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1, 2013

Motor Fed by Six Step Inverter and Effects of

Inertia Changes for Desktop CNC Machine

I. Topaloglu1, F. Korkmaz1, H. Mamur1, R. Gurbuz1

1

Cankırı Business and Technical College, Karatekin University,

18100, Cankırı, Turkey, phone: +90506 367 3810

itopaloglu@karatekin.edu.tr

Abstract—The brushless DC motors with permanent back EMF wave form. Inverter has 3 bridge arms with

magnets (PM-BLDC) are widely used in a miscellaneous of IGBTs, snubber resistance 5000 ohms and snubber

industrial applications. Usually, these applications are capacitance 1 microF. Developed speed control PM-BLDC

characterized by relatively high torque ripples. In this study,

motor use in desktop CNC machine. Developed system

closed-loop speed control of PM-BLDC motor fed by six step

inverter for desktop CNC machine investigated. Motor has 3 simulated using matlab also used in real industrial system.

phases, 0.0089 kg/m2 /0.00091 kg/m2 changes inertia moment, PM-BLDC motor which has closed-loop speed control

0.005 viscous damping, 3000 rpm reference speed, 4 poles and algorithm used in CNC machine for mechatronic laboratory

trapezoidal back EMF wave form. Inverter has 3 bridge arms, experiment.

snubber resistance 5000 ohms, snubber capacitance 1 uF.

Developed speed control PM-BLDC motor use in desktop CNC

II. ANALYSIS OF PM-BLDC MOTOR

machine. Also simulated on MATLAB and results are

presented in the study. The stator of a brushless DC motor is equipped with a

polyphase winding. The phases are connected to the DC bus

Index Terms—Closed loop systems, permanent magnet through a switching circuit. The switching sequence is

machines, position control, variable speed drives. controlled so that it is synchronized with the position of the

rotor. As a result, the stator produces a rotating magnetic

I. INTRODUCTION field. The rotor is equipped with permanent magnets,

Nowadays, brushless DC motors with permanent magnets creating a structure with the same number of poles at the

(PM-BLDC) are widely used in a miscellaneous of industrial stator. The stator switches act like a commutator in a classic

applications. The permanent magnet brushless dc (BLDC) DC motor. In brushless permanent-magnet DC (PM-BLDC)

motor is gaining popularity being used in military, motors, the armature currents are commutated exactly

aerospace, computer, automotive, industrial and household according to rotor position. The signal of rotor position may

products because of its high torque, compactness, and high be obtained from a position sensor, or from induced voltages

efficiency [1], [2]. Furthermore, brush maintenance is no for sensor-less control system [6], [7]. The performance of

longer required, and many problems resulting from BLDC motors is analyzed via a time-domain simulation. The

mechanical wear of brushes and commutators are improved voltage equation in the time domain is shown in Equation

by changing the position of rotor and stator in DC motor. To (1):

alternate the function of brushes and commutator, the BLDC

motor requires an inverter and a position sensor that detects d

R1 + Ld − Lq ω e 0 i

rotor position for proper commutation of current [3]–[5]. To v d e d d

dt

improve the performance of BLDC motors, different control v − e = L ω R1 + Lq

d

0 iq , (1)

methods have been developed by many researchers. Those q q d e

dt

v 0 e0 d i0

are such as the field weakening control method, overlapping

0 0 R1 + L0

method, PWM chopping method [6]–[11]. Usually, these dt

applications are characterized by relatively high torque

ripples. In this study, closed-loop speed control of PM- where R1, Ld, Lq, and L0 are armature resistance, d-axis

BLDC motor fed by six step inverter for desktop CNC synchronous inductance, q-axis synchronous inductance, and

machine investigated. Motor has 3 phases, 0.0089 kg/m2 0-axis inductance, respectively. ω e is rotor speed in

/0.00091 kg/m2 changes inertia moment, 0.005 viscous electrical rad/s. The transformations for terminal voltages,

damping, 3000 rpm reference speed, 4 poles and trapezoidal induced voltages, and winding currents are given by the

following three equations:

7

ELEKTRONIKA IR ELEKTROTECHNIKA, ISSN 1392-1215, VOL. 19, NO. 1, 2013

v = C T v , (2)

q b

v0 vc

e d ea

e = C T e , (3)

q b

e0 ec

ia id

i = C i ,

b q (4)

ic i0

Fig. 1. Block diagram of PM-BLDC with IGBT based inverter.

voltages, and winding currents, respectively. The TABLE I. TRUE TABLE OF SWITCHES.

