Great Pyramid of Giza
The Great Pyramid of Giza (also called the Pyramid of Khufu and the Pyramid of Cheops) is the oldest and largest of the three pyramids in the Giza Necropolisbordering what is now El Giza, Egypt. It is the oldest of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, and the only one to remain largely intact. It is believed the pyramid was built as a tomb for fourth dynasty Egyptian Pharaoh Khufu (Cheops in Greek) and constructed over a 20-year period concluding around 2560 BC. The Great Pyramid was the tallest man-made structure in the world for over 3,800 years, the longest period of time ever held for such a record. Originally the Great Pyramid was covered by casing stones that formed a smooth outer surface; what is seen today is the underlying core structure. Some of the casing stones that once covered the structure can still be seen around the base. There have been varying scientific and alternative theories about the Great Pyramid's construction techniques. Most accepted construction hypotheses are based on the idea that it was built by moving huge stones from a quarry and dragging and lifting them into place. There are three known chambers inside the Great Pyramid. The lowest chamber is cut into the bedrock upon which the pyramid was built and was unfinished. The so-called Queen's Chamber and King's Chamber are higher up within the pyramid structure. The Great Pyramid of Giza is the only pyramid in Egypt known to contain both ascending and descending passages. The main part of the Giza complex is
 The gardens were destroyed by several earthquakes after the second century BC. a raised causeway connecting the two temples. Babil. three smaller pyramids for Khufu's wives. Amytis of Media. He is reported to have constructed the gardens to please his homesick wife.
Hanging Gardens of Babylon
The Hanging Gardens of Babylon are considered to be one of the originalSeven Wonders of the Ancient World. The gardens were supposedly built by the Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar II around 600 BC. They are sometimes called the Hanging Gardens of Semiramis (in reference to the legendary Queen Semiramis). who longed for the trees and fragrant plants of her homeland Persia. near present-day Al Hillah.a setting of buildings that included two mortuary temples in honor of Khufu (one close to the pyramid and one near the Nile). They were built in the ancient city-state of Babylon. in Iraq. and small mastaba tombs surrounding the pyramid for nobles.
. an even smaller "satellite" pyramid.
The lush Hanging Gardens are extensively documented by Greek historianssuch as Strabo and Diodorus Siculus. to prevent the
water from eroding the ground. since tablets from there clearly show gardens.
Nebuchadnezzar II also used massive slabs of stone. Writings on these tablets describe the possible use of something similar to an Archimedes screw as a process of raising the water to the required height. the location may have been confused with gardens that existed at Nimrud.
Statue of Zeus at Olympia
. Through the ages. which was unheard of in Babylon.
" the geographer Strabo noted early in the first century BC. inlaid with ivory. when he beheld the statue.” while the first century AD Greek orator Dio Chrysostom declared that a single glimpse of the statue would make a man forget all his earthly troubles. Plutarch. In Zeus' right hand there was a small statue of crowned Nike. The sculpture was wreathed with shoots of olive worked in gold and seated on a magnificent throne of cedarwood. goddess of victory. "It seems that if Zeus were to stand up. a sceptre inlaid with gold. "he would unroof the temple.
Temple of Artemis
. A very detailed description of the sculpture and its throne was recorded by the traveler Pausanias. in his Life of the Roman general Aemilius Paulus. gold. and in his left hand. though there are recognizable but approximate versions on coins of nearby Elis and on Roman coins and engraved gems. on which an eagle perched. occupied half of the width of the aisle of the temple built to house it. records that the victor over Macedon. No copy in marble or bronze has survived. made of ivory and goldplated bronze. in the second century AD." The Zeus was a chryselephantine sculpture. also chryselephantine.The seated statue. ebony and precious stones. “was moved to his soul. as if he had seen the god in person. some 12 meters (43 feet) tall.
and the colossus of the Sun. The construction of the "new" temple. It was a 120-year project. in his Hymn to Artemis. The temple antedated the Ionic immigration by many years.
