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# 3 Analysis of the Problem

## 3.1 General action of Zig-Zag (earthing) Transformer

Earthing transformer is oil-immersed type suitable for outdoor installation. It has an
interconnected star winding which is directly connected to the low voltage terminals
of the associated system transformer. Earthing transformer is also provided with a star
connected auxiliary winding arranged to give a 400/230V, three phase, four wire
supply.

## No-load voltage ratio 44/0.4kV

Rating of interconnected star winding On 30Sec 800A
Earth fault current duty (lOSec) 750A
Continuous rated current in neutral 50A
Vector Group ... Zynll
External Secondary load .... 200kVA
Zero sequence impedance 80 Ohms per phase

## A zigzag wound transformer is used as the grounding transformer to make a neutral

point in the delta side of the power transformer in GSSs.

A ground fault condition on wye zigzag transformer is shown in Fig. 3.1. In order for
in-phase ground current to flow, the current in each zigzag circuit must be equal.
Note that the zero sequence current, Io, in the two windings of the same core is in
opposite directions. The flux caused by the ground current in the ~ windings
cancels and there is no flux linkage to the wye winding. Therefore, its current is zero
i.e. the line current ofwye connected auxiliary winding is zero. This could be used as
a zigzag earthing transformer as shown in Fig. 3.2.

21
vapj

Vall

v.at~

I
(a)- Winding Connection for a Wye-Zigzag Transformer

\1 b t

v~ Vaz V It

'I' e 1
't' I I
...
v.

## (c) Split Secondary Phases (d) Secondary Phases Reconnected

(b) Primary Phases

## Fig.~' '''ye-Zigzag Transformer Winding Connections and Vector Diagram

Ic
'7
.__

l I~Jbl,
Fig3·!4 Grounding Zigzag T r 2nsformer Sho,,ing Gr ound Current Flows

22
Primary to Secondary Primary to Secondary
Phase Shifl Phase Shifl

)-
-*' 3rf \
r ~ 3Cf

or or

0!
r ~
I
3Cf
or
>-- -~ 3Cf

~
-*' 00 ~
;I
~ 00

- ~

## Positive, Negative Sequence Diagrams Zero Sequence Diagrams

Positive, Negative, and Zero Sequence Diagrams for Delta-Zigzag and Wye-Zigzag Transformers

..
~ ~
___. ~

Positive, Negative, and Zero Sequence Diagrams for Zigzag Grounding Transformers

## Fig38Seq uence Diagrams of Zigzag Transformers

.....

23
Generally, zigzag earthing transformers are used where high ground currents are
desired on solidly grounded systems. On 13.8 kV and lower voltage systems where
the ground current is limited by a grounding resistor or reactor, the delta-grounded
wye transformer is normally used. Delta-wye transformers at the lower voltages are
high volume items and more competitively priced. With essentially only one winding,
the zigzag connection should cost less than a delta-wye transformer used for
grounding. However, because zigzag is less common and the internal connections
slightly more complex, the cost differential may not be much.

The sequence diagrams for a transformer with a zigzag winding are shown in Fig. 3.3.
/
In construction, the transformer is generally the same as an ordinary three-phase,
core-type power transformer, but having a single winding on each limb, which is split
up into two parts, the halves of the windings on the three limbs being interconnected,
as shown in Fig. 3.2.

The neutral point of the earthing transformer is connected to earth either direct or
through a current-limiting impedance, while the terminals of the apparatus are
..
connected to the three-phase lines. The rating of the earthing transformer is, of
course, different from that of a power transformer, as the latter is designed to carry its
total load continuously, while the former has only to be supplied with the iron loss,
whilst the copper loss due to the passage of the short-circuit fault current occurs only;
for a fraction of a minute.

Neutral earthing transformers are normally designed to carry the maximum fault
current for up to thirty seconds or, alternatively, a time depending upon earthing
transformer. It is more usual to specify the single-phase earth fault current that the
earthing transformer must carry rather than the equivalent requirements~If 31 is the
total earth fault current and V the line voltage, the earthing transformer short time
rating is equal to --./ 3 VI.

## It sometimes happens that an LV supply is required at an HV substation. A 415/240

V supply could be obtained by installing a conventional step-down transformer, but if

24
~
~~
l

'\- l

~~I~

~.
.~~
~·~j--

## "[L," ~ =~cl \ ~.,I ·~~

' ~ ·. i
LV w , . . . c.\ ·. ""'~ .
\N
z:..c...J w ~ . . . 4. ··1
I
'2.

