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CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study

“Nag-aanak nalang kami kasi wala kaming magawa.” Or “Hindi na kami nag-

aanakkasihindinaminsilakayangbuhayin.” VS “We have an active sex life to maintain the

spice of our marriage life and it is also a good stress reliever.” Or “We even barely touch

each other, we’re both dead tired when we arrive at home, and if we get pregnant, we

can’t be a hands on parent or we will lose our job and die poor and hungry as well.”

These are just some common statements from couples who have regularly engage in sex.

Some are from those who don’t engage in regular sex. Others were from couples who

have nice, clean and peaceful environment. Lastly, from couples who live under the

bridge, near a riverbank or on a polluted and noisy place.

Sex or sexual intercourse has always been a part of couple’s activity, married or not. It

was marked essential for a harmonious relationship between two lovers. It is one of the

most private activity that a couple can do. It was based on what they believe in and their

individual desires. Having regular physical intimacy gives a lot of benefits for couples. It

keeps them secured, satisfied and connected with each other. Other than that, sexual

intercourse can be a stress reliever, it also rejuvenates and uplifts a person’s mood. Sex

can also influence a person’s mood. So every individual must consider some factors in

everyday life (Family Planning Victoria: Health and Reproduction, 2015).

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Physical and emotional stress or even a person’s environment may affect his libido or

sex drive level. An individual’s sex drive level has its advantages and disadvantages.

Low sex drive level may give low satisfaction and boredom which may lead to cheating.

This tends to happen because an individual tries to seek satisfaction from other people.

While having high sex drive level can also be unfavourable for it may cause a woman to

get pregnant which could disrupt family planning and be a primary cause of

overpopulation (Family Planning Victoria: Health and Reproduction, 2015).

In 2007, Sasota mentioned that poor families do not have control over their fertility

mainly because they have limited access to family planning and medical services.

Fullerton, Ramirez and Walke (2014) also mentioned in their study that, if a family has

low household income the higher the number of children that they have. A study that has

been done by Luis Pedroso in 2008, also states that a woman who has attained college

level has a lower tendency of unwanted pregnancy compared to those who only finished

elementary or lower level of education. Pedroso also mention that poor families has a

lower probability of wanting to stop unwanted pregnancy than those of well-off couples,

because they are not bothered of the stress and pressure at work or because they have

minimal or no exposure at all to family planning. This study addressed problems about

the effect of the participants’ socio-demographic profile and their sex drive level.

The researchers came up with this study to determine if a couple’s socio-demographic

profile has an effect on their sex drive level. This paper is a comprehensive study about

how a couple’s socio-demographic profile can affect an individual’s sex drive level. The

researchers will also be able to present a comparison of the sex drive level between legal

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resident couples and informal settler couples. Legal resident couples and informal settler

couples are the variables for the study because the researchers’ main objective is to know

whether the environment or their current state of living has something to do with the level

of sex drive of Filipino couples. There will be a comparison on which couple have the

highest sexual drive and who has the least.

Statement of the Problem

This study was conducted to investigate if there is a relationship between socio-

demographic profile and sex drive level of Filipino couple. Specifically, the study seeks

to answer the following:

1. What are the socio-demographic profiles of the legal residents and informal

settlers according to the following:

a. Age,

b. Sex,

c. Civil Status,

d. Educational Attainment,

e. Employment Status,

f. Monthly Household Income Status?

2. What are the sex drive levels of the legal residents?

3. What are the sex drive levels of the informal settlers?

4. Is there a significant relationship between the socio-demographic profile and

sex drive level of informal settlers and legal residents?

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5. Is there a significant difference between the sex drive level of informal settlers

and legal residents?

Theoretical Framework

In Freudian Theory, Sigmund Freud believed that the human mind is structured by

two parts; the conscious and the unconscious mind. The conscious mind involves

information, situations, feelings, and actions that we are aware of. The unconscious mind,

on the other hand, includes all the things that lie outside our awareness. Our wishes,

dreams, urges, desires, and forgotten memories lies in the unconscious mind, which also

happens to influence our behavior.

Moreover, Freud also believes that human personality or psyche, has three major

components; the Id, Ego, and Superego. The Id operates unconsciously according to

pleasure principle, which is the thought of satisfying the desires and urges immediately

regardless of the consequences of ones actions. The Id is also composed of two drives or

instincts which is Eros and Thanathos. Eros or Life instinct deals with survival,

reproduction, and pleasure. It also creates Libido, which is an energy of sexual desire.

Thanathos or Death instinct is the person’s unconscious desire to die. Self-destructive

behavior expresses death drive, but Freud also believed that Thanathos are largely

balanced by the Eros.

The ego operates accordingly to the reality principle, which is satisfying the demands

of Id in a realistic and reasonable action. It often compromises and postpones to satisfy

the needs just to avoid the possible negative consequences from the society. Ego

conforms to the rules, norms, and etiquette on how to behave properly, but does not have

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a concept of right and wrong. When ego failed to use the reality principle and the person

became anxious, they tend to do unconscious defense mechanism in order make

themselves feel better and to help them hide unpleasant feelings, such as guilt. Ego also

engages to reality testing which enables a person to demonstrate self-control towards

problems solving.

The Superego operates consciously and accordingly to the values and morals learned

from one’s parents and society. The function of the superego is to control the impulses of

the Id, specifically those which the society forbids, and also persuades the ego to strive

for perfection. Superego is divided into two systems: the conscience, it punishes the ego,

when failing, through guilt, and the Ideal self, which is an imaginary picture of how you

should and ought to be.

According to Freud, there are two competing forces that eventually happen in a

person’s brain. Cathexis is the investment of energy in an object, idea or person. It

becomes Ego cathexis when the energy becomes associated with an ego-related activity.

Dispersal of energy involves seeking out activity that has the capacity to fulfill the need

in the short term. An example is when the sexually aroused person wants to have a sexual

intercourse with the opposite sex. As mentioned earlier, the id cannot distinguish fantasy

from reality, so it is possible for the id to act in a not acceptable way. Luckily, the ego has

an ability to block immoral, irrational or unacceptable actions from the id known as the

Anticathexis. Anticathexis block or suppress cathexes from being utilized (Cherry, 2015).

In relation to our study, sex drive or desire is made by the Eros which can either be

satisfied behaving accordingly to Id, or Ego, or Superego. A person’s decision or

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behavior could be affected based on how their drives will react on how they will be able

to satisfy his/her sexual needs.

Conceptual Framework

Couples

Legal Residents VS. Informal Settlers

Socio-demographic Profile

Sex Drive Level Sex Drive Level

Figure 1. A paradigm showing the relationship between sex drive and socio-demographic profile
status and comparison between the sex drive level of legal residents and informal settlers.

This conceptual framework shows the relationship of independent variable of the

study, which is the socio-demographic profile, and the dependent variable, which is the

sex drive. There will be two sets of respondents in this study, one is the informal settlers

and the other is the legal residents. The researchers will measure the sex drive level of

the two groups through the instrument entitled “Sex Drive Scale” that was proposed by

the researchers and will compare whether which group has the higher level of sex drive.

The researchers will also analyze whether the socio-demographic has a significant

relationship with sex drive.

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Hypothesis

The following hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance:

Ho1: There is no significant relationship between age and sex drive level of Filipino

couples.

Ho2: Sex, Civil Status, Educational Attainment, Employment Status and Monthly

Income are independent to the sex drive level of Filipino couples.

Ho3: There is no significant difference between the sex drive level of informal settlers

and legal residents.

Significance of the Study

This study is beneficial to the following:

Filipino Couples. This study will be significant for them for it will help them be

aware of the level of their sex drive because having too high or too low might bring

several problems in their relationship as a couple.This study can also guide them in

teaching or making their children aware of the possible consequences of high or low sex

drive that might be one of the reason for unwanted pregnancy. This study will be

effective in terms of how the recommendation of this study will be implemented to

further help resolve certain problems in the country. Examples are overpopulation, wrong

impact and information about family planning, inaccurate house facilities of families,

sexual and personal problems of couples.

