You are on page 1of 12


Andreas Thomas, Peter Seliger
Siempelkamp Pruef- und Gutachter-Gesellschaft mbH
P.O. 10 02 63, D-01072 Dresden/ Germany
Thomas Hauke
Vattenfall Generation AG, D-03050 Cottbus/Germany


In several lignite-fired power plants of the “Vattenfall Generation AG” in Germany components of
P91/P92 material are used in long time operation. About this experience in operation of selected
components will be reported. In this context own experimental results of a research project in the
damage evolution will be presented. The project “Damage development III” was edited together with
the MPA Stuttgart and was supported by Vattenfall and AVIF. The aim of the project was to improve
the knowledge about the process of creep damage by experimental tests and additional numerical
calculations. An instruction was given for planning, implementation and analysis of recurrent
investigations on components consisting of 9% Cr steels which are subjected to high operation
loading. Finally, the damage phenomena are presented by two case studies, a damage in a pipe bend
due to faulty heat treatment and the creep crack assessment of a lack of side-wall fusion in a reheater
weld by fracture mechanics.

Keywords: material behaviour, 9% Cr steels, plant experience, component test, FE calculation,

damage development

1. Introduction and short survey on the development of 9% Cr steels

The energy industry of today is more than ever confronted with the challenge to come to a balance
between the requirement for low production costs, reduced emissions and high safety of supply.
Most of the thermal power plants in Germany (and here especially because of the much discussed
“Energiewende / energy turnaround”) are mainly operated in load follow-up operation (renewable
energies have the priority). The used heat-resistant materials for steam boilers, pipes and turbines must
possess not only high creep rupture strength but also a sufficient resistance against thermal fatigue.
Additional requirements are also a good capability of being fabricated by welding and forming, good
high-temperature corrosion stability as well as a stable availability at acceptable prices. This is a
catalogue of requirements which in this complexity cannot be met by any of the modern power plant
steels alone.
9 - 12% Cr steels have been established as pipe materials in power plants all over the world for many
decades. The application of these high-temperature resistant steels in power plant engineering goes
back to developments in the USA and Japan in the 1970ies [1].
First applications of steel P91 in Germany started in 1991 with pipe components in the power plant
Scholven and in the new installation of two units in the lignite fired power plant Schkopau between
1992 and 1995.
The steels P92 and P122 were developed on the basis of P91 in Japan in the 1980ies and are today
licensed by ASME-Code Case 2179-7. Their application enabled the further increase of the degree of
efficiency by raising the steam parameters.

A comprehensive knowledge on the long-term behaviour has been acquired in the meantime. These
steels determine nowadays mainly the state of the art and are applied in numerous components.

There is every indication that the 9% Cr steels have a high long-term stability in spite of the more than
20 years use because only few damages have occurred or been published. Brett et al. [2] report on
leakages in power plants in Great Britain where quite early failures occurred in the heat-affected zone
of P91 welding seams in high-pressure collectors. Unfavourable relationships of nitrogen and
aluminium in connection with low hardness values and bad creep rupture values are mentioned as
causes. Another report exists on the catastrophic P91 pipe disruption in the high-pressure line of the
Chinese power plant Huadian Datong which was caused by quality defects as a result of
manufacturing faults [3].

2. Operation experience in Vattenfall power plants

2.1. Vattenfall- One of Europe’s largest generators of electricity and the largest producer of heat

The Swedish Vattenfall company is one of the leading energy producers in Europe with locations in
Sweden, the Netherlands, Germany, Finland and Denmark. In 2012 Vattenfall has adopted its strategy
to the harder and harder market conditions. A strong position in the relatively stable North-European
countries and the energy mix consisting of six different energy sources guarantee the flexibility of the
enterprise [4].
It is Vattenfall’s intention to concentrate on Sweden, Germany and the Netherlands by selling business
activities in Belgium, Finland and Poland, whereby Sweden has 49.6 % and Germany 38.4 % of the
produced power quantity. 54 % of the nearly 33,000 Vattenfall employees work in Germany [4]. The
lignite fired power plants in the German lands Brandenburg and Saxony produced altogether 55.3
TWh in the plants of Jänschwalde (3.000 MW); Boxberg (2.575 MW), Schwarze Pumpe (1.600 MW)
and Lippendorf (1.800 MW, 900 MW belong to Vattenfall).

3. Long-term behaviour and damage development

3.1. Creep rupture strength of basis material

The design of components in the high-temperature range is mainly carried out with creep rupture
strength parameters which had been statistically analysed on the basis of long-time creep rupture tests
on samples of many batches at different temperatures and stresses.
Such analyses were carried out in Europe within the research activities of the European network
ECCC (European Creep Collaborative Committee). The countries which are organized in the ECCC
have made available comprehensive creep rupture test data and thus made possible that the creep
rupture strength parameters given in Standard EN 10216-2 have a high degree of statistic verification.

