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school students. These services are presented by Nwachukwu (2007) as

information services, placement services, appraisal services, vocational guidance

services, counselling services, referral services, evaluation, follow-up, consultancy

and research services. As a vital component of any type and any level of education

the absence of non-utilization of these services in the present day school system

has led to the unprecedented rise in the crime wave, violence among students,

severe value erosion, wrong career choice, and wrong subject combination among

other issues. Mutie and Ndambuki (2004) assert that counselling service is the

brain and heart of the guidance programme. Thus counselling represents a part of

the total process of guidance which is helping individuals, achieve the self-

understanding and self- direction necessary to make the maximum adjustment in

a particular environment.

As Mutie and Ndambuki (2004) stated, counseling services need to be based

on a complete understanding and acceptance of students’ experiences. Therefore,

all students would require counselling services in order to develop their academic,

social and personal competencies. Effective counselling will enable them to deal

with psychological problems they may experience and make rational decisions on

how to solve or cope with the academic, social and personal challenges. It helps

an individual to acquire skills and attitudes, which make him or her properly

adjusted person in life situation.

Mohanty (2003) points out that the increasing educational institutions are

of many kinds and vocations as well as occupations are of different types. Choice

of career or vocation is an important event in the life of an individual. The selection

of a wrong vocation can lead to unhappiness, discontent and ultimate failure,

because the occupation that the person follows is not merely a means of earning

a livelihood. So the vocational choice is an important event in one‟s academic and

career pursuit. The career guidance is provided by the consultants so that an

individual can easily select an appropriate occupation or education which goes well

with their capabilities, skills and interest. The Paris 2001 International Association

for Educational and Vocational Guidance (IAEVG) Declaration on Educational and

Vocational Guidance declared guidance and counselling services to be essential in

meeting personal, social and economic development needs and to encourage

further sustainable development in a knowledge based society. The Paris 2001

IAEVG Declaration on Educational and Vocational Guidance also affirmed the

importance of research by asserting the effectiveness of guidance services should

be monitored through regular evaluation and relevant research studies (Van

Esbroeck, 2002, p. 79).

Examination anxiety among students and poor conflict resolution also

contribute to student disturbances (Biswalo 1996). Selecting an appropriate career

is a critical task that faces all adolescents in all societies. The selection of a career

made during the senior year is among the most critical decisions in a person's

lifetime. The wrong choice of an occupation not only brings frustration for the

growing adult, but a waste of energy, money and precious time. Through a well-

planned guidance and counselling programme, the substance abuse can be


controlled among these students. The rationale for introducing guidance and

counselling services at schools was to provide personal contact and help for a pupil

in his development.

Students Organizations Services

Some students perceive an intrinsic value, while others perceive extrinsic

value in being involved. Understanding what motivates each student can help to

enable him/her to take on responsibilities and become involved in the organization.

Of course, each individual is motivated by different things, and students join an

organization for a variety of reasons. Doing an activity with students may be

beneficial when helping identify what motivates them. Some students may

indicate that they are motivated by the attention received by others for a job well

done; some may say they are most motivated by inner desire. There is no one

right answer, but an advisor should be tuned in to the variety of factors that affect

motivation so that he/she may better predict what will work and what may not.

Some students are interested in becoming members of organizations or

organizations that will lead to a desirable outcome. So, if the outcome of

organization activity is known to be desirable, the student may be more likely to

participate (Student Org. Advisor Handbook of University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee,


Scholarships and Financial Assistance Services

In a time of ever-rising college costs, financial aid is critical to increase

college access and success. Federal, state, and institutional aid programs help to

ensure that students can afford higher education regardless of economic

background. Financial aid is most effective when students and families learn about

it early enough to make the right choices and plans about high school coursework,

family savings, work and earnings, and college options. Students typically estimate

three times the mean tuition for two-year colleges and twice the tuition for four-

year colleges (Long 2004; Horn, Chen, and Chapman 2003). Students and parents

with more information about college are much more likely to accurately predict

college costs. Well-informed 11th graders overestimate actual two-year costs by 5

percent. Parents without basic college knowledge overestimate costs by 228

percent (Grodsky and Jones 2004; Goldrick-Rab 2006; Zarate and Pachon 2006).