..
-
3.4(o.) Side View of Grounding Tro.nsforMer

ZigZo.g 'Winding 1
.' ~

.... -.
~
·(
/ · , ""\ ..
--HIlf--1-I--ZigZo.g \Jinding 2
.. '
L v \Jinding

OJ
I I II ; I

~ ~ ~
,.
I '

~
!
; t
W/_y
;...,. ~t ~r.,~
'
_.

~ 2H2rtt
' L1...~
n;,.p,sions in ...

## 3.4(b) Section of Grounding Tro.nsforMer

25
it is intended to employ an earthing transformer it is possible to incorporate a star-
connected auxiliary winding of, say, 100 to 200 kV A rating, and hence a supply is
available for the local LV load.

## In operation the interconnected star earthing transformer is really the acme of

simplicity. The total fault current to earth divides up when reaching the earthing
transformer neutral point into approximately equal parts in each phase, so that the
current in the windings with a single line earth fault is approximately one-third of the
total fault current to earth. The current distribution under fault conditions, assuming
equal currents in all windings, is shown in Fig. 3.1 and it will be seen that the currents
in the halves of the windings on the same limb flow in opposite din£tions so that they
introduce no choking effect, thus permitting a free flow of current from the earthing
transformer neutral to each line wire. This, of course, is the reason for
interconnecting the windings, as a star connection would produce an additional single-
phase magnetic flux in each limb.

## 3.2 Core - flux under earth fault conditions

According to Ampere's law, it can be explained that even the two windings are fed by
equal and opposite current; still there can be a resultant flux in the core because of the
two different radii of the windings. ...

The average field intensity in the core due to the outer winding is smaller than that
due to the inner winding for the some current. This phenomenon can be explained as
follows.

-...

26
I

Fig 3.6

## Current through the zigzag winding is I

Field strength induced in the position P, because of the current I flown through the

conductor positioned at r distance from the centre, with n No. of turns, is given by

.....
(I ·r-de ·Sin a) •
dH := 4.n (x 2 + l- 2·r·XCosa)

27
~Xl + l- 2·(X·rCose)
( ~ I
- x
)I
1
Sin(9o- e) = ;-

I I
~-..2 2 ;ose
X +r - 2·X·rCose = I -
::imCl

1
(r- XCose)
Sina := ~r================
(~0 + l- 2·X·rCose)
B:= .d
1
[l·rde.(r- XCoseTI ;/
lli:=--~=========7~~----~
4·TI·~Xl + r2 - 2·X.rCose.{~ + i- 2·X·r·Cose)
I
dH := (J.t{r- X·Cose).de)
3
2
4n.{Xl + l- 2·X.r·Cose)
2·n
(r- x.eose)
~== I de

0
[{0 2
+ • -·2 X·•Co~H
X:= ( 0 O.oi 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09)

·- 22
n .-- say r := 0.090
7
n
2
(r - Xcos(o)) de
~(X):=

0
[(0 +?- 2 x,.,..(e));l
._.
.

## ~(0) = 194.004 ~(0.05) =420.823

~(0.0 1 ) = 223.37 ~(0.06) =530.995
~(0.02) =257.402 ~(0.07) =738.936
3
~(0.03) = 298.181 ~(0.08) = 1.332 X 10
3
~(0.04) = 349.822 ~(0.09) = 1.139 X 10

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<l>r:= f.lo ·l!r·l·..!:.·fr 4·X·~(X)dX
2 0

.08
<1> := 2·r·
J 4
(30000·X + 8800·:>2 + 3000·~ + 194.004·X)dX
0

## X:= (0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.10 0.12 0. 14 0.16 0.18)

0 := 22 say r := 0.135 .1
7
n
2
(r- Xcos(e)) de
~(X):=

[{x> +? - 2·X·<eos(a)}%]
0

## ~(0.02) = 104.054 ~(0.12) = 592.128

~(0.04) = 126.064

~(0.06) = 155.476

~(0.08) = 200.712

2 0

## <I> = 0.131 1-lo ·J.lr · - - - - -- - - - - - - - -<1> 2 for a Unit Current

29
X:= (0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.10 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18)