The data made available by Germany were obtained by the “Arbeitsgemeinschaft Warmfeste
Werkstoffe Düsseldorf (AGW) (Research group heat-resistant materials Düsseldorf). The constitution
of this group has established the target to carry out such tests over a long period of more than 100,000
hours. Table 1 indicates the existing maximum investigation time on creep rupture samples consisting
of the martensitic 9% Cr steels P91 and P92 compared with private tests of the author company.

Table 1: Maximum test times on creep rupture samples consisting of 9% Cr steels
Company / obtained maximum test time in hours
Test organisation X10CrMoVNb9-1 (P91) X10CrWMoVNb9-2 (P92)
AGW 162.000 78.000
Siempelkamp 101.000 61.000
Vattenfall 62.000 32.000

3.2. Creep rupture strength of welded joints and derivation of weld strength factors

The operation of power plants would be impossible without weld joints. It must be guaranteed that
similar weld joints of the investigated materials have equal or at least non-significant worse long-term
characteristics than the corresponding basis materials. It is well-known that the influence of
temperature and duty time on the reduction of the weld seam strength is much greater for high-alloyed
martensitic materials than for low-alloyed steels which were used in the past. Today the weld seams of
various components have a much higher stress load as it is the case for circumferential seams. It is for
this reason of high importance to determine underpinned weld strength factors for 9 % chrome steels
in dependence on temperature and time.
The derivation of weld strength factors is made difficult because in general less creep rupture strength
test data exist than for the corresponding basis material. It is also necessary that the tests to be
analysed must have sufficient test duration. It is well-known that creep rupture tests of a short period
carried out on similar weld joint samples lead mostly to fractures in basis material and that a change of
the fracture position to the fine-grained area of the heat affected zone occurs with increasing
temperature and test duration. The change of the fracture position can causes an S-shape in the creep
rupture fracture curve (for alloys with age hardening during creep) which makes an extrapolation in
the direction of time difficult.
Only samples which were fractured in fine-grained area of the heat affected zone after standard-
compliant heat treatment make a valid extrapolation and thus a safe determination of weld strength
factors possible. Much more difficult is the determination of these factors for dissimilar weld joints
because on one hand the type of the welding filler (under- or overmatched) and the related different
heat treatment play a part and on the other hand the existing test data pool is smaller than for similar
weld joints. There exists a number of literature which deals with weld strength factors for similar weld
joints in heat-resistant steels [5], [6] resp. steel cast [7], [8]. The influence is clearly shown in Figure 1.

and steel casts

Figure 1: Weld strength factors for various heat-resistant steel and steel casts [5]

3.3. Damage behaviour as a result of long-term stress

As early as with the introduction of the new martensitic 9% Cr steels the question occurred how to
design the future supervision of the life of corresponding components. The guidelines VGB-TW 507
[9] published in Germany in 1992 contained at that time the main examples for structure changes in
heat-resistant low-alloyed steels as reference figures, subdivided in corresponding assessment classes
1 to 5. At that time steel X20CrMoV12-1 as the only martensitic steel had been sufficiently
investigated. It is now the question, if the found structure changes and relationships found in this 12 %
Cr steel in respect to the resulting from that remaining life can be transferred to modern 9 % Cr steels.
A series of research projects was carried out in order to obtain reliable findings for this.

 Investigations of the uniaxial creep and creep rupture behaviour and the influence of multiaxial
stress on component-like hollow cylinder samples;
 Metallographic investigations of creep rupture samples and component-like samples tested over a
longer period in respect to creep damages and thermodynamically damaged structure changes;
 Determination of creep equations;
 Testing of new steels in various pilot projects/test loops;
 Finite element modelling and verification of the calculation results by creep strain measurements
on existing components.
Results of these investigations were included in the improved second edition of the VBG guidelines
TW 507 [10] in 2005. The steels P91 and P92 were also included in these guidelines for the first time.
The main results and the obtained findings were especially explained in the final research project
“Damage development III” [11] and an instruction was given for planning, implementation and
analysis of recurrent investigations on components consisting of 9-11% Cr steels which are subjected
to high operation loading.

3.4. Investigations of the cracking behaviour on components

Components with cracks are repaired or replaced especially in the high-pressure pipeline zone. There
may be exceptions to continue the operation of cracked components in a controlled way and limited in
time. Ferritic, martensitic and austenitic steels have been tested in the first HIDA project (P22, P91,
HSS 316, steel 1CrMoV for forged parts, 1CrMoV steel for cast parts). A comprehensive programme
for sample tests in the laboratory and component tests was carried out to assess crack initiation and
criteria for crack growth under static and cyclic load conditions. This requires knowledge of the
prevailing stress conditions and the existing material conditions. Start notches were brought in on
component-like pipe bends and 4-point bends to investigate the creep-crack growth.