Filipino Youth. The Filipino youth in the current generation, which is called

generation z, has a lot of minor children being exposed to liberation and sexual

intimation. The factors that were discussed in this study could be the reason why Filipino

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youth has become more liberated. According to the National Youth Study (NYAS) by the

National Youth Commission (NYC) in 2010, 75% of youth thinks that engaging in sexual

intimacy is socially acceptable here in the Philippines. This is the reason why there has

been an increased rate of teenage pregnancy, teenage marriage, and premarital sex; it also

causes other phenomenal problems like increase rate in population, abortion, poverty,

unemployment etc. (Philrights, 2014).

Government.This study will be beneficial to theGovernment Agencies especially to

those who are handling issues about health, family planning, social welfare and

reproductive health, because this study has discussed several issues that is related on the

services that they are providing. This study has also discussed how inadequate the

programs that this government agencies provide especially for the families who does not

have the capacity to afford the said services. This study also mentioned about the

misunderstandings of families from the slum area about the main agenda of family

planning that can make amends.

Future researchers and Filipino literature. Sex drive or libido possibly causes a lot

of problems, but it is not further explored and studied in the Philippines. This could be

the reason why those problems are still problems, and it is getting worse. This study does

not provide enough study to conclude that the results are generally accurate, but this

could be the start to address this kinds of topic. The Filipinos are already being exposed

to something that are new and intimate, but they are mentally uneducated and unaware of

the circumstances that could happened due to risky behaviour that is caused by their

libido.

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Scope and Limitations

The research focuses on the relationship of the socio-demographic profile and sex

drive level of Filipino couples. The respondents of this study for both the informal

settlers and legal residents are from Manila City and Cavite. There will be no age

requirement as long as they are living under the same roof. They can also participate even

if they do not have a child. The couples may be employed or unemployed. There is no

need for the couples to be educated as long as they are able to read and write, in case that

they cannot, the researchers would read the questionnaire for the participants.

In related literatures, most of it was from western concepts, due to lack of Filipino

literatures. But not all of western thought are applicable to Filipino researches because of

the difference in culture. Because of this, the researchers were more motivated on

pursuing this topic as it should be given much attention.

Definition of Terms

In this research, the terms below are defined operationally:

Anticathexis. Sigmund Freud’s term of how superego suppresses cathexes from being

utilize. Superego acts as the ‘conscience’ in a person’s brain, which has the capacity to

sense right and wrong.

Cathexis. Freud’s term of how Id is being processed to satisfy needs, neither in short

or long term. Id is one of Freud’s components of personality which strives for satisfaction

of a person’s desires unconsciously.

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Ego Cathexis. A Freudian term of how the action of id is associated with an ego-

related activity. This means that the desires of the id will still be satisfied by conforming

to something that is socially accepted.

Informal settlers.These are people living in a non-productive or abandoned land

without a legal consent of using it.

Legal residents. These are homeowners or lessees residing in a particular land with

legal rights to used it as their dwelling place.

Libido. A Freudian term for sexual urge or desire that is measurable to a person.

Sex drive.It is a physiological need for sexual activity; the variable to be measured in

both formal and informal settlers.

Socio-demographic profile. This gathers that information of the characteristics of a

population according of age, sex, civil status, educational attainment, employment status,

and monthly household income status.

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CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

This chapter consists of related literatures that later explain sex drive, socio-

demographic factors, other factors that affect sexual drive, and its synthesis.

Sexual Drive

Sexual drive or libido is a common thing to every individuals. Having sexual urges are

unconsciously happening in our mind, even innocent children have their own sexual

feelings as they start to explore their sexuality and their sexual organs. An individual has

his/her own way on expressing and satisfying his/her libido and there are sexual acts that

performed towards self or others. Examples of sexual acts are masturbation, touching,

caressing and kissing, and sexual intercourse (Dela Cruz & Sarmiento, 2014).

According to Robert Weiss, masturbation is the way of releasing sex urge using their

own genitals to the point of orgasm. There is no evidence that masturbation is harmful,

unless it becomes an addiction. It can be caused by lustful thoughts, pornographic media,

and drugs (National Institutes of Health, 2006).

There are two instincts of life, first is eros the love of life and the other is thanatos

which is the love of death and these two drives are basically put as sex and aggression.

Sex has been a big part of life; it makes the relationship grow fonder, give spice to their

life and also to be able to continue the bloodlines. In 2006, Boeree (as cited in Dela Cruz

& Sarmiento, 2014) mentioned that “An organism acts in order to survive and reproduce,

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and is guided toward these ends by its needs; the organism’s need of hunger, thirst, the

avoidance of pain, and sex”. For some people, sex drive is not just an activity to fulfil

their satisfaction; it is an important source of human motivation.

Sexual Drive and Socio-demographic Factors

 Age and Sex

According to studies, most cases said that sex drive decreases gradually with age. This

is because of the sex hormones that are being produced in our body. The amount of sex

hormones being secreted can affect the sex drive of an individual. Scientifically, the

production of sex hormones decreases as the individual age, both for men and women.

But according to Nippoldt (2015), diminishing sex drive can also be because of stress and

depression due to aging. Also, since engaging in a sexual intercourse releases a lot of

physical energy, it causes elders to get exhausted easily (Rogers, 2016).

As for men, the hormones that primarily controls sex drive in men never stops on

producing even as they age. But their sexual life will still change with age even if they

maintained satisfying their desire. The sex drive of men usually escalates at puberty

stage, within ages 12-17. Their testosterone levels slowly diminish after ages 18 and

above, however, the highest peak their libido are in their late teens. According to Mayo

Clinic, testosterone level decreases 1 percent a year at the age of 30’s or 40’s (as cited in

Morris, 2014). Men start having difficulties with erection as their hormones reduces.

Erections don’t occur as quickly or as automatically by the age of 40. It also takes longer

after ejaculation before a man can have an erection again. Decreasing testosterone does

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not only affects the erection and ejaculation, but also the energy and endurance of men.

For some men, they still maintain at least some amount of sexual interest in their 60s and

70s (Morris, 2014).

For women, their sex hormones are at the highest level in their year 20s (The Editors

of Prevention, 2016). However, Stacy Lloyd (2016) stated that most women in their 20s

tend to be too accurate in choosing their partners based on the kind of family men they

ideally want. She also mentioned that the women’s highest sex drive peak is from age 35

to 40. Women’s sex drives are heavily influenced by social and cultural factors. Also,

their sex hormone levels are higher during pregnancy stage, which also causes them to

have an increased desire for sex. Their sex drive usually declines after childbirth, when

they are breastfeeding, and before and during their menopausal stage (OBOS Sexuality &

Relationships Contributors, 2015).

According to Amanda MacMillan (2016), women also feel aroused and sensitive

when they are on their menstrual period. Sex hormones are not quite active in the first

day, but it fluctuates on the third day of period. Also, some women reported that they felt

more pleasured because the flow of the period helps as extra lubrication during sex. It

was also stated that some studies suggests that orgasms lessens the pain of menstrual

cramps and PMS.

In the modern time, there has been a lot of studies that shows how vast the increased

amount of individual in teenage pregnancy, teenage brides, and premarital sex. Although

these acts are not generally because of their sex drive, but also because of uncertain

events happened and forced decisions, like rape and forced marriage (Rodriguez, 2015).

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These uncontrollable happenings can also be a voluntary act of youths that have different

perception than youths before. According to the National Youth Study (NYAS) of 2010

by the National Youth Commission (NYC), 75% of teenagers are already looking for

romantic relationships, and 37% of it believes that sexual intimacy is accepted by the

society (as cited in Philrights, 2014). These beliefs and perception could lead to increase

their sex drive as they learn about it and have an experience in sexual intercourse,

because primarily, they felt pleasured and satisfied. This situation in the country is very

alarming, because it also causes other problems like increase rate in abortion, poverty,

malnutrition, over population, mental and physical health, maturity of individuals, etc.

(Philrights, 2014)

 Civil Status

Filipinos are known for their conservativeness and religiosity. However, the millennial

Filipinos are nearly becoming liberalized because of the vast changes that are currently

happening in the country. One example of that is the acceptance of the society to live in

relationships (Gonzales, 2015).