True table of switches

transformation matrices for two phases, three phases, and

four phases system, noted as C2, C3, and C4, are as follows:

Emf-b

Emf-a

Emf-c

Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5 Q6

cosθ sin θ 0

C2 = , (5)

sin θ cosθ 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

cos θ sin θ 1 0 -1 +1 0 0 0 1 1 0

2 -1 +1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0

2 1 ,

C3 = cos(θ − α ) sin(θ − α ) (6) -1 0 +1 0 1 0 0 1 0

3 2 +1 0 -1 1 0 0 0 0 1

cos(θ − 2α ) sin(θ − 2α ) 1 +1 -1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0

2 0 +1 -1 0 0 1 0 0 1

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

cos θ sin θ 0

sin θ − cosθ 0 TABLE II. TRUE TABLE OF HALL SENSOR.

C4 = , (7)

− cosθ − sin θ 0 True table of hall sensor

− sin θ cos θ 0

ha hb hc Emf-a Emf-b Emf-c

where (5), (6) and (7) are transformation matrices for two

phase, three phase, and four phases systems, respectively. 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 1 0 -1 +1

Electromagnetic torque is expressed as 0 1 0 -1 +1 0

0 1 1 -1 0 +1

dω m 1 0 0 +1 0 -1

Te = Tload + J + Bω m , (8) 1 0 1 +1 -1 0

dt

1 1 0 0 +1 -1

1 1 1 0 0 0

where in equation (8), Tload is load torque, J moment of

inertia and B viscous damping, ωm radial speed of motor. These two tables are used for switching the IGBTs.

We assumed; all power electronics equipments are ideal,

motor is not saturated and motor has no power loss. The III. SIMULATION RESULTS OF PM-BLDC

effectiveness of proposed system has been validated by Closed-loop speed control strategy of PM-BLDC motor

comparative studies and simulation results. The proposed consist of IGBT based six step inverter, a speed regulator,

system has been simulated by MATLAB software, and a and hall sensors, respectively.

comparative study among the proposed and conventional Control strategy of PM-BLDC is shown in Fig. 2. this is

methods has been done to validate the advantages of general view of closed-loop speed control block in Matlab.

proposed method. Current values changes with the moment of inertia but

PI controller is used as a speed controller for recovering back-emf closed values. Two different inertia of moment

the actual motor speed to the reference. The reference and selected the simulated machine and results presented in Fig.

the measured speed are the input signals to the PI controller. 3. The moment of inertia value taken for this case is 0.0089

In the Fig. 1, KP and KI values of the controller are kg/m2 and it reaches steady state speed at time 0.25 seconds.

determined by error method for each set speed. When the moment of inertia decreased 0.00091 kg/m2, it

Since the model equations are of non-linear, they are reaches steady state speed suddenly at time 0.1 seconds.

solved by ode4 numerical technique simulated using Low moment of inertia means low steady state time for

MATLAB. Table I and Table II are true table of switches speed and torque, evidence of this is shown in Fig. 3 (a–f).

8

ELEKTRONIKA IR ELEKTROTECHNIKA, ISSN 1392-1215, VOL. 19, NO. 1, 2013

in Fig. 4 (a).

(a) (b)

(a)

(c) (d)

(e) (f)

Fig. 3. Currents and Back-EMF changes with inertia of moment (a) ia

current with emfa at 0.0089 kg/m2 inertia (b) ia current with emfa at (b)

0.00091 kg/m2 inertia (c) ib current with emfb at 0.0089 kg/m2 inertia (d) ib Fig. 4. Speed changes with moment of inertia (a) speed at 0.0089 kg/m2

current with emfb at 0.00091 kg/m2 inertia (e) ic current with emfc at 0.0089 (b) speed at 0.00091 kg/m2.

kg/m2 inertia (f) ic current with emfc at 0.00091 kg/m2 inertia.

When the moment of inertia decreased 0.00091 kg/m2, it

The moment of inertia value taken for this case is 0.0089 reaches steady state speed suddenly at time 0.1 seconds in

kg/m2 and it reaches steady state speed at time 0.25 seconds Fig. 4 (b).

(a)

9

ELEKTRONIKA IR ELEKTROTECHNIKA, ISSN 1392-1215, VOL. 19, NO. 1, 2013

(b)

Fig. 5. Torque changes with moment of inertia (a) torque at 0.0089 kg/m2 (b) torque at 0.00091 kg/m2.