Ri a

t_int t_ext

R bend

Figure 2: P91 pipe bend under internal pressure and bending, start notch on the extrados [12]

The aim of the EU project INTEGRITY [15] was to carry out investigations of the creep-crack and
creep-fatigue crack initiation and growth on repair-welded components. FE models were further
developed to assess and predict the microstructure properties of the repair weld.

The project WELDON [16] aimed at the development of a damage assessment procedure for high-
temperature stressed weld joints for the specially investigated materials as well as their welding in the
form of a general way of action for other applications.

4. Case studies of damages

4.1. Premature failure of a high-pressure bend of P91

Seamless pipes made of P91 were used when exchanging a high-pressure line of a 500 MW lignite-
fired block of a power plant (operating temperature: 173 bar, 535 ºC). Melting of the material to be
forged was carried out by means of the electric arc process with vacuum degassing. At least 4 forging
processes were needed to manufacture up to 10 m long rods from the cast ingots (Figure 3). Pipes
were then made by turning and grinding them out of the rods.

Figure 3: Forged pieces consisting of P91 in form of rods, grinding out of the inner diameter

A heat treatment followed the mechanical treatment with the following steps:

- Normalisation 1050 to 1060 ºC, cooling down in still air

- Tempering 750 to 760 ºC with following cooling down of the oven down to 300 ºC

The scale layers produced during heat treatment on the outer and inner surfaces of the tubes were
removed by means of grit blasting. A water pressure test followed after that. There exists no
experience up to now for this type of manufacturing in respect to the long-term use and it is therefore
necessary to prove by means of an individual expertise that there are no important differences in the
creep-rupture behaviour between rolled and forged pipes. The execution of accompanying long-term
investigations with running times of > 30,000 hours on sample material of different dimensions and
melts (Table 2) was used for this.

Table 2: Mechanical properties at room temperature
Melt Component Dimension Rp0,2 Rm A Z Hardness
mm N/mm² N/mm² % %
VdTÜV-data sheet 511/3 [19] 600
(valid for Ø > 225 to ≤ 600 mm)  430 to  20
1 forged piece rd 240 - 305 long 528 693 24 67 239
2 forged piece rd 240 - 305 long 514 671 25 72 225
3 pipe i.D. 350 x 32 516 685 23 70 220
4 pipe i.D 180 x 16,5 581 720 23 71 230
5 pipe i.D. 350 x 32 466 647 26 74 210

All melts showed a typical condition of a tempered martensite during the light-optical investigation.
This is shown as example for the melts No. 1 and No. 3 in Figure 4.

Figure 4: Structure, tempered martensite, melt No. 1 (left), melt No. 3 (right)

One creep rupture specimen was taken from each of the five remaining pieces made available and
subjected to creep rupture tests at 550 ºC acc. to DIN EN ISO 204. The stress was established so that
target running times of at least 30,000 hours were reached. A testing time of 20,000 hours would
guarantee that the test points would reach the lower scatter band (mean value curve -20 %) of the
creep rupture strength for P91 acc. to VdTÜV data sheet 511/3 [19].

The tests showed that a strong scatter of the rupture times exists between the samples of the individual
melts. The sample rupture time of the best melt No. 3 amounted to just under than 60,000 hours, that
of the weakest melt No. 1 to only 17,000 hours and was thus below the lower scatter band for P91
(Figure 6). It is noticeable for the melt No. 1 that we have a material condition with comparatively
high short-term strength characteristics (Table 2). Moreover the hardness drop during the test was at a
maximum in spite of the shortest testing time. It was assumed that this forged piece had undergone an
insufficient tempering treatment. For this reason another sample of the melt No. 1 was tested. It had
been tempered additionally before the test at 760 ºC/2 hrs. The hardness values in the initial conditions
decreased because of this additional tempering treatment from 239 HV10 to 211 HV10. The
additionally tempered creep rupture sample reached a nearly 2.5-time rupture time compared with the
original sample from the melt No. 1. This corresponds to an increase of the creep rupture strength of
10 % (Figure 5).

Figure 5: Results of creep rupture tests on samples from 5 melts

This result caused the plant operator to intensify the repeating non-destructive tests on the components
of the high-pressure pipe system. It turned out that already after an operation time of just under 70,000
hours (for a design of 200,000 hours) considerable creep damages were detected on a few components.
Especially on a high-pressure pipe bend (average dimension 180 x 16.5 mm) high creep cavity content
was detected during ambulant metallographic investigations using replica-technique above all in the
Extrados (Figure 6). Very low hardness values in the area of the Extrados were also detected between
152 HV10 to 154 HV10 whereas the known initial value amounted to 211 HV10. It was decided to
exchange the corresponding pipe bend and subject to destructive testing.