Live in relationship, also called as cohabitation, is being accepted here in the

Philippines. Unlike decades ago, Filipinos strictly follows the Roman Catholic Church,

which prohibits sex before marriage. Live in relationships are just common to marriage,

but without legal affiliations. Live in relationships are commonly happening to poor

couples, since marriage is expensive. Also, other couples who does not want any life

commitments, and couples who are not yet sure and/or ready to have a stable life. Since

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divorce are prohibited here in the Philippines, others prefer to have a live in relationship

(Alves, 2015).

For married couples, they could either have a civil marriage, a religious ceremony, or

both. Marriage is a union of two persons that is formally recognized by the law and the

church. Some married couples could have possibly been in a live in relationship; this

helps them to know each other more. In 2015, the Vital Statistics Division of Philippine

Statistics Authority (PSA) reported that marriages in the country declines by 17% from

2005 up to 2014.

Both situations have their own pros and cons, and these pros and cons could be a

conflict and influence their urge for sexual intimacy. Having relationship issues with their

partners can be a major factor of low sexual drive (Mayo Clinic, 2015).

 Educational Attainment

Education has a huge influence to an individual’s perceptions to certain things, like

sexual intimacy. It is not basically thought in school, but having education can shape

minds and moral attitudes of a person towards sex.

According to Romeo Recide of PSA (2014), he stated that “Initiation of sexual activity

before age 18 is more common among young adult women with less education and those

in poorer households.” Poor households could lead to less education, and less education

could mean they have less knowledge about sex. His report mentioned that over 40% of

young adult women with elementary education had their first sexual intercourse before

age 18, while only 7% to those with college education. Although engaging in sexual

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intercourse is not a way of measuring sex drive, sexual intercourse can actually increase

an individual’s sexual drive (Robinson, 2013).

 Employment Status and Monthly Household Income Status

Employment is a very important thing an individual should have after college. Being

employed or self-employed has its own benefits; income that could help sustain daily

needs. But work can also be source of stress to individuals, which could lead to decrease

of sex drive. According to Seliger (2007) a person who works can also consume their

time, leaving their partners not enough time to bond with each other, which can also

cause relationship issues. Working is also exhausting, which leads the couples to not fully

satisfy themselves. (Rogers, 2016).

However, Kara Mayer Robinson (2013) mentioned that engaging in sexual intercourse

can ease and lessen the stress of a person. As it has been stated previously, engaging in

sexual intercourse can increase a person’s sexual drive.

The monthly income of an individual depends on their employment status and their

kind of job. Some jobs offers income that can sustain an individual’s daily needs, some

can even sustain or are enough for a families expenditures.

For married couples, it is normal or considered for them to combine and share both of

their income. It also happens to other couples wherein only one of them are working.

This also works for live in couples. However, one of the disadvantages of being in a live

in relationship, they are not obliged to share their possessions or their income to each

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other. As for some of the live in couples, they don’t share or combine their incomes with

their partners, instead they divide their expenditures equally and separately pay them.

Legal Residence

Legal Resident refers to homeowners and lessees. According to the Republic Act

9904, homeowners are legal occupants of a residential unit, while lessees are people who

are renting a residential unit. Residential unit refers to apartments, houses, or land which

is used for residential purposes. These types of residents concludes that their occupancy

are done lawfully; there has been a settlement within a land property with legal and

lawful documents that will provide as evidence that the person or the family are

authorized to reside in that particular area. Most structures of the units are made of brick

walls, tile floors, and concrete or galvanized iron roofs. This type of home and

community also includes basic community services and facilities that makes it

environmentally safe and legally secured.

Purchasing residential units costs a lot, it varies with the type of residential area, the

size and space of land area, and the materials used for the unit. Technically, people who

are residing in these areas are, most probably, employed or has a business; which means

they have income that is enough to provide the needs of themselves and/or their family.

In addition to their expenses like electricity and water bills, maintenance for vehicles,

taxes, and other necessities. Families residing in legal areas have access to all the

amenities and conveniences of a comfortable life. They can probably provide needs of

their children, including their education. Married or live in couples are more

knowledgeable about family planning, however there are also big families in legal

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residence but they are much wealthy that they can still provide the needs of each family

members (Housing and Urban Development Coordinating Council, 2014).

One study said that those people who are high in status have often found to have lower

number of children. One reason why those who are high in status tends to have lesser

children is because they are able to practice birth control; they have the capacity to buy

contraceptives or even go to the doctor to have the proper medication (Skirbekk, 2008).

Couples who have high economic status also have a little time to have a sexual

intercourse because of their work or commitments, they are focusing on the need to work

to support the needs of the family and their children (Fullerton, Ramirez and Walke,

2014).

In another literature, Dr. Fran Walfish (as cited in Borreli, 2015), a Beverly Hills

psychotherapist, mentioned that the majority of sex addicts that she have treated were

very professional, wealthy and financially stable men in a range of profession and are

respected in their fields of choice. Since wealthy people could afford the medication or

methods that has to be done that is needed for their sexual health, they could be more

picky and wise in engagement to different sexual intercourse.

Informal Settlements

Informal Settlements, also known as slums or squatter, are areas where families are

residing in a property that is not in their possession; could be either owned by someone or

by the government. The reason why this kind of settlement is happening is because there

are a lot of land properties that are abandoned or unused by the owners. People without

enough money to provide them a secured house tend to take those abandoned land

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properties in use. Assumingly, most informal settlers are poor families. Since they are

poor families, their houses are only built with recycled or light materials like used

plywood, cartons, galvanized iron sheets, some also make use of bamboos. Some

informal settlers could be residing under the bridge, beside railroads, riverside, public

cemeteries, and other public places. According to the socioeconomic classification rule

for households that Tabunda and de Jesus used, this kind of housing are categorize in the

lowest class, which is Class E (as cited in Lucagbo, 2014)

This type of residency generally affects the health and lifestyle among these families.

Their houses are built in an environmentally hazardous areas and usually lack of formal

services. Since their area are not governed by any public officials, their homes are not

safe and secured. There has been a lot of crime and violence cases in the slum area. The

areas are not hygienic and clean, which can cause them diseases. They live in a hazardous

environment where they are continually exposed to serious health risks (UN-Habitat,

2015).

Poor families tend to have higher number of children because they have more time

spending in their homes with their family and spouse. This situation makes it even more

difficult for them as they add more children in their family because their income will not

be able to cover up all their needs and expenses. Poverty also lessens the chance of their

kids to have good health, proper education, and morality (Sasota, 2010). This is the

reason why teenage pregnancy is common to young women living in squatter. According

to Recide (2014), engaging in sexual activity before age 18 is more common to

individuals with less education and those in poorer households.

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“Mahirap lang kami, hindi naming alam ‘yang family planning. Hindi na namin

iniisip ‘yang mga ganyan.” Rosalie Cabenan, a mother who has 22 children says that in

a documentary made by Joseph Laban entitled “Bente Dos” that aired in 2011 in the

GMA News TV Program “Front Row”. They lived in a community of informal settlers in

Baseco, Manila. The couple has turned out to have almost two dozen of children because

they do not know how to use contraceptives and they do not have the interest to use it.

The father, DaniloCabenan, does not know how to use condoms so the result is that they

have lots of kids. The couple mentioned that they would engage in sexual intercourse but

does not use any contraceptives and that is the reason why they end up having many

offspring. The documentary also shows that engaging in a sexual intercourse has been an

escape for the poor families to forget their problems or they see it as a way of their

relaxation or a stress reliever.

Poor families have limited access to family planning and allied services, lower

contraceptive prevalence rates, higher unwanted pregnancy and higher unmet need for

family planning. It would seem more plausible that the poor have larger families because

of the limitations of their circumstance, rather than deliberate intent or preference

(Pedroso, 2008).

In 2013, the National Statistics Coordination Board says that 27.9% of the population

lived below the poverty line and it has been steady for the past decade (Bernardo, 2013).

The rapid growth of a population was occurring mainly in the large town and cities where

the economy not revolves in farming. The rural poverty is higher than the urban poverty.

