5 drops of the sample was added 1 ml of 1% copper sulphate solution and a few drops of
10% sodium hydroxide. The formation of a clear blue solution confirmed the test.

5.Analytical evaluation
Chromatographic techniques:
a)TLC-Thin layer chromatography
b)HPTLC-High performance thin layer chromatography
c)HPLC-High performance/pressure liquid chromatography
d)GLC-Gas chromatography
e)CC-column chromatography
f)Gel permeation chromatography
g)Affinity chromatography

Spectrophptometric methods:
i) UV- Ultra violet /visible spectroscopy
ii) IR-Infra Red spectroscopy
iii) Fluorescence analysis
iv) NMR-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy
v) MS-Mass spectroscopy
vi) X-ray diffraction
vii) RIA-radio immuno assay

Chromatographic techniques:
a)TLC-Thin layer chromatography
Principle :Adsorption
 Adsorbent silica gel G/C coated to a thickness of minutes and used.
 After development of chromatography spots are revealed by spraying with suitable
detecting agent
 TLC is useful to analyse Alkaloids, Glycosides like all bio- constituents
 The Rf value vary depend on the pirity,nature,of substance, composition of solvent
and impurities
 TLC/HPTLC are micro analytical techniques used for determination of natural
Advantages : simple in operation and rapid
• Thin layer chromatography(TLC), has become increasingly popular for both qualitative and
quantitative evaluation of drugs.
• Rf values refers to the ration of distance travelled by the solute to the distance moved by the
solvent on a thin layer adsorbent.
Rf = Distance travelled by the compound(solute)
Distance travelled by the solvent
b) HPTLC-High performance thin layer chromatography:
It is very useful qualitative/quantitative method for pharmaceutical analysis
HPTLC is a major advancement of TLC principle requiring shorter time better resolution
HPTLC plates available in the form of pre coats
Silica gel-Gel with very small particle size used as a stationary phase gives rapid separation with
About 36 cm solvent front migration is sufficient to effect proper seperation
Whatmann-HPTLC plates are produced from 4-5μm layer
About 7cm distance achieved in about 4 minutes.
Sample preparation : HPTLC needs high concentration sample. small amounts of sample need
to apply, sample spot size 1 mm in diameter and sample applied by capillaries.
solvent systems (component and mobile phases)
1 Amino acids, alkaloids Butanol-acetic acid-water(4:5:1)
2 Cardiac glycoside Dichloromethane-methnol- formamide(8:2:1)
3 Flavonoids,coumarin glycosides Ethyl acetate-methyl ketone-acetic acid-
4 Saponins Chloroform-methanol-water(7:4:1:)
5 Terpenes,essential oils ,sterols Hexane-acetone-(9:1)

c) HPLC-High performance/pressure liquid chromatography

The term liquid chromatography used to refer to those methods in which the separation takes
place with packed column.(stationary) A liquid mobile phase used eluent.
In HPLC mobile phase forced to column under high pressure
Derivatisation in HPLC undertaken to increase sensitivity of detection for a given compound
Colum used in HPLC narrow (1 mm or less) flow rate of mobile phase is (100μl /min)
Advantages: most versatile ,safest. Uses :quality control of drugs like morphine, emetine,
d) GLC-Gas liquid chromatography
GLC separates volatile substances by percolating a gas stream over a stationary phase.
Principle :GLC works on partitioning
Carrier gas used as mobile phase (Nitrogen, Helium)
A film of a liquid spread over an inert solid.
Acts as stationary phase.
GLC applied for
i.Assay of impurities
ii.Examination of volatile oils plant alkaloids.
e)CC-column chromatography
Liquid chromatography in which mobile phase in form of liquid passes over the
stationary phase packed in a column.
Column is either a glass, metallic column. the column adsorption chromatography is
oldest and still practiced to day for extraction process.
f)Gel permeation chromatography
Size-exclusion chromatography.seperation occurs not on the basis of adsorption
/partition ,but on the effective size of solutes present in solution for the separation
Stationary phase used are cross linked polymers which give an open network with large
number of pores during flow large size particles can’t enters in to pores hence excluded.
Various types of gels are used sofgel,semi-rigid gels, rigid gels. Use :separates
g)Affinity chromatography
This technique is mainly used for the separation of protiens,enzymes,antigens,antibodies.
The adsorbent used is one of biological substance having a specific affinity for other
substance .
These two substances are biologically interacting pairs such adsorbent is attached to a
porous stationary phase and placed in a column, when mixture containing the other
complement of adsorbent passed through stationary phase.
Spectrophptometric methods:
i)UV- Ultra violet /visible spectroscopy
Ultra violet –visible absorption techniques encompass analytical methods based up on
measurement of light absorption by substances in wave length region from 190 to 900 nm
190-380 nm UV region.
380-900 nm visible region.
Applications: we can analyze variety of pharmaceutical phytoconstituents like Lobeline-244
Morphine-286 nm
Antharaquinone 505 nm

ii)IR-Infra Red spectroscopy

IR is the study of reflected,absorbed,transmitted radiant energy in region of
electromagnetic spectrum 0.8 to 500 nm
It is divided in to three regions Near IR-12,500-400 cm-1, Mid IR-4000-400 cm-1 Far
IR spectrophotometer can be divided in to single and double beam and Fourier
transform spectrophotometer(FTIR)
Applications : Identification of drugs, polymorphs Raw materials,excipients.

iii)Fluorescence analysis
The organic molecules absorbs light usually over a specific range of wave length, and
many of them re-emits such radiation known as luminescence.
The phenomina when the re-emission of absorbed light losts only when substance
receiving exiting rays, and called as fluorescence
Fluorescence characters under UV light.

iv) NMR-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

 NMR absorbs radio frequency radiation by substance held in a magnetic field.
 Absorption results from interaction of radiation with magnetic moment of nuclei in
sample and it occurs at different frequencies for nuclei with chemically different

NMR is imp tool in elucidation of molecular structure

It is applicable in identification of impurities.

It reveals position of protons in a complex molecule.

v) MS-Mass spectroscopy

 Mass spectrometry concerned with the electron ionisation,subsequent fragmentation of

molecules, determination of the mass to charge ratio (m/e).and relative abundances of
ions which are produced.


 It determines molecular weight of compound

 It helps in identification of drug constituents

vi) X-ray diffraction: Many compounds are capable of crystallising in more than one type of
crystal lattice at a particular temperature and pressure, since the rate of phase transformation of a
metastable polymorph to the stable one can be quite slow.Polymorphs plays a very imp role in
pharmaceutical science

vii) RIA-radio immuno assay

 This technique uses on antibody specific for the drug being assayed and a labeled form
of the same drug.
 The label may be particular radio-isotope, active-enzyme or a C14 and iodine I125
commonly used isotopes in RIA
 RIA is method of choice for identification of cardiac glycoside,insulin.

6.Biological Evaluation

 It is employed when the drug cannot be evaluated satisfactorily by chemical and physical
 In this method, the response produced by the test drug on a living system is compared
with that of the stranded preparation.
 Such an activity is represented in units as International Units (I.U).Dose is termed as
International units IU • Digitalis 1IU=76mg of standard • Vit-A 1IU=0.344 of standard •
Vit-D 1IU=0.025of standard.
Indication of Biological Evaluation

 When the chemical nature of the drug is not known but is has an biological action.
 When chemical methods are not available.
 When the quantity of the drug is small and so it cannot be evaluated chemically.
 Drugs which have different chemical composition but same biological activity.
Example: Cardiac glycosides arte evaluated by this method on cats, frogs or pigeons.

1.The method is generally used when standardization is not done satisfactory by chemical or
physical methods

2.When the quantity of the drug /sample are very less then the drugs are evaluated by biological

3.These methods are performed on living animals, isolating living organ and tissue, animal
preparation, and micro-organism ( Bioassay).


1)Toxic----animals are used

2)Symptomatic-----animals are used

3)Tissue-------isolated tissue is used

 To estimate potency of drug

 With entire animal or with tissue
 To conform therapeutic activity


ANIMALS USED: Male and Female Albino rats

Heapatotoxicity indused by: Chemicals Industrial pollutants ccl4 Drugs





oxaloacetic transaminase) SGPT (serum glutamic pyruvic oxaloacetic transaminase)
4. HISTOPATHOLOGICAL METHODS (liver tissue necrosis) for testing cultured
heaptocytes are used for In-vitro studies.

Evaluation of Hypoglycemic activity

deficiency of glucose in the bloodstream.

 Traditional Diabetic drugs -Momordica charantaka,Fenu greek,Gudmar.

 Diabetes is induced in animals by Alloxan & Streptazocin
 Alloxan cause necrosis of pancreatic islet-B cells which shows 180-250mg/ml fasting
blood glucose levels
 Streptazocin cause formation of streptomycin they produce cytotoxic nitrourcido
glucopyranose which cause diabetes
ANIMALS USED: Rabbits,Rats,Mice—(4 to 7 days) Dose :rats--80mg/kg ,mice—
150mg/kg of streptazocin single oral injection 140-180 mg/kg of alloxan for rabbits at
marginal ear vein for 7 days for rats and mice intraperitoneally 2 days Insulin levels
are noted by tests like RIA.ELISA.

Evaluation of Anti-inflammatory activity

Inflammation is caused by mechanical,infections,auto-immune
Types of inflammations:Rhemated arthritis,gout,dysmenorrhoea
PRINCIPLE:Anti-inflammatory activity is reduction of local edema induced in rat paw by
injecting irritant or inflammatory substance Inflammation is induced by carrageenan and croton
Method 1: Carrageenan is a muco-polysaccharide isolated from sea moss which induces
inflammation by giving through intraperitoneally saline in a dose of 0.1 ml. animal is treated
with herbal extract given orally (antagonist) Volume of paw is measured five times with
plethysmo meter
Method 2:Here albino rats or mice are used, edema is produced pinna of ear with croton oil(1
ml/ear) After induce herbal extract is added to the same area Edema is measured by using
verniercallipers and record the changes 0---no effect +ve---slight ++ve---pronounced

Evaluation of Anti fertility activity

Abortificient activity, contraceptives

Traditional drugs like embelin from embilica and gossypol from gossypium produce abortificient

Types of Anti fertility evaluations

In-females : Destruction of zygotes &prevention of ovulation

In-males : estimation of Spermicidal activity & Anti-androgenic activity

Protocols for anti- spermatogenic activity

After acclimatization male rats are feed by herbal extract for 60 days Between 12 day and 15 day
& 60 th day male rats are mated with female (morphological weight of rat noted)
Histopathlogical study of sperm

RESULT If No-fertilization b/w 12-15 days means functional sterility, after 56 days means anti-

Spermicidal activity (in-vitro)

Take human semen on a slide and add herbal extract and sorensens phosphate buffer Microscopic

Identification of Immobility means spermicidal Spermicidal activity (in-vitro)

Acclimatized 8-10 days ( I-group)

Vaginal smears are taken to measure cycle Animals are feed by herbal extract (oestrogenisity
leads increase weight of uterus / cornifiction of vagina)

Further the rats are mate with males (mating detected by smears)

Ovulation is absent due to contraceptive activity)

In case of fertilization ova are examined to see the transportation and implantation

Acclimatized 19 days ( II-group)

If weight gain contraception

If bleeding abortion

Protocols for anti-fertility in female rats

Testing of anti-ulcer activity

Causes of ulcer -- improper diet, alcohol consumption,stress,drugs(NSAIDS)

Traditional drugs like liquorice,atropine,hyoscine and in less extent

Gafaranate extracted from cabbage juice shows anti ulcer effect

Chemical used to induce ulcer: Alcohol 1ml/kg orally Aspirin -200mg/kg orally

Stress induced: animals are immobilized in cylindrical cage Animals are devided in to 3 groups
1.Those treated with normal saline

2.Those treated with ulcerogenic solution

3.Strss produced Animals are sacrificed after inducing

All the groups are treated with herbal extracts and standard is treated with ranitidine

Stomach or duodenum is isolated

Organs are opened to know ulcer effect and gastric juice is measured and ulcer effect express in

0-no damage 0-absence

1.redness of mucosa 1.slight

2.Erosin of mucosa 2.One ulcer 5mm length

3.ulceration 3.More than one

Evaluation of Neuropharmacologocal activity

Testing of herbal drugs on CNS&ANS

Drugs and actions on



1.LOCOMOTAR ACTIVITY-----ACTIVITY CAGE(locomotion count is noted)


3.PENTETRAZOLE CONVULSION IN MICE 80-120 mg/kg- intraperitonelly

a)time of onset of convulsions

b)number of convulsions

c)mortality rate

4.BARBITURATE SLEEPING TIME stimulant or depressant effects on CNS

Phenobarbitone ----55mg/kg

Hexobarbitone -----33mg/kg


in-vitro studies

1. Guinea pig ileum prepatiopn: (non-specific anti-spasmodic activity)

Guinea pig ileum is useful for the evaluations of nerve mediated and directly stimulated
contractions because it contains non-adrenergic (cholinergic)nerves called as intrinsic
parasympathetic nerves, present between circular and longitudinal muscle layers.

Protocol :

Food is withdrawn over night

Animal is killed (suitable length of ileum is separated –1.5 to 2 cm long)

Kept in salt solution(physiological salt)

Jacketed organ bath at 32-37 c

Guinea pig ileum shows a response to

para-sympathomimetics&para-sympatholytics(ACH given to ileum)

Herbal drug is given

 Due to drug treatment if ACH type contractions are produced, persist even after giving a
dose of histamine H1-receptor antagonist, then it may be indicated that it is a cholinergic
drug it can be verified by blocking effect with atropine.(it does not distinguish between
muscarinic and nicotinic receptor activity.
 If contractions caused by herbal drug are blocked by ganglion blocking agent then it may
be indicated that herbal drug is nicotinic receptor mechanism.
 Besides cholinergic activity the contractions occurred due to drug may be because of its
activity at other receptors like histamine.
2. Isolated rabbit jejunum preparation

With this study we can evaluate the nerve mediated and direct muscle stimulated adrenergic

Rabbit jejunum is isolated along with mesenteric vessels as associated with sympathetic nerves
Mesentery vessels are carefully cut off & then isolated rabbit jejunum with periarterial nerve is
mounted in physiological solution in Jacketed organ bath 32-37c

Nerves are connected to a electrode and stimulated

If these are relaxed by herbal drug it may have noradrenalin effect or calcium channel blockade
or potassium channel opening effect

If the action of drug is blocked by adrenergic receptor antagonist it may have effect on

3. Rat. Phrenic nerve- diaphragm preparation

Phrenic diaphragm isolated from frontal part of right thoracic wall

Mount to phrenic nerve electrode

Muscle remains across platinum electrode

Drug shows effected neuro muscular junction.

Mosquito repellence test

Protection period offered by herbal extract against mosquito bite in terms of first bite.

3-6 days old, blood starved sucrose fed yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti)

Human hand covered with snugly fitting polythene bag is introduced in a cage contains about a
thousand hungry mosquitoes, and allowed to bite on muslin cloth which is treated with herbal

Number of bites received in 5 minutes counted.

Anti insect activity

WHO had given protocols for avoiding insect effects

1) Larvicidal activity:

Aedes aegyptic ---yellow mosquito

100 ml of beaker


Acetone extract of drug

Larvae are feed with extract

Estimation parameter: mortality rate in 24 hours.

2) Adulticidal activity:

Tribolem castaneum---Red flour beetle

Take Red flour beetle in Petri dish In aria of 10 cm

Dried at 27 c and 60% RH

Add herbal extract

Mortality count after 24 hrs.

Microbiological Assays

Drug substances suppress or influence the growth of micro organism are generally analyzed by
microbiological method.(Anti- biotics,Vitamins)

1. Cylindrical plate method

Assay of antibiotics is based on measurement of the diameter of microbial growth inhibition

surrounding the cylinders containing various dilutions of test compound which are placed on
surface of solid nutrient medium.

2. Turbidimetric method
Based on inhibition of microbial growth as indicated by measurement of turbidity(transmittance)
of suspension of a suitable micro-organism in a fluid medium, to which have test compound.
changes in transmittance is compared with standard known compound.


WHO guide lines to ensure quality of herbal drugs with modern techniques.

Monograph guide lines

1. Monograph title

A) Botanical

a) Sensory evaluation

b) Foreign matter----(should free from it if possible)

c) Microscopy

B ) Physico-chemical

a) TLC

b) Ash----total, acid insoluble, water soluble

c) Extractive matter---in hot water, cold water, ethanol

d) Water content and volatile matter----LOD

e) Volatile oil-------steam distillation

C) Pharmacological

a) Bitterness value—units equal to bitterness of std.solu of quinine hydrochloride

b) Hemolytic activity----on Ox blood by comparison with std.ref.saponin

c) Astringency---Fraction(tannin)that binds to std.hide powder

d) Swelling index---in water

e) Foaming index---foam height produced by 14 gm material under specified conditions.

D) Toxicological
a)Pesticide residue---chlorides, phosphorus estimation

b) Arsenic—strain produced on HgBr2 paper in comparison to std.stain

c) Heavy metals---cadmium, lead

Maximum residue limit = BW X ADI X Extraction factor

safety factor 100 X MDI

ADI = avg.daily intake, BW = body weight MDI = mean daily intake

E) Microbial contamination:

a) Total viable aerobic count pathogen: E.coli, salmonella,P.aerogenosa,S.aures

Aflatoxins: by TLC using std.Aflatoxins (B1,B2,G1,G2) mixtures----totally free.

F) Radioactive contamination

As per recommendations of international atomic energy agency IAEA

Test Questions

Fill in the blanks

1. Spoilage is a substandard condition produced by microbial or other pest infestation.
2. Debasement of an article is called adulteration.
3. Sophistication is the deliberate addition of spurious or inferior material with intent to
4. Substitution is the addition of an entirely different article in place of that which is

5. Drug evaluation is defined as the determination of identity, purity and quality of a drug.

6. The study of morphology and other sensory characters is termed as organoleptic


7. Palisade ratio is the average number of palisade cells beneath one epidermal cell, using
four continuous epidermal cells for the count.

8. Stomata is a minute epidermal opening present on aerial parts of plants.

9. Vein-islet number is defined as the number of vein-islets per leaf surface.
10. Trichomes are the tubular elongated or glandular outgrowth of the epidermal cells.
11. The residue remaining after incineration is the ash content of the drug.

12. Sulphated ash value is used for the detection of low grade products.

Multiple choice questions

1. The following is not a method of chemical evaluation.

a) Instrumental methods b) Chemical tests

c) Micro chemical tests d) Moisture content

2. ………ash value is used for the determination of earthy matter present

a) total ash value b) water soluble ash value
c) acid insoluble ash value d) sulphated ash value

3. Official method for the assay of myrrh & asafetida

a) water soluble extractive value b) alcohol soluble extractive value
c) ether soluble extractive value d) sulphated ash value

4. The parts of the organ or organs other than those named in the definition and description of the
drug are defined as
a) foreign organic matter b) alcohol soluble extractive value
c) viscosity d) sulphated ash value

5. These are the tests which are carried on slides

a) chemical tests b) morphological tests
c) micro chemical tests d) physical tests

6. Which of the following is a test for tannins?

a) Ferric chloride test b) Gold beater’s skin test
c) Both d) none

7. Which of the following is not a test for alkaloids?

a) Borntragers test b) Mayer’s test
c) Hager’s test d) Dragendorff’s test
8. Liebermann-Burchard’s Test is used to detect
a) Glycosides b) alkaloids c) Phytosterols d) tannins

9. Saponins can be identified by

a) Legal’s test b) seliwanoff’s test
c) foam test d) Molisch’s test

10. Biuret’s test is used to detect

a) Glycosides b) alkaloids c) Proteins d) tannins

True or false
1. Many substances of biological origin, having a chiral centre, cannot rotate the plane of
polarised light either to right(dextro rotatory)or to the left(laevo). (True/ False)
2. In ordinary course of study, the morphological characters may suffice the need of
detection. (True/ False)
3. Before examination through a microscope the material need to be suitably prepared.
(True/ False)
4. Trichomes are function less but sometimes perform secretory function. (True/ False)
5. Lycopodium spore method is used when especially chemical and other methods of
evaluation of drugs fails to determine quality. (True/ False)

6. Ultraviolet light is also used for determining the fluorescence of extracts of some drugs.
(True/ False)
7. Viscosity of a liquid is constant at a given temperature and is an index of its composition.
(True/ False)
8. In crude drugs, sometimes the active chemical constitutes cannot be determined by
normal procedures. (True/ False)
9. Swelling Factor is not useful in the evaluation of crude drugs containing mucilage. (True/

10. Determination of the active constituent in a drug by chemical tests is referred to as

chemical evaluation. (True/ False)

Very Short questions

1. Define adulteration.
2. What is sophistication?
3. Write on adulteration by artificially manufactured substitutes.
4. Define substitution.
5. What is spoilage?
6. Define drug evaluation?
7. Write on addition of synthetic principles.
8. Explain the importance of evaluation of crude drugs.
9. What do you mean by study of morphology and sensory characters?
10. Define stomatal index.
11. What is palisade ratio?
12. Define refractive index.
13. What is acid insoluble ash?
14. What are the types of extractive values?
15. Write the significance of swelling factor.
16. Give the test for proteins.
17. What is affinity chromatography?
18. Write the test for fats and fixed oils.

Short questions

1. Explain column chromatography.

2. Write about gel permeation chromatography.
3. Write a short note of HPTLC.
4. What is radio immune assay?
5. Explain fluorimetric analysis.
6. What are the indications for biological evaluation?
7. Write a short note on evaluation of hypoglycemic activity.
8. Give the tests for carbohydrates.
9. What are the tests for flavonoids?
10. Write the various tests for alkaloids.
11. Write a short note on ash values.
12. Explain Quantitative microscopy
13. What are the various types of stomata?
14. Write a note on calcium oxalate crystals?

Long questions

1. Explain different methods of adulteration.

2. What are the various types of adulteration?
3. What is morphological evaluation explain.
4. Explain Microscopical or anatomical evaluation.
5. Explain various physical parameters used in the evaluation of crude
6. Write in detail about chemical evaluation.
7. What are the various chromatographic and spectrophotometric
8. Explain in detail biological evaluation.
9. Write a note on neuro pharmacological evaluation.
10. Write a note on quality control of herbal drugs.

Prepare an assignment on the need of development of various methods for the quality
control of herbal drugs.