## n := 22 say r:= 0.180

7
n
--

~~X)·.=\
(r- xcoJ...e ))
11~

0
l{x' + l- 2 x,,• .{e))~
~(0) =48.501 ~(0.10) = 105.206
~(0.02) = 55.842 ~(0.12) = 132 749 ;I
~(0.04) = 64.351 ~(0.14) = 184.734
~(0.06) = 74.545 ~(0.16) = 333.072
~(0.08) =87.455 ~(0.18) = 284.729

2 0

## <> '" z.,.

[
J. {.08
1400· x4 + 1400t + 300·
' ]
:0 + 48.50· x) dX

## <t> = 0.08 !Jo·!Jr·--- --------- -<t> 3 for a Unit Current

X:= (0 0.03 0.06 0.09 0.12 0.15 0.18 0.21 0.24 0.27)

n == 22 say r := 0.225
7
rr
2
~(X):=
(r- xcos{a)) de

0
[(:0 + ,2 - 2 x,,..(e))~]
30
~(0) = 31.041 ~(0.15) =84.959
~(0.03) = 36.761 ~(0.18) = 129.027
~(0.06) =43.638 ~(0.21) = 336.223

~(0.09) = 52.394

13(0.12) = 64.703

## <I>r := ~0-~r.J..:..Jr 4-X·~(X) dX

2 0

.08 1
"''" h·[ Jo (uoo.x4 + soo.x' + •so.x' + 31.041·X)dXJ

## <1> = 0.059 ~o·f.lr· ------------- --4>4 for a Unit Current

X:= (0 O.o3 0.06 0.09 0.12 0.15 0.18 0.21 0.24 0.27)

·- 22
n .-- ...
say r := 0.270
7
n
....
2
~(X):=
(r- Xcos(e)) de

0

## ~(0.09) = 33.131 ~(0.24) = 148.032 --

~(0.12) = 38.869 13(0.27) = 129.18

## <I>r := J.lo·J.lr·I·.:..Jr 4·X·l3(X) dX

2 0

31
08
'",. 2·{L (,s5-X4 + 5oo-x' + 110-x' + 21.556-x)d>:J
<I> =0.05 llo·llr · - - - - - - - - - - - - - - <1>5 for a Unit Current

X:= (0 0.03 0.06 0.09 0.12 0.15 0.18 0.21 024 0.27)

7
n I
2
(r - Xcos(a)) de
~(X):=

0

## ~(0) = 15.837 ~(0.15) =30.006

~(0.03) = 17.871 ~(0.18) =35.383
~(0.06) =20.172 ~(0 .21)
.. =43.346
~ (0.09)

~(0.12)
-
=22.831
=26.011
~ (024)

~ (027)
=56.988
=87.481

## <1>r := llO'Ilr.J.-:..Jr 4-X.~(X) dX

2 0

8 4
'",. 2·•{( {185-x + 9o-x' + 68-x' + 15.837-x) dX]

## Variation of Flux, <1> against distance to the core is plotted in Graph A 1

32
The results can be presented graphically as in Fig 3.5, variation of flux in the core
with the distance of the winding from the core. Therefore even when the two
windings of the zigzag connection in one leg are fed with equal and opposite currents,
there is a resultant flux.

## 3.3 Simulated flux phase voltages under fault condition

To model the substation setup, MatLab version 6.0 was used in the preliminary stages
of the project. No in-build models are available for zigzag transformer. A zigzag
transformer model was tried to build by combining windi!lgs of single-phase
transformers. This model was simulated when there is a singfe-phase earth fault is
present. Unfortunately the desired results could not obtain as the simulator assumes
that all the equipment behave in idle manner. Modeling of the earthing and auxiliary
transformer with zigzag winding arrangement made the simulation more complex.

Since the modeling of the GSS using Matlab failed in the preliminary stages, it was
decided to wound a prototype of a grounding transformer and simulate an earth fault
in the laboratory. The earthing transformer with the auxiliary winding use in GSSs has
the following specifications.
'
....
Primary winding: 33 kV zigzag connected

## Impedance: 70-80 Ohms

The transformer has a voltage ratio of 156:156:10 among the sections of the zigzag
windings and auxiliary winding. The prototype transformer wa~ wound by
maintaining the above ratio among the windings. But there were difficulties to
maintain impedance of 70-80 Ohms in the prototype transformer. The small size
transformer manufacturers do not have the control over the impedance of the
transformer. They just use the insulating materials available with them without