Government tolerated the slums while the housing market has not able to keep pace the

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housing demand. Moreover, the financial sector has been conservative in home

financing. The growth of slums is very rapid at an average rate. Not all in household in

slum are income poor. The slum poverty covers a wider segment in the population. It

includes those who are poor due to inadequate income and to those non-income poor but

environmentally deprived. Slum poverty is primarily an environmental poverty. Their

low incomes are the basis of the environmentally poverty (Ballesteros, 2010).

Factors Affecting Sex Drive

Sex drive can be influenced by different factors; psychological, biological and

physiological. In comparing the sex drive level of the informal settlers and legal residents

there is a study that has been done at the Yale University in 2005 by T. Paul Schultz, the

said study mentioned that the higher the economic status the lesser the children a family

has (Fullerton et al, 2014).

 Lifestyle

The legal resident couples’ sex drive are often affected by their way of living or

lifestyle. Most residents who have an average way of living are employed and have a

regular night life or have their own way to spend their leisure times with. Some people

relax at a night club where they often drink alcoholic drinks, or take illegal drugs and

antidepressants. A person who has this kind of lifestyle may go to their houses dead tired

and because they are legally employed, they are obliged to go to their work early in the

morning, this proposes that if a person is married or living in with a their partner, their

sex life could be affected and deteriorated.

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If a person is a regular alcohol drinker, this can be a factor that may increase or

decrease a person’s sex drive. According to Health Promotion Agency (2015), one of the

immediate effects of alcohol in men is when they get drunk; this increases the risks of

having unsafe sexual intercourse, like having sexual intercourse without condom. For the

long term effects of alcohol, a man’s chronic heavy alcohol use can lead to impotence,

loss of sex drive, wasting of the testicles and reduced fertility. This is primarily because

alcohol affects testosterone levels.

In women, who consumes alcohol often can also manifest aside from getting sexually

assaulted when she is drunk. Alcohol is also related to impair judgment and lower

inhibitions as stated at the same article from Health Promotion Agency for 2015. For the

long term effects of alcohol, women with irregularities and heavy menstrual period is one

of the factors of using it. This could also lead to reduced fertility.

Overall, too much partying may lead to different factors that may decrease or increase

a person’s sex drive level. They may be too tired and lose the urge to do sex. They may

also be too drunk and get a high sex drive level that may lead to masturbation, and other

sexual manifestation.

 External Factors

Media is one thing that is really helpful and useful, but it can be risky when it is being

mismanaged. It can easily influence individuals by being too much exposed to it, or

getting addicted. Not everything that the media shows are appropriate for all ages and

some are quite disturbing (Fowlers, 2015).

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One example is porn sites. It is viewed by people who wanted to be sexually aroused

and satisfied. Watching porn media can actually increase a person’s sex drive as it

becomes a reinforcement because of satisfaction, which makes a person want to repeat on

doing it (Sober Media Group, 2016). However, nowadays, porn media can be easily

opened and viewed even in social media. Everyone is at risk of being exposed to this

kinds of things, especially the children, who are always curious of things they see and

actually imitate it (Fowlers, 2015).

 Pharmaceutical drugs

It is common to most Filipino to self-medicate whenever they feel something unusual

or painful. They take drugs without the doctor’s prescription, they mostly believe on

medicines that were just suggested to them by their relatives or friends not knowing that

every human has their differences and the drug that the google suggested to them was not

really suitable for their conditions. The most common examples of these drugs are pain-

killing drugs and high blood pressure medications. Based on the study of Sexual

Medicine Society of North America in 2013, it is proven that the Opioids (substances that

are found in some pain reliever) can affect the testosterone level of men, which can affect

their sex drive.

Ecstasy has two kinds of effect, the short-term effect that gives energy, increase

enjoyment in touching, and may also increase their blood pressure. Users will also feel

dehydrated, faintness, headaches and worse death. The other type of effect is the long-

term effect that increases the heart rate leading to the complication in cardiovascular

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diseases. And dehydration can lead to liver and kidney failure. And ecstasy is toxic to the

brain the brain damage is depending on the amount and frequency of usage.

Health specialist, Jennifer Wider, M.D., 2016, stated that birth control, antihistamines,

decongestants medication can affect a person’s sex drive. She also suggested anti-

depressants can also be a reason for a person’s interference of sex drive.

On the other hand, other people also use certain prescription drugs to relieve dysfunctions

and to have better sexual intercourse with their partners. Same with those who wants to

be pregnant and have a child, they use prescription drugs to improve their fertility

(Rodriguez, 2011).

 Sleep Deprivation

Working men and women are prone to sleepless nights because of their job that they

urgently need to pass or finish before the deadline. Being a married person or even a

person with a partner, can intervene with in your sex life. In 2016, an article written by a

health specialist named Jennifer Wider, M.D., “Getting enough sleep is vital for your

body to function at 100 percent," says Wider. "If you skip sleep, you may lessen your

libido—and also have a harder time climaxing in bed." According to Wider (2015), they

published in an article that lack of sleep can cause stress, and exhaustion, fatigue and lack

of intimate time with your partner. Couples that undergo these situations can have lesser

sexual intercourse that can be a reason for a person to develop lack of interest in sex.

National Health Services in 2015 also proves that men and women who do not get

adequate sleep have lower libidos and lower sex interest. A study funded by the National

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Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute found out that testosterone levels dropped significantly

in men who don’t get enough sleep. These lower levels affect not just the libido as

testosterone deficiency but can also lead to having lower energy, poor concentration,

fatigue and decreased strength. "Low testosterone levels are associated with reduced

well-being and vigour, which may also occur as a consequence of sleep loss," said Eve

Van Cauter, PhD, director of the study, which appeared in the Journal of the American

Medical Association on 2011. This means that lacking of sleep is also a factor that may

affect a person’s sex drive level.

 Social Life

Most people who have a job and have money for a living cannot be able to resist the

temptation of owning a smart phone or any gadget that could make them connect to the

social media. The fun and entertainment that people can get from social networking sites

are truly irresistible, but also exhausting at the same time (Wider, 2015). Other than that,

social media can also increase a person’s libido for it shows explicit content that could

penetrate or arouse men or women.

 Health Issues

A busy person cannot even bear to eat correctly and regularly. Most of them skip

meals, others eat too much, especially fast foods or processed foods because they are

much easier to prepare. But out of the person’s knowledge, these types of food can affect

their weight and their weight can affect their sex drive.

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An overweight person’s sex drive can be lessening as well as their performance in

bed. Also overweight person can develop and at high risk of obesity, diabetes and high

cholesterol (Wider, 2015).

 Religion and Culture

Religious beliefs also have a great impact on the sex drive level of a person. Because

of the strict rules of some religious sector it makes a person to be shy to explore their

sexual desires. Another reason will be cultural factors or how you were raised (Sloan,

2008). If a person is raised by conservative parents and in a conservative nature then,

his/her sexual desires will either be rapidly increasing because of the curiosity they have

or rapidly decreasing because they are afraid of what their parents or the people around

them will say or think about them (McIlwain, 2011).

 Physiological Factors

One factor that affects sex drive is physical conditions. Wide range of illnesses,

physical changes and medication can affect a single person’s sex drive. Several condition

affects sex drive, one of it is sexual problems. If a person experiences pain or

dissatisfaction or problem that leads to inability to orgasm then that person’s desire for

sexual intercourse will decrease. Non-sexual medical conditions also affect desire for sex

such as cancer, arthritis, diabetes and high blood pressure. Surgeries also have an impact

to sexual drive especially when the surgery is done on the genital tract and in the breast.

Medications such as antidepressants and anti-seizure are top libido killers. Using illegal

drugs and drinking too much alcohol may spoil a person’s desire for sex. Smoking can

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decrease blood flow that may result in the decrease of arousal (Mayo Clinic

Organization, 2015).