Previous Questions

1. Explain the lycopodium spore method? Dec 2014

2. Write the chemical tests for identification of fixed oils and fats? Dec 2014
3. Write a note on biological evaluation of crude drugs? Dec 2014

4. Discuss the various methods of evaluation of crude drugs with suitable examples Dec

5. Write a detailed note on evaluation of crude drugs- April 2012

6. Describe the methods of adulteration and how do you detect them -April 2012

7. Give the specific identification tests for tannins- May 2008

8. Describe the evaluation of drugs, classify and discuss in detail about chemical and
biological evaluation methods- June 2007

9. Give the specific identification tests for i) alakloids ii) steroids iii) Tannins iv)
Carbohydrates- june 2007

10. Write the chemical tests for anthraquinone glycosides, cardiac glycosides and saponin
glycosides - june 2007

11. Define adulteration of crude drugs how they are detected and evaluated give necessary
examples in detail - June 2007

GPAT Questions

1. The following microscopical characteristic is associated with the drugs mentioned in (a) to
(d). Match them GATE PHARAMCY 1998

1) Rubiaceos type of stomata( paracytic) a) Atropa belladonna leaves

2) Ranunculaceous type of stomata b) Cassia acutifolia leaves

c) Cassia auriculata leaves

d) digitalis purpurea leaves

2. Dragendroff’s test dosenot give a positive test with GATE PHARMACY 2002

a) Emetine b) Morphine c) Caffeine d) Codeine

3. Lycopodium spore method can be used to find out the percentage purity of crude drugs which
contain GATE PHARMACY 2003

a) Multi layerd tissues or cells

b) Well defined particles which can be counted

c) Oil globules

d) Characteristic particles of irregular thickness, the length of which can be measured.

4. Total ash value in case of crude drug signifies GATE PHARMACY 2003

P) Organic content of the drug

Q) Mineral matter in the drug

R) Addition of extraneous matter such as sand, stone etc.

S) Woody matter present in the drug

(A) R,S (B)Q,R (C) P,Q (D) P,S

5. Crude fiber value of a drug is a measure of GATE PHARMACY 2004

a) Soft tissue matter

b) Woody matter

c) Mineral matter

d) Organic matter

6. The quantitative values determined for the identification of leaf drugs remains constant
through the age of the plant EXCEPT GATE PHARMACY 2005
a) Stomatal number

b) Vein islet number

c) Vein let termination number

d) Stomatal index

7. Alkaloids are NOT precipitated by GPAT 2010

(A) Mayer's reagent (B) Dragendroff Reagent

(C) Picric acid (D) Millon's reagent

6. Anisocytic stomata are present in GPAT 2010

(B) Senna (B)Digitalis (C) Belladonna (D) Coca

7. Tropane alkaloids are NOT present in GPAT 2010

(A) Datura stramonium
(B) Erythroxylum coca
(C) Duboisia myoporoides
(D) Lobelia inflate

8. One mg of Lycopodium spores used in quantitative microscopy contains an average of GPAT


(A) 94,000 spores (B) 92,000 spores (C) 90,000 spores (D) 91,000 spores

9. Gold beater’s skin test is used to detect the presence of GPAT 2011
(A) Tannins (B) Steroids (C) Glycerides (D) Resins

Reference Text Books

Text book of Pharmacognosy by C.K.Kokate and Purohit

1. Trease and Evan’s text book of pharmacognosy.
2. Pharmacognosy by Taylor, Brady and Robbers
Acacia, tragacanth, agar, starch, guargum, pectin, isabgol
and honey.

Unit – V Systematic pharmacognostic study of the following carbohydrates and

derived products

Unit Objectives

After reading this Unit, you should be able to understand:

- Pharmaceutical aids
- Basic chemistry of carbohydrates
- Derived products of carbohydrates
- Applications of carbohydrate products
- Various Carbohydrate containing drugs
- Pharmacognostic study scheme

Unit Outcomes

- Give the applications of gums as pharmaceutical excipients

- Explain the collection of acacia and tragacanth
- Extract the components from agar
- Elucidate the manufacturing process of starch
- Give different sources starch
- Debate on guar gum and pectin applications.
- Trace the principles of isabgol
- Bring out the difference between adulterated and genuine honety

Unit Lecture Plan

Lecture no. Topic Methodology Quick reference

1. Carbohydrates and derived Chalk & Board Text book of
products introduction and Pharmacognosy by
classification C.K.Kokate 2
2. Isolation and identification Chalk & Board Text book of
of carbohydrates Pharmacognosy by

3. Acacia, Chalk & Board Text book of

Pharmacognosy by

4. Tragacanth Chalk & Board Text book of

Pharmacognosy by

5. Agar, Honey Chalk & Board Text book of

Pharmacognosy by

6. Isabgol Chalk & Board Text book of

Pharmacognosy by

7. Starch Chalk & Board Text book of

Pharmacognosy by

8. Guargum, Pectin Chalk & Board Text book of

Pharmacognosy by

9. Summary of unit-I Chalk & Board

Teaching Material / Teaching Aids as per above lecture plan.

Lecture -1


Formerly, carbohydrates were defined as a group of compounds composed of Carbon, Hydrogen

and Oxygen. The later 2elements are in the same proportion as in water and were expressed by a
formula Cn(H₂O)n. The word carbohydrates can be traced back to Germans, who called them
“Kohlenhydrates”. It was then termed Carbohydrates in English.

The definition is not valid as it was misleading few compounds like Acetic acid (C₂H₄O₂), lactic
acid (C₃H₆O₃) which are not carbohydrates. To accommodate a wide variety of compounds, the
carbohydrates are now-a-days broadly defined as polyhydroxy Aldehydes or Ketones.
Carbohydrates are much abundant in plants, rather than in animals

Occurrence of carbohydrates

• Carbohydrates are widely distributed in plants and animals and also found in green plants by
the process of Photosynthesis.

• This process occurs with the presence of Chlorophyll Pigment, sunlight

6CO₂ +6H₂ O C₆ H ₁₂ O₆ + 6O₂

• These carbohydrates utilized by the animals in the form of food.

• Well known carbohydrates are Glucose (C₆H₁₂O₆) , Sugar (C ₁₂ H₂₂O₁₁),Starch (C ₆ H₁₀O ₅)

&Cellulose (C ₆ H₁₀O ₅)n used by human beings & animals.

• Animals can synthesize Carbohydrates from Fat& protein.

Simple sugars(Saccharide’s)
Triose (C₃H₆O₃) [ex- Glyceraldehyde]
Tetrose (C₄H₈O₄) [ex- Erythrose]
Pentose(C₅H₁₀O₅) [ ex- Arabinose]
Hexose C₆H₁₂O₆ (ex : Glucose)
Heptose (ex- Glucoheptose)
Disaccharide Eg: Sucrose Maltose
Trisaccharide Eg: Raffinose, Rhaminose
Tetrasaccharide Eg: Stachyose
Polysaccharides (Non-sugars)

 Monosaccharide's: can't be further hydrolyzed to simple sugars

 Disaccharides(C₁₂H₂₂O₁₁):
hydrolysis yields 2 molecules of Monosaccharide's.
Eg: Sucrose Glucose + Fructose.
Maltose  Glucose + Glucose.

 Trisaccharides (C₁₈H₃₂O₁₆):
• On hydrolysis yields 3 molecules of Monosaccharide's.
Eg: Raffinose Glucose + Fructose + Galactose.
Rhaminose Rham + Rhamnose + Gelactose.

 Tetrasaccharides ( C₂₄H₄₂O₂₁):
• On hydrolysis yields 4 molecules of Monosaccharide's.
Eg: Stachyose Glucose + Fructose + Galactose + Galactose.

• On hydrolysis it produce Indefinite no. of Monosaccharide's molecules called as Glycans.
• Common Polysaccharides of biological significance are Starch, Glycogen(Animal
starch),Cellulose , Inulin.
• Starch-Glucose units joined by α-1, 4& α-1,6 linkages. Cellulose-Glucose units joined by β
-1,4 linkages.
• Important derivatives-Gums & Mucilage's
• Gums- consists of Ca,K & Mg salts of complex substances called Polyuronides. on prolonged
boiling with dilute acids they yields sugar and uronic acids. Mucilage's – Sulphuric acid esters.

Lecture -2

Extraction of monosaccharide's
Fresh plant material Homogenized with 4parts of dis.water for 15 min
filtration Conc.
In vaccum to 1/10th of its volume
Allowed to crystallize in refrigerator
Extraction of oligosaccharides
Fresh plant material
Homogenized with 6-8 parts of hot water at 90c for 15min
Filter the solution through celite while hot
Conc. in vaccum to 1/10th of its volume
Allowed to crystallize in refrigerator
Extraction of polysaccharides
Plant material

Extraction with ethanol (remove low Mol.wt constituents)

Extract with Ethanol ; followed by Ether : Benzene(1:1) Filter & collect residue
Extract with 1%Nacl solution(or)Boiling water Filter & collect residue
Neutral H₂O soluble polysaccharides
Extract with 0.5%Ammonium Oxalate Solution Filter & collect residue
Extract with 1%Nacl at 70 ⁰ C for 1hr , Filter & collect residue
Extract with 7-12%NaoH under N₂ at room temp for 24hr ,filter

Filtrate Residue

Acidification Wash &Dry

Hemi cellulose Wash &Dry Pure Cellulose

To achieve complete extraction(7-12%NaoH)

Should repeat 2times

Purify by precipitating in Ethanol


 Monosaccharides:
• Crystalline compounds.
• Soluble in water.
• Sweet to taste .
• Needs digestion in-order to be absorbed in blood stream.
 Disaccharides:
• Crystalline compounds.
• Soluble in water
• Sweet to taste.
• Must be digested to monosaccharide's before absorbed and used for energy.
 Polysaccharides:
• Amorphous compounds.
• Not Soluble in water.
• Not Sweet to taste.
• They form colloidal suspensions instead of solution & must be digested before being


Compound + conc.H₂SO₄+ α- napthol Purple colored ring (at junction of two phases)
Solution of Carbohydrate + Equal Quantities of Fehling's solution A&B  Brick Red Precipitate
Sugar solution + Phenyl hydrazine Hydrochloride+ Sodium acetate+ Acetic acid Yellow
Crystal of Resorcinol + Sugar solution + Equal Volumes of Conc.Hcl  Rose Color (Due to
Sugar solution + Equal Volume of Hcl containing little Phloroglucinol Red Color


R.F values of different sugar ranges between 0.09-0.37

Sugars are subjected to Thin layer (or) Paper Chromatography

Unknown samples are spotted along with Authentic Sugars

The colored spots are identified by Aniline - Hydrogen Phthalate which is a Detecting Agent.


STARCH - Excepient, Binder, Diluent, Disintegrate.
GLUCOSE - Cellular Respiration. Production of ATP, Granulating &Coating agent.
LACTOSE - Anhydrous lactose- Filler & Binder. Lactose mono hydrate –Filler(or) Diluent.
SUCROSE- Binding agent. Bulking agent. Sweetener. Tablet coating agents.
SORBITOL - Diluent. Chewable tablets. Stabilizer for drug. Prevent crystallization.
MANNITOL- Diluent, plasticizer Excipient in Chewable tablets. Diagnostic agent for Kidney
CAR BOXY METHYL CELLULOSE(CMC) - • Binder,. • Diluent. • Disintegrant. • Suspending
POWDERED CELLULOSE - • Diluent & Capsule filler. • Reduce sedimentation rate. •
Suspending agent. • Powder base in powder dosage form
MICROCRYSTALLINE CELLULOSE - • Binder • Diluent • Lubricant • Disintegrant •
HYDROXY PROPYL CELLULOSE - Thickening agent. • Transdermal patches , Ophthalmic
preparations. • Cosmetics ,Food products.

Lecture -3

Synonyms Indian Gum; Gum Acacia; Gum Arabic.
Biological Source According to the USP, acacia is the dried gummy exudation from the stems
and branches of Acacia senegal (L.) Willd; family; Leguminoseae, or other African species of
It is also found in the stems and branches of Acacia arabica, Willd. Geographial Source The
plant is extensively found in India, Arabia, Sudan and Kordofan (North- East Africa), Sri Lanka,
Morocco, and Senegal (West Africa). Sudan is the major producer of this gum and caters for
about 85% of the world supply.
Cultivation and Collection Acacia is recovered from wild as well as duly cultivated plants in
the following manner, such as:
(a) From Wild Plants: The Gum after collection is freed from small bits of bark and other
foreign organic matter, dried in the sun directly that helps in the bleaching of the natural gum to a
certain extent, and
(b) From Cultivated Plants: Usually, transverse incisions are inflicted on the bark which is
subsequently peeled both above and below the incision to a distance 2-3 feet in length and 2-3
inches in breadth. Upon oxidation, the gum gets solidified in the form small translucent beads,
sometimes referred to as ‘tears’. Tears of gum normally become apparent in 2-3 weeks, which is
subsequently hand picked , bleached in the sun, garbled, graded and packed.
Colour: Tears are usually white, pale-yellow and sometimes creamish-brown to red in colour.
The power has an off-white, pale-yellow or light-brown in appearance.
Odour: Odourless (There is a close relationship between colour and flavour due to the
presence of tannins).
Taste: Bland and mucillagenous.
Shape & Size: Tears are mostly spheroidal or ovoid in shape and having a diameter of about
2.5-3.0 cm.
Appearance: Tears are invariably opaque either due to the presence of cracks or fissures pro-
duced on the outer surface during the process or ripening. The fracture is usually very brittle in
nature and the exposed surface appears to be glossy.
Chemical Constituents Acacia was originally thought to be composed only of four chemical
constituents, namely : (–) arabinose; (+) – galactose; (–)–rhamnose and (+) glucuronic acid.

On subjecting the gum acacia to hydrolysis with 0.01 N H2SO4 helps in removing the combined
product of (–) – arabinose and (+) – galactose, whereas the residue consists of the product (+) –
galactose and (+) – glucuronic acid. These two products are formed in the ratio of 3:1.
It also contains a peroxidase enzyme.

Chemical Tests
1. Lead Acetate Test: An aqueous solution of acacia when treated with lead-acetate solution it
yields a heavy white precipitate.
2. Borax Test: An aqueous solution of acacia affords a stiff translucent mass on treatment with
3. Blue Colouration due to Enzyme: When the aqueous solution of acacia is treated with
benzidine in alcohol together with a few drops of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), it gives rise to a
distinct–blue colour indicating the presence of enzyme.
4. Reducing Sugars Test: Hydrolysis of an aqueous solution of acacia with dilute HCl yields
reducing sugars whose presence are ascertained by boiling with Fehling’s solution to give a
brick-red precipitate of cuprous oxide.
5. Specific Test: A 10% aqueous solution of acacia fails to produce any precipitate with dilute
solution of lead acetate (a clear distinction from Agar and Tragacanth); it does not give any
colour change with Iodine solution (a marked distinction from starch and dextrin); and it never
produces a bluish-black colour with FeCl3 solution (an apparent distinction from tannins).
1. The mucilage of acacia is employed as a demulscent.
2. It is used extensively as a vital pharmaceutical aid for emulsification and to serve as a
thickening agent.
3. It finds its enormous application as a binding agent for tablets e.g., cough lozenges.
4. It is used in the process of ‘granulation’ for the manufacture of tablets. It is considered to be
the gum of choice by virtue of the fact that it is quite compatible with other plant hydrocolloids
as well as starches, carbohydrates and proteins.
5. It is used in conjuction with gelatin to form conservates for microencapsulation of drugs.
6. It is employed as colloidal stabilizer.
7. It is used extensively in making of candy and other food products.
8. It is skillfully used in the manufacture of spray – dried ‘fixed’ flavours – stable, powdered
flavours employed in packaged dry-mix products (puddings, desserts, cake mixes) where flavour
stability and long shelf-life are important.

Lecture -4

Synonym Gum Tragacanth
Biological Source The dried gummy exudation from Astragalus gummifer Labill. (white
or other Asiatic species of Astragalus belonging to the family of Leguminoseae.
Geographical Source It is naturally found in various countries, viz., Iran, Iraq, Armenia,
Greece and Turkey. A few species of Astragalous are located in India, viz., Kumaon, Garhwal
and Punjab.Persian tragacanth are exported from Iran and North Syria, whereas the Smyrna
tragacanth from the Smyrna port in Asiatic Turkey.
Collection The thorny shrubs of tragacanth normally grow at an altitude of 1000-3000
As an usual practice transverse incisions are inflicted just at the base of the stem, whereby the
gum is given out both in the pith and medullary rays. Thus, the absorption of water helps the
gum to swell-up and subsequently exude through the incisions. The gummy exudates are duly
collected and dried rapidly to yield the best quality white product. It usually takes about a week
to collect the gum exudates right from the day the incisions are made; and this process continues
thereafter periodically.
Colour: White or pale
Odour: Odourless
Taste: Tasteless
Shape: Curved or twisted ribbon –like flakes marked with concentric ridges that is indicative
of successive exudation and solidification. Fracture is normally short and horny.
Size: Flakes are usually 25 × 12 × 12 mm.
Appearance: Translucent
Chemical Constituents Interestingly, tragacanth comprises of two vital fractions: first, being
watersoluble and is termed as ‘tragacanthin’ and the second, being water-insoluble and is
known as ‘bassorin’. Both are not soluble in alcohol. The said two components may be
separated by carrying out the simple filtration of a very dilute mucilage of tragacanth and are
found to be present in concentrations ranging from 60-70% for bassorin and 30-40% for
tragacanthin. Bassorin actually
gets swelled up in water to form a gel, whereas tragacanthin forms an instant colloidal
solution. It has been established that no methoxyl groups are present in the tragacanthin fraction,
whereas the bassorin fraction comprised of approximately 5.38% methoxyl moieties. Rowson
(1937) suggested that the gums having higher methoxyl content i.e., possessing higher bassorin
contents, yielded the most viscous mucilages.
Chemical Test
1. An aqueous solution of tragacanth on boiling with conc. HCl does not develop a red colour.
2. Ruthenim Red* solution (0.1% in H2O) on being added to powdered gum tragacanth
whereby the particles will not either acquire a pink colour or are merely stained lightly.
3. When a solution of tragacanth is boiled with few drops of FeCl3 [aqueous 10% (w/v)] it
produces a deep-yellow precipitate.
4. It gives a heavy precipitate with lead acetate.
5. When tragacanth and precipitated copper oxide are made to dissolve in conc. NH4OH it
yields a meagre precipitate.
Substituents/Adulterants Karaya gum which is sometimes known as sterculia gum or
Indian tragacanth and is invariably used as a substitute for gum tragacanth.
1. It is used as a demulcent in throat preparations.
2. It is employed as an emolient in cosmetics (e.g., hand lotions).
3. It is used as a pharmaceutical aid as a suspending agent for insoluble and heavy powders in
4. It is effectively employed as a binding agent for the preparation of tablets and pills.
5. It is also used as an emulsifying agent for oils and waxes.
6. A substantial amount find its application in calico printing and in confectionary.
7. It is used in making medicinal jellies e.g., spermicidal jelly.
8. A 0.2-0.3% concentration is frequently used as a stabilizer for making ice-creams and
various types of sauces e.g., tomato sauce, mustard sauce.
9. It is used to impart consistence to troches.
10. The mucilages and pastes find their usage as adhesives.
* Ruthenium oxychloride ammoniated, Cl6H42N14O2Ru3, soluble in water and used in microscopy as reagent for
pectin and gum.

Lecture -5

Synonyms Agar-agar; Gelose; Japan-agar; Chinese-isinglass; Bengal isinglass; Ceylon isinglass;
Layor carang; Vegetable gelatin.
Biological Source Agar is the dried hydrophilic colloidal polysaccharide complex extracted
from the agarocytes of algae belonging to the class Rhodophyceae. It is also obtained as the dried
gelatinous substance from Gelidium amansii belonging to the family Gelidaceae and several
other species of red algae, such as Gracilaria (family: Gracilariaceae) and Pterocladia
(Gelidaceae). The predominant agar-producing genera are, namely; Gelidium; Gracilaria;
Acanthopeltis; Ceramium and Pterocladia.
Geographical Source Agar is largely produced in Japan, Australia, India, New Zealand, and
USA. It is also found in Korea, Spain, South Africa and in the Coastal regions of Bay of Bengal
(India) together with Atlantic and Specific Coast of USA.
Preparation It is an usual practice in Japan where the red-algae is cultivated by placing poles or
bamboos spread in the ocean which will serve as a support and shall augment the growth of algae
on them. During the months of May and October the poles are removed and the algae are
carefully stripped off from them. The fresh seaweed thus collected is washed thoroughly in water
and subsequently extracted in digestors containing hot solution of dilute acid (1 portion of algae
to 60 portions of diluted acid). The mucilagenous extract is filtered through linen while hot and
collected in large wooden troughs to cool down to ambient temperature so as to form solid gel.
The gel is mechanically cut into bars and passed through a wire netting to form strips. The
moisture from the strips is removed by successive freezing and thawing* and finally sun dried
and stored as thin agar strips.
Alternatively, the mass of gel if frozen and subsequently thawed and the dried agar is obtained
by vaccum filtration. The crude agar is usually formed as flakes which can be powdered and
stored accordingly.

* To bring down to room temperature from –20 to –30oC.

Colour : Yellowish white or Yellowish grey
Odour : Odourless
Taste : Bland and mucilaginous
Shape : It is available in different shapes, such as: bands, strips, flakes, sheets and coarse powder
Size : Bands: width = 4cm; Length = 40 to 50 cms
Sheets: Width = 10-15cm; Length = 45 to 60 cms
Strips: Width = 4mm; Length = 12 to 15 cms
India produces about 250 MT of good quality agar using Galidiella accrosa as the raw material.
It is insoluble in cold water in organic solvents. It readily dissolves in hot solutions and it forms a
translucent solid mass which characteristic is very useful in microbiology for carrying out the
Standard Plate Count.
Chemical Constituents Agar can be separated into two major fractions, namely: (a) Agarose-a
neutral gelling fraction; and (b) Agaropectin—a sulphated non-gelling fraction. The former is
solely responsible for the gel-strength of agar and consists of (+) –galactose and 3,6-anhydro-
(–)-galactose moieties; whereas the latter is responsible for the viscosity of agar solutions and
comprises of sulphonated polysaccharide wherein both uronic acid and galactose moieties are
partially esterified with sulphuric acid. In short, it is believed to be a complex range of
polysaccharide chains having alternating α–(1→3) and β–(1-4) linkages and varying total charge
Chemical Tests
1. It gives a pink colouration with Ruthenium Red solution.
2. A 1.5-2.0% (w/v) solution of agar when boiled and cooled produces a stiff-jelly.
3. Prepare a 0.5%(w/v) solution of agar and add to 5 ml of it 0.5 ml of HCl, boil gently for 30
minutes and divide into two equal portions:
(a) To one portion add BaCl2 solution and observe a slight whitish precipitate due to the
formation of BaS04 (distinction from Tragacanth), and
(b) To the other portion add dilute KOH solution for neutralization, add 2 ml of Fehling’s
solution and heat on a water bath. The appearance of a brick red precipitate confirms the
presence of galactose.
Substituents/Adulterants Gelatin and isinglass are usually used as substituents for agar.
1. It is used in making photographic emulsions.
2. It is also employed as a bulk laxative.
3. It is extensively used in preparing gels in cosmetics.
4. It is widely used as thickening agent in confectionaries and dairy products.
5. It is used in the production of ointments and medicinal encapsulations.
6. In microbiology, it is employed in the preparation of bacteriological culture media.
7. It is used for sizing silks and paper.
8. It finds its enormous usage in the dyeing and printing of fabrics and textiles.
9. It is also used as dental impression mould base.
10. It is employed as corrosion inhibitor.