Many parents have limited knowledge about financial aid. Sixty-two percent of all

parents with children who are planning to attend college do not name grants as a

source of financial aid, 58 percent do not name scholarships, and 64 percent do

not name loans (Sallie Mae Fund and Harris Interactive 2003). Low-income parents

are more likely to lack sufficient information about financial aid. Of parents with

incomes under $25,000, three out of four cannot identify scholarships, grants, or

loans as sources of financial aid (Sallie Mae Fund and Harris Interactive 2003).

Sixty percent of parents with annual incomes under $50,000 say they need more

information about how to pay for college, compared to only 37 percent of parents

with annual incomes of $75,000 or more (Sallie Mae Fund and Harris Interactive

2003). iii) Many students have limited knowledge of financial aid: 65 percent of

students who are planning to attend college do not name grants as a source of

financial aid, 72 percent do not name scholarships, and 71 percent do not name

loans (Sallie Mae Fund and Harris Interactive 2003). Many current and former

community college students, especially those from two-parent households, assume

that their household income is too high to make them eligible for federal financial

aid (Matus-Grossman and Gooden 2002). Peer counseling has the potential to be

a rich source of financial aid information and college counseling, particularly in

light of overburdened high school counselors (Tierney and Venegas 2006).

Campus Ministry Services

With the support of campus ministries, students practice their faith with

greater confidence. Research studies continue to show that students who are

supported spiritually to practice their faith while in college have greater academic

success. Campus ministries can help to prevent the frequent delays in a student’s

spiritual growth. College years in a student’s life are developmentally important

both intellectually and spiritually. Campus ministry allows students a place and

environment in which to develop leadership skills and discover greater meanings

in life. Generally, a college/university will have certain days set aside throughout

the calendar year, for student organizations to promote themselves and to recruit

members. It may be a welcome day for incoming students before the start of the

fall term, or a student organizational fair during each semester. These occasions

will vary depending on the college/university and its traditions. It is important to

make participation at these events a priority in order to establish name recognition

and visibility for the campus ministry. It is also important that students are given

a religious preference survey to complete indicating which faith/religious

organization they want to affiliate with while at the university (Manual in Getting

Started in Campus Ministry, University of Michigan).

Prefect of Discipline Services

Eckstein (1996) revealed that a basic function of educational systems was

to provide social ideals of authority and responsibility. The prefect system was

originated from the philosophy that students were valuable underused educational

resources and students.

Magna Carta of Students Chapter VIII: Right to Due Process in Disciplinary

Proceedings, Section 37 states that the right to due process of students subjected

to disciplinary proceedings shall be observed and respected.

Arts and Culture Affairs Services

The arts and culture fraternity remains fragmented and unbalanced in

terms of skills and the balance of power within certain spheres of the arts. This is

especially evident in the rural areas which are under resourced yet are the

reservoirs of untapped talent, indigenous, marginalized and endangered art forms.

To ensure equal opportunities for all to practice and benefit from the arts

developmental training, exposure and organizational capacity building is needed

at various levels and within a myriad of sectors within the arts. This has

necessitated the strengthening of networks and partnerships with local

municipalities, tertiary institutions, established arts and culture organizations


which has spurred on the formation of structures aiming to ensure sustainability

in the arts environment.

The National Commission for Culture and the Arts is the overall coordinating

and policy making government body that systematizes and streamlines national

efforts in promoting culture and arts.

National Youth Commission (NYC) provides leadership in the formulation

of policies and setting of priorities and direction of all youth promotion and

development programs and activities; encourages wide and active participation of

the youth in all governmental and non- governmental programs and projects and

activities, harness and develops the full potential of the youth as partners in nation-


The following policies are aimed at promoting the arts as anchored on the

Medium Term Philippine Development Plan for Culture and the Arts 2002-2007.

 Encourage artistic creation alongside development of informed and

appreciative audience. The intention to augment education about Philippine

culture and arts as way of encouraging appreciation and valuing the

Philippine heritage will foster esteem for what is Filipino. This shall push for

programs like cultural literacy, publications, and teachers training, and

providing program for young artists.

