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Author ng “ang salitang bayani sa lipunan at Ricardo Nolasco

kasaysayan”

Matatagpuan ang orijin nito sa ilang mga pre- Bayani


Hispanikong lipunan ng ating mga ninuno.

Mandirigma – espesyal na grupo ng mga tao.

bagani, magani, bahani, bayani.

Sa Mindanao, ang bagani ay hindi lamang


mandirigma kundi siyang pinakaDATU ng
tribo

depende sa bilang ng napatay at kung Antas ng pagkabagani o pagkamandirigma


papaboran (sasaniban) ng mga diyos

Maniklad - kill 1 to 2; makasuot ng putong na


pula at dilaw

Hanagan - kill 5; makakapagsuot ng pulang


putong.

Kinaboan – kill 7

Luto – kill 50 – 100

Lunugum – nakapatay sa loob ng bahay ng


kaaway

diyos ng pakikidigma Tagbusaw

 TAGBUSAWAN – kapag sinaniban ni


tagbusaw
Para kay Cecilio Lopez, may isa pang salita Batobalani
na kogneyt din pero higit na kalat kaysa mga
salitang bayani o bagani.

Birthday ni Rizal June 19 1861


Full name Rizal Jose Protacio Rizal Mercado Alonzo y
Realonda
Baptized RIzal Padre Rufino Colyantes
Head Dress Putong

FAMILY OF RIZAL
Father Rizal Francisco Mercado Rizal

Farmer

Latin and Philosophy

Mother Rizal Teodora Alonzo y Quintos

Devoted kay San Jose


Rizal Siblings Saturnina
Paciano
Narcisa
Olympia
Lucia
Maria
Concepcion (died at 3)
Josefa (Soltera - Single)
Trinidad (Soltera - Single)
Soledad

Josephine Bracken – Di tanggap ng pamilya Ang Liham ng Pamilya Rizal


Rizal

EDUCATION
Ateneo De Municipal de Manila 1877
Graduated Agrimensura

He had a deep interest in arts and thus


he went to the Faculty of Arts and Letters
for a degree in Philosophy at the
University of Santo Tomas.

His mother was becoming blind during 1878


this time and the young man decided to
specialize in ophthalmology in order to
help her. He enrolled at the Faculty of
Medical Sciences at University of Santo
Tomas in 1878 for this purpose.
Universidad Central de Madrid from
where he earned his degree in medicine
in 1884.

He completed another degree in


Philosophy and Letters from the same
institute the next year.

CHILDHOOD AND EARLY

 He was born as Jose Protacio Rizal Mercado y Alonso Realonda, one of the 11 children of
Francisco Engracio Rizal Mercado y Alejandro and Teodora Morales Alonso y Quintos. He
later adopted a shorter version of his name, Jose Rizal. His family was very prosperous.
 He enrolled at Ateneo de Municipal de Manila and graduated with a degree in Land
Surveying and Assessment in 1877. He had a deep interest in arts and thus he went to the
Faculty of Arts and Letters for a degree in Philosophy at the University of Santo Tomas.
 His mother was becoming blind during this time and the young man decided to specialize in
ophthalmology in order to help her. He enrolled at the Faculty of Medical Sciences at
University of Santo Tomas in 1878 for this purpose.
 He went to Spain to continue his studies and enrolled at the Universidad Central de Madrid
from where he earned his degree in medicine in 1884. He completed another degree in
Philosophy and Letters from the same institute the next year.
 He had an insatiable thirst for knowledge and went to France to further his knowledge of
ophthalmology at the University of Heidelberg. He completed his eye specialization in 1887
under the tutelage of the famous professor Otto Becker.

LATER LIFE

 In 1887, while studying medicine in the Universidad Central de Madrid, he wrote the novel
‘Noli Me Tangere’. He harshly criticized the Spanish colonial rule in Philippines and wrote of
the injustices and brutalities suffered by the native people. His novel was banned by the
government due to its scathing contents.
 He had been exposed to the problematic life under the Spanish government and was aware
of the difficulties experienced by the Filipinos. He became the leader of the reform
movement of Filipino students in Spain and wrote several articles and essays in the Spanish
newspaper ‘La Solidaridad’.
 He believed that Philippines was struggling with the twin problems of corrupt friars and bad
government. Ideas of progressive ideals, peaceful reforms, individual rights and rights for
the Filipino people formed the foundation of his writings.
 The main focus of the reforms he advocated were freedom of assembly and speech,
representation in the legislature, equal rights before the law for both Filipinos and Spanish,
and that the Philippines be a province of Spain. However, the colonial authorities did not
favor these reforms.
 In 1891, his second novel ‘El Filibusterismo’ was published as a sequel to his first novel. The
novel dealt with dark and violent themes that were considerably different from the theme
of its predecessor. The novel profoundly impacted the Philippine society’s views about
national identity and was banned in some parts of the country for its portrayal of the
Spanish government’s corruption.
 He returned to Philippines in 1892 as he felt he needed to be in the country to effectively
bring about reforms. He formed a civic movement called La Liga Filipina which campaigned
for social reforms through peaceful and legal means.
 By the early 1890s the government had branded Rizal an enemy of the State in spite of the
fact that he advocated peaceful reforms; the authorities were angry with his novels and
writings which had exposed the corruption of the Spanish Colonial government. He was
exiled to Dapitan in July 1892.
 In Dapitan he continued his reform work by building a school for young boys, a hospital and
a water supply system. He also taught farming and worked on agricultural projects using
abaca, a plant used for making rope.
 In 1895, Cuba was engulfed by an epidemic of yellow fever and Rizal volunteered to serve
as an army doctor. His request was accepted by the Governor-General Ramon Blanco.
 By August 1896, a secret society Katipunan started a violent revolution. Even though Rizal
was in no way associated with the revolution, he was arrested enroute to Cuba.
 He was sent back to Manila where he was tried for rebellion, sedition and conspiracy and
convicted of all these charges.

MAJOR WORKS

Jose Rizal was a national hero of the Philippines who exposed the corruptions and
wrongdoings of the Spanish colonial government through his writings. He was an
advocate of peaceful reforms and founded the progressive organization ‘La Liga
Filipina’ which was considered a threat by the Spanish authorities and ultimately led to
his arrest.

PERSONAL LIFE AND LEGACY

 He had been involved with numerous women including Gertrude Beckett, Nelly Boustead,
Seiko Usui and Leonor Rivera.
 He had a civil marriage with an Irish woman from Hong Kong named Josephine Bracken.
The couple had one son, born prematurely, who died soon after birth.
 He was a polymath with the exceptional ability to master several subjects and skills. He was
a doctor, writer, poet, artist, farmer, educator, and historian. He also had considerable
knowledge in the fields of economics, anthropology, dramatics and sociology. He could
speak 22 languages.
 He was arrested in October 1896 and convicted on charges of sedition, conspiracy and
rebellion. He was sentenced to death. His execution was carried out on December 30, 1896
by a squad of Filipino soldiers of the Spanish Army.
RIZAL’s DISCOVERIES
Canangium odoratum - A new species of Ilang- Ilang
Palaquium - A good source of paste and produces a rubber-like material
Nami (Dioscorea hispida) - An edible tuber when properly prepared

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