.The Temple of Artemis (Greek: Ἀρτεμίσιον. where evidence of a sanctuary dates as early as theBronze Age. in its most famous phase. which was to become known as one of the wonders of the ancient world. and the statue of Zeus by the Alpheus. was a Greek temple dedicated to a goddess Greeks identified asArtemis that was completed. In the seventh century the old temple was destroyed by a flood. apart from Olympus. It was described by Antipater of Sidon. and thehanging gardens. and the vast tomb of Mausolus. "Lo. initially designed and built by the Cretan architect Chersiphron and his sonMetagenes. around 550 BC at Ephesus (in present-day Turkey). but when I saw the house of Artemis that mounted to the clouds. only foundations and sculptural fragments of the temple remain. There were previous temples on its site. who compiled the list of the Seven Wonders: I have set eyes on the wall of lofty Babylon on which is a road for chariots. and the huge labour of the high pyramids. began around 550 BC. The whole temple was made of marble except for the roof. those other marvels lost their brilliancy. the Sun never looked on aught so grand". Callimachus. attributed the origin of the temenos at Ephesus to the Amazons. also known less precisely as Temple of Diana. whose worship he imagines already centered upon an image. and I said. Though the monument was one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. at the expense of Croesus of Lydia. or Artemision).
his wife and sister.Mausoleum of Halicarnassus
The Mausoleum at Halicarnassus or Tomb of Mausolus (in Greek. The word mausoleum has since come to be used generically for any grand tomb. It stood approximately 45 m (148 ft) in height. The structure was designed by the Greekarchitects Satyros and Pythis. The finished structure was considered to be such an aesthetic triumph that Antipater of Sidon identified it as one of his Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. andArtemisia II of Caria. Bryaxis.
. Turkey) for Mausolus. and each of the four sides was adorned with sculptural reliefs created by each one of four Greek sculptors — Leochares. a satrap in the Persian Empire. Μαυσωλεῖον τῆς Ἁλικαρνασσοῦ) was a tomb built between 353 and 350 BC at Halicarnassus(present Bodrum. Scopas of Paros and Timotheus.
and Demetrius—whose name "Poliorcetes" signifies the "besieger of cities"—had to start construction of a number of massive siege towers in order to gain access to the walls. Alexander the Great died at the early age of 32 in 323 BC without having had time to put into place any plans for his succession. the city was well defended. Before its destruction. and when Ptolemy eventually took control ofEgypt. invade Rhodes with an army of 40. the Colossus of Rhodes stood over 30 meters (107 ft) high. The first was mounted on six ships. also a general. land-based tower
. In 305 BC he had his sonDemetrius Poliorcetes. It is considered one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. with four of them eventually dividing up much of his empire in the Mediterranean area. but these capsized in a storm before they could be used. however.Colossus of Rhodes
The Colossus of Rhodes was a statue of the Greek god Helios. He tried again with a larger. Antigonus I Monophthalmus was upset by this turn of events. Rhodes had sided with Ptolemy. making it one of the tallest statues of the ancient world. Fighting broke out among his generals. During the fighting.000. Rhodes and Ptolemaic Egypt formed an alliance which controlled much of the trade in the eastern Mediterranean. erected in the city ofRhodes on the Greek island of Rhodes by Chares of Lindos between 292 and 280 BC. the Diadochi.
Egypt to guide sailors into the harbour at night. it was for many centuries among the tallest man-made structures. With a height variously estimated at between 120–140 m (390–460 ft). and was one of theSeven Wonders of the Ancient World.
. also known as the Pharos of Alexandria.named Helepolis.
Lighthouse of Alexandria
The Lighthouse of Alexandria. but the Rhodian defenders stopped this by flooding the land in front of the walls so that the rolling tower could not move. was a tower built between 280 and 247 BC on the island of Pharos at Alexandria.
This is made up of 6. meaning rock.2 mi) of natural defensive barriers such as hills and rivers.387. Qin Shi Huang. Established sometime around the 6th century BC as the capital city of the Nabataeans.It lies on the slope of Mount Hor in a basin among the mountains which form the eastern flank of Arabah (Wadi Araba).7 km (223. and legends claim that the light from Pharos could burn enemy ships before they reached shore. One of the most famous is the wall built between 220–206 BC by the first Emperor of China. with all of its branches.851.232.3 mi). which has been rebuilt and maintained from the 5th century BC through the 16th century. the large valley running from the Dead Sea to the Gulf of Aqaba. The tower erected on the island guided mariners at night using fire and reflective mirrors.
Great Wall of China
The Great Wall of China is a series of stone and earthen fortifications in northern China. The most comprehensive archaeological survey.259. The Great Wall stretches from Shanhaiguan in the east.5 mi) of trenches and 2. the majority of the existing wall was built during the Ming Dynasty.البتراءAl-Batrāʾ) is a historic andarchaeological city in the Jordanian governorate of Ma'an that has rock cut architecture and a water conduits system. Petra has been a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1985.