Quality of Services offered by Office of Student Affairs and Services of

Quality of Services have been a common research topic both in local and

international. Topics range from various aspects, like education, politics,


businesses and religion. In this light, the following literatures refer and straight

forwardly discusses the quality of services offered by Office of Student Affairs and


Quality of Guidance and Counseling Services

School counseling programs have been found to have significant influence

on discipline problems. The studies of Borders and Drury (1992) on school

counseling have consistently found that the services school counselors provide

have a positive effect on children. Baker and Gerler (2001) in their study found

that students who participated in a school counseling program had significantly

less inappropriate behaviors and more positive attitudes toward school than those

students who did not participate in the program. In another study conducted by

Baker and Gerler (2001), found that group counseling provided by school

counselors significantly decreased participants aggressive and hostile behaviors.

Research conducted by Verduyn et. al (1990) indicated that school

counselors are effective in teaching social skills. School counselors have been

found to be evry effective in assisting middle school children in the area of career

development. Whiston et. al (1998). School Counseling programs designed to

teach students peer meditation skills have been found to be highly effective. In

fact, studies of Diver Stamnes (1991) have found that students trained in peer

meditation use these skills in other settings.

According to California Office of Criminal Justice Planning (2000), both the

state and federal governments have recognized the importance of school


counselors. California’s 1999-2000 legislature passed a law adding more school

counselors. In addition, the U.S. Senate (1999), disclosed that the federal

government’s involvement includes a funding opportunity specifically directed at

increasing the number of elementary school counselors given that such counselors

“can contribute to the personal growth, educational development, and emotional

well-being of elementary and secondary school children by providing professional

counseling, intervention, and referral services.”

Single-session brief counseling, in which a student meets with a counselor

for one session, lasting approximately 40 minutes, has been found effective in

some instances. Brief counseling is a desirable alternative for students with

developmental concerns, (e.g., academic issues, peer conflicts, stress and

procrastination). Litrell (1995) found that counselors performing this method were

often able to use their time more wisely, and form concrete, attainable goals with

their students earlier in the counseling process.

Sutton and all (1995) found that the efficacy of school counselors is

influenced by the school climate in schools with effective counseling programs,

principal’s generally enthusiastic support for the programs and encouragement to

the counselors. Another common element was clear understanding between

counselors and administrators as to the goals of the school counseling programs.

These conditions were generally not present in failing programs.

The research conducted by Borders and Drury (1992) showed that school

counseling interventions have a substantial impact on student’s educational and


personal development. Individual and small group counseling classroom guidance

and consultation activities seem to contribute directly to student’s success in the

classroom and beyond, and school counselors should spend the majority of their

time performing these interventions. Coordination activities should be confined to

those that improve the program’s efficiency and accountability.

Students of Myrick et .al (1987) have found that effective counseling

programs are based in human development theories. Program content, goals, and

interventions should reflect this theoretical foundation. The developmental

program is proactive and preventive helping students acquire the knowledge,

skills, self-awareness and attitudes necessary for successful mastery of normal

developmental tasks. Developmental based program increase the visibility of the

counseling program and ensure that more students are served. There is also

substantial empirical evidence that programs promote student’s development and

academic success.

Lapan (1997) in her study among Missoun high school found that schools

with more fully implemented model guidance programs had students who were

more likely to report that (a) they had earned higher grades, (b) their education

was better preparing them for the future, (c) their school made more career and

college information available to them, and (d) their school had a more positive

climate (greater feelings of belonging and safety at school, classes are less likely

to be interrupted, peers behave better). Positive program effects were found after

removing differences due to school enrollment size, socioeconomic status, and


percentage of minority students in attendance. Results highlight the important

roles school counselors play in promoting the central educational goals of their

schools and support a comprehensive guidance program focus for university

counseling faculty who train school counselors.

According to Jones (2001), school counselors have sometimes proven

effective in preventing students from committing suicide. The most effective

prevention programs start young, and depict the act of suicide as the result of a

mental health disorder as opposed to a romantic way out. It is essential that

counselors involve the parents of troubled students in the counseling process.

Further, Lapan et. al (1997) found out that counseling decreases classroom

disturbances. Counseling services support teachers in the classroom in order to

enable teachers to provide quality instruction designed to assist students in

achieving high standards. Students in schools that interrupted by other students,

and that their peers behaved better school.