Changes on hormonal level might be another cause in altering level of sex drive. In

the menopausal stage of a woman, estrogen level drops during the transition in this stage

of womanhood. Menopause causes dry vaginal tissues that may lead to painful and

uncomfortable sex. For many women in this stage, they still have a satisfying sex life but

for some they have an unstable libido. Pregnancy might also be a hinder for some

couples, because the women’s hormones are deteriorating. Physical figures, fatigue and

the pressure in pregnancy will be the cause of decreased libido for women (Mayo Clinic

Organization, 2015). While for men, an underactive thyroid may cause low sex drive

level. An underactive thyroid is when the thyroid gland does not produce enough

hormones. There is a condition in men named, hyperprolactinaemia wherein a raised

level of a substance called prolactin in the blood this causes low libido for men (National

Health Services, 2015)

 Psychological Factors

Aside from physical conditions, psychological factors also have a contribution on the

increase and decrease of sex drive level in both male and female. One of these is when a

person becomes a victim of sexual abuse. Anxiety is another reason for the decrease in

the libido. If a person is anxious in his/her performance then that person will have a rapid

decrease in his/her libido (Davis, 2011)

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A man’s self-esteem has a great impact on his level of sex drive. Job changes or loss,

depression, stress and financial worries this will result to low level of sex drive.

Relationship issues like resentment, anger and general dissatisfaction also contributes to

the decrease of level of sex drive (Castellanos, 2015).

 Sexual Disorders
Sexual disorders are also classified as mental disorders. This could alter an

individual’s daily function. A person with an abnormal sex drive level is believed to have

sexual disorder. There are several types of sexual disorders. These are examples:

Paraphilia, according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th

Edition), are deviants of deviant sexuality. Being paraphillic involves recurrent sexual

fantasies, urges or behaviors around children, non-humans such as objects, animals,

materials, etc. and harming other people or even one’s self to satisfy or feed their sexual

desires.

List of paraphillias include:

 Exhibitionism is the urge of displaying one’s private parts to other people,

even strangers. The sexual tension that they can feel can only be relieved by

the rush of exposing themselves or showing themselves to other people.

 Fetishism includes the fixation of an individual’s energy on a manufactured

product instead of being fixated to another human being. Examples of these

are garments like shoes, underwear, panties, bras, etc. Fetish persons may not

reach their climax during intercourse when they do not have their fetish

objects together with them.

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 Frotteurismis having the compulsion to rub one’s self to strangers in a sensual

manner.

 Pedophilia is when a sexually mature individual, particularly adult, fantasizes,

engages in a sexual intercourse or behavior wit pre-pubescent children.

 Sexual Masochism and Sadism are those people who engage in a sexual event

where the focus is having the (sadism) receive physical and emotional pain,

embarrassment and humiliation caused by the masochist.

 Trasvestismalso known as TransvesticFetishm occurs when a heterosexual

male has fantasies of wearing the clothes of the opposite sex. This is also

called “cross dressing”, which commonly stimulates a person sexually.

 Voyeurism or peeping tom is about spying on someone who is not aware that

he/she is being observed. The person with Voyeurism, secretly undress the

person that he or she is spying in his or her imagination. This is common and

not considered a disorder unless it became a part of a person’s sexual routine.

Hypersexual Disorders, according to John M. Grohol, as cited in Psychcentral, the

American Psychiatric Association released a draft and preliminary criteria that “sex

addiction” may be formally called Hypersexual Disorder. This disorder can only be

diagnosed in adults ages 18 years old and above, in accordance to the draft criteria.

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Symptoms of Hypersexual Disorder:

Over a period of at least six consecutive months, a person with Hypersexual Disorder

must experience a recurrence and intense sexual fantasies, sexual urges and sensual

behavior together with four or more of the following five criteria:

1. Most of the person’s time is consumed by sexual fantasies and urges, and by

planning for engagement in sexual behavior.

2. A person usually engage in these sexual activities to repress his dysphoric

mood such as depression, anxiety, boredom, and irritability.

3. He or she engages to this sexual urges or behavior when he or she is

undergoing a stressful life event.

4. Unsuccessful trying of controlling to reduce or stop his/her sexual fantasies

after several times of trying.

5. Repetitively engagement to different sexual behaviour without considering the

risk of physical or emotional harm to self or to other people.

People who would manifest and qualify for the criteria that was set is believed to

have a mental disorder or very high sex drive that would alter an individual’s daily

functioning (Grohol, 2016).

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Synthesis

Physical intimacy or sexual intercourse is what keeps a relationship more harmonious;

it makes a couple communicated. But for it to be effective, an individual must have a

good sex drive. For this reason, the study focuses on Filipino couples residing in two

different environments; in a slum area and in a legal residence, the researchers aim to

determine whether a couple’s sex drive level is altered by the environment or their way of

living.

Sexual activity is a manifestation of what sex drive level does a person or couple have,

and because of this, the researchers are targeting to test their sex drive level and make a

comparison about who equates the most high sex drive and identify the factors and

reasons of why and how a person possesses this level of sex drive.

T. Paul Schultz of Yale University has a study regarding Household Income and

Fertility. He said in his study that the higher the Income of an Individual the lower their

fertility rate is. This is because they are busy to provide the need of their current family

members and they are using birth control methods to help them plan for their family

structure (Fullerton et al, 2014).

The similarities between these two studies is that they want to find out whether socio-

demographic factors such as educational attainment, work and income is a reason for

higher rate of becoming pregnant. These studies also assume that the higher the

household income of a family the lower the tendency on engaging on unwanted

pregnancy.

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While the difference will be the variable that will be measured; for T. Paul Schultz he

will be measuring the Fertility rate of the Families and whether the Household Income,

Educational Attainment and Work has an effect on the fertility preference of a couple and

for the researchers try to measure the Sex Drive Level of the Couples and whether socio-

demographic profile such as Age, Sex, Educational Attainment, Work, Income and Civil

status has an effect on the Sex Drive level of a couple (as cited in Fullerton et al, 2014).

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CHAPTER III
METHODOLOGY

The purpose of this chapter is to present the methods and procedures of the study. It

consists of research design, participants of the study, sampling technique, data gathering

procedure, research instruments, data analysis, and the statistical treatments used.

Research Design

Descriptive Causal Comparative Research design was used in this study.Descriptive

research design was used to describe the phenomena that is currently being studied

(Shuttleworth, 2008). This design was used to describe the socio-demographic profile of

the participants according to their age, sex, civil status, educational attainment,

employment status, and monthly income.

Causal Comparative, also called as Ex-Post Facto, a Latin word which means “after

the fact”, is a research design that attempts to determine reasons or causes for an

existing condition. This aims to investigate if there is a relationship between two

variables by comparing two groups that are already formed (Salkind, 2010).

Participants of the study

In getting the number of participants for measuring the difference of the two

different residency, 100 couples for each group are required.

There were two types of Filipino couple in the study. First were the legal residents

and second were the informal settlers. The participants represented by legal residents

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were couples living in Cavite and Manila. It was a place that the researchers chose

because of these specific criteria; (1) there are couples residing in that particular area

and (2)the residents has a title of ownership which makes them as a legal residents in

that subdivision. According to Attorney Laserna Jr. (2008), possession of title makes a

resident have a legal right of ownership in that particular land.

The participants were represented by Informal Settlers came from Cavite and

Manila. Mostly, the place consists of houses which are made out of wood and

galvanized iron sheets. They also have houses built above a river, inside the cemetery

and beside a railroad. The researchers chose this certain barangays because of the

achieved criteria; (1) there are couples residing in that particular barangay and (2) the

residents do not possess a title of ownership. Attorney Laserna Jr. (2008) stated that

informal settlers do not have a title as their legal basis for occupying that specific land.

Sampling Technique

The participants were selected through a quota sampling method. Quota sampling

method is where researchers take a sample from a population that has the qualities of

what the researchers need in order to meet their quota. For this study, the researchers

needed to have 100 couples for the informal settlers and legal residents, a total of 200

participants; 100 female and 100 male; the researchers continued the sampling until

they met their quota of 100couples. When they got 100 females and 95 males, they still

continued the sampling in participants that didn’t meet the quota. Upon the quota

completion, then that is the time they need to stop sampling. This sampling method is a

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type of a non-probability sampling technique. A non-probability sampling is a technique

wherein an individual doesnot give an equal chance to be selected. (Explorable, 2009)

The researchers came up with this method because the chosen representatives for

the variable in the study were selected based on the researcher’s knowledge about them.