Synonyms Madhu, Madh, Mel, Honey (English);

Biological Source Honey is a viscid and sweet secretion stored in the honey comb by various
species of bees, such as: Apis dorsata, Apis florea, Apis indica, Apis mellifica, belonging the
natural order Hymenotera (Family: Apideae).
Geographical Source Honey is available in abudance in Africa, India, Jamaica, Australia,
California, Chili, Great Britain and New Zealand.
Preparation Generally, honey bees are matched with social insects that reside in colonies and
produce honey and beeswax. Every colony esentially has one ‘queen’ or ‘mother bee’, under
whose command a huge number of ‘employees’ exist which could be mostly sterile females and
in certain seasons male bees. The ‘employees’ are entrusted to collect nector from sweet smelling
flowers from far and near that mostly contains aqueous solution of sucrose (ie; approximately
25% sucrose and 75% water) and pollens. Invertase, an enzyme present in the saliva of bees
converts the nector into the invert sugar, which is partly consumed by the bee for its survival and
the balance is carefully stored into the honey comb. With the passage of time the water gets
evaporated thereby producing honey(ie; approximately 80% invert sugar and 20% water). As
soon as the cell is filled up completely, the bees seal it with wax to preserve it for off-season
The honey is collected by removing the wax-seal by the help of a sterilized sharp knife. The
pure honey is obtained by centrifugation and filtering through a moistened cheese-cloth.
Invariably, the professional honey collectors smoke away the bees at night, drain-out honey, and
warm the separated combs to recover the beeswax.
Appearances : Pale yellow to reddish brown viscid fluid,
Odour : Pleasant and characteristic,
Taste: : Sweet, Slightly acrid,
Specific gravity : 1.35-1.36
Specific rotation : +3o to –15o
Total Ash : 0.1-0.8%
However, the taste and odour of honey solely depends upon the availability of surrounding
flowers from which nector is collected. On prolonged storage it usually turns opaque and
granular due to the crystallisation of dextrose and is termed as ‘granular honey’.
Chemical Constituents The average composition of honey rangles as follows: Moisture 14-
24%, Dextrose 23-36%, Levulose (Fructose) 30-47%, Sucrose 0.4-6%, Dextrin and Gums 0-7%
and Ash 0.1-0.8%. Besides, it is found to contain small amounts of essential oil, beeswax, pollen
grains, formic acid, acetic acid, succinic acid, maltose, dextrin, colouring pigments, vitamins and
an admixture of enzymes eg; diastase, invertase and inulase. Interestingly, the sugar contents in
honey varies widely from one country to another as it is exclusively governed by the source of
the nector (availability of fragment flowers in the region) and also the enzymatic activity solely
controlling the conversion
of nector into honey.
Substituents/Adulterants Due to the relatively high price of pure honey, it is invariably
adulterated either with artificial invert sugar or simply with cane-sugar syrup. These adulterants
or cheaper substituents not only alter the optical property of honey but also its natural aroma and
1. It is used as a sweetening agent in confectionaries.
2. Being a demulsent, it helps to relieve dryness and is, therefore, recommended for coughs,
colds, sore-throats and constipation.
3. Because of its natural content of easily assimilable simple sugars, it is globaly employed as
a good source of nutrient for infants, elderly persons and convalescing patients.

Lecture -6

Plantago Seed

The origin of the word ‘Plantago’ is from the Latin and means sole of the foot, referring to
the shape of the leaf. Likewise, ‘Psyllium’ is from the Greek and means fleadescribing the seed.
Synonyms Psyllium seed; Plantain seed; Flea seed; Ispaghula; Isapgol; Isabgul.
Biological Source It is the dried ripe seeds of Plantago psyllium L., or Plantago arenaria
Waldst & Kit (P. ramosa Asch.) (Spanish or French psyllium seed) or of Plantago ovata (blond
or Indian plantago seed) or of Plantago amplexicaulis belonging to the family: Plantaginaceae.
Geographical Source P. amplexicaulis is grown on the Panjab plains, Malwa and Sind and
extending to Southern Europe. P. psyllium is an annual pubescent herb practically native to the
Mediterranean countries. It is grown in France and constitutes the main bulk of the American
imported psyllium seed. P. ovata is extensively grown in Pakistan; besides it is found to be native
to Mediterranean countries and Asia.
Preparation The crops are grown usually on light, well drained sandy loamy soils; and
during their entire growth peroid the climate must be cool and dry. The ripe and matured fruits
are normally collected after a span of about three months. The seeds are separated by thrashing
lightly on a solid support. The dust and foreign particles are removed by sieving and against a
current of mederate air-blast.
Colour : Pinkish grey to brown
Odour : No characteristic odour
Taste : Bland and mucilageous
Weight : 100 seeds weigh between 0.15-0.19 g
Figure 3.3 gives an account of the dorsal surface as well as the ventral surface of Ispaghula
seed and Psyllium seed along with their overall shape, size and outersurface.
Chemical Constituents Plantago seeds generally comprise of approximately 10% of
mucilage invariably located in the epidermis of the testa together with proteins and fixed oil. The
mucilage essentially consists of pentosan and aldobionic acid.

Shape : Ovate or boat shaped

Size : Length = 1.8-3.5 mm, Width = 1.0-1.7 mm.
Outersurface: The Convex surface has a central brown oval spot, whereas the Concave surface
bears a deep furrow having its hilum covered with a thin whitish membrane.

The various products of hydrolysis are, namely: xylose, arabinose, rhamnose and galacturonic
Chemical Tests
1. Its mucilage gives a distinct red colouration on treatment with Ruthenium Red solution.
2. Swelling Factor*: It establishes the purity of the drug and ranges between 10 to 14. It is easily
determined by transferring accurately 1.0g of the drug in a 25 ml measuring cylinder duly filled
with 20 ml of water with intermittent shaking. The exact volume occupied by the seeds after a
duration of 24 hours of wetting is noted carefully which represents the swelling factor of the
seeds under investigation.
Substituents/Adulterants A number of species of Plantago have been studied extensively for
their mucilage contents. Interestingly, Plantago rhodosperma which is particularly habitated in
Missouri and Lousiana (USA) and Plantago wrightiana are worth mentioning. The former
species contains mucilage to the extent of 17.5% whereas the latter contains about 23%.
However, these two species compare favourably with the official drug.
In addition to the above, a few species like P. purshii, P. aristata and P. asiatica are also
employed as a substitute for plantago seeds.
1. Plantago seeds are mostly employed as demulscent and in the treatment of chronic
2. It is also used in amoebic and bacillary dysentary.
3. Mucilage of the isapgol is invariably employed in the preparation of tablets (e.g., granulation)
4. It is used as a stabilizer in the ice-cream industry
5. The crushed seeds are employed as a poultice for rheumatic pain
6. The acid form of polysaccharide is obtained by carefully removing the cations from the
mucilage by treatment with cation-exchange resins and spray drying the resultant products. This
‘specialized product’ finds its enormous applications as a tablet disintegrator, as enteric coating
substance and finally employed in the sustained release drug formulations.

Lecture -7

Lecture -8

Guar Gum
Synonyms Guar flour; Decorpa; Jaguar; Gum cyamopsis; Cyamopsis gum; Burtonite V-7-E.
Biological Source Guar gum is the ground endosperms of Cyamopsis tetragonolobus (L.)
Taub; belonging to family Leguminoseae.
Geographical Source It grows abundantly in tropical countries like: Indonesia, India,
Pakistan and Africa. In USA, southern western regions it was introduced in the year 1900 and its
large-scale production commenced in early 1950’s.
Preparation First of all the fully developed white seeds of Guar gum are collected and freed
from any foreign substances. The sorted seeds are fed to a mechanical ‘splitter’ to obtain the
bifurcated guar seeds which are then separated into husk and the respective cotyledons having
the ‘embryo’. The gum is found into the endosperm. Generally, the guar seeds comprise of the
Endosperm : 35 to 40%
Germ (or Embryo) : 45 to 50%, and
Husk : 14 to 17%
The cotyledons, having a distinct bitter taste are separated from the endosperm by the process
called ‘winnowing’. The crude guar gum i.e., the endosperms is subsequently pulverised by
means of a ‘micro-pulveriser’ followed by grinding. The relatively softer cotyledons sticking to
the endosperms are separated by mechanical ‘sifting’ process. Thus, the crude guar-gum is
converted to a purified form (i.e., devoid of cotyledons), which is then repeatedly pulverized and
shifted for several hours till a final white powder or gramular product is obtained.
Colour : Colourless; Pale-yellowish white powder
Odour : Characteristic smell
Taste : Mucilagenous
Solubility : Insoluble in alcohol with water it gives a thick transparent suspension
Chemical Constituents It has been found that the water soluble fraction constitutes 85% of
Guar gum and is commonly known as Guaran. It essentially consists of linear chains of (1 → 4)
–β-D mannopyranosyl units with α–D-galactopyranosyl units attached by (1 → 6) linkages.
However, the ratio of D-galactose to D-mannose is 1:2.
Chemical Tests
1. On being treated with iodine solution (0.1 N) it fails to give olive-green colouration.
2. It does not produce pink colour when treated with Ruthenium Red solution (distinction
from sterculia gum and agar)
3. A 2% solution of lead acetate gives an instant white precipitate with guar gum (distinction
from sterculia gum and acacia)
4. A solution of guar gum (0.25 g in 10 ml of water) when mixed with 0.5 ml of benzidine
(1% in ethanol) and 0.5 ml of hydrogen peroxide produces no blue colouration (distinction from
gum acacia).
1. It is used therapeutically as a bulk laxative.
2. It is employed as a protective colloid.
3. It is also used as a thickner and its thickening property is 5 to 8 times more than starch.
4. It finds its use in peptice ulcer therapy.
5. It is used as an anorectic substance i.e., it acts as an appetite depressant.
6. It is employed both as a binding and a disintegrating agent in tablet formulations.
7. It is used in paper sizing.
8. It is abundantly employed as film forming agent for cheese, salad dressing, ice-cream and
9. It is used in pharmaceutical jelly formulations.
10. It is widely used in suspensions, emulsions, lotions, creams and toothpastes.
11. It is largely used in mining industry as a flocculant and also as a filtering agent.
12. It is also employed in water treatment plants as a coagulant aid.
Pectin, in general, is a group of polysaccharides found in nature in the primary cell walls of all
seed bearing plants and are invariably located in the middle lamella. It has been observed that
these specific polysaccharides actually function in combination with both cellulose and
hamicellulose as an intercellular cementing substance. One of the richest sources of pectin is
lemon or orange rind which contains about 30% of this polysaccharide.
Pectin is naturally found in a number of plants namely: lemon peel, orange peel, apple pomace,
carrots, sunflower-heads, guava, mangoes and papaya. The European countries, Switzerland and
USA largely produce pectin either from apple pomace or peels of citrus fruits. Evaluation and
standardization of pectin is based on its ‘Gelly-Grade’ that is, its setting capacity by the addition
of sugar. Usually, pectin having ‘gelly grade’ of 100, 150 and 200 are recommended for
medicinal and food usuages.
Biological Sources Pectin is the purified admixture of polysaccharides, obtained by carrying out
the hydrolysis in an acidic medium of the inner part of the rind of citrus peels, for instance:
Citrus limon (or Lemon) and Citrus aurantium belonging to the family Rutaceae, or from apple
pomace Malus sylvestris Mill (Syn: Pyrus malus Linn, family: Rosaceae).
Geographical Source Lemon and oranges are mostly grown in India, Africa and other tropical
countries. Apple is grown in the Himalayas, California, many European countries and the
countries located in the Mediterranean climatic zone.
Preparation The specific method of preparation of pectin is solely guided by the source of raw
material i.e., lemon/orange rind or apple pomace; besides the attempt to prepare either low
methoxy group or high methoxy group pectins.
In general, the preserved or freshly obtained lemon peels are gently boiled with approximately
20 times its weight of fresh water maintained duly at 90ºC for a duration of 30 minutes. The
effective pH (3.5 to 4.0) must be maintained with food grade lactic acid/citric acid/tartaric acid to
achieve maximum extraction. Once the boiling is completed the peels are mildly squeezed to
obtain the liquid portion which is then subjected to centrifugation to result into a clear solution.
From this resulting solution both proteins and starch contents are suitably removed by enzymatic
hydrolysis. The remaining solution is warmed to deactivate the added enzymes. The slightly
coloured solution is effectively decolourized with activated carbon or bone charcoal. Finally, the
pectin in its purest form is obtained by precipitation with water-miscible organic solvents (e.g.,
methanol, ethanol, acetone), washed with small quantities of solvent and dried in a vaccum oven
and stored in air-tight containers or polybags.
Note: As Pectin is fairly incompatible with Ca2+, hence due precautions must be taken to
avoid the contact of any metallic salts in the course of its preparation.
Appearance : Coarse or fine- powder
Colour : Yellowish white
Odour : Practically odourless
Taste : Mucilaginous taste
Solubility : 1. Completely soluble in 20 parts of water forming a solution containing negatively
charged and very much hydrated particles. 2. Dissolves more swiftly in water, if previously
moistened with sugar syrup, alcohol, glycerol or if first mixed with 3 or more parts of sucrose.
Chemical Constituents Pectin occurs naturally as the partial methyl ester of a (1→4) linked (+)
– polygalacturonate sequences interrupted with (1–2) – (–) – rhamnose residues. The neutral
that essentially form the side chains on the pectin molecules are namely: (+) – galactose, (–) –
arabinose, (+) – xylose, and (–) – fructose. Schneider and Bock (1938) put forward the following
probable structure for pectin galacturonan:

Chemical Tests
1. A 10% (w/v) solution gives rise to a solid gel on cooling.
2. A transparent gel or semigel results by the interaction of 5 ml of 1% solution of pectin with 1
ml of 2% solution of KOH and subsequently setting aside the mixture at an ambient temperature
for 15 minutes. The resulting gel on acidification with dilute HCl and brisk shaking yields a
voluminous and gelatinous colourless precipitate which on warming turns into white and
1. It is employed mostly as an intestinal demulscent. It is believed that the unchanged molecules
of polygalacturonic acids may exert an adsorbent action in the internal layers of the intestine,
thereby producing a protective action along with Kaolin to prevent and control diarrhoea.
2. As a pharmaceutical aid pectin is used frequently as an emulsifying agent and also as a gelling
agent preferably in an acidic medium.
3. It is employed extensively in the preparation of jellies and similar food products e.g., jams,
sauces, ketchups.
4. Pectin in the form of pastes exerts a bacteriostatic activity and hence, is used frequently in the
treatment of indolent ulcers and deep wounds.
5. A combination of pectin and gelatin find its application as an encapsulating agent in various
pharmaceutical formulations to afford sustained-release characteristics.

Test Questions

Multiple choice questions

1. Composition of Molisch reagent is

a) Alpha napthol + sulphuric acid

b) Beta napthol + sulphuric acid

c) Naphthylamine + sulphuric acid

d) Phenol + sulphuric acid

Ans : a

2. Chemical test used for identification of carbohydrates:

a) Ninhydrin b) Molisch

c) Borntrager d) Baljet

Ans: b

3. Important chemical constituent of Algin is:

a) Tragacanthin b) Bassorin

c) Alginic acid d) Alginic ester

Ans: c
4. Important chemical constituent honey is:

a) Glucose b) Fructose

c) Maltose d) Invert sugar

Ans: d

5. Pectin is used in the pharmaceutical industries as:

a) Adsorbent b) Demulcent

c) Emulsifying agent d) Suspending agent

Ans: a

6. Liquid glucose is obtained by:

a) Partial hydrolysis of glucose

b) Partial hydrolysis of starch

c) Complete hydrolysis of starch

d) Complete hydrolysis of glucose

Ana: b

7. The biological source for Indian gum is:

a) Cyamopsis tetragonoglobules b) Astragalus gamifer

c) Acacia Arabica d) Acacia Senegal

Ans : c

8. When Indian gum is treated with ruthenium red’ it shows:

a) Pink colour b) Red colour

c) Blue d) No colour change

Ans: d
9. When Indian gum is treated with hydrogen peroxide and benzidine in alcohol; is
shows blue colour due to:

a) Hydrolyase enzyme b) Oxidase enzyme

c) Reductase enzyme d) Invertase enzyme

Ans: b

10. The mostly used adulterant for Indian gum is:

i. Acacia Senegal gum

ii. Gum from Astragalus gummifer

iii. Gum ghatti from anogeissus latifolia

iv. Guar gum

Ans: c

11. Synonym for Guar gum:

a) Jaguar gum b) Acacia

c) Gum acacia d) Gum Arabica

Ans: a

12. When guar gum is treated with about 2% solution of lead acetate; it shows:

a) Pink colour b) Blue colour

c) Yellow colour d) No colour change

Ans: d

13. Artificial invert sugar is an adulterant for honey and it is detected by the test:

a) Tollen’s b) Ninhydrine

c) Baljet test d) Fiehe’s test

And: d

14. The water soluble portion of tragacanth is known as:

a) Tragacanthin b) Bassorin

c) Galctouronic acid d) D-galctopyranose

Ans: a

15. Pectin is used in the treatment of:

a) Ulcer b) Hypertension

c) Angina d) Diarrhoea

Ans: d

16. Biological source for Isapgol:

a) Plantago ovata b) Aegle marmelos

c) Giladinium amansii d) Condrus cripsus

Ans: a

17. Which test is used for the purity of Isapgol?

a) Barfoed test b) Millon’s test

c) Molisch test d) Swelling factor

Ans: d

18. When Isapgol is treated with rhuthenium red, it shows colour:

a) Blue b) Yellow

c) Pink c) Green

Ans: c

19. Isapgol seeds are adulterated with:

a) Plantago purshii b) Plantago lanciolata

c) Plantago aristala d) Plantago pysllium

Ans: b
20. Ager is used as:

a) Binder b) Disintigrant

c) Emulsifying agent d) Preservative

Ans: c

21. Amylum is the synonym for:

a) Tragacanth b) Starch

c) Inulin d) Locust bean

Ans: b

22. Rice starch is of size:

a) 2-12 micron b) 14-17 micron

c) 17-20 micron d) 20-25 micron

Ans: a

23. Wheat starch is of size:

a) 0.1 to 1 micron b) 2 to 3 micron

c) 3 to 5 micron d) 5 to 50 micron

Ans: d

24. The size of potato starch varies from:

a) 30 to 100 micron b) 100 to 130 micron

c) 130 to 10 micron d) 160 to 180 micron

Ans: a

25. Starch contains amylase and amylopectin in the proportion:

a) 1:2 b) 1:1

c) 1:3 d) 2:1
Ans: a

26. The test, which is not used for identification of carbohydrates:

a) Molisch test b) Osazone formation test

c) Ninhydrin test d) Resorcinol test

Ans: c

27. Keller kiliani test is used for identification of:

a) Fructose b) Maltose

c) Deoxy sugar d) Glucose

Ans: c

28. The synonym of Lactose is:

a) Milk sugar b) Butter sugar

c) Crystalline sugar d) Pure sugar

Ans: a


1. Name Biological source

a) Carageennan i) Acacia Arabica

b) Acacia ii) Chondrus crispus

c) Agar iii) Gelidium amansii

d) Gum ghatti iv) Anogeissus latifolia

Ans: a) ii b) i. c) iii d) iv

2. Carbohydrates Biological source

a) Tragacanth i) Cyamopsis tetragonolobus

b) Guar gum ii) Astragulus gummifer

c) Psyllium iii) Plantago ovata

d) Isapgol iv) Plantago psyllium

Ans: a) ii b) i. c) iv d) iii

3. Name Biological source

a) Honey i) Oryza sativa

b) Starch ii) Citrus limonis

c) Pectin iii) Apis species

d) Gum karaya iv) Sterculia urens

Ans: a) iii b) i. c) ii d) iv

4. Starch Size

a) Rice i) 2 to 110 um

b) Potato ii) 2 to 45 um

c) Wheat iii) 2 to 10 um

d) Maize iv) 10 to 30 um

Ans: a) iii b) i. c) ii d) iv

5. A Source

a) Wheat i) Zea mays

b) Maize ii) Oryza sativum

c) Rice iii) Triticum sativum

d) Potato iv) solanum tuberosum

Ans: a) iii b) i. c) ii d) iv

True or false
1. Plantago lanceolata is the substitute for isapgol........

A. True

B. False

2. Indian gum with gelatin, it is used to form micro-encapsulation.

A. True

B. False

3. Acacia senegal is adulterant for Acacia arabica.

A. True

B. False

4. Guaran is composed of 65% of mannose and 35% of galactose.

A. True

B. False

5. . Pectin is used in external hemorrhage condition.

A. True

B. False

6. Indian tragacanth is Astragalus gummifer.

A. True

B. False

7. Most of the gum are comes under Leguminoceae family.

A. True

B. False

8. Manihot esculanta is substituent of Amylum.

A. True
B. False

9. Dextrin is produced by fermentation.

A. True

B. False

10. Marsh test is for dextran.

A. True

B. False

11. Adulterated honey contain furan which is detected by fiehe's test.

A. True

B. False


Prepare an assignment on the role of carbohydrates as pharmaceutical aids .

Review Questions

Very short questions

1. Define carbohydrates
2. Give examples for monosaccharides.
3. Define polysaccharides.
4. Write Molisch’s test.
5. What is the range of Rf value for different sugars?
6. What is the biological source of Acacia?
7. Write the uses of tragacanth.
8. Give the chemical constituents of Pectin.
9. Write the adulterants for agar.
10. What are the uses of honey?
11. Write a note on swelling factor.
12. Write morphological characters of Guar gum.
13. How will you differentiate potato and maize starch?

Short questions

1. Write a note on history and occurrence of carbohydrates.

2. Write a short note on classification of carbohydrates.
3. Write about isolation of carbohydrates.
4. What are properties of carbohydrates?
5. How will identify carbohydrates?
6. Write a note on pharmaceutical importance of carbohydrates.
7. Write a short note on cultivation and collection of acacia.
8. Give the chemical tests for tragacanth?
9. Write a short note on preparation of corn starch.
10. Write a short note on chemical constituents and uses of agar.
11. Give the chemical tests and substitutes for isabgol.

Long questions

1. Explain in detail the isolation and identification of carbohydrates.

2. What are physical and chemical properties of carbohydrates? Add a note on occurrence.
3. Write in detail the pharmacognostic study of Acacia?
4. Write the biological source, collection, constituents and uses of tragacanth.
5. Explain in detail the source, preparation, chemical constituents and chemical tests of
6. Give various sources of starch and their preparation methods.
7. Write in detail the pharmacognostic study of Guar gum.
8. Explain in detail about plantago seeds.
9. Write a note on Pectin and its importance as pharmaceutical aid.