A study on the effects of counseling on classroom performance conducted

by Gerler (1985) found that the underachieving students who received counseling

improved significantly on the Self- Rating Scale of Classroom behavior and in

mathematics and language arts grades.

The implementation of comprehensive school counseling programs is

consistently associated with important indicators of student safety and success. A

study found that school counselors who were fully engaged in proving students

with a unique network of emotional and instrumental support services were more

likely to exert a positive impact than counselors who did not implement such

activities. Mullis and Otwell (1997) conducted that school counseling interventions

can productive use of time and student’s in class discipline. Furthermore, results

of one study suggest that counselors can assist fellow educators to help students

improve academic performance. In this study, students were selected based on

their need ability to improve their academic abilities in math, language, arts, or

both. Intervention methods of the counselors were varied, but included individual

and group counseling sessions, classroom guidance lesson, parent consultations

and teacher consultations. Results showed statistically significant decreases in

disrupted behaviors for both 3rd grade and 5th grade students tested.

Ibarrientos (2015) found the services of Guidance and Counseling to be not

very effective. In effect, services programs do not necessarily respond to what the

students need. Hence, inferred that the guidance and counselling services must

be given a priority by the, a review of the services program is recommended to

see to it that services are attuned to the directions set by the college and the

needs identified by the offices concerned.

Quality of Student Organization Services

According to Foubert and Grainger (2006) as cited by Ibarrientos (2015),

many students have their first substantive leadership experience through

Registered Students’ Organizations (RSO). These organizations are the most

potent mechanisms of the school to reinforce academic experiences with strong

leadership trainings that are reflective of the kind of citizens the country needs.

Likewise, Ibarrientos (2015) found the services of student organization to very

effective. The result of the study is justified by the right accorded by the

administration to students for self-government as evidenced by the recognition

accorded to student organizations and the opportunity to represent themselves

the planning, organizing, and carrying out strategic plans and actions of the

college. The regular conduct of programs and activities, which each organization

is required, is also a noteworthy event that makes student government services

very visible to student pool. These programs are providing opportunities for

students’ interaction and collaboration with themselves, the community, the local

government units, the industry, other stakeholders of the school and other

academic partners.

Quality of Scholarship and Financial Assistance Services

On the study conducted by Ibarrientos (2015), results showed that services

of scholarship and financial assistance gained excellent rating. It was inferred that

the service providers are very resourceful in looking for funds so that students who

are financially challenged could have the opportunity of sustaining their college

experiences at the end of compromising their personal leisure in the pursuit of a

college diploma. Through the student development office, which is open to

anybody who needs help, students can find refuge in seeking for benefactors,

private or government, who can provide them avenues to finance their schooling

with the belief that having a career that would give them a stable work and income

will also help them in changing the plight of their respective families.

Quality of Campus Ministry Services

Ibarrientos (2015) deduced that the multi-faith services of the college were

all effectively implemented through the support of the program coordinator, the

students and the college personnel, teaching and non-teaching. In reality, there

are number of religious organizations that are encouraged to exercise their rights

without fear of curtailment because the college believed that religious formations

are essentials in the development of life-long characters which can shape the

values and attitudes of the students towards work and life. The college is also

extra sensitive providing variety of religiously acceptable activities that are

contributory to student development and supportive of the school’s educational


Quality of Student Publication Services

Ibarrientos (2015) found that the services of Student Publication to very


Quality of Prefect of Discipline Services

It was found by Ibarrientos (2015) that the Prefect of Discipline has a very

satisfactory services. Thus, the researcher deduced that the student discipline

services of the college is highly effective in providing the students with concrete

programs that regulate student conduct and the way they deal with people within

the perimeters covered by school authorities.

