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04/01/2019

3.8b Thevenin’s Theorem (1)


It states that a linear two-terminal circuit (Fig.
a) can be replaced by an equivalent circuit (Fig.
b) consisting of a voltage source VTH in series
with a resistor RTH,

where

• VTH is the open-circuit voltage at


the terminals.

• RTH is the input or equivalent


resistance at the terminals when the
independent sources are turned off.

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3.8b Thevenin’s Theorem (2)

Example 5
6W 6W
Using Thevenin’s theorem, find the
equivalent circuit to the left of the
terminals in the circuit shown 4W RTh

below. Hence find i.


(a)

6W

+
2A 6W 4W VT
2A
h

(b)

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answer VTH = 6V, RTH = 3W, i = 1.5A

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3.8b Thevenin’s Theorem (3)


5W Ix 3W a
Example 6
+
i2
Find the Thevenin equivalent circuit 6V
+ VTh
 i1 4W 
of the circuit shown below to the 1.5Ix
left of the terminals. i1 i2

o
b
(a)

0.5I 3W Ix a
i
x

5W 1.5Ix 4W + 1V

(b)
b

answer VTH = 5.33V, RTH = 3W 7

3.8a Norton’s Theorem (1)


It states that a linear two-terminal circuit can be
replaced by an equivalent circuit of a current
source IN in parallel with a resistor RN,

Where

• IN is the short circuit current through


the terminals.

• RN is the input or equivalent resistance


at the terminals when the independent
sources are turned off.

The Thevenin’s and Norton equivalent circuits are related by a


source transformation.
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3.8a Norton’s Theorem (2)


Example 7

Find the Norton equivalent


circuit of the circuit shown
below.

RN = 4W, IN = 1A. 9

3.9a Maximum Power Transfer (1)


If the entire circuit is replaced by its
Thevenin equivalent except for the load,
the power delivered to the load is:

2
VTh
RL  RTH  Pmax 
4 RL
2
 VTh 
P  i 2 RL    RL
 RTh  RL 
For maximum power dissipated in RL,
Pmax, for a given RTH,
and VTH,

The power transfer profile with


different RL
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3.9a Maximum Power Transfer (2)


Example 8

Determine the value of RL that will draw the maximum power from
the rest of the circuit shown below. Calculate the maximum power.

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