Previous questions

1. Classify the gums based on their types of occurrence?- Dec 2014

2. Write the systematic pharmacognostic study of Guar gum? Dec 2014
3. Write the Biological Source, Chemical Constituents, Identification Tests and Uses of
following: Dec 2014
(i) Acacia
(ii) Agar
4. Write the morphological characters, Standards and uses of following
(a) Agar
(b) Starch ---Mar 2014
5. Write the morphological characters, Standards and uses of following
(a) Tragacanth (b) Pectin Mar 2014
6. Describe the Pharmacognosy of Agar April 2011
7. What are Starches? Give their properties. Describe the manufacture of Maize starch.
April 2011s
8. Write the source, constituents and uses of Acacia and Honey April 2011
9. Describe the Pharmacognosy of Tragacanth and Honey April 2010
10. Write notes on Isabgol April 2010
11. Write the specific identification tests for tragacanth June 2007
12. Give the source, active constituents and uses of following June 2007
a) Agar b) Acacia

Reference Text Books

3. Text book of Pharmacognosy by C.K.Kokate and Purohit

4. Trease and Evan’s text book of pharmacognosy.
5. Pharmacognosy by Taylor, Brady and Robbers
Systematic Pharmacognostic study of the following Lipids: Castor oil, cod
liver oil, shark liver oil, linseed oil, cocoa butter, kokum butter, bees wax,
wool fat, hydrocarpus oil, spremaceti, lard and olive oil.
Systematic Pharmacognostic study of the following volatile oils: Mentha,
coriander, cinnamon, lemon oil,nutmeg, eucalyptus, ginger, cardamom, tulsi,
lemon grass, caraway, cumin, dill, clove, fennel and black pepper

Unit – VI Systematic Pharmacognostic study of Lipids volatile oils

Unit Objectives

After reading this Unit, you should be able to understand:

- Importance of fats and fixed oils.

- History of Terpenoids.
- Extraction of volatile oils.
- Medicinal uses of fixed and volatile oils
- Marine source of lipids.
- Various sources of fixed oils.
- Scheme of pharmacognostic study of Lipids and volatile oils.

1.1.1. Unit Outcomes

- Explain the extraction of volatile oils.

- Extract the applications of fats
- Elucidate various fixed oils
- Give different sources of volatile oils
- Debate on fixed and volatile oils
- Trace the principles of menthe and black pepper
- Bring out the difference between fats and fixed ils

1.1.2. Unit Lecture Plan

Lecture no. Topic Methodology Quick reference

1. Lipids introduction Chalk & Board Text book of
Pharmacognosy of
Biren shah and Avinash
seth 2
2. Castor oil, linseed oil. Chalk & Board Text book of
Pharmacognosy of
Biren shah and Avinash
seth 3
3. Cod liver oil, shark liver oil. Chalk & Board Text book of
Pharmacognosy of
Biren shah and Avinash
4. Cocoa butter, kokum butter. Chalk & Board Text book of
Pharmacognosy of
Biren shah and Avinash
seth 2
5. Bees wax, wool fat. Chalk & Board Text book of
Pharmacognosy of
Biren shah and Avinash
seth 2
6. Hydnocarpus oil, Chalk & Board Text book of
spermaceti. Pharmacognosy of
Biren shah and Avinash
seth 2
7. Lard and olive oil. Chalk & Board Text book of
Pharmacognosy of
Biren shah and Avinash
seth 2
8. Summary of unit- V Chalk & Board Text book of
Pharmacognosy of
Biren shah and Avinash
seth 2
9. Volatile oils Introduction Chalk & Board Text book of
Pharmacognosy of
Biren shah and Avinash
seth 2
10. Mentha, coriander. Chalk & Board Text book of
Pharmacognosy of
Biren shah and Avinash
seth 2
11. Cinnamon, lemon oil. Chalk & Board Text book of
Pharmacognosy of
Biren shah and Avinash
seth 2
12. Nutmeg, eucalyptus. Chalk & Board Text book of
Pharmacognosy of
Biren shah and Avinash
seth 2
13. Ginger, cardamom. Chalk & Board Text book of
Pharmacognosy of
Biren shah and Avinash
seth 2
14. Tulsi, lemon grass. Chalk & Board Text book of
Pharmacognosy of
Biren shah and Avinash
seth 2
15. Caraway, cumin. Chalk & Board Text book of
Pharmacognosy of
Biren shah and Avinash
seth 2
16. Dill, clove. Chalk & Board Text book of
Pharmacognosy of
Biren shah and Avinash
seth 2
17. Fennel and black pepper. Chalk & Board Text book of
Pharmacognosy of
Biren shah and Avinash
seth 2
18. Summary of unit-VI Chalk & Board Text book of
Pharmacognosy of
Biren shah and Avinash
seth 2

Lecture -1 Lipids introduction

Lipids are fatty substances and similar which are found in plants and animals. Like
carbohydrates and proteins constitute an important group of organic molecules with
pharmacological use and form a heterogeneous range of chemical functions.

Initially, lipids are grouped based on its solubility characteristics, in general, are soluble in
organic solvents such as ether and chloroform and are insoluble in water.

Classification of lipids

Lipids can be classified into five groups according to their chemical structure.

1. Fixed Oils and Fats: Esters of glycerin with fatty acids. E.g.: The olive oil. The fixed
oils which are solids at room temperature are commonly called greases. E.g.: lard.
2. Waxes: esters of monohydric alcohols of high molecular weight with fatty acids of high
molecular weight. E.g. the fat obtained from spermaceti.

3. Sterols: Alcohols with the typical structure of cyclopentane phenanthrene (steroid). E.g.
cholesterol and ergosterol.

4. Phospholipids: Esters consisting of glycerin, fatty acids, phosphoric acid and some
nitrogenous compounds. The most important of this group are the lecithins.

5. Glycolipids: are substances isolated from brain and other sources which are based on the
hydrolysis of fatty acids, galactose and nitrogenous compounds. Due to the most common
sugar present in these compounds is galactose they are also called galactolipids. These
compounds have no pharmaceutical application.

Fats, which are mostly from animal sources, have all single bonds between the carbons in their
fatty acid tails, thus all the carbons are also bonded to the maximum number of hydrogens
Since the fatty acids in these triglycerides contain the maximum possible amount of hydrogens,
these would be called saturated fats.

The hydrocarbon chains in these fatty acids are, thus, fairly straight and can pack closely
together, making these fats solid at room temperature

• Oils, mostly from plant sources, have some double bonds between some of the carbons in
the hydrocarbon tail, causing bends or “kinks” in the shape of the molecules.

• Because some of the carbons share double bonds, they’re not bonded to as many
hydrogens as they could if they weren’t double bonded to each other. Therefore these oils
are called unsaturated fats.

• Because of the kinks in the hydrocarbon tails, unsaturated fats (or oils) can’t pack as
closely together, making them liquid at room temperature.

• In unsaturated fatty acids, there are two ways the pieces of the hydrocarbon tail can be
arranged around a C=C double bond (cis and trans).

• In cis bonds, the two pieces of the carbon chain on either side of the double bond are
either both “up” or both “down,” such that both are on the same side of the molecule.

• In trans bonds, the two pieces of the molecule are on opposite sides of the double bond,
that is, one “up” and one “down” across from each other.

Naturally-occurring unsaturated vegetable oils have almost all cis bonds, but using oil for frying
causes some of the cis bonds to convert to trans bonds.

If oil is used only once like when you fry an egg, only a few of the bonds do this so it’s not too
bad. However, if oil is constantly reused, like in fast food French fry machines, more and more
of the cis bonds are changed to trans until significant numbers of fatty acids with trans bonds
build up. The reason for this concern is that fatty acids with trans bonds are carcinogenic, or

Although most vegetable oils are liquid at ordinary temperatures and most animal fats are solid,
there are notable exceptions, such as cocoa butter, which is a solid vegetable oil, and cod liver
oil, which is a liquid animal fat

Production of fixed oils and fats

• Fixed oils and fats of vegetable origin are obtained by:

1. Extraction by expression

Fixed oils are obtained by expression in hydraulic presses. If the expression is carried out
in the cold, the oil is known as”virgin oil" or”cold-pressed oil." In contrast, if the expression is
carried out in heat, the oil is known as a "hot-pressed oil."

2. Extraction by solvents

Sometimes organic solvents are used for the extraction of oils.

• Animal fats are separated from other tissues by rendering with steam, with or without
pressure. The heat melts the fat, which rises to the top and may be separated by


• Like fats, waxes are esters of fatty acids. The alcohol, however, is not glycerol but
usually a long-chain, high-molecular weight alcohol.

• In plants, waxes are generally found covering the external parts, like the epidermis of
leaves and fruits, where their main function is to prevent the loss of water.

• Wax is also produced by insects, e.g. the honeycombs of bees and wasps.


1. Wax is used in pharmacy to make soft ointments harder and to prepare lip salves.

2. The technical uses of waxes are substantial, e.g. in shoe polishes and car waxes.

Waxes ´ fixed oils and fats

• Wax has a melting point above approximately 45 °C (113 °F) (which differentiates waxes
from fats and oils).

• Fats and oils my be saponified by means of either aqueous or alcoholic alkali but waxes
are only saponified by alcoholic alkali. (This fact is used for the detection of fats when
added as adulterants to waxes).

Lecture 2

Castor Oil

Synonyms and regional Names:

Ben. – Bherenda; Guj. – Diveli; Hindi- Erand; Kan. – Haralenne.

Biological source:

Castor oil is the fixed oil obtained by cold expression from the seeds of Ricinus communis L.



Geographical source:

India and other tropical and subtropical countries


(i) Colour – Colourless or pale yellow.

(ii) Nature – Viscid liquid

(iii) Odour – Faint

(iv) Taste – Acrid and nauseating;

(v) Solubility – Soluble in alcohol in all proportions, chloroform and solvent ether.


Castor oil is obtained from castor seeds. Usually the oil is obtained after removing the seed coat
but sometimes it removing seed coats; seeds are placed in grooved rollers and crushed when testa
becomes loosened and is removed by blowing in air current.
The kernels are placed in oil-expellers and expressed at room temperature with 1 to 2 tons
pressure per square inch till about 30% oil is obtained. Oil is filtered but it contains a poisonous
principle ricin a ton albumin and enzyme lipase. To remove ricin, steam is passed into the oil at a
temperature between 80 to 100°, when ricin is coagulated and precipitated and lipase becomes
inactive. Oil is then filtered. This oil has 145 acidity and only this cold drawn castor oil is used
for medicinal purposes.


i. Weight per ml: 0.945-0.965 gm at 25°.

ii. Acetyl value: Not less than 143.

iii. Acid value: Not More than 2.0.

iv. Iodine value’:82-90.

v. Saponification value: 177-185

vi. Refractive index: 1, 4758 -1.4798 at 25°.

vii. Optical rotation: not less than +3.5°.

Chemical constituents:

i. Lipids- Fixed oils (45-55%).

ii. A mixture of triglyrides.

iii. Triricinolein (75%), which on hydrolysis yields ricinoleic acid responsible for the cathartic

Chemical tests:

When mixed with equal volume of dehydrated alcohol, the solution remains clear. When treated
with half of its volume petroleum ether (50-60°), it mixed comparatively but with twice its
volume it becomes turbid and partly soluble.


1. Cathartic (increases the movement of the bowels)

2. In soap industry.

3. As a lubricant.

4. Castor oil is used as plasticizer and in preparation flexible collodion.


Synonym Flax seed.

Biological Source It consists of the dried fully ripe seeds of Linum usitatissimum Linn.
Belonging to family Liliaceae.
Geographical Sources It is cultivated extensively as a source of fibres in Algeria, Egypt,
Greece, Italy and Spain; as a source of oil in Afghanistan, India and Turkey; and in Russia (now
CIS – countries) for both oil and fibre. It is also found in several temperate and tropical zones.
Preparation The cyanogenetic glycoside linamarin is prepared from the defatted oil meal,
seedskins or embryos of flax by standard methods available for glycosides.
Colour : Reddish brown
Odour : Characteristic odour
Shape : Oval and strongly flattened
Size : Length = 4-6 mm; Width = 2-3 mm.
Chemical Constituents The ripe seeds of linseed contain small quantitites of a cyanogenetic
glycosides known as linamarin (or phaseolunatin) as given below:
Interestingly, linamarin evolved HCN with linseed meal only but not with emulsin. However,
pure linamarin is a bitter needle like crystalline substance. It is freely soluble in water, cold
alcohol, hot acetone, slightly in hot ethyl acetate, ether, benzene, chloroform and practically
insoluble in petroleum ether.

Besides, linseed seeds comprise of fixed oil (33-43%) mucilage present in testa (6%), proteins
(25%) and an enzyme called linase.
Linamarin upon enzytmatic hydrolysis yields HCN which actualy renders the seeds highly
Chemical Test
The mucilage of linseed seed gives a distinct red colour on being treated with Ruthenium Red
1. Therapeutically, the linseed oil is mostly recommended for the external applications only;
liiments and lotions.
2. It is employed in the treatment of scabies and other skin disease in combination with pure
flowers of sulphur.
3. As the linseed oil has an inherent very high ‘iodine value’ it is used mostly in the
preparation of non staining ‘Iodine Ointment’ and several other products such as: ‘Cresol with
4. Commercially, it is one of the most important ‘drying oil’; and, therefore, substantially
huge amounts are exclusively used for varnishes and paints.
5. Linseed oil finds its extensive application in the manufacturer of soap, grease, polymer,
plasticizer, polish and linoleum.

Lecture -3

Cod Liver Oil


Oleum morrhi

Biological source:

It is processed from fresh liver of cod fish, Gadus morrhua and other species of Gadus.



Geographical source:

They are prepared in Scotland, Iceland, Germany, Denmark and Britain.

Method of preparation:

The fish are caught by nets, opened and livers are separated. The healthy livers free from gall
bladders are washed, minced, steamed in steam jacketed vessels or cars at a temperature not
exceeding 85°C for half an hour, cooled and buried in snow for several days. Special barrels are
used for this cooling process, which result in separation of stearin the steaming of oil destroys
enzyme lipase.


Colour – Pale yellow thin liquid

Taste – Slightly fishy

Odour – Fishy

It is freely soluble in chloroform, ether, carbon disulphide, and petroleum ether and slightly
soluble in alcohol.

Chemical constituents:

i. It contains of vitamin A and D.

ii. The oil contains glyceryl ester of oleic, linoleic, gadoleic, myristic. Palmitic and other acids.

iii. Cod liver oil also contains 7% eicosapaenoic acid and docosahexanoic acid.


1. The oil is used as source of vitamins

2. As a nutritive

3. Treatment of Rickets and Tuberculosis.

Shark Liver Oil


Oleum Selachoids.

Biological source:

Shark liver oil is obtained from the fresh or carefully preserved livers of the shark Hypoprion
brevirostris. It contains in 1 g not less than 6000 international Units of Vitamin A activity.

Geographical source:

In India, the shark livers are processed and oil is obtained on commercial scale in Tamil Nadu,
Maharashtra, and Kerala, European countries.


The livers are cleaned and minced. The minced mass is taken to a boiling pot, where the
temperature of 80°C is maintained. The oil is extracted with dehydrating agent to remove trace of
water. The oil is then taken to the vacuum still for dehydration and chilled to separate stearin.
Centrifuges are used to separate suspended materials in oil. The clear oil is manipulated to adjust
the desired strength of vitamin A. The oil being sensitive to light and air, all the while, care is
taken to minimize its exposures to sunlight and air.


Colour – Pale yellow to brown yellow

Odour – fishy;

Taste – Fishy and bland;

Solubility – Miscible in light petroleum (50-60°), ether, chloroform and slightly soluble in

Standards (IP):

i. Refractive index: 1.459-1.466

ii. Acid value: Not more than 2.

iii. Saponification value: 150-200

iv. Iodine value: 90-125

v. Unsaponification matter: Not less than 2 and not more than 10%

vi. Weight per ml: 0.900-0.912 gm at 25°C,

Chemical constituents:

Vitamin A and glycerides of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. The concentration of Vitamin
A ranges from 15000 to 30000 units per gram.


Source of vitamin A.

In the treatment of xerophthalmia (abnormal dryness of the surface of the conjunctiva)

In combination with vitamin D, it is given as a tonic and nutritive in cases of TB. It is used in
burn and sunburn ointments.


Preserve shark liver oil in a well-filled, well closed container, protected from light.

Lecture- 4

Cocoa Butter


Theobroma oil; Cacao butter

Biological source:
It is obtained from roasted seeds of Theobroma cacao L.



Geographical source:

Gold Coast, Nigeria, Brazil, Ecuador, Ceylon, and British, West Indies, Mexico, Sri Lanka, India

Preparation :

The seeds are first roasted to the seed coats brittle and easily separable. They are then passed
though rollers break off the seed coats, which are removed by winnowing. The kernels are
ground and the material strongly pressed at about 40-45°C, at which temperature oil of
Theobroma is a liquid. This is then passed through a filter-press, whereby suspended matter is
removed and a clear pale yellow oily liquid obtained. This sets upon cooling to form a brittle
solid. The seeds contain about 50% of fat.


(i) Colour – yellowish-white solid.

ii) Odour – Pleasant chocolate;

(iii) Taste – pleasant;

(iv) It is insoluble in water, but soluble in ether, chloroform, benzene and petroleum ether.


pecific gravity: 0.858-0.865

Melting point: 31-35°C.

Refractive index: 1.4637-1.4577

Sap. Value: 188-193.

Iodine value: 34-39

Chemical constituents:

It contains of glycerides of stearic acid (34%), oleic acid (37%), Palmitic acid (25%), and small
quantity of arachidic acid and linoleic acids. The non-greasiness of product is due to its
glycerides structure.


(i) Used as a base for suppositories and ointments,

(ii) Manufacture of creams and

(iii) Manufacture toilet soaps.


Mango kernel oil, which is a solid fat at room temperature and has a melting point of 35°C, is
used as substitute for cocoa butter.

Kokum Butter


Goa butter, kokum, kokum oil, mangosteen oil

Biological source:

It is fat obtained by expression from the seeds of Garcinia indica or Garcinia purpurea



Geographical source:

Kokum is native to the western coastal regions of southern India and is rarely seen beyond this
area. Cultivation is confined to the coastal hilly regions of Maharashtra, Goa, Karnataka and
northern Kerala.

Preparation :

Raw Kokum butter is a white coloured fat with a creamish yellow or at times even a slightly grey
tint which is extracted by traditional rural/cottage industry sized oil mills. Kokum seeds are
gathered from natural forest habitats. These seeds are decorticated by wooden mallets. The final
product is obtained by crushing the kernels, boiling the pulp in water and skimming off the fat
from the top or churning the crushed pulp with water. The idea here is to physically separate oil
from water as these two liquids are immiscible. It’s a time consuming process and the yield in
this case is only about 25% of raw Kokum butter.


(i) Colour –white or creamish yellowish

ii) Odour – Pleasant

(iii) Taste – pleasant;

(iv) It is insoluble in water, but soluble in ether, chloroform, benzene and petroleum ether.

Chemical constituents:

Seed contains 30% fat. Kokum consists of glyceride of stearic acid(55%), oleic acid (45%),
palmitic acid (2.5%), hydroxyl capric acid(10%), linoleic acid(1.5%).


Nutirtive, demulcent, astringent, emollient in dysentery and diarrhea. It is also used in skin
diseases, it has wound healing properties, as an ointment base, in suppositories, creams, lotions,
balms and make up foundations.

Lecture -5


Synonyms and regional names:

Bees wax; Cera-flava; Ben. And Hin.- Mom; Guj.- Min.; Kan.- Mena.

Biological source:
Yellow bees wax is purified wax and obtained from the honey comb of the bees Apis mellifera
and other species of Apis.



Geographical source:

It is prepared in California, Africa, France, Italy, West Africa and India.


Combs and capping of honey comb is kept in boiling water, for melting. The water soluble
impurities are dissolved and other impurities sinks in the water. On cooling, the melted wax gets
solidity and floats on the water surface. Wax is removed and process is repeated several times to
get pure yellow beeswax. This is bleached with charcoal, potassium per-magnate, chlorine,
ozone, chromic acid or hydrogen peroxide to obtained white beeswax. Natural bleaching is done
by exposing thin layer of yellow beeswax to sun light.


(i) Colour – White or Yellow

(ii) Odour – honey like

(iii) Taste – Waxy

(iv) Fracture – brittle and granular

(v) Solubility – Soluble in chloroform, ether and in both essential and fatty oils, but insoluble in


(i) M.P.-62-640,

(ii) Ref. Index at 80°: 1.4383 to 1.4420,

(iii) Sp. Gravity- 0.958 to 0.970.

(iv) Ester value: 80- 95

(v) Acid value: 5-8

Chemical constituents:

(i) Lipids like wax- myricyl palmitate (80%).

(ii) Wax -acid such as cerotic acid (15%).

(iii) Aromatic substances: Cerolein.

(iv) Cholesteryl ester.

(v) Lignoceric acid.

(vi) Myristolactone.

(vii) Myricyl alcohol and ceryl alcohol.

C16H53COOH- Cerotic acid:


As a pharmaceutical aid.

It is used in the preparation of plasters, ointments and polishes.

It is used in ointment for hardening purpose and in the manufacture of candles,

Moulds and in dental and electric industries.

It is also used in cosmetic for the preparation of lip-sticks and face creams.

Chemical test:

Fats, fixed oils and resin are often added to beeswax. These can be detected by the following test.

Saponification Cloud Test:

Boil 0.5 g beeswax for 10 min. in 8 ml of 10% sodium hydroxide solution. Make up the original
volume, filter through glass wool and acidify with HCI. If fats, fatty acids or resins are present a
precipitate is formed. Fats may be saponified potash, but are practically unaffected by aqueous


1. Carnauba wax.

2. Japan wax.

3. Solid paraffin.

4. Colophony.


Synonyms :

Lanolin, Hydrous wool fat, Aeps lanae

Biological Source :

Purified fat like substance (Secreted by the sebaceous glands of the sheep) obtained from the
wool of the sheep Ovis aries . Belongs to family Bovidae .

Geographical source : India (Less extent), Australia (Major), USA.

Preparation : Raw wool consists of crude lanolin, wool fibres , potassium salts of fatty acids.
Wool is sheared and treated with sulphuric acid or alkali soln Wool fat is removed in the form of
emulsion (Wool grease and water) Emulsion consists of crude lanolin purified by caustic soda
and bleaching agents Anhydrous wool fat 30% of water gives hydrous wool fat

Description :

Colour : Pale yellow solid

Odour : Faint and characteristic

Taste : Bland (mild, tasteless, not irritating)

Nature : Greasy
Chemical constituents :

Cholesterol (C 27 H 45 OH). Palmitic acid, lanopalmitic acid, myristic acid, lanoceric acid.