33
Fig 3.5 Variation of Flux In the core with the Distance of the winding from the core (r)

0.25

·,
.,

'
'
'
0.2
'C'
.s
\ "
..
1.)
::l '·
"C
c \
0
1.)
Q)
.r;
I

0.15
·=
cQ)
-- \ '
·~
I.H ....
~
....
::l
1.)
~
c
::l
., 0.1 -
;
....
.E
-....
:J
0
:J
><
><
::l
u.:: --~
~ r----__ "
0.05 ~l!f,{\.
I I---
I
r f = ..
I
-
c-;.
r.,
- F~""'
I
4 ·-~
,--,
;_ _,,,. -~;;
0
0.0900 0.1350 0.1800 0.2250 0.2700 0.3150
lseries1 0.224 0.131 0.08 0.059 0.05 0.04
r (m)

~r::mh A1
knowing the specification. The determining of the insulation layer thickness is also
done by trial and error. Based on these matters, the impedance of the prototype
transformer could not achieve as desired.

There are many ways to arrange the windings around the core. Arrangement of
windings in grounding transformers used in GSSs is indicated in fig 3.6. The two
sections of zigzag windings are arrange in one over other concentrically. Both
winding have same number of turns and wound using coil having same material and
same size. The inner most winding is the auxiliary winding. The two sections of
zigzag is arranged on the top of the auxiliary winding. Each winding is separated by
I
an insulating barrier to limit the impedance of the transformer.

Similar type of arrangement of windings was used in the prototype transformer. All
three windings were arranged in similar way. In addition to these three windings an
additional winding which is equal to the auxiliary winding in no. of turns, was added
be side the other windings in the core.

## 3.3.1 Simulation using prototype transformt!r

The prototype transformer was uged to analyze the induced voltages on the auxiliary
windings,

1. When the nominal voltages are applied to the primary zigzag winding and
2. When the fault currents are injected to the zigzag winding through the
neutral point.

In the second stage, to control the fault current flow through the windings, low
voltages were applied across the windings. Since the impedance of the prototype
._
transformer was considerably low (approx. 18 ohms), it was difficult to increase the
supply voltage beyond 30V. Therefore the maximum supply voltage that could apply
to the prototype transformer was 30V. For the comparison of results it is used the
same voltage range for the both stage one and stage two.

For the above two tests, three experiment setups were used.

35
a.) Experiment setup 1 - fig 3.7
All three phases were subjected to equal inphase currents, by short circuiting the
ends of primary windings (zigzag winding). The current of the loop was limited
by a rheostat. The induced voltages were measured for various current through the

## b.) Experiment setup 2- fig. 3.8

The primary winding (zigzag winding) was supplied by controlled three phase
balanced supply and the transformer was loaded with a variable load to get the
primary currents equal to the current that observed in experiment setup 1. The
voltages induced at the auxiliary windings were measured at vacious
~

## c.) Experiment setup 3 - fig. 3.9

This setup combined the above two experiments. This measured the voltage
induced at the auxiliary winding when a inphase and equal currents are injected to
the three phases of the transformer zigzag winding while transformer is fed by the
nominal three phase voltage. The output voltage profile was inspected at the

## auxiliary winding as observations. ...

...

....

37
Vnble
Resistor Prototype Tl'80\$fotmer

'1'
r .. . . . '
Variac

! Zigzag~

lw:!Jiaty wdg 1

Auxilary wdg. 2

...

....

## Fig 3.7 Experiment Setup 1 ....

38

i <
!:
I I
4
18
! ·-·-·---------···· ···---·-----·-·-···-·............... --.......... __ _;
ov
_. _
J
1
l
l
•'•
I
•I
••
I

. ;
J... __ .. _--- -- ... -- ---------.. - - ... .1. S..taw.AOJ-su~
l:, >e£
3.4 Experiment results

## 3.4.1 Experiment setup 1 results

Normal3 phase test short circuited
Induced Voltages (V)
Auxiliary Winding - 1 Auxiliary Winding - 2
Supply V Current (A) R3 Y3 83 R4 Y4 B4
6 .2V 1A 0.007 0.006 0.003 0.026 0.022 0.026
9V 1.SA 0.011 0.008 0.004 0.04 0.032 0.039
12.4V 2A 0.013 0.01 0.004 O.OS6 0.046 O.OSS
1SV 2.SA 0.018 0.014 0.006 O.<f1 O.OS6 0.068
19V 3A 0.021 0.01S 0.007 0.08S 0.066 0.08
22V 3.SA 0.025 0 .017 0.009 0.101 0.076 0.092
2SV 4A 0.029 0.019 0 .011 0.119 0.08 0.107
29.SV 4.SA 0.033 0.022 0.012 0.138 0.1 0.122
32V SA 0.038 0.023 0.01S 0.1SS 0.11S 0.133