In addition to this, the judgmental sampling was the best sampling technique to be used

because of limited number of couples that possess the quality who were qualified on the

given criteria. This was also the viable sampling technique used to obtain specific

information that we need from the specific population wherein the couples are involved

(Explorable, 2009).

The researchers have chosen participants who were qualified for the need of the

study. The criteria for selection includes the address of the participants that they (1)

must be living in Cavite and Manila (2) legally married or not, (3) with or without

children, (4) employed/self-employed or not and (5) illiterate or undergraduate or no

read no write as long as they live together in the same house.

Data Gathering Procedures

The researchers identified if the chosen area has enough participants that fits to the

criteria. Then the researchers approached available and possible individuals at their

respected homes to conduct a research and include them as a sample. All the

participants have a free will to decide if they are willing to be included in the study.

The purpose of the study was explained to the participants before the administration

of instruments. Both couples had separate test. After the administration, they

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wereguided as they start to answer the test. The instruments were retrieved when the

participants were done. The data was then statistically analyzed.

Research Instrument

The main tool that was used in this study was a researcher-made instrument. The

questionnaire was entitled as “Sex Drive Scale”, it has two parts, and the first part

contained a checklist of their details to determine their socio-demographic profile. The

second part was composed of 35 items that measured the Sex Drive level of Couples.

The test followed a comparative scoring model in a 4-point frequency scale. The

following are the interpretation for the frequencies; “Hindi” shows that the participant

never encountered the stated situation,“Minsan” shows that the couple was doing the

situation sometimes,“Madalas” shows that the couple was doing the stated situation

often and “Oo” shows that the participant was always doing the stated situation.

Table 1.
Scale for Level of Sex Drive Level

Score Level of Sex Drive


1.00 – 1.75 Very Low Sex Drive Level
1.76 – 2.50 Low Sex Drive Level
2.56 – 3.25 High Sex Drive Level
3.26 – 4.00 Very High Sex Drive Level

The figure above shows the scale that determines the sex drive level of the

participants. In scoring and interpretating the sex drive level of the participants, mean

interval scale was used. It is an ordinal scale that will measure the sex drive level of the

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participants. This help answered problems number one and two. The following scales

were determined as:

Those who fall in the category Very Low Sex Drive Level, are those couples

wholack desire or interest in sex. This involves thinking about sex less often, getting

less pleasure out of sex, and wanting to engage in sexual activity less frequently.

Those who fall in the category Low Sex Drive Level, are those couples that for them

engaging or not in sexual intercourse would not affect their relationships with their

partners. They would not feel deprived nor overwhelmed if they are not able to engage

in sex or if they have done it a lot of time.

Those who fall in High Sex Drive Level, means they have an intense urge to engage

in sexual intercourse and it gives them satisfaction. They would want to do it almost

every day and they would get frustrated if they are not able to do it.

Lastly, those who fall in the Very High Sex Drive Level category, interprets that

they have an intense urge to have sex but sexual activity may or may not bring pleasure.

They are having a hard time controlling their sexual urge. They are using sex as their

way to escape from feelings of depression, anxiety, loneliness and stress.

To determine the reliability of the instrument, researchers conducted pilot testing

with ten random Filipino couples that have status that was almost the same with the real

participants of the study. Participants of the pilot testing have their freedom to ignore

the test. After the pilot testing was conducted the researchers collected the test and run

the result in one of the statistical software called SPSS (Statistical Package for the

Social Science). Using the Cronbach’s alpha, the researchers can consider their

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instruments reliable if the result of Cronbach’s alpha is more than .07. The results of the

test will remain confidential.

To determine if the instrument was valid, researchers had validators who examined

the entire instrument and tell the researchers if some of the items needs revision.

Validators also have the will to reject unnecessary items. After all the revisions the

validator signed a validation certificate thatshowed that the instrument is valid.

Data Analysis

The first part of test identified the socio-demographic profile of the participants. This

includes their age, sex, civil status, educational attainment, employment status and

monthly income range.

For the second part of the test, the data that was gathered and interpreted using

weighted mean scale. To get the weighted mean, compute for the sum of each response

with the designated value of the response, then divide it to the total number of items;

one (1) for “Hindi”, Two(2) for “Minsan”, Three (3) for “Madalas” and Four (4) for

“Lagi”. The multiplied score was divided by the number of items answered in the

instrument. After getting the weighted mean for each of the participants, the mean was

computed to have the arithmetic average score for each of the groups.

Statistical Treatment

The researchers used the following statistical tools for the interpretation of the data

that was gathered.

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Descriptive statistical tools such as Frequency and Percentage, were used for

statement of the problem numbers one to three. Frequency refers to the number of

participants with the same response in each factors, while percentage refers to the rate

of frequencies in hundreds over all the respondents of the two groups.

The Mean or Arithmetic Average was also used for statement of the problem number

two to five. Mean refers to the central tendency of the collected data for each couples.

Next is Pearson r, which was used for statement of the problem number 4. It

particularly analyzed the relationship between age and sex drive of the Filipino couples,

since age has a numerical data.

Chi Square test was also used for statement of the problem number four, which

determines the dependency of sex, civil status, educational attainment, employment

status and monthly income range to the sex drive level of Filipino couples.

Lastly, the Independent Z-test was used for the statement of the problem number

five. It was used to measure the difference between the measured mean of the two

independent groups that is more than 30 respondents.

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CHAPTER IV
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

This chapter aims to present the data and necessary information gathered from the test

questionnaires conducted among the 200 Filipino couples in Cavite and Manila, coming

from those who are residing in a legal residence and in a slum area. The identified

problems stated in Chapter 1 were answered and the results were interpreted and

analyzed.

Problem 1. The socio-demographic profile of the legal residents and informal settlers

according to their age, sex, civil status, educational attainment, employment status,

monthly household income status.

Table 2.
Socio-demographic profile of legal resident couples: age, civil status and educational
attainment.
PROFILE MALE FEMALE TOTAL %
f % f %
Age
26 to 35 34 17 40 20 37
56 to 65 3 1.5 3 1.5 3
Civil Status
Married 67 67 67 67 67
Live in 33 33 33 33 33
Educational Attainment
College 70 35 69 34.5 69.5
Elementary 2 1 1 0.5 1.5

Table above shows the socio-demographic profile of respondents from legal residents

according to their age, sex, educational attainment. Most of the participants are 26 to 35

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years old (37%), 34 out of 100 were male and 40 out of 100 were female. The least 3% of

them ranges from age 56 to 65 years old. Based on the process of collecting respondents,

most of the elders avoided to be included in the study due to some reasons, such as they

can hardly read or write, they are widows or widowers, they thought of the study to be

too intimate, etc.. Filipinos are known to be conservative people; nowadays, most are the

elders. Possibly because today’s generation are changing due to the influence of other

cultures (Gonzales, 2015).

In their civil status, most of the participants were married (67%). Their marriage may

be done with a civil wedding, a religious ceremony, or both. 33% of them are

cohabitated. According to other studies, some couples prefer to be in a live-in

relationship first before marriage, because it helps them to get to know each other more

(Alves, 2015).

Most of the participants underwent college (67.5%), they may be postgraduates or

undergraduates. There were 70 males and 69 female participants. The least were

elementary undergraduates or postgraduates, with 1.5% of the respondents.

Table 3.
Socio-demographic profile of legal residents: employment status and monthly income.

PROFILE MALE FEMALE TOTAL %


f % f %
Employment Status
Employed 74 37 50 25 62
Has Business 19 9.5 28 14 23.5
None 7 3.5 22 11 14.5
Monthly Income Status
₱6,001.00 - ₱15,000.00 44 22 36 18 80
₱100,001.00 - higher 2 1 2 1 2

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The table 3 presents the employment status and monthly income of legal resident

couples. In employment status, 62% of the respondents are employed. 23.5% of the

participants owns or manages a business, while 14.5% are unemployed; some of them

were students, especially those who are in a live in relationship. Most of the respondents

went college, which means they can easily get better jobs than just being a high school

graduate. There are more female unemployed participants than male, arguably because

males are far more responsible enough to sustain the family’s needs.