Identification test :

0.5 g Hydrous wool fat + 5ml chloroform + 1 ml aceti anhydride + 2 drops H 2 SO 4 . Deep
green color

Uses :

Water absorbable ointment base Ingredient in several water soluble creams Cosmetic
preparations Emollient Soaps


Hydnocarpus Oil


Chaulmoogra oil, Gynocardia oil

Biological source:

Chaulmoogra oil is the fatty oil obtained by cold expression from the fresh ripe seeds of
Hydnocarpus kurzii warb; Hydnocarpus weghtiana and Hydnocarpus anthelmintica.



Geographical source:

It found in East India, Burma, Thailand and Indochina.


Colour – Yellow or brownish yellow.

State – below 25° a white soft solid;

Odour – Characteristic, somewhat similar to that of rancid butter;

Taste – Acrid.

Chemical constituents:

Mixture of glycerides

Fatty acid-

i. Hydnocarpic acid:

ii. Chaulmoogric acid

iii. Gorlic acid

iv. Oleic acid Palmitic acid

Standards (IP):

i. Refractive index: 1.472-1.476

ii. Acid value: Not more than 13.

iii. Saponification value: 196-213

iv. Iodine value: 93-104

v. Specific rotation: Not less than +48° and not more than +60°.
vi. Weight per ml: 0.935-0.960 gm at 25°C,

Uses: It is used in the treatment of tuberculosis. Leprosy.



Sperma wax, cetaceum

Biological source:

It is waxy substance obtained from the head of Physeter macrocephalus and other species of



Geographical source:

Sperm whales are found mainly in pacific, Atlantic and India oceans. The coastal regions of
Mozambique, Zanzibar and Srilanka are the habitats of sperm whale

Preparation :

Spermaceti is extracted from oil by crystallization at 6 °C. When treated by pressure and a
chemical solution of caustic alkali, spermaceti forms brilliant white crystals that are hard but oily
to the touch, and are devoid of taste or smell.


(i) Colour –translucent, pearly white mass but becomes yellow on exposure to air

ii) Odour – odour less

(iii) Taste – tasteless

(iv) It is soluble in oils, chloroform,carbondisulfide boiling alcohol but insoluble in petroleum

ether and water.

Chemical constituents:
Spermaceti chiefly contain cetyl palmate, cetyl alcohol and esters of lauric acid, myristic acid
and stearic acid.


Emollient and in the preparation of ointment creams,

Lecture -7




Biological source:

It is purified internal fat obtained from the abdomen of the H hog Sus scrofa Linn.




The momentum and parts of peritoneum containing lard are washed thoroughly and minced to
break the membranous vesicles. It is subjected to temperature of about 50-55°C to melt the lard.
It is then separated by passing through muslin cloth. Cooling is done with proper stirring. The
entrapping of air should be avoided which otherwise helps to develop rancidity on storage.


Colour – white, homogenous fatty mass unctuous to rough;

Odour – slight;

Taste – bland;

It is insoluble in alcohol and in benzene, carbon disulphide, ether and chloroform.

Melting point: 34 to 41°C.

Specific gravity: 0.934 to 0.938.

Acid value: 0.1-0.2.

Iodine value: 52 to 56.

Saponification value: 192 to 198.

Refractive index: 1.4520 to 1.4550.

Unsaponification value: not more than 0.5%.

Chemical constituents:

i. Olein

ii. Stearin

iii. Palmitin.


It is used as an ointment base and in formulations where more effective absorption is desired.

Benzoinated lard contains benzoin resin as preservative.

Olive Oil


Oleum olivae, Sweet oil, Salad oil.

Biological source:

Olive oil is a fixed oil obtained by expression from pericarp of the ripe fruits of Olea europoea.


Geographical source:

The oil produced in California, Spain, Italy, France, South Africa and India. In India, Plant is
found in Himachal Pradesh, Kashmir and Nilgiri.

Collection and preparation:

The olive is an evergreen tree, about 12 metres in height. It gives drupaceous fruits about 2 to 3
cm in length. The unripe fruit is green colour and turn to purple when ripe. The mesocarp is
filled with oil. The fruit is collected in the month of December to April by shaking and beating
the tree.

The ripe fruit are crushed in an edge runner mill so that endocarp of fruit breaks. The pulps are
packed in bags and screw press mounts pressure. The oil is collected and water is added to
remove water-soluble impurities. The oil layer is skimmed off and filtered. The first quality oil is
called ‘Virgin oil’. The marc is again expressed and finally sends for solvent extraction. The
second extracted oil is edible oil and last quality of oil is technical quality oil.


i. Colour – pale yellow or greenish yellow liquid

ii. Odour – Slight characteristic

iii. Taste – Bland

iv. It is slightly soluble in alcohol and soluble in carbon disulphide, chloroform and ether.

Chemical constituents:

Glycerides of oleic acid, Palmitic acid, stearic acid, linoleic acid and arachidic acid.

1. Olive oil has demulcent, emollient and laxative properties.

2. It is used as a vehicle for oily parenteral preparations.

3. It is also used in the preparation of lubricants, plasters, textiles, soaps, cosmetics and
sulphonated oil.

Lecture -9

Volatile oils are mixture of hydrocarbon terpenes, sesquiterpenes and polyterpenes and their
oxygenated derivatives obtained from various parts of the plant. Volatile oils evaporate on
exposure to air at ordinary’ temperature and are the odorous constituents. As volatile oil oils are
responsible for the essence or odour of the plant they are also known as essential oils.

Volatile oils, when fresh, are colourless liquids. A few are crystalline or amorphous solid. On
long standing, they become darker in colour, especially when exposed to air and direct sunlight.
Volatile oil should, therefore, be stored in tightly closed amber-coloured bottles in a cool, dry
place. Volatile oils are slightly soluble in water but are readily soluble in ether, alcohol and most
of organic solvents. Smeared on paper, they give a translucent strain which temporary only,
disappearing as the oil volatilizes.

Volatile oil may present in plant parts:

Glandular hair: Mint stems and leaves (Labiatae)

Mesophyll: Eucalyptus leaves

Modified: Piperaceae, Parenchyma

Vittae: Anise (Umbelliferae)

Lysigenous or: Gossypium species

Schizogenous gland: Pinaceae, Rutaceae

All tissues: Conifers

Petals: Rose

Bark: Cinnamon

Rind: Orange

Heart wood: Sandal wood

The Properties of Terpenoids:

Most of terpenoids are Colourless liquids, which are lighter than water and boil between 150 and

Few terpenoids are solids, which are lighter than water, volatile in stream, usually highly
refractive and insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents. Many of these are optically

They are unsaturated compounds (open-chain or cyclic with one or more carbon atom rings)
having one or more double bonds. Consequently, terpenoids undergo addition reactions with
hydrogen, halogens, halogen acids, etc. some of them form hydrated. They also form
characteristic addition products with NO, NOCl and NOBr. These addition products are found to
be useful in the identification of terpenoids. A number of addition products have antiseptic
properties. They undergo polymerization, also dehydrogenation in the ring.

As they have olefin bonds, they are very easily oxidized nearly by all the oxidizing agents.

A number of terpenoids are liable and hence readily isomerized in the presence of acids into
more stable forms.

On thermal decomposition, most of the terpenoids yield isoprene as one of the products.

Extraction of Volatile Oils:

Expression Method:

The plant material is crushed and the juice is screened to remove the large particles. The
screened juice is centrifuged in a high-speed centrifugal machine when nearly half of the
essential oil is extracted. The other half of the oil is generally not extracted and such residue is
used for the isolation of inferior quality of oil by distillation. Citrus, lemon and grass oils are
extracted by this method.

Steam Distillation:

This is the most widely used method; the plant material is macerated and then steam distilled,
when the essential oils go into distillate from which they are extracted by the use of pure organic
volatile solvents, like light petroleum. However, the method should be used with a great care,
since some essential oils are decomposed during distillation and some (ester) are hydrolyzed to
none or less fragrant compounds.

Extraction by Mean of Volatile Solvent:

As described above some essential oil are sensitive to heat and hence decomposed during
distillation, in such cases the plant material is directly treated with light petrol at 50°C, and the
solvent is removed by distillation under reduce pressure.

Adsorption in Purified Fats (ENFLUERAGE):

The fat taken in glass plates is warmed to about 50°C, then its surface is covered with the petals
(part of the flower) and it is allowed to be kept as such for several days until the fat is saturated
with the essential oils for which the old petals may be replaced by the fresh ones. The petal are
then removed and fat is digested with ethyl alcohol when the essential oils present in the fat are
dissolved in ethyl alcohol and if some fat is also dissolve during digestion it is removed by
cooling to about 20°C.The extract having ethyl alcohol and essential oils is distilled under
reduced pressure to remove the solvent.

Classification of Volatile Oils

The most acceptable classification whereby volatile oils and volatile-oil containing drugs may
be grouped together are as follows, namely:
(i) Hydrocarbon volatileoils,
(ii) Alcohol volatile oils,
(iii) Aldehyde volatile oils,
(iv) Ketone volatile oils,
(v) Phenol volatile oils,
(vi) Phenolic ether volatile oils,
(vii) Oxide volatile oils, and
(viii) Ester volatile oils.
Lecture -10


Hindi- Dhania; San- Dhanyaka; Beng- Dhane; Tarn- Kottamalli and Engl- Coriander

Biological source:

It consists of the dried ripe fruits of Coriandrum sativum



Geographical source:

The plant coriander is indigenous to Italy. The plant is widely cultivated in India, Egypt, and
Morocco, Holland, Argentina, Eastern Europe, China, Russia and Bangladesh. In India, the plant
is cultivated throughout the country. Collection and Preparation the plant is an annual herb, about
0.7 to 1 metre height containing small white and pinkish flowers.

he green plant and unripe fruits gine unpleasant odour like bug but odour disappears during
ripping and change to an aromatic odour. Plants are cut and collected when fruits are ripening.
After drying, fruits are separated.

Macroscopic characters:

(i) Colour: Yellowish- brown to brown.

(ii) Odour: Aromatic

iii) Taste: Spicy and characteristic.

(iv) Shape: Sub-globular cremocarpous fruit

(v) Size: Fruits are 2-4 mm in diameter and 4- 30 mm in length

(vi) About 10 primary ridges and 8 secondary ridges are present. Primary ridge are wavy and
inconspicuous, while secondary ridge are straight. It is further described as an endospermic and a
coelospermic fruit. The weight of 100 fruits is approximately 1 g.
Microscopical characters of coriander:

1. Epicarp: Polygonal cells with occasional stomata and calcium oxalate crystal.

2. Mesocarp: Inner and outer layer of parenchyma with sclerenchyma in between.

3. Sclerenchyma in tangential and longitudinal bands.

4. Two vittae on the commissural surface and four lacunae on the dorsal surface.

5. Endocarp: Elongated cells forming parquetry layer.

6. Endosperm: Cellulosic parenchyma containing oil globules and aleurone grains.

Chemical Constituents:

1. Volatile oil:

(i) Main (+) linalool (coriandrol) and α-pinene

(ii) Limonene

(iii) α and γ-telpinene

(iv) P-cymene
(v) Camphor

(vi) Geraniol

(vii) Borneol

2. Fixed oil

3. Malic acid

4. Tannin

5. Vitamin A.


1. Carminative

2. Flavouring agent

3. Anthelmintic

4. Aromatic

5. Diuretic

6. Stimulant

7. Stomachic

8. Aphrodisiac.

9. Oil is used along with purgatives to prevent gripping

Powder analysis of coriander fruits:

1. Sclerenchymatous layer: Groups of fusiform fibres of sclerenchyma running way and at times
crossing with each other or with thin walled lignified cells of the mesocarp.
2. Endocarp: Fragments of parquetry arrangement of thin walled lignified cells with the
polygonal cells of mesocarp.

3. Vittae: Few brown fragments of vittae.

4. Endosperm: Fragments of endosperm with aleurone grains and oil globules.

5. Organoleptic characters:

a. Colour: Brown powder

b. Odour: Characteristic, aromatic

c. Taste: Spicy

Lecture- 11



Cinnamon bark, Kalmi-dalchini; Ceylon cinnamon

Biological source:

It consists of the dried inner bark of the shoots of coppiced trees of Cinnamomum zeylanicum
Nees (Cinnamomum verum J. S. Presl.)



Geographical source:

Cinnamon, the evergreen tree of tropical area, is considered to be native of Sri Lanka and
Malabar Coast of India. It is also found in Jamaica and Brazil. However, most of the world
requirements are met by Sri Lanka and hence true cinnamon is known as Sri Lanka cinnamon.

Cultivation and collection:

The trees are usually grown from seed in nurseries, and planted out on well-drained sandy or
clayey soil at altitudes up to 500 miters. Soil, temperature, rainfall, and drainage have
considerable influence on the quality of the bark. When the shoot of the seedling is few
centimeters high, the tip is cut off to encourage the formation of lateral branches.

These are allowed to grow for two years, or until the bark begins to turn brown with the
formation of a corky layer. The shoots are then 2-3 metres high, and 3-5 cm, in diameter.
Developed trees are copied to induce the formation of a corky layer. The shoots are then 2-3
metres high, and 3- 5 cm in diameter. Developed trees are coppiced to induce the formation of
numerous leafy shoots.


The shoots are usually cut down after the monsoons in May, but there is a smaller harvesting in
November. At these times sap movement is considerable, and the bark readily separates. Special
knives are used for peeling and scraping, as steel causes discoloration. Lateral branches and
leaves are cuts down the chute. To assist removal, the bark is rubbed with the handle of the knife.
The pieces are then heaped together, and covered to conserve moisture and heat, and thus induce
slight fermentation.
This facilities removal of outer bark, which would otherwise give a better taste and detract from
the appearance of the product for this operation each strip of bark is supported on a cylindrical
struck held on a tripod and the dark cork and greenish, pulpy cortex scraped off with special
curved knives.

The resistance of the hard sclerenchymatous pericyclic makes it possible to obtain a uniform
surface in this scraping process the prepared pieces are graded according to texture and colour
and then packed inside one another and fitted together lengthwise. They are next cut into 1.0
meter lengths, and dried first in the shade and later in the sun. These compound quills are finally
packed in bales of about 90 or 100 lb.

Macroscopical Character:

(i) Colour: The outer surface is dull yellowish-brown, while the inner surface is dark yellowish-

(ii) Odour: Fragrant.

(iii) Shape: Compound quill.

(iv) Size: About 1 meter in length and 1 cm in diameter. The thickness of the bark is
approximately 0.5 mm.

(v) Taste: Aromatic and sweet followed by warm sensation.

(vi) Fracture: Splintery.

(vii) The outer surface of the bark is marked by wavy longitudinal striations with small holes of
scars left by the branches. The inner surface also shows the longitudinal striations. Bark is free of

Chemical Constituents:

(i) About 0.5 to 1.0% of volatile oil,

(ii) 1.2% of tannins (phlobatannins),

(iii) Mucilage
(iv) Calcium oxalate

(v) Starch

(vi) Sweet substance known as mannitol.

(vii) Cinnamon oil contains 60-70% of cinnamaldehyde, 5-10% eugenol, and benzaldehyde,
cuminaldehyde and other terpenes like phellandrene, pinene, cymene, Caryophyllene, etc.

Chemical test:

On addition of a drop of ferric chloride solution to a drop of volatile oil, a pale green colour is
produced. With ferric chloride, cinnamic aldehyde give brown colour and eugenol gives blue
colour, resulting in the formation of pale green colour. In cassia oil, brown colour is obtained, as
it contains only cinnamic aldehyde.


1. Carminative.

2. Stomachic

3. Mild astringent

4. Flavouring agent

5. Aromatic

6. Used as a spice and condiment

7. Preparation of candy, dentrifies and perfumes.

8. Oil is powerful germicide

Substitutes and adulterants:

Jungle cinnamon:

It is the bark obtained from wild growing trees, which is dark in colour, less aromatic than the
cultivated trees and slightly bitter.

Cinnamon chips:

These are pieces of untrimmed bark. They can be distinguished from genuine drug by the
presence of abundant cork cells and by poor yield to 90% alcohol.

Saigon chips:

It consists of the bark of the trees of Cinnamomum loureirii (Lauraceae). It is exported from the
port of Saigon. It is also grown in China and Japan. The bark is Greyish-brown in colour with
light patches and sweet taste. Quills are 30x4x0.7 cm. unpeeled and contain 2.5°’0 of volatile oil.

Java cinnamon:

It is derived from Cinnamomum burmanii (Lauraceae). Bark is less aromatic, peeled and found
in the form of double quills. Histologically, medullary rays contain small tubular crystal of
calcium oxalate, not found in C. zeylanicum. It contains about 75% of cinnamaldehyde in the oil.
It also gives poor yield to 90% alcohol as compared to Sri Lanka cinnamon.

Powder analysis of cinnamon:

1. Organoleptic characters:

(i) Colour: Reddish brown powder

(ii) Odour: Characteristic, pleasant and aromatic.

(iii) Taste: Characteristic, pleasant and aromatic

2. Fibre: Isolated bast fibres measure 250- 600 microns in length and 15- 30 microns in breadth
3. Stone cells: Almost U shaped as one wall is thinner than the other three.

4. Starch grains: Abundant starch which does not measure more than 10 microns.

5. Calcium oxalate crystals: presence of small acicular raphides in the parenchyma

6. Oil cells: Big and isolated.

Lecture- 12



Myristica, Nux Moschata

Biological source:

Nutmeg consists of dried kernels of the seeds of Myristica fragrans houtt.



Geographical source:

It is Indigenous to Malacca Islands and cultivated in Indonesia. Caribbean islands and other
tropical countries. In India, it is cultivated in Kerala and Tamil Nadu.

Cultivation and Collection:

The plant is a dioeciously tree bearing female and male flowering separately. The drug is
obtained form female plants. Nutmeg thrives well in humid climate and grown in locations from
sea level to an altitude of 900m. The requirement of the rainfall is about 200 to 250 cm. sandy
loam and red lateritic soil is satisfactory for cultivation. The plant is cultivated by sowing the
seeds. Only freshly collected seeds are suitable for cultivation. Vegetative propagation of nutmeg
is also possible.

The seedlings are raised in the nursery beds. The seeds take about 2 to 3 months for germination.
When seedlings are about 16-18 months old, they are transplanted by keeping the distance of 8 to
9 m in between. The nutmeg essentially needs shade for its protection. If sufficient rain is not
available, irrigation is necessary.

Fertilizers and manures are provided to the plants from time to time. The sex of the plant is
determined and male trees are reduced to 10% of the total population. The plants throughout the
year produce fruits, but number is maximum form December to May. The fruits are suitable for
picking when the husk of the fully ripe nut splits, or else they are allowed to drop on the ground
after de-husking.

The red feathery aril (mace) covering the seed is detached from the seed shell by hands and
flattened out in the sun it takes about 4 to 8 weeks for drying of the drug in sun. Alternatively, it
is dried by artificial heat. Shells are broken up and nutmegs are removed. Normally, the full-
grown female tree, under favourable conditions, produces 2 to 3 thousand fruits per year,
weighing 10 kg and 1.5 to 3 kg of mace.
Thus, 100 female plants located in a hectare can produce 1000 kg of nutmegs and 150 to 300 kg
of mace. Commercially, the plantation is economical only when the plants are more than 10
years old. Volatile oil of nutmeg is highly fragrant yellow coloured liquid having 0.855-
0.9241, optical rotation +10 to 30° and refractive index 1.470-1.4880.

Macroscopical characters:

(i) Colour: Externally, the kernels are greenish-brown or brown.

(ii) Odour: Strongly aromatic.

(iii) Size: Kernel is about 20 to 30 mm in length and 20 mm broad

(iv) Shape: Ellipsoidal

(v) Taste: Pungent and aromatic.

Chemical Constituents:

Nutmeg contains 5 to 16% of volatile oil, and about 30% of fat. The volatile oil contains about 4
to 8% myristicin, elimicin and safrole. The fatty acid constituents of the fixed oil are myristic
acid (about 60%), Palmitic acid, oleic acid, lauric acid and other acids. The fat of nutmeg is also
known as nutmeg butter. The other constituents of the drug are protein and starch.


1. Aromatic.

2. Stimulant

3. Carminative

4. Flavouring agent

5. Used in soap Industry.

6. The fat and volatile oil of nutmeg are used in the treatment of rheumatism.

Substitutes and Adulterants:

Being costly, nutmegs are adulterated with inferior varieties or with the exhausted drug.
Myristica malabarica found in evergreen forests of Konkan in Maharashtra and in Kerala and
Myristica argentea are the two substitutes to the authentic drug.

The first is devoid of odour, while the latter is acrid in taste. The imitation of nutmeg, made by
molding the exhausted powder and flavouring can be distinguished by putting it into water
wherein the imitations break down quickly. Myristica heddomei found upto an altitude of 1200
metres in Kerala, Karnataka, and Tamil Nadu and Myristica attenuata cultivated in Gujarat and
Karnataka are the other substitutes for nutmeg.

Lecture -13



Zinziber; Guj. – Soonth; Hin. – Saunth

Biological source:

Ginger consists of the rhizomes of Zingiber officinale, Roscose and dried in the sun.



Geographical source:

Jamaica, South India (Cochin), Africa, Japan


The plant of ginger is a perennial herb about 1 metre high sympodial branching rhizome. For
cultivation the rhizome is cut into pieces and each piece containing a bud is planted into trenches
in well-drained and loamy soil in March or April.

The plant requires about 80 cm rainfalls per year and if rainfall is inadequate water may be
supplied by irrigation. Collection is done in December or January when the plants wither after
flowering period. Rhizomes are carefully dug out, aerial stems, fibrous roots and buds are

They are washed in remove mould and clay attached to them. Rhizome is peeled on flat surface
as well as between the fingers and thoroughly washed in running water. Drug is then dried
completely by keeping in the sun on mats, which are covered over-nights, and in rainy and
cloudy seasons. If moisture is present, drug may become moldy, after drying it loses about 70%
of its weight.

Jamaica ginger is derived of its cork and outer cortex (outer coat) and so it is called uncoated
ginger. This ginger is not bleached with calcium salts and so it is called unbleached. Ginger
cultivated and collected in January as above is called plantation ginger and is of high quality.
Jamaica exports to all parts of world more than 2 million pounds of ginger every year.

Cochin Ginger:

Cultivated in South India in the same way as described above. This ginger is only partially
peeled and bleached by dipping into milk of lime. Cochin ginger is thus coated and bleached.
Pungency of this ginger is the same as that of Jamaica ginger but it is less aromatic.

African Ginger:

This is darker and smaller than Cochin ginger. It is imperfectly washed and coated. In recent
years quality of this ginger has improved. This ginger is more pungent but lacks the aroma of
Jamaica ginger.

Macroscopical characters:

(i) General appearance: Sympodial branching, horizontal rhizome.

(ii) Size – Length 5-15 cm; width (height) 3 to 6 cm; thickness 0.5 to 1.5 cm.

(iii) Shape – Laterally flattened on the upper side with short flattened oblique, obviate branches
or fingers. Each branch is 1 to 3 cm long and at its apex shows a depresses scar of the stem.