The moment of inertia value taken for this case is 0.0089 IEEE International Conference on Power Engineering, Energy and

Electrical Drives, 2011. [Online]. Available:

kg/m2 and it reaches steady state torque at time 0.25 seconds http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/PowerEng.2011.6036466

in Fig. 5 (a). When the moment of inertia decreased 0.00091 [5] R. Saxena, Y. Pahariya, A. Tiwary, ‘Modeling and Simulation of

kg/m2, it reaches steady state torque suddenly at time 0.1 BLDC Motor Using Soft Computing Techniques”, in IEEE Second

seconds in Fig. 5 (b). The simulated motor parameters are International Conference on Communication Software and

Networks, 2010, pp. 583–587. [Online]. Available:

shown in Table III. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ICCSN.2010.121

[6] D. C. Hanselman, Brushless Permanent-Magnet Motor Design. New

TABLE III. PM-BLDC PARAMETERS. York McGraw-Hill press, 1994, pp. 142–182.

Name Value Unit [7] T. J. E. Miller, Brushless Permanent-Magnet and Reluctance Motor

Rating 1000 Watt Drives. Clarendon Press, 1989, pp. 114–149.

Pole pairs 4 [8] H. Zeroug, D. Holliday, D. Grant, N. Dahnoun, “Performance

Rated speed 3000 rpm prediction and field weakening simulation of a brushless DC motor”,

Rated torque 3 Nm in Proc. of the 8th International Conference on Power Electronics

Viscous damping 0.0005 Nms and Variable Speed Drives, no. 475, 2000, pp. 321–326.

Inertia of moment 0.0089 /0.00091 kg/m2 [9] J. B. Chalmers, L. Musaba, D. F. Gosden, “Performance

Resistance Stator 2.8 Ohm characteristics of synchronous motor drives with surface magnets and

Inductance, LH 0.0085 Henry field weakening”, in IEEE Conf. on Industry Applications, 1996, pp.

511–517.

[10] Y. Murai, Y. Kawase, K. Ohashi, K. Nagatake, K. Okuyama, “Torque

IV. CONCLUSIONS ripple improvement for brushless DC miniature motors”, IEEE Trans

on Industry Applications, no. 3, 1989, pp. 441–450.

Closed-loop speed control of PM-BLDC motor has been [11] H. W. Park, S. J. Park, Y. W. Lee, S. I. Song, C. U. Kim, “Reference

investigated for desktop CNC machine. Also effect of inertia frame approach for torque ripple minimization of BLDCM over wide

of moment investigated influence on reaching steady state speed range including cogging torque”, in Proc. of the IEEE

time. Two different inertia moments selected for simulation. Industrial Electronics, no. 1, 2001, pp. 637–642.

moment 0.0089 kg/m2 selected, it reaches steady state speed

at time 0.25 seconds. When the moment of inertia decreased

0.00091 kg/m2, it reaches steady state speed suddenly at time

0.1 seconds. Low moment of inertia means low steady state

time for speed and torque. PI controller is used as a speed

controller for recovering the actual motor speed to the

reference. KP and KI values of the controller are determined

by error method for each set speed.

REFERENCES

[1] İ, Topaloğlu, O. Gürdal, “Optimization of salient pole synchronous

hydrogenerators using sequential mixed integer nonlinear

programming method at transient and dynamic analysis conditions”,

Journal of The Faculty of Engineering and Architecture of Gazi

University, no. 2, pp. 355–362, 2010.

[2] İ, Topaloğlu, O. Gürdal, “A second order sensitivity analysis based

numerical approach developed for dimension optimization, in electric

machine design by electromagnetic design software”, Journal of The

Faculty of Engineering and Architecture of Gazi University, no. 2,

pp. 363–370, 2010.

[3] R. Bayındır, İ. Topaloğlu, C. Ocak, “Investigation of the Effect of

Magnet Thickness on Motor Losses of PM BLDC Machines Using

Parametric Approach Method”, in Proc. of the 2011 IEEE

International Conference on Power Engineering, Energy and

Electrical Drives, 2011. [Online]. Available:

http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/PowerEng.2011.6036467

[4] R. Bayındır, C. Ocak, İ. Topaloğlu, “Investigation of the Effect of

Magnet Thickness on Output Power and Torque of PM BLDC

Machines Using Parametric Approach Method”, in Proc. of the 2011

10

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