For their income, most of the participants earns ₱6,001.00 to ₱15,000.00 monthly,

most of them were men (22%), technically because most of them are employed. Least of

the respondents earns ₱100,001.00 and above (2%). Their monthly income can be based

on the kind of job or business of the individual.

Table 4.
Socio-demographic profile of informal settler couples
PROFILE MALE FEMALE TOTAL %
f % f %
Age
26 to 35 43 21.5 33 16.5 38
56 to 65 2 1 3 1.5 2.5
Civil Status
Married 37 37 37 37 37
Live in 63 63 63 63 63
Educational Attainment
High School 51 25.5 47 23.5 49
None 12 6 15 7.5 13.5
Employment Status
Employed 49 24.5 25 12.5 37
Has Business 23 11.5 29 14.5 26
None 28 14 46 23 37
Monthly Income Status
₱0.00 - ₱6,000.00 97 48.5 97 48.5 97
₱6,001.00 - ₱15,000.00 3 1.5 3 1.5 3

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Table 4 shows the informal settler couples’ socio-demographic profile. Most of the

respondents are from ages 26 to 35 years old, representing a 38% of the respondents.

According to Haller (2012), age of 25 years old and above is apparently the right age for

couples to start getting married from the journal of social and personal relationship.

Moreover, most people prefer to be married or cohabited at the age of late 20s (Narins,

2014).

For their civil status, they are classified whether the participants are married or in a

live in relationship. The data shows that most of the informal settler couple respondents

are in a live in relationship; 63% are cohabited, while only 37 were married. Most of the

couples in the slum areas does not have enough money to get married in church or in

civil. It is more important to them to sustain their everyday needs.

The respondents’ educational attainment was classified whether they reached

elementary, high school or college. In the data gathered, none of them reached or

graduated from college. Most of them were only high school graduates representing of

49%. There were also some respondents who did not receive any education, representing

13.5%.

The respondents’ employment status were classified whether the respondents are

employed, has a business or unemployed. 37% respondents were employed, 26%

respondents has a business and 37% respondents were unemployed. Since most of them

only reached or finished high school, they have a least chance to get a good job and have

a high salary. There is a high percentage of couples that is employed but their salary is

not that good to sustain their family. Poverty cause weakness in employment generation

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and the quality of jobs generated. Poverty also is the cause why most of the couples are

not able to go in college (Asian Development Bank, 2009).

For the respondents’ monthly income status, 97% of respondents has a monthly

income that ranges from ₱0.00 - ₱6,000.00, while only 3% respondents has a monthly

income of ₱6,001.00 - ₱15,000.00.

Problem 2. The sex drive level of legal resident couples.

Table 5.
Sex Drive level of Legal Resident Filipino Couples
LEGAL RESIDENTS
WEIGHTED
SEX DRIVE LEVEL
MEAN
f %

1.00 – 1.75 33 16.5 Very Low Sex Drive Level

1.76 – 2.50 64 32.2 Low Sex Drive Level

2.51– 3.25 3 1.5 High Sex Drive Level

3.26 – 4.00 0 0 Very High Sex Drive Level


Scale:
Weighted Mean Response Verbal Interpretation
1.00 – 1.75 Hindi Very Low Sex Drive Level
1.76 – 2.50 Minsan Low Sex Drive Level
2.51 – 3.25 Madalas High Sex Drive Level
3.26 – 4.00 Lagi Very High Sex Drive Level

Table 5 shows the number of respondents from legal residents and their averaged

results of the sex drive scale. Most legal resident couples has a low sex drive level,

representing of 64 out of 100 couples (32.2%). Next are the 33 participants who has very

low sex drive level (16.5%). The least of them were interpreted to have a high sex drive

level (f=3, 1.5%).

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In Chapter 3, each category of sex drive level is defined and interpreted which is fully

analyzed by the researchers based on literatures. The table above shows that most of the

legal residents has low sex drive, which interprets that they don’t put too much pressure

in their relationship when they are not being sexually engaged most of the time. Being

intimate or not does not affect their bond as a couple, either married or cohabited. This

situation happens, usually because of work. Work lessens the time a person can have for

personal pampering and relationship bonding with their loved ones. It is also the cause of

stress, which can decrease an individuals’ libido (Fullerton et al, 2014).

Problem 3. The sex drive level of the informal settlers.

Table 6.
Sex Drive level of Informal Settler Filipino Couples
INFORMAL SETTLERS
WEIGHTED
SEX DRIVE LEVEL
MEAN
f %
1.00 – 1.75 16 8.0 Very Low Sex Drive Level

1.76 – 2.50 76 38.2 Low Sex Drive Level

2.51 – 3.25 8 4.0 High Sex Drive Level

3.26 – 4.00 0 0 Very High Sex Drive Level

Scale:
Weighted Mean Response Verbal Interpretation
1.00 – 1.75 Hindi Very Low Sex Drive Level
1.76 – 2.50 Minsan Low Sex Drive Level
2.56 – 3.25 Madalas High Sex Drive Level
3.26 – 4.00 Lagi Very High Sex Drive Level

Table 6 shows that the most informal settlers (38.2%) have low sex drive level. There

were only 4.0% of the 200 couples who have high sex drive level.

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Comparing it to the data from legal residents, both groups have low sex drive level,

but more from informal settlers. There were 16.5% legal residents who have very low sex

drive while only 8% from informal settlers. Also, 4% from the slum area has high sex

drive while only 1.5% of those who are living in a legal residential land.

Problems 4. The significant relationship between the socio-demographic profile and


sex drive level of informal settlers and legal residents.

Table 7.
Significant relationship between age and sex drive level
STATISTICAL
PROFILE P-value R-Value REMARKS
TREATMENT
Age Pearson R .000 -.298** Significant
** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level.

Table 7 shows the statistical treatments used for age, and its significance to the sex

drive level of the Filipino couples. Age, which has a significant value of .000, interprets

that age is dependent to sex drive. Also, it shows the Pearson Correlation value of -

.298**, which statistically means that the variables are inversely correlated – when age

increases, sex drive decreases, and vice versa. Some say that when a couple are young,

their sexual intercourse is active because they both have the capacity to do those activity,

and most studies suggest that sex drive decreases gradually as individual age.Production

of sex hormones are diminishing, and some organs that produces hormones does not

process the same way as it process in their younger years and this can cause stress for

couples who seeks pleasure (Nippoldt, 2015).

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Table 8.
Significant relationship between socio-demographic profile and sex drive level
STATISTICAL
PROFILE P REMARKS
TREATMENT
Sex Chi Square .683 Not Significant
Civil Status Chi Square .003* Significant
Educational
Chi Square .008* Significant
Attainment
Employment status Chi Square .012* Significant
Monthly Income Chi Square .001* Significant
* Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level.

Table 8 shows the statistical treatments used for each profile, and its significance to the

sex drive level of the Filipino couples. Production of sex hormones are diminishing, and

some organs that produces hormones does not process the same way as it process in their

younger years and this can cause stressfor couples who seeks pleasure (Nippoldt, 2015).

The civil status, representing a significant value of 0.003 which interprets that it is

dependent to an individuals’ sex drive. This factor is dependent to sex drive because

some individual still gives a big respect with their culture that having sex is for those who

are married only, but during these modern days, most people do not give much priority

with their label as a couple. Unlike the old days, where it is not morally accepted if a

couple engage in sexual intimacy before marriage. Nowadays, many couples prefer to be

cohabited rather than be married because they do not have enough money and some of

them do not want to have commitments and not yet ready to have a stable life (Alves,

2015). Being married means that they are legally allowed to have intercourse because

they both have their vows but whatever situation they are, whether they are married or

live-in partners, they both have their pros and cons that can build issues between their

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relationships. Having relationship issues with their partners can be a major factor of low

sexual drive (Mayo Clinic, 2015).