(iv) Surface – Longitudinally striated with occasional projecting fibres

(v) Fracture – Short, starchy, fibrous.

(vi) Fractured surface – Show a narrow bark, a well-marked endodermis and a wide stele,
showing numerous scattered grayish points (fibro vascular bundles) and smaller yellowish points
(secretion cells).

(vii) Colour – Buff.

(viii) Odour – Agreeable and aromatic.

(ix) Taste – Agreeable and aromatic.

Microscopical characters of Ginger rhizome:

1. Cork:

(i) Outer cork: few layered, dark brown in colour, made of irregular parenchymatous cells.

(ii) Inner cork: Few layered, colourless parenchymatous cells radially arranged in regular rows.

2. Cortex: Thin walled, Cellulosic, rounded parenchyma with intercellular spaces.

3. Starch grains in parenchyma of cortex.

4. Closed collateral fibro-vascular bundles in the cortex.

5. Brown oleoresin cells.

6. Style: a ring of vascular bundles (without fibres) just below the endodermis, ground tissue of
parenchymatous cells with fibro vascular bundles, oleo- resin cells and starch.

7. Xylem yessels: annular, spiral or reticulate thickenings un-lignified.

8. Fibres: Thin walled with only centra’ lumen lignified with pectosic transverse septa.
Chemical Constituents:

Ginger contains 1 to 2% volatile oil, 5 to 8% pungent principle, resinous mass and starch.
Volatile oil is responsible for the aromatic smell and consists of zingiberene 6% sesquiterpenes
hydrocarbon zingiberol a sesquiterpenes alcohol and besaabolene.

Gingirol is a yellow pungent oily liquid and yields gingirone a ketone and aliphatic aldehyde.
Shagaol is formed by loss of water from gingerol. Shagaol and gingirone are less pungent. The
pungency of gingerol and ginger is destroyed, when boiled with 5% potassium hydroxide or
other alkalies.


1. Ginger is stomachic, stimulant and aromatic carminative.

2. It is used more as a spice.

3. Ginger oil is used in mouth washes, ginger beverages and liquors.

4. It is used as Flavouring agent.

5. Ginger powder has been reported to be effective in motion sickness.


Ginger is adulterated with exhausted ginger, but it can be detected by determination of water-
soluble ash, volatile oil content and alcohol and water soluble extractives.

Powder analysis of ginger:

1. Parenchyma:

Some of the cells contain yellow- brown oleo resinous bodies which occur either in fragments of
as droplets.

2. Starch grains:

Characteristic, abundant, simple, ovoid or sack shaped, 5 to 60 microns in length and have a
distinct eccentric hilum

3. Fibres and vessels:

Septate fibres groups associated with vessels, fibres mostly non-lignified.

4. Organoleptic characters:

(i) Colour: Pale yellow to cream powder

(ii) Odour: Pleasant, aromatic.

(iii) Taste: Characteristic and pungent taste


Vernacular name:

Hindi & Beng.-Chhoti elachi; Sans.-Upakunchika, ela; Mar.- Veldode.

Biological source:

Cardamom consists of the dried nearly ripe fruits of Elettaria cardamomum Var. minuscule. The
seeds of cardamom contain about 3-6% of volatile oil.



Geographical source:

Cardamom is grown in Ceylon, Sri Lanka, Myanmar (Burma), Malaysia and India. In India, the
plant is widely cultivated in Mysore and Kerala.

Collection and preparation:

The plant of cardamom is a perennial herb containing reed like structure. It is 3-4 meters in
height and three to four years old plant bears fruits. Cardamom fruits are in racemes. Flowering
and fruiting continue throughout the year. Crops are collected when the fruits are nearly ripe.
It is better to cut off each fruit at right stage with the help of a pair of short blade scissors. Fruits
are dried slowly. Rapid drying should be avoided because it may split the fruit to shed their
seeds. Sometimes fruits are bleached in the sunlight or by placing fruits tray the burning sulpher
calyx, stalk and split fruits are removed. The fruits are graded by means of sieves into long,
medium and short sized and also by means of quality.

Microscopical characters:

1. Testa:

The entire is covered on the external side by thin colourless, flattened or collapsed parenchyma
also called as membranous arillus. Testa can be broadly divided into outer and inner integuments.

2. Outer integument:

(i) Epidermis: Epidermis single layered, thick walled, narrow and axially elongated cells.

(ii) Outer parenchymatous layer: 1 or 2 layers, tangentially elongated cells.

(iii) Oil cell layer: Single layered which however become 2 to 3 layered near raphe, large
rectangular thin walled parenchymatous cells containing volatile oil.

(iv) Inner parenchymatous layer: Several layers of thin walled often obliterated parenchyma.

3. Inner integument:

(i) Sclerenchymatous layer: Sclerenchymatous layer dark brown, single layered bowl shaped
cells, radially elongated with anticlinal and inner walls very strongly thickened thus exhibiting a
narrow lumen, in which are present nodules of silica

(ii) Parenchyma: Single layered flattened cells.

4. Periderm:

Several layered thin walled parenchymatous cells packed with starch grains and single prism of
calcium oxalate.

5. Endosperm:
Thin walled colourless parenchymatous cells containing masses of protein.

6. Embryo:

Small cells containing aleurone

Macroscopical characters:

1. Seeds:

(i) Shape: Irregularly angular

(ii) Size: upto 4 mm length and 3 mm broad.

(iii) Colour: dark brown or reddish -brown

(iv) Surface: on one side there is a longitudinal groove, which indicates the position of raphe.
The helium is situated in a depression at the narrower end. The seeds are transversely rogues
with 6 to 8 rogue in the length of seed
(v) Odour: Aromatic

(vi) Taste: Aromatic

2. Fruit:

(i) Condition: Dry

(ii) Type: Trilocular capsule.

(iii) Size: Varies from 1 to 2 cm.

(iv) Shape: Ovoid or oblong

(v) Apex: Slightly pointed and beak like

(vi) Base: Rounded and shows the remains of a stalk.

(vii) Surface: Smooth with thin longitudinal striation.

(viii) Colour: Pale buff to pale greenish buff.

Chemical Constituents:

1. Volatile oil:

(i) 1,8-cineole

(ii) Limonene

(iii) Borneol

(iv) 1-terpeneol

(v) Terpenyl acetate

(vi) Geraniol.

2. Starch

3. Fixed oil
4. Resin

5. Calcium oxalate


1. Carminative (Relieve the excessive collection of gas in the stomach).

2. Flavouring agent.

3. Aromatic and stimulant.

4. Used in the preparation of compound cardamom tincture.

Allied Drugs:

1. Elettaria cardamomuri var. major:

This species is along, wild native of Sri Lanka. The fruits are much elongated, upto 4 cm in
length. The pericarp of fruits is dark brown in colour and coarsely striated.

2. Amomum aromaticum or A. subulatam:

Amomum aromaticum is found in bangal and Assam. It is commonly known as Bengal

cardamom (Bari elachi). A. subulatam is obtained from Nepal, Bengal, Sikkim and Assam. It is
commonly known as Nepal or Greater cardamom.

Lecture- 14



Sacred basil, Kali-Tulsi, Veranda

Biological source:

Tulsi consists of the fresh and dried leaves of Ocimum species like Ocimum sanctum L. and
Ocimum basilicum L. etc.


Macroscopical characters:

1. Green type of Ocimum sanctum leaves:

(i) Exstipulate, opposite, petiolate. Petiole 2.6 to 3.1 cm long, slender, thin, pubescent with
narrow adaxial groove; lamina elliptical to ovoid, oblong 5- 6 cm long and 2.6 to 3.2 cm broad,

(ii) Margin: Entire, irregularly undulated or bluntly serate.

(iii) Apex: Acute or obtuse.

(iv) Adaxial surface: Bright green

(v) Abaxial surface: pale green with prominent veins.

(vi) Venation: pinnately reticulate with 5-6, alternate pairs of lateral veins.

(vii) Odour: aromatic.

(viii) Taste: Pungent.

2. Purple type of Ocimum sanctum leaves:

(i) Opposite, Exstipulate, petiolate.

(ii) Petiole green with purplish tinge, 3.6 cm long, slender thin, less pubescent with narrow
inconspicuous adaxial groove.

(iii) Lamina elliptic to oblong, 5- 8 cm long, 2.6 to 3.6 cm broad.

(iv) Margin: Narrowly or distantly serrate.

(v) Apex: acute or obtuse, almost glabrous except at veins, aromatic with pungent taste, venation
pinnately reticulate with 5-7 lateral alternate pairs of veins, adaxial side dark green, abaxial side
dull green, veins prominent on both surface.
(vi) Odour: aromatic.

(vii) Taste: pungent.

Chemical Constituents:

Volatile oil (0.8%):

i. Eugenol, nerol, eugenol methyl ether,

ii. caryophyllene, terpinene-4-ol-decyladehyde,

iii. α-selinene, a and β-pinene,

iv. Camphor and carvacrol.

i. Cineole, linalool

Lemon Grass Oil


Indian oil of Verbena, Indian Melissa oil, Hin.-Gandha-bina-ka-tel, Ben- Gandhabenar tel; Mar-
Hirvacha tel

Biological source:

Lemon grass oil is the oil distilled from Cymbopogan flexuosus Stapf or Cymbopogan citrates



Production of oil:

The oil is obtained by steam distillation of the fresh herb which takes about 2-3 hours. The herb
should be distilled in the fresh state in the summer season otherwise an unpleasant odour is
developed. The bulk production of lemon grass oil is practically confined to Kerala state.
Total production of the oil in India is about 800 MT per year, while the total world demand for
the oil is 2500 MT. The lemon grass oil industry in India is facing a tough competition from
Guatemala which is maintaining its lead in International market both for the quality and quantity.


Lemon grass oil is a reddish yellow or brown, mobile oil. It has odour resembling that of lemon
oil. It is almost entirely soluble in 70% alcohol; the solubility gradually decreases on storage.

Chemical constituents:

i. Mainly contains citral and citronellal (75-85%

i. Geraniol,

iii. Nerol

iv. Linalool

v. Methyl heptenol

vi. Limonene

vii. The β-Ionone is used as precursor of vitamin- A


1. Flavouring agent

2. Perfuming agent

3. Used as a mosquito repellant

4. It is used as a source of citral for the preparation of P-ionone

5. The P- ionone is used as precursor of vitamin- A.

Uses :

1. Expectorant, bronchitis.

2. Stomachic

3. Carminative.

4. Stimulant

5. Flavouring agent

6. Refrigerant and febrifuge.

7. Antifertility agent.

8. Diaphoretic property.

9. Spasmolytic property.

10. Antibacterial.

11. Insecticide

12. Antiprotozoal.

Lecture- 15


Sans.-Sushavi; Hindi- Shiajira; Zira. Beng.- Jira; Tam.-Shimai- shembn; Tem.-Shimaisapu;

Bombay- Wilayati-zirah.

Biological source:

The drug consists of dried ripe fruits of the Carum carvi Linn.



Geographical source:

Caraway grows wildly and also cultivated in Holland, Denmark. Germany, England, Morocco,
Russia, Norway, Sweden and China. In India, wild caraway is found in Northern Himalaya
region. The plant is cultivated in the hills of Kashmir, Kumaon and Garhwal.

Cultivation and collection:

It is grown in dry and temperate climate. It needs humus soil. The total height of the plant is not
more than a metre. For cultivation, the dried seeds are sown by broadcasting method in rows.
The fruits are collected before ripening. The entire plants are dried and fruits are thrashed out.
The yield is about 0.5 tones per hectare.

Macroscopical characters:

i. Colour: Yellowish- brown

i. Size: 4-6 mm long and about 1.5 mm wide.

iii. Shape: The mericarp are elongated, 5-sided, narrow, tapering at the ends and are glabrous. It
shows the presence of slightly yellow primary ridges. Mericarp usually separate and free from
pedicel and carpophores. It is tuff orthospermous fruit.

iv. Odour: Characteristics and aromatics.

v. Taste: Characteristics and aromatics

Microscopical characters of caraway:

1. Four vittae on dorsal surface and two on the commissural surface.

2. Small schizogenous secretion canal on the top of the vascular bundle.

3. Epicarp: Polygonal tabular cells with occasional stomata and strongly striated cuticle.

4. Mesocarp of rounded parenchyma with some finely pitted Sclereids.

5. Endocarp: Elongated sub-rectangular cells.

6. Endosperm: Thick walled Cellulosic parenchymatous containing fixed oil and aleurone grains.

7. Rosette crystals of calcium oxalate in endosperm.

8. Carpophores of slender fibres.

9. Reticulate lignified parenchyma and parquetry layer absent.

Chemical Constituents:

1. Volatile oil:

i. Mainly contains carvone (50 to 60%) and limonene 1

i. α-pinene,

ii. α-phallandrane,

iii. carvol

2. Fixed oils (8-20%),

3. Resin,

4. Proteins.

5. Colouring matters and

6. Calcium oxalate crystal


1. Carminative

2. Flavouring agent.

3. Spice

4. Stimulant

5. Stomachic

6. Preparation of mouthwashes, toothpaste, chewing gums, soap and cosmetic, etc.

Lecture -16



Caryophylli; Clove buds; Clove flower; Lavang (Hindi); Laving (Guj).

Biological source:

It consists of the dried flower buds of Eugenia caryophyllus.



Geographical source:

Clove tree is a native of Molucca Islands (present in Indonesia). At present clove is cultivated
mainly in Island of Zanzibar, Pemba, Amboiana and Sumatra. It is also found in Madagascar,
Penang. Mauritius, West Indies and Ceylon.


Clove tree is evergreen and 15 to 20 meters in height. For cultivation seeds are sown in well-
drained suitable soil at a distance of about 25-cm. clove plant requires moist, warm and equable
climate with well distributed rainfall. During cultivation plants should be protected against pests
and diseases. In the beginning seeds cannot bear full sunlight, so protection is given by
constructing frames about 1 miter high and covering them with banana leaves.

Banana leaves gradually decay and more sun light falls on the young seedlings. When seedlings
are about 9 months old they are able to bear full sunlight. Then the frames are removed and when
seedlings are about 1 miter high they are transplanted at a distance of 6 meters in the beginning
of rainy season.

For the first two to three years young clove planting banana tree in between shades trees. Clove
can be collected every year from trees of 6 years old till they are 70 years old. Every year 3 to 4
kg clove can be collected from each tree. For continuous and regular supply every year new”
plantation are added.


Inflorescence of clove is panicle or compound receme and branches are opposite and decussate.
Clove buds are at first white, then green and finally become crimson-red in colour. Collection of
crimson-red coloured buds carried out in the dry weather from August to December. For
collection of buds, natives climb the trees or put ladders and pick the buds, with the stalk. Mobile
platforms are also used for collection

Trees are also beaten by means of bamboos sticks; clove buds fall on the ground and are
collected. After collection stalks are separated and then are put on coconut mats or concrete
floors and dried in sun. During night they are covered. Drying takes about three days. As a result
of drying clove buds become dark reddish-brown and loss about 70% of the weight. Clove is
then graded according to size, Condition and quality, packed into bales and exported.

Macroscopical characters:

(i) Size: Length varies from 12 to 17 mm.

(ii) Type: Actinomorphic, bisexual, epigynous. The flower bud has a spherical head and a sub-
cylindrical hypanthium tapering at the lower end.

(iii) Calyx: Polysepalous, 4 hard and thick sepals with oil glands

(iv) Corolla: Polypaptalous, 4 petals imbricate, enclose the stamens and forms the head of the
bud Androecium- numerous stamens, free and introrsely;

(v) Gymnasium: Binocular, inferior with ovules stamens, free Placentation axial.

(vi) Style: Single and erect.

(vii) Colour: Dark brown;

viii) Odour: Aromatic, spicy, Strong.

(ix) Taste: Pungent, aromatic.

(x) The volatile oil is situated in the schizolysigenous oil glands or ducts which are present in all
1 parts of the flower buds (hypodermis).

Microscopical characters of Clove flower bud:

Transverse section of clove hypanthium below the ovary shows epidermis, cortex and

1. Epidermis: Single layered small cells with straight walls and has a very thick cuticle.
Epidermal layer gets intercepted by Ranunculaceous type of stomata.

2. Cortex: The three distinct zones or regions in the cortex can be made out.

(a) The peripheral region containing 2 to 3 layers of big, ellipsoidal, schizo-lysigenous oil glands
embedded in the radially elongated parenchymatous cells.

(b) The middle region containing 1 or 2 rings of bicollateral vascular bundles associated with a
few pericyclic fibres, embedded in thick walled parenchyma and
(c) The inner region made of loosely arranged aerenchyma.

3. Columella: Forms the central cylinder containing thick walled parenchyma with a ring of
bicollateral vascular bundles towards the periphery of the cylinder. Numerous sphaeraphides are
seen scattered throughout the columella and to a certain extent in the middle cortical zone.
Chemical constituents:

1. Volatile oil (16-21%):- Phenol chiefly Eugenol (80-88), acetyl eugenol (10- 15%); α and β

2. Tannins (10-13%) – Pyrogallol tannins.

3. Other substances are methyl furfural and dimethyl furfural.


1. Antiseptic.

2. Stimulant.

3. Carminative.

4. Flavouring agent.

5. Local anaesthetic (Eugenol).

6. Spice

7. Used in toothache, dental preparations and mouthwashes.

8. Oil in perfumery.

9. Clove oil and zinc oxide are used in temporary filling of dental cavities.
Chemical Tests:

1. Treat a thick section of hypanthium’s of clove with 50% potassium hydroxide solution. Needle
shaped crystals of potassium eugenate are seen.

2. Place a drop of chloroform extract of clove or clove oil or eugenol on a slide and add to it a
drop of 30% aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide saturated with sodium bromide. Needle and
pear-shaped crystal of sodium euginate arranged in rosette are seen almost immediately.

3. Dissolve a drop of clove oil in 5 ml alcohol and add a drop of ferric chloride solution. Blue
colour is seen because of phenolic OH group of eugenol.

4. Prepare a decoction of clove and add to it ferric chloride solution. Blue-black colour is formed
because of the tannins.

Substitutes and Adulterants:

As per the official definition, clove bud should contain clove oil between 15 -21% and not less.
Sub-standard products will have obviously less than 15%.

Over ripe buds and immature buds do not contain the prescribed percentage of oil. At times the
oil is withdrawn internationally and cloves free of oil is mixed with genuine drug or sold as
much. The following are the usual adulterants.

1. Exhausted clove:

Volatile oil is partly or completely removed. As a result buds appear darker in colour, shrunken in
form and yield no oil even after pressing hard between the fingers.

2. Clove stalks:

The stalks, which creep in while collecting the buds. When present in excess are considered as
adulterants. These stalks do not contain essential oil but only to the tune of 5%. It is easy to spot
them out as they appeared dark brown, angular; trichotomously branched, with nodes enlarged
and with high percentage of crude fibre (13.6%). The crude fibre in official clove varies between
If in powdered form, excess of clove stalk can be made out by the presence of calcium oxalate
prism and large thick walled stone cells which however are absent in official clove powder.

3. Clove fruits (Mother clove):

These also contain clove oil but only around 3 to 5% and hence considered as an adulterant.
These cloves are distinctly larger (20-25 mm/ 10-17 mm), ovate and taper below. The single seed
present in the fruit contains starch, which is absent in clove bud. Using a simple micro chemical
test for starch, the adulterant can be detected.

4. Blown clove:

Here mature clove flowers without corolla and stamens are also admixed. These eventually are
very low in their oil content.

Lecture -17



Sanskrit- Misreya; Hindi- Sauf; Beng- Panmaury and Eng- Fennel.

Biological source:

The drug consists of the dried ripe fruit of Foeniculum vulgare Mill.



Geological source:

The plant widely cultivated in many parts of Europe, china, Russia, Egypt and India. In India, it
is commonly cultivated throughout the country and often grows wild.
Cultivation and Collection:

Fennel is cultivated by dibbling method. Quality fruits of good germination rate are sown just
before the spring. Free branching of herb and special arrangement of leaves (in hair like
segments) on the stem require plenty of space between two plants and row, as well.

Four to five seeds are put, at a time. A hole at distance of 25 cm in between them. Well-drained
and calcareous soil in sunny situation is found to be favourable for cultivation of funnel in India;
nearly 90% of the fennel production comes from Gujarat alone. The crop is kept free of weeds
and provided with suitable fertilizers. When the fruits are ripe, crop is harvested and dried in the
sun. Fruits are separated by thrashing.

Macroscopical Characters:

(i) Colour: Green to yellowish brown

(ii) Odour: Sweet aromatic.

(iii) Taste: Strongly aromatic

(iv) Size: 5 to 1 0x2 to 4 mm

(v) Shape: Straight or slightly curved.

It is five-sided fruit in the form of cremocarps with pedicels and rarely found in the form of
mericarps. Fruits are glabrous with straight, prominent, yellow coloured five primary ridges and
a bifid stylopod at the top. It is an orthospermous fruit. Transversely cut surface shows 2
commissural vittae and 4 dorsal vittae. The embryo is small embedded in upper end with
abundant oily endosperm.Commissural surface of the endosperm are not grooved.

Microscopical characters of Fennel fruit:

1. Pericarp:

(a) Epicarp: a layer of quadrangular to polygonal cells, with smooth cuticle.

(b) Mesocarp: Reticulate, lignified parenchyma surrounding the vascular bundles.

(c) Vascular bundles: Five in number, bicollateral present below eh ridge (Primary ridge).
(d) Vittae: Schizogenous oil cells, 4 on dorsal side, 2 on commissural surface/ ventral surface.
About 250 microns in maximum width, the walls are brown.

(e) Endocarp: Consist of narrow elongated cells having a parquetry arrangement (group of
parallel cells arranged in different directions).

2. Seed:

(a) Testa: Single layered yellowish brown in colour.

(b) Endosperm: Thick walled, polygonal, Cellulosic parenchyma containing oil globules (fixed
oil), aleurone, grains and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate.

(c) Raphe: A single ridge of vascular strands appears in the middle of commissural surface.

(d) Carpophores: With very thick walled sclerenchyma in 2 strands.

Chemical Constituents:

Fennel contains volatile oil (1-4%), fixed oil (9-12%) and proteins (20%). The chief constituents
of volatile oil are a phenolic ether anethole (50-60%) and ketone fenchone (18-20%). Anethole
has an aromatic odour and sweet taste whereas fenchone has a camphoraceous odour and taste.
Volatile oil also contains methyl chavicol, anisic aldehydes, α and β- pinene, ascorbic acid,
niacin, riboflavin, etc.


1. Flavouring oil agent

2. Carminative

3. Expectorant

4. Stimulant

5. Stomachic

6. Anthelmintic.

7. It is also useful in dental and mouth wash preparation due to pleasant taste of anethole.

8. Fennel water is useful in colic and flatulence in children


The drug is adulterated with exhausted fennel from which volatile oil has been extracted out by
steam distillation or volatile oil has been removed by treating with alcohol.