Quality of Arts and Culture Affairs Services


Cited from the findings in the study of Ibarrientos (2015) socio and cultural

activities are very much effective for students’ development. This is supported by

numerous programs and activities across disciplines, enhancing students’

knowledge, skills, values, and attitudes. These programs are multi-cultural friendly

and are considered the college medium of cultural exchange so that students can

probably learn to understand patterns of behaviors that are instrumental in

understanding diversity in school community. As universities become more

multicultural, they also become more effective, highly productive institutions

where all members are affirmed and fulfilled [12]. Since Higher Education

Institutions are understood to be one of the best venues for cultural exchange,

schools are expected to provide multicultural experiences that would help students

understand the value of diversity and how it helps them to become well rounded

individuals and professionals in the future. And Student affairs educators have the

capacity to profoundly influence the initiation and fulfillment of multiculturalism

within their areas of responsibility as well as throughout the campus.

Theoretical Framework

This study draws its foundations primarily on Balance Theory (1946), Person

Environment Theory (1966), and Expectancy Theory (1964).

Balance Theory by Fritz Heider and Theodore Newcomb (1946)

states that sentiment or liking relationships are balanced if the affect valence

(attitude) a system multiplies out to a positive result. It is applied to explain how

service organization, service providers, and consumers’ interrelationships influence


the service quality. Propositions are offered pertaining to: (a) how and why positive

or negative relationships among the parties in this triad are developed, and (b) the

consequences of these relationships on service quality, affective outcomes, and

withdrawal behaviors.

Person Environment Theory by Robert D. Caplan (1966) states that

the compatibility between people and organization that occurs when (a) at least

one entity provides what the other needs; (b) they share similar fundamental

characteristics; or (c) both. It is indeed important in determining the status of

student services. This examine the relationship between the environment and the

students. As Dewey said, all activity, action and education occur only through

means of the surrounding environment.

The Expectancy Theory by Victor Vroom (1964) states that individual

will behave or act in a certain way because they are motivated to select a specific

behaviour over other behaviors due to what they expect the result of that selected

behavior will be. It is a motivation theory first proposed by Victor vroom of the

Yale School of Management. This theory proposes an individual will behave or act

in a certain way because they are motivated to select a specific behavior over

other behaviors due to what they expect the result of that selected behavior will

be. In essence, office personnel may work at its best when they are motivated be

rewards and desirability of outcomes either. However, at the core of the theory is

the cognitive process of how an individual processes the different motivational

elements. This is done before making the ultimate choice. The outcome is not the

sole determining factor in making the decision of how to behave.

Expectancy theory is about mental processes regarding choice or choosing.

It emphasizes the needs for organizations to relate rewards directly to

performance and to ensure that the rewards provided are those rewards deserved

and wanted by the recipients.


Person Environment
Theory by Caplan, 1966
The compatibility between
people and organization
that occurs when (a) at
least one entity provides
what the other needs, (b) Expentancy Theory by
they share similar Victor Vroom, 1964
Balance Theory by
Heider, 1946 fundamental characteristics, Individual will behave or
or (c) both. act in a certain way
Sentiment or liking baecause they are
relationships are motivited to seclect a
balanced if the affect specific behavoir over
valence (attitude) a other behavior due to
system multiplies out to what they expect the
positive result. result of that selected
behavior will be.

Behavior of the

Figure 1. A theoretical paradigm of the study showing the different

theories that have bearing to the present study

Conceptual Framework

This study determined the awareness on and the quality of student services

in Central Bicol State University of Agriculture.

The first box is the input which is the Student Services. Student Services

refers to the various services geared towards realizing the general welfare of the

students. In Central Bicol State University of Agriculture, the Office of Student

Affais and Services (OSAS) is the central unit which cater student services. The

OSAS personnel, and the student as consumer must have a strong bond as they

involved theirselves in services. It is apparent, therefore, that the “service triangle”

within this framework can enhance understanding of quality service and guide the

concerned office, OSAS particularly, for the continuous improvement domain.

Thus, the OSAS who provides and implements programs, activities, and services

have to develop safe and sound environment that insures active involvement and

participation of the students. It has different entities which tailor services to

students specifically, (a) Guidance and Counseling; (b) Student Organizations; (c)

Scholarship and Financial Assistance; (d) Campus Ministry; (e) Publication; (f)

Prefect of Discipline; (g) Arts and Culture Development. These different units have

their own specific roles to perform in the viability of their goals—providing service

to students.

Guidance and Counseling is task to guide and provide academic

counseling to students individually or group; testing and preparing students’


Student Organization aimed at providing the students with opportunities

to relate with fellow students, and other members of the institution; to provide

trainings and exposures on student leadership.