Next is the educational attainment, representing a .014 significant value, which

explains that it is dependent to sex drive. Education has a great impact on a person’s

perception to things and one of these is an individual’s mind set about sex. Romeo Recide

of PSA stated in 2014 that 40% of young adult women who has attained only elementary

education had their first sexual intercourse before the age of 18, while only 7% of those

with college education. Although engaging in sexual intercourse is not a way of

measuring sex drive, sexual intercourse can actually increase an individual’s sexual drive

(Robinson, 2013).

Employment status and monthly income which is also dependent to sex drive,

representing a .012 and .001 significant value, respectively. Both are dependent to a

person’s sex drive. According to Seliger (2007), work consumes their time and the time

for their bonding lessens, which can cause relationship issues. These factors causes stress

to a couple and stress can be a cause of low sex drive level of an individual. According to

Castellanos (2015), low level of sex drive is caused by having job changes or loss,

depression, stress and financial worries. Relationship issues like resentment, anger and

general dissatisfaction also contributes to the decrease of level of sex drive.

Lastly, sex which is interpreted to be independent to sex drive, representing a

significant value of .683. Sex does not affect sex drive of individuals because everyone

has this thing we called pleasure. A lot of studies have been done to compare the sex

drive of males and females, and results are always men has stronger libido than women.

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In contrary, Hugo Schwyzer (2013), a Gender studies professor in Pasadena City College,

talked about Daniel Bergner’s “What Do Women Want? Adventures in the Science of

Female Desire”, where it pointed out that women have the same strength of libido as

men. The reason why most studies stated that men are more sexually driven is because

they are more straightforward with what they feel and desire. For women, their mind

processes with the influence of social and cultural factors. Women tend to conform to

what is known or traditional gender role of women.

In 2014, Esther Perel said that men naturally have the sexual desire and can initiate

sex when they are already turned on, while women usually depends on what she feels

about their relationship. A lot of study was done to measure the sex drive of male and

female but most of the studies gives a result that male really has the higher sex drive than

female. According to Robbie Gonzales (2013),in measuring the libido of each individual

one factor is not enough. A researcher needs a lot of studies for them to have a better

result about the measures of sex drive between male and female.

Problem 5. The significant difference between the sex drive level of informal settlers

and legal residents.

Table 9.
Mean distribution of the sex drive level of the participants and the significant difference
between legal residents and informal settlers.
FILIPINO
Mean SD P value Remarks
COUPLES

Legal Residents 1.87 .267


.000* Significant
Informal Settlers 2.10 .280

* Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level.

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Table 9 shows the mean, standard deviation and significant value for both legal

residents and informal settler. The legal residents has an X =1.87, SD =.267, while the

informal settlers has an X =2.10, SD =.280. The measured mean between the two groups

(p =.000* < alpha level) results indicates that there are significant difference between the

sex drive level of legal residents and informal settlers.

The data of the informal settlers shows that they have higher sex drive level than those

who were in the legal resident. This could be a proof that some of the socio-demographic

factors alters the sex drive level of a person. Comparing the lifestyle of the legal

residents, mostly uneducated or illiterate; most of them are not knowledgeable to such

things as family planning.According to a study conducted by Robinson in 2013, people

who have poor households could lead to less education, and less education could mean

they have less knowledge about sex. In his report, he has mentioned that over 40% of

young adult women with elementary education had their first sexual intercourse before

age 18, while only 7% to those with college education. Although engaging in sexual

intercourse is not a way of measuring sex drive, sexual intercourse can actually increase

an individual’s sexual drive.

Most people who are in the legal resident are more conscious and is familiar about

family planning. According to a study by Fullerton et al in 2014, the higher the economic

status, the lesser children a family has. While those who are in the slum area may not be

able to afford or engage to any family planning program that could be the reason why

they just continue on having unprotected intercourse.Poverty also lessens the chance of

their kids to have good health, proper education, and morality (Sasota, 2010).

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Since the legal resident couples and the informal settler couples are different in

lifestyle, this could be an additional factor on the determinants of the factors that affect

sex drive level. If a person is exposed to alcoholic drinks, illegal usage of drugs, and is

unemployed but married or in a live in relationship, there is a high possibility of them to

engage into unprotected sex due to loss senses because of too much alcohol and drugs,

which could affect an individual’s sex drive by increasing it or decreasing it (Health

Promotion Agency, 2015) and since most informal settlers are unemployed, they might

do nothing but to engage into this type of intercourse.

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CHAPTER V
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

This chapter presents the summary of the study, which gives brief explanation of the

nature of the study, the conclusion, and the researchers’ recommendations.

Summary

The study entitled Socio-demographic Profile and Sex Drive Level of Filipino

Couples: A Comparative Study between Informal Settlers and Legal Residents, aims to

determine if the socio-demographic profile is independent on the sex drive level of the

Filipino couples. The research design used in this study is descriptive-causal comparative

research. This study sought to answer the following: (1) what are the socio-demographic

profiles of the participants, (2) the level of the sex drive of the legal residents and (3)

informal settlers and (4) if there is a significant relationship and (5) difference between

the sex drive level of the informal settlers and legal residents. The null hypothesis was

used in this study. Quota sampling was used for this research. The study has 400

respondents, 100 couples each for both informal settlers and legal residents who resides

in Manila and Cavite.

Most of the participants of the study are from the age bracket of 26-35 years old.

There are 67 legal resident married couples and 33 of them are live-in partners. While for

the informal settlers there are 37 married couples and 63 live-in partners. Most of the

respondents from the legal residents are degree holders and for the informal settlers, 47%

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of them were able to achieve high school level. Most of the participants from both

informal and legal residents are employed. The informal settlers have shown a monthly

income status of ₱0.00 - ₱6,000.00 while most of the participants from the legal residents

has a monthly income of ₱6,001.00 - ₱15,000.00. 32.2% of the legal residents has a low

sex drive level and only 1.5% of them has high sex drive level. Couples from the

informal settlers has shown a higher percentage rate of couples who has low sex drive

level however, 4.0% of them has high sex drive level which is higher than those of

couples from the legal residents.

Based on the results, the Filipino’s age, civil status, educational attainment,

employment status and monthly income status are dependent on their sex drive. Several

findings have shown that these factors really have an effect on the sex drive level of a

person. Gender, on the other hand, is independent to the sex drive level of the Filipino

couples, which is also arguable due to different analysis of studies regarding this topic.

The results also shows that there is a difference between the sex drive level of legal

residents and informal settlers.

The researchers found out that these said factors really have an effect on the sex drive

level of a couple. Books, dissertation, journals, foreign and local studies and online

articles were used by the researcher to gather needed information and references.

Conclusion

After a careful analysis on the responses of the participants, conclusions have been

formulated based on the findings of the study. The researchers concluded that age, civil

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status, educational attainment and employment status are dependent while gender is

independent to the sex drive level of Filipino Couples.

One reason why gender is independent to sex drive is because of the culture and

beliefs of one another, which is not generally included in this study. Not all women

thinks or behaves the same way, such as men does. Filipino culture shaped minds on how

individuals think towards males and females. However, Filipinos are also beginning to be

shaped by other social influences by other countries and cultures, which somehow affects

their perception about sex.

The researchers also do conclude that there is a significant difference between the sex

drive level of those couples who are residing in a legal residence area and those who

resides in a slum area. Different lifestyle and environment really affects a person’s

thoughts and behaviour, as they become to conform and be influenced of what is

surrounding them every day.

Recommendation

Based on the conclusions and findings, the following recommendations are offered;

1. Better family planning education must be taught to couples especially to those

who are not really exposed to it so that they can engage to sexual activities in a

healthy way and the possibility of unwanted pregnancy would be prevented.

2. Sex and reproductive health education to youth. Since they are already exposed to

risky and complicated environment of high technologies, might as well guide

them properly by educating them earlier before or during they hit puberty.

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3. Government agencies who are in charge in the educational sector should add more

alternative education for those who cannot afford to send themselves or their

children to school.

4. Many studies stated that informal settlers cause several problems. There were

problems that are already discovered, but some of them were not yet addressed.

The government agencies who are in charge in the discussed problems should

give more attention to this.

5. Based on the experience of collecting literatures and other studies, there were no

enough Filipino literatures about this kind of topic, which means that it is not

given enough attention. These topics should be more studied and explored,

because this could help a lot of problems.

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