Test questions

1. The synonym for ‘Sesame oil’:

a) Hydrocarbons oil b) Margosa oil
c) Maize oil d) Gingally oil
Ans: d
2. In the patient with deficiency of vitamin A, which oil capsules you will suggest?
a) Shark liver oil b) Mustard oil
c) Arachis oil c) Linseed oil
Ans: a
3. Which of the following oil is used as vehicle of oily injectables?
a) Arachis oil b) Linseed oil
c) Castor oil d) Jojoba oil
Ans: a
4. Oil is having antileprotic property:
a) Linseed oil b) Jojoba oil
c) Chaulmoogra oil d) Corn oil
Ans: c
5. The oil is not used as vehicle for the injectables:
a) Arachis oil b) Olive oil
c) Sesame oil d) Corn oil
Ans: d
6. Oil is showing laxative property:
a) Arachis oil b) Sesame oil
c) Castor oil d) Corn oil
Ans: c
7. Acid value is defined as:
a) Number of milligram of potassium hydroxide required to neutralize one gram of
fat or oil
b) Number of gram of potassium hydroxide required to neutralize one gram of fat or
c) Number of Kilogram of potassium hydroxide required to neutralize one gram of
fat or oil
d) Number of ml of potassium hydroxide (5N) required to neutralize one gram of fat
or oil
Ans: a
2. The test not used as an analytical parameter for oil:
a) Acetyl value b) Acid value
c) Hydroxyl value d) Ketone value
Ans: d
3. Which oil generally lowers the blood cholesterol level?
a) Arachis oil b) Castor oil
c) Neem oil d) Corn oil
Ans: d
4. Drug Source
a) Seame oil i) Hydrocarpus wightiana
b) Chaulmoogra oil ii) Zea mays
c) Corn oil iii) Sesamum indicum
d) Safflower oil iv) Carthmus tinctorius
Ans: a) iii b) i. c) ii d) iv

1. Terpenes made up of :
a) Calcierene b) Pseudopriene
c) Neoprene d) Isoprene
Ans: d
2. Molecular formula for isoprene unit is:
a) C8 H8 b) C3 H8
c) C5 H8 d) C6 H6
Ans: c
3. Example of alcohol volatile oil:
a) Peppermint b) Cinnamon
c) Lemon peel d) Orange peel
Ans: a
4. Which is not an example of ester volatile oil?
a) Gaultheria b) Lavender
c) Muster d) Cinnamon
Ans: d
5. Drug is not an example of phenol volatile oil:
a) Clove b) Anise
c) Creosote d) Thyme
Ans: b
6. The major terpenoid in clove oil:
a) Eugenol b) Santalol
c) Anethol d) Menthol
Ans: a
7. Triterpenes contain number of isoprene units:
a) Four b) Five
c) Six d) Seven
Ans: c
8. Diterpenes contain number of isoprene units:
a) Three b) Four
c) Five d) Six
Ans: b
9. Monoterpenes contain number of isoprene units:
a) One b) Three
c) Two d) Four
Ans: c
10. Lemon grass oil is obtained from :
a) Cymbopogon flexuousus b) Cinnamonum camphora
c) Eucalyptus globules d) Chenopodium ambrosioides
Ans: a
11. Beta ionine is starting material for synthesis of:
a) Vitamin K b) Vitamin B1
c) Vitamin A d) Vitamin D
Ans: c
12. Cymbopogon flexuousus belongs to family:
a) Graminnae b) Liliaceae
c) Legumniosae d) Loganaceae
Ans: a
13. Synonym for peppermint oil is:
a) Mentha oil b) Oleum terbinthae
c) Eucalyptus d) Chenoposan
Ans: a
14. Peppermint oil contains chiefly:
a) I-menthol b) d-menthol
c) Citral d) Cineole
Ans: a
15. Cardamom belongs to family:
a) Liliaceae b) Loganaceae
c) Apocyanaceae d) Zingiberaceae
Ans: d
16. Allepy variety of cardamom has approx. size:
a) 4 to 10 mm b) 2 to 4 mm
c) 8 to 20 mm d) 6 to 12 mm
Ans: c
17. The chief active constituent of fennel:
a) Carvone b) Borneol
c) Dill-Apiole d) Fenchone
Ans: d
18. Biological source for Nutmeg:
a) foeniculum vulgare b) Coriandrum sativum
c) Myristica fragrans d) Elettaria cardamom
Ans: c
19. Nutmeg belongs to family:
a) Luraceae b) Umbelliferae
c) Myristicaceae d) Zingiberaceae
Ans: c
20. Drug, which does not, belong to family umbelliferae:
a) Caraway b) Coriander
c) Ajowan d) Cardamom
Ans: d
21. Nutmeg contains percentage of volatile oil:
a) 5 to 16% b) 10 to 20 %
c) 15 to 25% d) 20 to 30 %
Ans: a
22. Fennel contains percentage of volatile oil:
a) 3 to 7 % b) 7 to 10%
c) 10 to 13 % d) 13 to 155
Ans: a
23. Nutmeg should contain volatile oil not less than:
a) 1 % w/v b) 2% w/v
c) 3 % w/v d) 5 % w/v
Ans: d
24. Volatile oil in Coriander should not less than:
a) 0.3% b) 3.0%
c) 3.3% d) 4.4%
Ans: a
25. Cardamon contains volatile oil not less than:
a) 1% b) 0.4 %
c) 2.0% d) 4.0 %
Ans: d
26. Peppermint oil contains important terpenoid:
a) Geraniol b) Anethol
c) Menthol d) Eugenol
Ans: c
27. The clove oil contains important terpenoid:
a) Eugenol b) Anethol
c) Menthol d) Cineol
Ans: a

28. Fennel contains type of stomata:

a) Diacytic b) Actinocytic
c) Anisocytic d) Anomocytic
Ans: d
29. Exhuasted fennel is identified by absence of :
a) Fenchone b) Anethol
c) Carvone d) Cineol
Ans: a
30. Which variety of fennel contains least percentage of volatile oil content?
a) Indian b) Saxony
c) French sweet d) Japanese
Ans: a
31. The fat of nutmeg is known as:
a) Ghee b) Nutmeg oil
c) Nutmeg butter d) Nutmeg protein
Ans: c
32. Cinnamom bark does not contain:
a) Cinnamaldehyde b) Tannins
c) Coumarin d) Benzaldehyde
Ans: c
33. The biological source of cinnamon:
a) Cinnamomum zeylanicum b) Cinnamomum cassia blume
c) Cinnamomum burmanii d) Cinnamomum loireirii
Ans: c
34. Biological source of Garlic is:
a) Allium sativum b) Pinus roxburghii
c) Thymus vulgaris d) Santalum album
Ans: a
35. ______ is not the use of Allium sativum.
a) Carminative b) Aphrodisiac
c) Atherosclerosis d) Antiulcer
Ans: d
36. The family of Ocimum sanctum:
a) Labiatae b) Liliaceae
c) Lauraceae d) Loganaceae
Ans: a

37. ‘Holy basil’ is the synonym for drug:

a) Alpinia officinarum b) Allium sativum
c) Nardostachys jatamonum d) Ocium sanctum
Ans: d
38. Alkaloid present in Black pepper is:
a) Caryophyllene b) Cinnamaldehyde
c) 1-phellandrene d) Piperine
Ans: d
39. Drug which does not belong to family Umbelliferae:
a) Cumin b) Anise
c) Lavender oil d) Celery
Ans: c
40. The percentage of clove oil in clove should not be less than:
a) 15% b) 10%
c) 5% d) 1%
Ans: a
41. Does not occur in clove:
a) Starch b) Volatile oil
c) Tannins d) Resins
Ans: a
42. When transverse section of clove is treated with potassium hydroxide
solution, it gives:
a) Strong odor of volatile oil
b) H2 S gas is evolved
c) CO2 is evolved
d) Needle shaped crystals of potassium eugeonate
Ans: d
2. Clove oil is used in the manufacturing of :
a) Salicylic acid b) Vanillin
c) Cinnamic acid d) Benzoic acid
Ans: b
3. Which is not used as an adulterant for clove?
a) Mother clove b) Blown clove
c) Clove stalk d) Pale clove
Ans: d
4. Clove stalk contains approximate percentage of volatile oil:
a) 5% b) 10%
c) 15% d) 20%
Ans: a
5. Oil which does not belong to alcohol class:
a) Nutmeg b) Sandalwood
c) Lemon grass d) Lavender
Ans: c
6. The oil, which is not belonging to aldehyde class:
a) Dill oil b) Cinnamon oil
c) Lemon grass oil d) Lemon oil
Ans: a
7. The oil, which is having counter irritant property:
a) Thyme b) Turpentine oil
c) Peppermint d) Orange oil
Ans: b
8. Fennel contains percentage of volatile oil:
a) 10 to 20% b) 20 to 30%
c) 30 to 40% d) 65 to 70%
Ans: d


1. Volatile oil Source

a) Turpentine oil i) Cymbopogon citratus
b) Lemon grass oil ii) Santalum album
c) Sandal wood oil iii) Artemisia pallens
d) Davana oil iv) Punus species
Ans: a) iv b) i c) ii. d) iii
2. Turpentine class Number of isoprene units
a) Sesquiterpine i) Two
b) Monoterpene ii) Four
c) Diterpene iii) Three
d) Triterpene iv) Six
Ans: a) iii b) i. c) ii d) iv
3. Drug Source
a) Cardamom i) Coriandrum sativum
b) Caraway ii) Carum carvi
c) Coriander iii) Anethum graveolens
d) Dill iv) Elettaria cardamomum
Ans: a) iv b) ii c) i. d) iii
4. Source Family
a) Anethum graveolens i) Rutanceae
b) Citrus limonis ii) Umbelliferae
c) Nutmeg iii) Lauraceae
d) Cassia cinnamon iv) Myristicaceae
Ans: a) ii b) i. c) iv d) iii
5. Drug Volatile oil not less than
a) Coriander i) 2.0%
b) Ajowan ii) 2.5%
c) Dill iii) 1.4%
d) Fennel iv) 0.3%
Ans: a) iv b) i. c) ii d) iii
6. Adulterants for clove Characteristics
a) Mother clove i) Expanded flowers of clove trees.
b) Blown cloves ii) Contain only 5% of oil.
c) Clove stalks iii) Oil is removed from clove.
d) Exhausted clove iv) Dark brown, ovate and ripened
Fruits of clove
Ans: a) iv b) i. c) ii d) iii

Review questions

Very short questions

1. Define lipids.
2. Define Terpenoids.
3. Differentiate lipids and fixed oils.
4. Give adulterants of clove
5. Write the source of lard
6. Write any marine sources lipids
7. Give example for volatile oil containing drugs
8. How will you differentiate fixed oils and volatile oils?
9. Write the adulterants of clove.
10. Write the source of coriander.

Short questions
1. Write the source, chemical constituents and uses of spermaceti.
2. Give the chemical constituents and chemical tests for wool fat.
3. Write a note on lard.
4. Write a note on morphology of fennel.
5. Write the microscopy of coriander.
6. Write uses of clove and cinnamon.
7. Write a note on cultivation of nutmeg.
8. Give the microscopy of eucalyptus.
9. Write a note on chemical constituents of cardamom.
10. Write the microscopy of ginger.
Long questions
1. Write the pharmacognosy of Cardamom.
2. Write in detail about cultivation, collection and uses of Clove.
3. Explain in detail about nutmeg.
4. Write in detail about preparation of medicinal castor oil.
5. Explain about eucalyptus.
6. Write the pharmacognosy of Fennel.
7. Explain in detail about lemon grass oil.
8. Write the microscopy and uses of coriander.
9. Write in detail about cultivation, collection and uses of lemon oil
10. Explain in detail about dill.

Previous questions

1. Write the systematic pharmacognostic study of Shark liver oil? Dec 2014
2. Define Volatile oils? Write the systematic pharmacognostic study of Eucalyptus oil? Dec
3. Discuss about marine sources of drugs with suitable examples? Dec 2014
4. Write the Biological Source, Chemical Constituents, Identification Tests and Uses of
following: Wool fat Castor oil Dec 2014
5. Give an account on synonym, biological source, method of preparation, chemical
constituents and uses of Cocoa butter. Mar 2014
6. Explain about systematic pharmacognostic study of Olive oil. Mar 2014
7. Discuss the name, synonym, biologigal source, cultivation & collection and
macroscopical characters, microscopical characters , chemical constituents, uses,
substituent and adulterants of cinnamon bark. Mar 2014
8. What are lipids? Classify them with examples. Explain the systematic pharmacognostic
study of lard. Mar 2014
9. Write the synonym, biological source, method of preparation, chemical constituents,
identification tests and uses of Shark Liver oil. Mar 2014
10. Give a detailed account of synonym, biological source, cultivation & collection and
macroscopical characters, chemical constituents, uses, substituent and adulterants of
Nutmeg. Mar 2014
11. Write the Pharmacognosy of Castor oil and Linseed oil April 2011
12. Write notes on Beeswax and woolfat April 2011
13. Give the source, cultivation, collection constituents and uses of Cloves April 2011
14. Write a detail note on Eucalyptus and Dill April 2011
15. Write notes on Cinnamon April 2011

Reference Text Books

1. Text book of Pharmacognosy by C.K.Kokate and Purohit

2. Trease and Evan’s text book of pharmacognosy.
3. Pharmacognosy by Taylor, Brady and Robbers

Reference text books/web material etc.,

1. Text book of Pharmacognosy by C.K.Kokate and Purohit.

2. Trease and Evan’s text book of pharmacognosy.
3. Pharmacognosy by Taylor, Brady and Robbers.
4. Text book of pharmacognosy by Biren shah and Avinash seth.
5. T.E.Wallis text of pharmacognosy.
3. Mid Question Paper + Schemes of Evaluation.


1. Explain the following.

a) Definition and history of pharmacognosy 5M
b) Alternative medicine system 5M
c) Source of crude drugs 5M

2. a) Explain about classification of crude drugs 7M

b) Explain about plant growth regulators 8M

3. a) Enumerate what the factors effect on cultivation of crude drugs? 10M

b) Write a note on
i) Hybridization 2M

ii) Collection and storage of crude drugs. 3M


Subject: Pharmacognosy-I Total
marks: 45M
Scheme of valuation
1. Explain the following.
b) Definition and history of pharmacognosy 5M
Definition - 2M
History - 3M
b) Alternative medicine system 5M
Ayurvedic System -2M
Homeopathy -1M
Unani -1M
Miscellaneous -1M
c) Source of crude drugs 5M
Plant Source -1 M
Animal Source -1 M
Microbial Source -1 M
Marine Source -1 M
Marine Source -1 M

2. a) Explain about classification of crude drugs 7M

Alphabetical classification -1M
Morphological classification -1M
Taxonomical classification -1M
Chemical classification -1M
Chemotaxonomical classification -1M

b) Explain about plant growth regulators 8M

Auxins 2M
Gibberellins 2M
Cytokinins 1.5M
Abscisic acid 1M
Etylene 1M
Miscellaneous 0.5M
3. a) Enumerate what the factors effect on cultivation of crude drugs? 10M
Altitude -1M
Temperature -1M
Irrigation -1M
Fertilizers -2M
Soil & Soil fertility -2M
Pest and pest control -3M

b) Write a note on
i) Hybridization 2M
Definition and examples -2M

ii) Collection and storage of crude drugs. 3M

Collection -1.5 M
Storage -1.5 M
Fast track material for Back-Log students.


History, Definitions and Scope of Pharmacognosy

The history of natural products in medicine
• A great proportion of the natural products used as drugs
• The study of drugs used by traditional healers is an important object of pharmacognostical
• Sumerians and Akkadians (3rd millennium BC)
• Egyptians (Ebers papyrus, 1550 BC)
• Hippocrates (460-377 BC) “The Father of Medicine”
• Dioscorides (40-80 AD) “De Materia Medica” (600 medicinal plants)
• The Islamic era Ibn Altabari (770−850) ”‫“همكحل سودرف‬
• Ibn Sina (980-1037) "”‫بطل يف نوناقل‬
• Ibn Albitar (1148-1197) ”‫“ةيذغلاأو ةيودلاأ تادرفمل عماجل‬
• The era of European exploration (16th and 17th century)
• The 18th century, Pharmacognosy:
o Johann Adam (1759-1809) :surgeon and ophthalmologist" In 1811 his Lehrbuch der Materia
Medica was published, which was a work on medicinal plants and their properties. Linnaeus
(naming and classifying plants)
o At the end of the 18th century, crude drugs were still being used as powders, simple extracts, or
o The era of pure compounds (In 1803, a new era in the history of medicine)
� Isolation of morphine from opium
� Strychnine (1817)
� Quinine and caffeine (1820)
� Nicotine (1828)
� Atropine (1833)
� Cocaine (1855)
• In the 19th century, the chemical structures of many of the isolated compounds were
• In the 20th century, the discovery of important drugs from the animal kingdom, particularly
hormones and vitamins.
• microorganisms have become a very important source of drugs
• Pharmacognosy is the oldest of all pharmacy sciences
• The name “Pharmacognosy “derived from the Greek Pharmacon, a drug, and gignosco, acquire
knowledge(the entire meaning of drugs)
• Definition of pharmacognosy:
It is the science of biogenic or nature-derived pharmaceuticals and poisons
• Pharmacognosy is related to both botany and plant chemistry “Phytochemistry “, and its history
entitles it to be regarded as parent of both.

Traditional medicine:
Traditional Medicine is the systems of medicine based on cultural beliefs and practices handed
down from generation to generation
• Crude drugs:
It is used for those natural products such as plants or part of plants, extracts and exudates which
are not pure compounds and used in medicine
• Natural products:
they can be
1. Entire organism (plant, animal, organism)
2. Part of an organism (a leaf or flower of a plant, an isolated gland or other organ of an
3. An extract or an exudate of an organism
4. Isolated pure compounds
5. • Value of natural products
6. Compounds from natural sources play four significant roles in modern medicine:
7. They provide a number of extremely useful drugs that are difficult, if not impossible, to
produce commercially by synthetic means
8. Natural sources also supply basic compounds that may be modified slightly to render
them more effective or less toxic
9. Their utility as prototypes or models for synthetic drugs possessing physiologic activities
similar to the originals
10. Some natural products contain compounds that demonstrate little or no activity
themselves but which can be modified by chemical or biological methods to produce
potent drugs not easily obtained by other methods
11. Baccatin III Taxol
12. • Function of Pharmacognosist:
13. Identification of the drug sources
14. Determination of the morphological character
15. Investigation of potency, purity, and admixture
16. Planning and designing of the cultivation of medicinal plant
17. Prescription of the detail processes of collection, drying and preservation
18. . Knowledge about active constituents, chemical nature and uses

Traditional systems of medicine


Ayurveda is the dominant herbal tradition inIndia. It still enjoys the faith of a large numberof
people of our country though it is It is encouraged inperhaps ,the oldest system of healing in the
world. many countries like Japan,Germany etc

Definition• The term “ Ayurveda” is derived from twoSanskrit words , Ayur and Veda .• Ayur
means life and Veda means knowledgeor science.• Therefore Ayurveda means science of life
orway of life.

• Ayurveda incorporates science, religion andphilosophy in it.• Besides, dealing with principles
formaintenance of health , it as also developed awide range therapeutic measures to

Principle• The principle of Ayurveda is based on theconcept of five basic elements and
tridoshas.According to Ayurveda, the whole universemade up of five basic elements
( Panchamahabuthas)

• The whole universe includes the materialworld, plant kingdom and all other livingbeings. In
other words ,these five elementstogether form the basis of all matter. The fiveelements are –
Akasha (ether), Vayu ( air),Agni (fire), Jala (water), Prithvi (earth)
There is a balanced condensation of theseelements in different proportions to suit theneeds and
requirements of differentstructures and functions of the body matrixand its parts. The growth and
developmentof body matrix depends on its nutrition i.e..on food. The food, in turn, is composed
ofabove elements.

• The health or sickness depends on thepresence or absence of a balanced state ofthe total body
matrix including the balancebetween its different constituents .• The properties , location and
manifestationsof these elements are as follows

• Ether is non resistance, it is located in hebody cavities like mouth, thorax, abdomen,lung cavity,
digestive tract.• Air is related to movements, vibrations andoscillations. They manifests
movement ofmuscles, pulsation of heart, expansion andcontraction of lungs, functioning of
digestiveand nervous systems.

• Fire concerned to radiation, it manifestsdigestion, metabolism, temperature, visionand

intelligence.• Water is related to force and cohesion.Located in cytoplasm, blood, salivary
glands,gastric juice.

• Earth is concerned to resistance andsolidarity. They manifests skin, nails, hairs andbones.•
These elements manifest in the functioning ofour scenes.• They are also closely related to our
ability toperceive and interact with environment.

TRIDOSHAS• The five elements combine to form “ Tri Doshas”i.e Vata, Pitta, and Kappha.
They are the “ BasicForces ’’ and also known as the “ Pillars of Life”• Vata (Air principle) the
elements ether and air• Pitta (Fire principle) the elements fire and water• Kapha ( Water
principle) the elements earth andwater

• According to the Ayurveda , sickness is due tothe imbalance of any one or more of thethree
doshas.• Eg Aggravation of Pitta leads to indigestion,skin diseases and liver problems.

Factors• Factors responsible for imbalance of doshasare physical, mental, spiritual

andenvironmental may contribute for theimbalance of doshas

Diagnosis• In Ayurveda diagnosis is always done of thepatient as whole.• Diagnosis is carried

out to find out whichdosha is aggravated. For his purpose , nadi(Pulse),tongue , skin, physical
features, stool,urine etc are examined.
Treatment• The importance of treatment is to restore thebalance and harmony of doshas with
properdiet and drugs• Selection of the drugs –• Based upon 1. Rasa (Taste), 2. Virya(Potency)
and Vipaka (Taste after digestion)

RASA• Rasa indicates the composition, properties andand probable action of the drugs . There
are sixtastes. Each taste has one or more mahabuthas(elements) and each taste has its own
influence ondoshas.• Eg Sweet ( earth and water) , influences on doshas– Kapha increases, vata
and pitta deceases andpromote antibiotic activities

• Sour - (Water and fire) – Pitta increases –stimulates enzymes• Saline- (Fire and earth)- Pitta
increases• Bitter - (Air and fire) – Pitta increases• Pungent- (Air and ether)- Kapha and
pittadecreases• Astringent- (Air and earth)- Pitta decreasesand vatta increases

VIRYA• On the basis of Virya, the drugs are classifiedinto hot and cold drugs• Hot (Ushna)
drugs – Aggravates pitta andpacifies vata and kapha, garlic, drumstick• Cold (Sita) drugs –
Aggravates kapha andvatta and pacifies pitta , Jeera, amla

Vipaka• Food and medicine undergoes variouschanges during digestion (metabolism). Thetaste
after digestion is known as vipaka. Thethree tastes described under vipaka, sweet,sour and

• Sweet – Aggravates kapha and alleviatespitta and vatha• Sour – Aggravates pitha and
alleviateskapha and vatha• Pungent – Aggravates vatha and alleviateskapha

INTRODUCTION• There are so many alternative ways oftreatment in whole world other
thanallopathy, which serve humanity for curingdiseases & ailments that comes under
thealternative system of health care .