Petra (Greek "πέτρα" (petra).6 km (3. which formed one side of the city's harbor.889. built originally to protect the northern borders of the Chinese Empire against intrusions by various nomadic groups.5 km (1.Pharos was a small island just off the coast of Alexandria. It was described as "a rose-red city half as old as time" in
. Several walls have been built since the 5th century BC that are referred to collectively as the Great Wall. to Lop Nur in the west. Little of that wall remains. using advanced technologies. which was connected to the mainland by a man-made causeway named the Heptastadion. Arabic: .500. 359. stretches for 8. has recently concluded that the entire Great Wall. The site remained unknown to the Western world until 1812. when it was introduced by Swissexplorer Johann Ludwig Burckhardt. and acted as a landmark by day.8 km (5.5 mi) sections of actual wall. It was said that the light could be seen from up to 29 miles (47 km) away. it is a symbol of Jordan as well as its most visited tourism attraction. along an arc that roughly delineates the southern edge of Inner Mongolia.
A symbol of Christianity. and the Room of the Three Windows. Most archaeologists believe that Machu Picchu was built as an estate for the Inca emperorPachacuti (1438–1472).970 ft) above sea level. These are located in what is known by archaeologists as the Sacred District of Machu Picchu. including its 9. it is important as a cultural site. which is 80 kilometres (50 mi) northwest of Cuzco and through which the Urubamba River flows. It is one of the tallest of its kind in the world (The statue of Cristo de la Concordia in Cochabamba. The Incas started building the estate around AD 1400 but it was abandoned as an official site for the Inca rulers a century later at the time of the Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire. the Temple of the Sun. considered the largestArt Deco statue in the world. Machu Picchu has become an important tourist attraction and. and is located at the peak of the 700 metres (2. pronounced [ˈmɑtʃu ˈpixtʃu]) – is a preColumbian Inca site located 2.5 meter (31 feet) pedestal.  The statue is 39. In 2007. It is situated on a mountain ridge above the Urubamba Valley in Peru. formerly Portuguese: Christo redemptor) is a statue of Jesus Christ in Rio de Janeiro. UNESCO has described it as "one of the most precious cultural properties of man's cultural heritage. with polished dry-stone walls.430 metres (7. it is perhaps the most familiar icon of the Inca World.
Machu Picchu (Quechua: Machu Pikchu) – "Old Mountain". since it was not found and plundered by the Spanish after they conquered the Incas. Since then. Machu Picchu was declared a Peruvian Historical Sanctuary in 1981 and a UNESCOWorld Heritage Site in 1983. is slightly taller). and 30 metres (98 ft) wide." Petra was chosen by the BBC as one of "the 40 places you have to see before you die". Often referred to as "The Lost City of the Incas". the statue has become an icon of Rio and Brazil. it was unknown to the outside world before being brought to international attention in 1911 by the American historian Hiram Bingham. and was constructed between 1922 and 1931. Its primary buildings are the Intihuatana.a Newdigate Prize-winning sonnet by John William Burgon.300 ft) Corcovado mountain in theTijuca Forest National Park overlooking the city. In September 2007. Peru and Yale
. It weighs 635 tons (700 short tons). Bolivia. Machu Picchu was voted one of the New Seven Wonders of the World in a worldwide Internet poll.6 metres (130 ft) tall. Machu Picchu was built in the classical Inca style. It is made of reinforced concrete and soapstone. Brazil.
Christ the Redeemer (statue)
Christ the Redeemer (Portuguese: O Cristo Redentor. Although known locally.
is an elliptical amphitheatre in the centre of the city of Rome. INAH). from what is called “Mexicanized” and reminiscent of styles seen in central Mexico to the Puuc style found among the Puuc Maya of the northern lowlands. The ruins of Chichen Itza are federal property. originally the Flavian Amphitheatre (Latin:Amphitheatrum Flavium. its construction started between 70 and 72 AD under the emperor Vespasian and was completed in 80 AD under Titus. Italian Anfiteatro Flavio or Colosseo). Occupying a site just east of the Roman Forum.000 spectators. The presence of central Mexican styles was once thought to have been representative of direct migration or even conquest from central Mexico. Chichen Itza was a major focal point in the northern Maya lowlands from the Late Classicthrough the Terminal Classic and into the early portion of the Early Postclassic period. or the Coliseum. It is considered one of the greatest works of Roman architecture and Roman engineering. with further modifications being made during Domitian's reign (81–96). Capable of seating 50. present-day Mexico.University reached an agreement regarding the return of artifacts which Hiram Bingham had removed from Machu Picchu in the early twentieth century. from Yucatec Maya: Chi'ch'èen Ìitsha'. 2010. from the gens Flavia). when it was purchased by the state of Yucatan. and the site’s stewardship is maintained by Mexico’s Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia (National Institute of Anthropology and History. the Colosseum was used for gladiatorial contests and public spectacles such as mock sea battles.