## Table3.1: Observations in the Experiment Results I

..
3.4.2 Experiment setup 2 results
Normal 3 phase test
Induced Voltages (V)
Auxiliary Winding - 1 Auxiliary Winding - 2
SupplyV Current (A) R3 Y3 83 R4 Y4 B4
6 .2V 1A 0.12S 0.166 0.182 0.191 0.165 0.182
9V 1.SA 0.144 0.198 0.202 0.210 0.199 0.201
12.4V 2A 0.203 0.2S6 0.2S8 0.270 0.2S9 0.261
1SV 2.SA 0.294 0.299 0.296 0.319 0.319 0.311
19V 3A 0.354 0.3S9 0.355 0.378 0.378 0.371
~

## 22V 3.SA 0.420 0.414 0.409 0.440 0.432 0.423

2SV 4A 0.477 0.469 0.469 O.SOS 0.493 0.493
29.SV 4.5A 0.540 O.S1S O.S06 0.546 0.54S O.S33
32V SA 0.603 O.S67 O.S55 0.600 0.601 0.586
Table3.2: Observations in the Experiment Results 2

41
R Phase

15
10
5
> 0
-5
-10
-15
Time

.I
y phase

15
10
5
> 0
-5

-1o I ..
-15 ... Time

B Phase

15
10
5
> 0
-5
-10
-15
Time

## Fig:3.10 Observations of Experiment 03

42
3.4.3 Experiment setup 3 results
The observed waveforms are indicated in fi g 3. 10

## 3.5 Analysis of Experiment Results

To observe the effect of fault current on the auxiliary winding at an earth fault, a
prototype of a grounding transformer with two auxiliary windings (with same number
of turns) was used.

The induced voltages in the auxiliary winding 1 and 2 were measured in experimental
setup 1 and experimental setup 2. The results are tabulated in table 3. 1. The
superimposed results are tabulated in table 3.2.
I

Fig. 3.11 shows the variation of induced voltages in two auxiliary windings, when
different voltages are applied to the primary (zigzag) winding. Curves 1 and 2 in Fig.
3.1 1 are almost identical. This implies that the voltage induced in the two auxiliary
windings in experimental setup-1 are equal. Curves 3 and · 4 show some deviation
between them with the increase of supply voltage. This implies that some additional
voltage is induced in auxiliary windings in experimental setup 2.
..
(Fig 3.12 shows the induced voltage revel in two auxiliary windings as a percentage
of induced voltages at the respective auxiliary windings in experiment setup 1).

-.

43
0.700

0.600 -1------------------------------------:~r--

~ 0.500
do

!s
-' 0.400 '---------------------------~~~~~,.~--------------------­
+-
"1:
i• 0~1---------------------------:;~~~~~-----------------------------------------------
Q

I . . . ::
,00

0000
... 1
. 1

I

I

I I I I I

## I- RYB1 - RYB2 - RYB3 ~ RYB4 1

Fig 3.11 Graph: Voltage induced in Aux. Winding against the injected current to
the neutral

25.00

2000

Q
.! 15 00
~
s
••
!
.s.,_ 10 00

5.00
~ . . . . . . .
0.00+-------,--------.-------.-------,--------r-------~------,-------,-------,
1A

6.2V
Curr...t iVoltall"

## ~~ RYB11RYB2 --4--- RYB2JRYB4 a-.g1 ayg2 J

Fig 3.12 Graph:% Voltage increased in Aux. Winding due to the injected
current to the neutral

44
Theoretically two conditions need to be satisfied to operate the grounding transformer
at an earth fault.

1. The zero sequence current flow through each winding (~) should be equal in
each phase.

2. The net flux induced in the limb by the zero sequence component of the current
flown through the windings should be zero.

Base on the experiment results on the prototype transformer there are two
conclusions. ~
.~

## 1. There is a resultant voltage induced in auxiliary windings wound on each limb.

To induce a voltage there should be a net flux in the limb. Therefore the flow of
current through the primary windings in opposite direction is still creating a flux
in the limb.

2. The induced voltage in the auxiliary winding is different for two locations. i.e.
...
for location of auxiliary winding 1 and location of auxiliary winding 2 .

45