DEFINATION• ‘‘Those pathies which are widely used for thetreatment of diseases in very
natural wayother than allopathy is known as alternativemedicine of treatment’’

• The process of treatment of these alternativemedicine includes ancient types of procedure,have

there unique features, unique ways oftreatment of different diseases, uniqueprinciples & laws
which they follow & alsounique medicine, those totally different fromallopathic medicine.

IN INDIA• There are some pathies of alternative medicinewhich are widely used for treatment
now a days• include:-• 1. Ayurvedic• 2. Homoeopathy• 3. Unani• 4. Yoga• 5. Sujok• 6. Siddha• 7.
Naturopathy• 8. Acupressure & Acupuncture.
HOMEOPATHY SYSTEM OF MEDICINE• Homeopathy is relatively a recent system
ofmedicine. The word “ Homeopathy” isderived from two Greek words ,• Homois meaning
similar and pathos meaningsuffering.

• Homeopathy simply means treating diseaseswith remedies, prescribed in minute doses,which

are capable of producing symptomssimilar to the disease when they taken by thehealthy people.
It is based on the natural lawof healing. “Similia Similibus Curantur ” whichmeans “Likes are
cured by likes”

ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT• Homoeopathy is a system of medicaltreatment introduced by

Dr.ChristianFriedrich Samual Hahnenann, a Germanphysician. he had spread a long and
usefullife of 88 years during which he benefited thesuffering humanity immense by
introducingthis new system of medicine.

DIFINATION & MEANNING• Homoeopathy is a system of treatment(branch of medical

science) works on theprinciple of ‘‘Similia similibus curenter’’.• Means like cures like , further
explanation isthat patient & medicine symptoms aresimilar, it also called LAW OF SIMILA

ABOUT THE FOUNDER DR.HAHNEMANNThe Founder of homoeopathy was born

on10thApril, 1755 at Meissen in saxony ofGermany.He was basically a M.D Medicine
allopathicdoctor who turned in to Homoeopath.He Died on 2ndjuly 1843.

DISCOVERY OF HOMOEOPATHY• Because some dissatisfaction on that timeabout there

practicing way of treatment i.e.allopathy, he relinquished ( to give up) themedical practice and
devoted himself intranslating the books, because Hahnemannhad knowledge about the various

• In 1790, when Hahnemann was engaged intranslating Cullen’s materia medica hisattention was
arrested by the remark ofauthor that cinchona bark cured malariabecause of its bitterness and
tonic effects ofstomach. This explanation appearedunsatisfactory to him. Hahnemann
himselfingested cinchona juice,

• He was attacked by symptoms very similar tomalarial fever. This unexpected result set upin his
mind a new train of thoughts and heconducted similar experiments on himself andother
individuals with other medicines whosecurative action in certain diseases had beenwell

• He found that in the healthy persons themedicine produce symptoms very similar towhat they
cure in diseases individuals.• So he had led to the inference that medicinecure disease only
because they can producesimilar symptoms in healthy individuals. Thewhole of homoeopathy
derives from this Law.

FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPAL OF HOMOEOPATHY• 1. Law of Similia• 2. Law of Simplex•

3. Law of Minimum• 4. Doctrine of Drug proving• 5. Theory of Chronic disease• 6. Theory of
Vital force• 7. Doctrine of Drug-dynamization

Principle• The cause of the disease itself can be itstreatment i.e. Law of similar. This is the
basicprinciple of homeopathy.• According to Hahnemann, diseases arecongenital and caused by
gene mutations.• Toxic or poisonous substances are calledMiasms are responsible for gene

• Miasms are of three types• Psora• Psychosis• Syphilis• These exist in a suppressed or sleeping
state ina person. As long as they are in that state, theperson does not suffer from diseases due
toresistance power.

• If any one of them stimulated , then theperson loses his resistance power and suffersfrom
diseases related to it. Therefore ,Homeopathy is called a Genetic medicine

Discovery of drugs• The drugs are discovered by testing onhumans but not on animals . A drug
isadministered on healthy person to induceany one of the miasms and the symptoms ofthe drugs
are discovered

Treatment• The treatment is based on he concept ofproving and prover• Prover – The healthy
person• Proving – The symptoms (Physical, mental,emotional changes) that are caused by
thevarious potencies of medicines in prover.

• For the treatment , the symptoms of the drugare compared with the symptoms of thepatient. In
other words the selection of thedrug depends upon the symptoms of thedrug and patient

• The Unani System of Medicine has a long andimpressive record in India.• It was introduced in
India by the Arabs andPersians sometime around the eleventhcentury.• Today, India is one of the
leading countries inso for as the practice of Unani medicine isconcerned.• It has the largest
number of Unanieducational, research and health careinstitutions.

Origin & Development of Unani System• Unani system originated in Greece• Hakim Ajmal
Khan IS UNANI physician butalso one of the foremost freedom fighters in thecountry. He
established an Ayurvedic andUnani Tibbia College and HindustaniDawakhana – a
pharmaceutical company –for Ayurvedic and Unani medicine in Delhi in

• Today the Unani system of medicine withhospitals and educational and researchinstitutions,
forms an integral part of thenational health care delivery system.

Principles & Concepts• According to the basic principles of Unani thebody is made up of the
four basic elements i.eearth ,air, water, fire which have differenttemperaments i.e. cold, hot, wet,
dry. Aftermixing and interaction of four elements a newcompound having new temperament
existence.i.e Hot wet, hot dry, cold wet, and cold and dry.

• The body has the simple and compoundorgans which got their nourishment ( Thesubstances
necessary for growth, health, andgood condition ) through four humours i.e.blood, phlegm,
yellow bile and black bile.

• The humour (put into a good mood) is alsoassigned temperament as blood is hot andwet,
Phlegm is cold and hot, Yellow bile ishot and dry and Black bile is cold and dry.

• Phlegm is cold and hot ( Thick, sticky, stringymucus secreted by the mucous membrane ofthe
respiratory tract, as during a cold or otherrespiratory infection).• Yellow bile is hot and dry (A
yellow, orgreenish, viscid fluid, usually alkaline inreaction, secreted by the liver. It passes into
theintestines, where it aids in the digestive)

Black bile is cold and dry• (a humor that was once believed to besecreted by the kidneys or
spleen and tocause sadness)

• Unani medicine believes in promotion ofhealth, prevention of diseases and cure.• Health of
human is based on the six essentials• Atmospheric air• Physical activity and rest• Drinks and
foods• Sleep and wakefulness• Excretion and retention• Mental activity and rest

• The human body is considered to be madeup of the following seven components are:• i.
Elements (Arkan)• ii. Temperament (Mizaj)• iii.Humors (Akhlat)• iv. Organs (Aaza)• v. Spirits
(Arwah)• vi. Faculties (Quwa)• vii. Functions (Afaal)

Elements (Arkan)• The human body contains four elements.(earth ,air, water, fire)• Each of the
four elements has its owntemperament as follows:• Element Temperament Air Hot and
MoistEarth Cold and Dry, Fire Hot and Dry, WaterCold and Moist
Temperament (Mizaj)• In the Unani system, the temperament of theindividual is very important
as it is consideredto be unique. The individual’s temperamentis believed to be the result of the
interactionof these four elements.

Humors (Akhlat)• Humours are those moist and fluid parts of thebody which are produced after
transformationand metabolism of the aliments; they serve thefunction of nutrition, growth and
repair; andproduce energy, for the preservation ofindividual and his species.

The humors are responsible for maintainingmoisture of different organs of the body andalso
provide nutrition to the body.

Organs (Aaza)• These are the various organs of the humanbody. The health or disease of
eachindividual organ affects the state of health ofthe whole body.

Spirits (Arwah)• Ruh (Spirit) is a gaseous substance, obtainedfrom the inspired air, it helps in all
themetabolic activities of the body. It is the sourceof vitality for all the organs of the body.•
These are considered to be the life force andare, therefore, important in the diagnosis
andtreatment of disease.

These are the carriers of different powers,which make the whole body system and itsparts

Faculties (Quwa)• These are of three kinds:• Natural power (Quwa Tabiyah)• Natural power is
the power of metabolism andreproduction. Liver is the seat of this power andthe process is
carried on in every tissue of thebody. Metabolism is concerned with theprocesses of nutrition and
growth of human

Nutrition comes from the food and is carriedto all parts of the body, while growth poweris
responsible for the construction and growthof human organism.

Psychic power refers to nervous and psychicpower. It is located in side the brain and
isresponsible for perceptive and motive power.Perceptive power conveys impressions
orsensation and motive power brings aboutmovements as a response to sensation.

• Vital power (Quwa Haywaniyah)• Vital power is responsible for maintaining lifeand enables all
the organs to accept theeffect of psychic power. This power is locatedin the heart. It Keeps life
running in thetissues.

Functions (Afaal)• This component refers to the movements andfunctions of all the organs of the
body.• In case of a healthy body the various organs arenot only in proper shape but are also
performingtheir respective functions.• This makes it necessary to have full knowledgeof the
functions of the human body in full detail

Diagnosis• The Diagnostic process in Unani system isdependent on observation and

physicalexamination.• Diagnosis involves investigating the causes ofdisease thoroughly and in
detail. For this, thephysicians depend mainly on pulse readingand examination of urine and stool.

The ten conditions of pulse observed duringthe diagnosis are:• i. Quantity• ii. Force• iii.
Duration of movement• iv. Condition of the vessel wall• v. Volume

• vi. Duration of the rest period• vii. Palpitation of the pulse• viii. Equality and inequality• ix.
Balance of the pulse• x. Rhythm

Physical examination• Is carried out by the diagnosis of urinogenitaldisorders, pathogenesis of

blood and otherhumors, metabolic disorders and liverdiseases.• The following observations of
urine are made:• Colour• Consistency• Clearness and turbidity• Odour• Foam or froth•
Precipitates• Quantity

The examination of stool, its colour, quantity,consistency and the presence of foreign body
helpvery much in the diagnosis of various diseases.• Besides the means of pulse reading and
physicalexamination of urine and stool, other conventionalmeans such as inspection, palpitation,
percussionand occultation are also used for diagnosispurposes.

Strenght of Unani• Unani system of Medicine has veryremarkable strength in the

followingdisorders:• Skin disorders• Digestive disorders• Mental disorders• Sexual disorders•
Gynecological disorders• Neurological disorders

Unit- 2


There are following methods of classification.

1. Alphabetic method of classification

2. Chemical method of classification.

3. Pharmacological method of classification.

4. Morphological method of classification.

5. Taxonomical method of classification.

6. Chemo- taxonomical method of classification.

1. Alphabetic Method of Classification

In this method drugs are classified according to first alphabet of their English or Latin name.
This method is adopted in many books like I. P. (Indian Pharmacopoeia) N.P. (National
formulary) U.S (United states Pharmacopoeia), B.P. In I.P.1955 drugs where given according
to Latin name. In I. P. 1966 names changed in to English.

Amylum Changed in to starch

Acacia changed in to Indian gum.

Advantages: -If we know the name of drug, we can study it properly.

2. Chemical Method of Classification: -

Drugs are classified according to their active chemical constituent. Drugs which

Contain similar chemical are grouped in one place.

Chamical Content Drugs

1. Volatile oil Fennel oil, coriander.

2. Alkaloid Rauwolfia, Datura Nuxvomica, Cinchona,and Vinca

3. Glycoside Senna leaf, Digitalis.

4 Fixed oil & fat Arachis oil, sesame oil, castor oil

5. Carbohydrates Acacia, Honey, starch, Isapgol

6. Vitamins Shark liver oil, cod liver oil wheat, Germ oil, Amla.

7. Lipid Castor oil, peanut oil, mustard, and wool fat

Disadvantages: -
1. This method does not give any idea about source of drug.

2. Some drugs contain two important chemicals so it is difficult to classify them.

e. g. Nutmeg contains volatile oil as well as fat. Cinchona contains glycoside as well as

3. No idea whether drug is organized or unorganized.

Advantages: -

If we know chemical constituent. It is easy to study the drug.

Pharmacological Classification: -

The drugs having similar pharmacological effect in body are grouped together.

Pharmacological Action Drug

1. Carminatives Fennel, Dill, Coriander, and Clove.

2. Purgatives Cascara- sagrada, Aloe, Senna, and


3. Cardio tonics Digitalis, squill, and strophanthus

4. Anthelmintic Artemisia, Male- fern, and Quassia

5. Anti- cancer Podophyllum, Vinca

6. CNS Stimulant Nuxvomica

7. Expectorant Vasaka, Liquoric

8. Bitter tonic Gentian, Cinchona, and Nux vomica

Disadvantages: -

1. Some crude drugs have two different pharmacological actions therefore it is difficult to
classify them. E.g. Nux- vomica is CNS stimulant as well as bitter tonic. Cinchona is
bitter tonic as well as Antimalarial & Antipyretic.

2. Drugs that have different mechanism of action have to be grouped together.

e. g. Castor oil is irritant purgative & Isapgol is bulk purgative but they are placed in one

3. No idea whether drugs are organized or unorganized

4. This method does not give any idea of source of drugs.

Advantages: -

If we know pharmacological action it is easy to study the drug.

Morphological Classification: -

In this method drugs are divided into parts of plants like, Roots, Flowers, Leaves, Wood,
Extracts, Gum, Bark.

Part of Plant Drugs

Fruit: Caraway, Fennel,

Seed: Nuxvomica, Nutmeg, colchicum

Bark: Arjuna, Cinchona, cinnamon

Gum: Acacia, Tragacanth, Streculia, and


Latex: Opium, Papaya

Extract: Catechu, Agar, and gelatin.

Leaf: Coca, Digitalis, Senna, and Vasaka.

Advantages: -

1. It is more convenient for practical purpose.

2. Even if the chemical content or action of drug is not known the drug can be studied

3. It gives idea about source of drugs

4. It gives idea whether it is organized / unorganized.

Disadvantages: -

During collection, drying & packing morphology of drug changes. They are difficult to study.

Taxonomical Classification: -

It is purely biological classification. Drugs are given according to position of plant in plant
kingdom. It is difficult system.

Disadvantage: -

No idea about organized / unorganized.

Fennel: -

Division - Angiosperm.

Class - Dicotyledonae

Order - Umbelliflorae.

Family - Umbelliferae.

Example - Fennel.

Chemo taxonomical: -

This is recent type of classification in which equal importances have been given to family of
plant & it's chemical constituents. It has been found that there is closed relationship between
chemical composition of the plant and its position in plant kingdom.

Ex. plants of Umbeliferae contain volatile oil, plants of Solanaceae, Apocyanaceae contain

Unit -3


Cultivation - The act of raising or growing plants (especially on a large scale) Involves
convergence of various factors from cultural and pharmaceutical sphere such as soil, climate,
rainfall, irrigation, altitude, temperature, use of fertilizers and pesticides, genetic manipulation
and biochemical aspects of natural drugs.

ADVANTAGES OF CULTIVATION Quality and Purity Better yield and therapeutic quality
Cultivation ensures regular supply Industrialization Permits application modern technology
DISADVANTAGES High cost Losses due to ecological imbalance

METHODS OF CULTIVATION SEXUAL Merits Seedlings are long live (perennial) Cheapness
and easy to raise Only method of choice where asexual method is not possible Demerits Not
uniform in growth and yield More time to bear High cost Not possible to avail modifying

Seeds must be of good quality Capable of high germination rate, Free from diseases ,insects,
other seeds, used seeds and extraneous material

Pretreatment of seeds:

Chemical treatment with stimulants Soaking in water or sulphuric acid Testa is partially removed
by grind stone or pound seeds with coarse sand

ASEXUAL Merits No variation in quality Seedless varieties Early bearing Grafting encourages
disease resistance varieties Inferior can be neglected Demerits Limited longevity No new
varieties can be evolved






CHINCHONA - 1000-2000 M SAFFRON - 1000-1200 M CARDAMOM - 600-1600 M

CLOVE - Upto 900 M TEMPERATURE TEA - 70-90 ( ° F) COFFEA - 55-70 ( ° F)
CARDAMOM - 50-100 ( ° F)




Soil is made up of mineral matter, air, water, organic matter and living organisms. Types
of soil Clay more than 50% clay Loamy 30-50% clay Silt loam 20-30% clay Sandy loam
10-20% clay Sandy soil more than 70% sand Calcarious soil more than 20% clay Poor ,
intermediate and rich Porosity pH

SOIL FERTILITY Maintained by addition of animal manure, nitrogen-fixing bacteria or

by application of chemical fertilizers


CHEMICAL FERTILIZERS Primary nutrients Secondary nutrients Micronutrients

MANURES Compost Oil seeds cake Bone meal

BIOFERTILIZERS Nitrogen fixing microorganism Azotobactor Rhizobium


Weeds Undesired plant Allergies Hay fever-ragweed Dermatitis-western poison oak.

Pests and pest control:

Pests and pest control Pest is an undesired animal or plant species and pesticiedes are chemicals
derived from synthetic and natural sources effective in small concentration .

Types of pests:

Fungi and viruses:

Fungi and viruses Ascochyta atropae- leaf necrosis Cercospora atropae- leaf spot
Phytophthora nicotianae- Phytophthora root-rot.


Insects Agrotis species Heliothis armigera Caterpillar, cutworms, termites, grass-hoppers,

spiders, mites, Lepidopterus larvae.

Non-insect pests:

Non-insect pests Vertebrates like rats, monkeys, birds, rabbits, squirrels, pigs.
Invertebrates like nematods, snails.

Methods of pest control:

Methods of pest control Mechanical method Agricultural method Biological method

Chemical method

Mechanical method :

Mechanical method Hand-picking Burning Trapping Destruction of eggs, larvae.

Construction of concrete warehouses.

Biological control:

Biological control Australian lady beetle “lady bug” to feed on damaging insect called
cottony cushion scale insect on citrus crop.

Chemical control:
Chemical control Rodenticides- Warfarin, strychnine, Arsenic trioxide, red squill
Insecticides-DDT, parathion, malathion Fungicides- Bordeaux mixture, chlorophenol.
Herbicides- Calcium arsenate, 2,4-dicholorophenoxy acetic acid. Miticides

Agricultural method :

Agricultural method Plant breeding techniques Systemic insecticides Deep ploughing

Crop rotation

Ideal insecticide:

Ideal insecticide Non-toxic and non-injurious to medicinal plants Selective in action,

toxic in low concentration Stable under ordinary conditions of storage, non-inflammable,

Plant growth regulators :

Plant growth regulators Organic compounds which affect the morphological and physiological
processes of plants in low concentration. Serve a role in regulating cell enlargement, cell
division, cell differentiation, organogenesis, senescence and dormancy. Employed in seed
treatment Tissue culture technique

Auxins: Indole acetic acid (IAA) Indole butyric acid (IBA) Napthyl acetic acid (NAA) Internode
elongation, leaf growth, initiation of vascular tissues, cambial activity, fruit setting and growth,
apical dominance. Interaction with one or more components of biochemical systems involved in
the synthesis of proteins.

Gibberellins Over 50 are known. Promotion of rapid expansion of plant cells, stimulation of seed
germination, breaking dormancy, induction of flowering, stem elongation , increase in the size of
leaves Induction of activity of gluconeogenic enzymes during early stages of seed germination.

Cytokinins Zeatin (natural) e.g., N6 dimethyl aminopurine, Kinetin (synthetic) e.g., adenine, 6-
benzyl adenine benzimidazole Zeatin has effect on cell division and leaf senescence. Kinetin is
useful in promoting lateral bud development and inhibition of senescence. Play the role in
nucleic acid metabolism and protein synthesis.

Ethylene Fruit ripening, leaf abscission, stem swelling, leaf bending, flower petal discoloration
and inhibition of stem and root growth. Produced by the incomplete combustion of carbon rich
substances like natural gas, coal and petroleum.

Abscisic acid (ABA) Natural growth inhibitor Responsible for the shedding off of unnecessary
parts. Concentrations are enhanced in stress conditions. It interacts with other plant growth
substances and inhibits the GA induced synthesis of α -amylase . Synthetic ones include maleic
hydrazide, daminozide, glyphosine etc


Barks: Spring or early summer Coppicing Felling Up-rooting Fruits: depending on the part of
the fruit being used. Roots: before their vegetative process stops Rhizomes: when they store
ample of reserve food material. Flowers: before pollination Leaves: they are sufficiently thick
Flowering top: before the flowering stage. Unorganised drugs`
Harvesting: it is the process of gathering crude drugs from the fields. Should be done by skilled
workers. Underground drugs are harvested by diggers or lifters Aerial parts by binders Flowers,
seeds and small fruits by seed stripper. Other methods include beating, brushing, using long
handled forks, winnowing, uprooting.

Drying Natural drying Shed drying Sun drying Artificial Tray drying Vacuum drying Spray

Garbling Desired when sand, dirt and foreign organic parts of the same plant are required to be

Packing Morphological, chemical nature, their use and effects of climatic conditions should be
taken into consideration. Colophony and balsam of tolu packed in kerosene tins Cod liver oil
Squill, digitalis, ergot Cinnamon bark. Packed in gunny bags with polythene internally.

Storage Stored in premises which are water proof, fire proof and rodent proof, light proof Air-
tight, moisture proof and light proof containers Wooden boxes and paper bags should not be

Drying Fumigation Special treatment Temperature Colophony Ergot Lard Lipids- Antioxidants
(BHA, BHT,Vit.-E) Preservation against insect or mould attack Coleoptera Lepidoptera Mites

4. Sample Question Papers with solutions (Minimum 3)

 A minimum of 3 unique question papers with 8 questions each along with detailed
solutions. These question papers should follow bloom’s taxonomy. They should also
include basic, average and complex questions so that all the students including the
toppers get benefitted by practicing with these papers. The basic objective is to help
students get top marks so that they can end up in merit list!
5. Virtual Labs if required

 Please provide the details of any virtual labs if applicable. Please provide the links to
the videos etc. Please do NOT embed videos as it will increase the size of the
6. Mapping of Assignments / Question Papers with course objective learning outcomes.

Course Assignmen Assignmen Assignmen Assignmen Assignmen Add more

objective t1 t2 t3 t4 t5 columns if
there are

Please Yes / No Yes / No Yes / No Yes / No Yes / No Yes / No

1 from
section 1

Please Yes / No Yes / No Yes / No Yes / No Yes / No Yes / No

2 from
section 1

So on….

Learning Assignmen Assignmen Assignmen Assignmen Assignmen Add more

Outcomes t1 t2 t3 t4 t5 columns if
there are

Please Yes / No Yes / No Yes / No Yes / No Yes / No Yes / No

1 from
section 1
Please Yes / No Yes / No Yes / No Yes / No Yes / No Yes / No
2 from
section 1

So on….
7. Bloom’s Taxonomy checklist