The Colosseum. "at the mouth of the well of the Itza") is a large pre-Columbian archaeological site built by the Maya civilization located in the northern center of the Yucatán Peninsula. The site exhibits a multitude of architectural styles. The land under the monuments had been privately-owned until March 29. re-enactments of famous battles.
Chichen Itza (pronounced /tʃiːˈtʃɛn iːˈtsɑː/. animal hunts. executions. The name "Amphitheatrum Flavium" derives from both Vespasian's and Titus's family name (Flavius. the largest ever built in the Roman Empire. and
. in the Yucatán state. Italy. but most contemporary interpretations view the presence of these non-Maya styles more as the result of cultural diffusion.
Egypt. workshops. The construction began around 1632 and was completed around 1653. It is the oldest of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. Although in the 21st century it stays partially ruined because of damage caused by devastating earthquakes and stone-robbers. quarters for a religious order. While the white domedmarble mausoleum is the most familiar component of the Taj Mahal. Lahauri is generally considered to be the principal designer.
The Taj Mahal ( /ˈtɑːdʒ məˈhɑːl/. It was later reused for such purposes as housing. Makramat Khan. It was built by Mughal emperor Shah Jahan in memory of his third wife. it is actually an integrated complex of structures. Urdu: " تاج محلcrown of buildings". The construction of the Taj Mahal was entrusted to a board of architects under imperial supervision. The Colosseum is also depicted on the Italian version of the five-cent euro coin. Hindi: ताज महल. It is one of the most recognizable structures in the world. and the only one to remain largely intact. Taj Mahal is the finest example of Mughal architecture. Mumtaz Mahal. Islamic and Indian architectural styles. also "the Taj") is a mausoleum located in Agra. The building ceased to be used for entertainment in the early medieval era. a fortress. It is one of Rome's most popular tourist attractions and still has close connections with the Roman Catholic Church. a quarry. India. including Abd ul-Karim Ma'mur Khan. It is widely considered as one of the most beautiful buildings in the world and stands as a symbol of eternal love. employing thousands of artisans and craftsmen. as each Good Friday the Pope leads a torchlit "Way of the Cross" procession that starts in the area around the Colosseum.
Great Pyramid of Giza
The Great Pyramid of Giza (also called the Pyramid of Khufu and the Pyramid of Cheops) is the oldest and largest of the three pyramids in the Giza Necropolisbordering what is now El Giza. and Ustad Ahmad Lahauri. It is believed the pyramid was built as a tomb for fourth dynasty Egyptian Pharaoh Khufu (Cheops in Greek)
. the Taj Mahal became a UNESCO World Heritage Site. a style that combines elements fromPersian.dramas based on Classical mythology. In 1983.pronounced [ˈt̪aːdʒ məˈɦəl]. the Colosseum is an iconic symbol of ImperialRome. and a Christian shrine.
the longest period of time ever held for such a record. The main part of the Giza complex is a setting of buildings that included two mortuary temples in honor of Khufu (one close to the pyramid and one near the Nile). The Great Pyramid was the tallest man-made structure in the world for over 3. There are three known chambers inside the Great Pyramid. Originally the Great Pyramid was covered by casing stones that formed a smooth outer surface. The lowest chamber is cut into the bedrock upon which the pyramid was built and was unfinished. Some of the casing stones that once covered the structure can still be seen around the base. what is seen today is the underlying core structure. The Great Pyramid of Giza is the only pyramid in Egypt known to contain both ascending and descending passages. a raised causeway connecting the two temples.and constructed over a 20-year period concluding around 2560 BC. and small mastaba tombs surrounding the pyramid for nobles. The so-called Queen's Chamber and King's Chamber are higher up within the pyramid structure. an even smaller "satellite" pyramid.800 years. There have been varying scientific and alternative theories about the Great Pyramid's construction techniques. three smaller pyramids for Khufu's wives. Most accepted construction hypotheses are based on the idea that it was built by moving huge stones from a quarry and dragging and lifting them into place.