Scholarship and Finance Assistance is the unit charge with

administering such assistance in the form of the scholarship grants, tuition

discounts, student assistantship and loan assistance.

Prefect of Discipline is where the students are heard and given the

opportunity to explain the reasons of the offense committed before disciplinary

actions are given.

Publication is responsible for producing and issuing of magazines and

literary folios for the student.

Culture and Arts provides various cultural performances for the students.

Campus Ministry is responsible for the spiritual development and the

promotion of moral values among the students and other stakeholders.

The second box is the process. This includes survey using a questionnaire

and interview. The arrow from the first box to the second box indicates that the

inputs will be gathered thru interview and survey to obtain the desired output of

the study.

The third box is the desired output of the study which is the awareness and

the quality of services. The arrow connecting the process and the output shows

how the output will be gathered.


Input Process Output


• Guidance and
• Students'
• Student • Survey
Awareness on and
Organizations; the Quality of
• Scholarship and Student Services
Financial of CBSUA
• Campus Ministry;
• Publication;
• Prefect of
• Arts and Culture

Figure 2. A conceptual paradigm of the study


Assumption of the Study

Guided by the framework above, the following assumption of the study was


1. The Office of Student Affairs and Services is providing student services for

the students.

Statement of the Hypotheses

H01: There is no significant difference in the awareness of student services

offered by OSAS among the colleges.

H02: There is no significant difference in the quality of services provided by OSAS

as perceived by different colleges.

H03: There is no significant relationship between students’ awareness on the

services offered by OSAS and the quality of services offered by OSAS.

Operational Definition of Terms

For the sake of expediting the understanding of this study, the following

terms were operationalized.

Student services. In this study pertains to the out-of-classroom services

in the Central Bicol State University of Agriculture. Specifically, it refers to the

different programs provided by the Office of Student Affairs and Services, namely:

Guidance and Counseling, Student Organization, Scholarship and Financial

Assistance, Campus Ministry, Publication, Prefect of Discipline; and Arts and

Culture Affairs.

Guidance and Counseling services. In this study pertains to the variety

of services for individual students to achieve self-awareness, self-acceptance, self-

direction and self-actualization.

Student Organization services. In this study pertains to the services

provided to students which allow them to form and join academic and non-

academic organizations.

Scholarship and Financial Assistance services. In this study pertains

to the services provided to poor but deserving students with scholarship such as

academic, CHED, LGU, ESGP-PA and other private philanthropists. Financial

assistance include the program of Student Loan Fund from CHED, Students’

Emergency Loan Program and the Student Assistance Program.

Campus Ministry services. In this study pertains to the services which

caters to spiritual activities and development of the students.

Student Publication services. In this study pertains to the publication of

student outputs such as magazines and literary folios.

Prefect of Discipline services. In this study pertains to the services to

students where students are heard and given all the necessary assistance with

regards to discipline and related cases.

Arts and Culture Affairs services. In this study pertains to the services

that provides opportunities to students such as trainings and workshop in cultural

development activities of students inside and outside of the campus.


Awareness on the services. In this study pertains to the knowledge and

understanding of students about the services provided by OSAS. The awareness

on the services was measured using 5-point rating scale as follows:

5 - Fully Aware - Students have full awareness about the

4 - Aware - Students have enough awareness about
the services.
3 - Moderately - Students have partial awareness about
Aware the services.
2 - Slightly Aware - Students have little awareness about
the services.
1 - Not Aware - Students are not aware the services.

Quality of student services. In this study pertains to the extent of

demonstrating how the student services are provided to the students. The quality

of student services was measured using 5-point rating scale as follows:

5 - Very Satisfactory - Service is demonstrated very extensively

4 - Satisfactory - Service is extensively demonstrated
3 - Good - Service is properly demonstrated
2 - Fair - Service is not so properly demonstrated
1 - Poor - Service is improperly demonstrated

Technical Colleges. In this study, it pertains to Colleges which teaching

practical skills. In this study these include the College of Agriculture and Natural

Resources (CANR), College of Engineering and Food Sciences (CEFS), and College

of Veterinary Medicine (CVM).