Cavity density > 600/m m 2

Figure 6: Increased creep cavity content on a high-pressure pipe bend after an operation time of
70,000 hours (assessment class 3a acc. to VGB-TW 507 [10])

The main focus of the destructive material testing was thereby the creep rupture tests on samples
which were taken from the extrados in the tangential direction (main stress direction). It became clear
that the creep rupture strength of these samples amounted to 50% of the average values of the VdTÜV
data sheet [19] (Figure 5). In the following it was possible to prove by calculation that the lifetime of
the corresponding pipe bend was exhausted already after 70,000 hours.

Figure 7: Results of the creep rupture tests on in-service material of a pipe bend

The presented example demonstrates the importance of a proper heat treatment of components
consisting of martensitic steels according to the standard to obtain sufficient structure stability. It
seems that strength characteristics and hardness values at room temperature which correspond to the
standard are obviously no sufficient criteria to prove a creep rupture strength which is in accordance
with the standard. It became also clear how important simultaneous creep rupture tests on as-received
material can be when using new types of steels, changed manufacturing conditions and difficult
statements of the problem to recognize in time possible limitations of life duration.

4.2. Fracture mechanical integrity evaluation of a lack of side-wall fusion

Endoscopic investigations on a reheater header (operating parameters: 67 bar, 610 ºC) consisting of
P91 were carried out during a shutdown on a 900 MW unit of a lignite-fired power plant. A nozzle
was cut and after that welded. A lack of side-wall fusion occurred in this weld seam which remained
for a certain time after restarting of the unit by implementing special supervision and safety measures.
The semi-elliptic defect existing on the inner side of the tube and in the circumferential direction has a
length of 5 mm and a depth of 1 mm (Figure 8). First a 3D-finite element modelling of the
circumferential seam and an elastic calculation of the longitudinal stress were performed (Figure 9).
The position of the lack of side-wall fusion coincides exactly with the spot of the maximum stress on
the inner side of the pipe.

Figure 8: X-ray of the nozzle weld with lack of side-wall fusion

Figure 9: FE analysis, longitudinal stress distribution in the weld region

The calculation of the decisive fracture mechanical stress intensity factors existing at the defective
place is necessary to assess the crack initiation and propagation behaviour. Corresponding analytic
solutions for the existing configuration of defects are explained in [20]. The stress intensity factors
determined in point A (lowest point of the semi-elliptical defect) and point B (kick-through point to
the inner wall) are nearly equal and amount to 1.13 MPa√m.

Comparison of the calculated stress intensity factor with available material characteristics for the
corresponding material has the purpose of explaining in the following if the lack of side-wall fusion
existing in the corresponding weld is prone to crack initiation and subsequent crack propagation.
Primary creep processes and stress redistributions take at first place in such defect or notches as it is
given with the postulated lack of side-wall fusion before the actual technical creep cracking occurs
after a plastic deadening and the formation and grouping of microcracks.

This crack has a dimension of a few decimillimeters up to 0.5 mm in dependence on the defined
criterion. After that a stable crack progress takes place in dependence on the stress intensity at the
crack tip until it may come to unstable crack propagation at a critical value K IC.
A great number of creep-fracture mechanical investigation results for the basis material as well as for
weld joints of the same type exist for P91 as a result of own investigations within the European
research project HIDA [12] to [14] and in other literature [22] to [24].
The crack initiation and propagation characteristics of P91 samples taken from the basis material and
the heat influence zone were determined in the frame of project HIDA [12] at a constant test
temperature of 625 ºC and are presented in Figure 10. The great variations are mainly caused by the
fact that the stress intensity factor determined in a linear elastic way cannot completely represent the
size-independent fracture mechanical behaviour at high temperatures and ductile materials. For this it
would be necessary to determine the so-called C* parameter which is more complicated. The
variations result also from carrying out various tests (with and without holding time).
It was clearly shown that these tests were carried out on samples at substantially higher stress intensity
factors than in the investigated case of the sidewall fusion defect existing in the tube. No crack
initiation is to be expected in the static case at very low values of the stress intensity factor (about < 8
MPa√m). If - in spite of this - a technical cracking occurs, it can be assumed in accordance with Figure
10 that no or only a very small crack growth can take place as a result of the maximum stress intensity
of 1.13 MPa√m existing at the lack of side-wall fusion of the nozzle weld.

Figure 10: Crack propagation in mm/hour in dependence on the stress intensity factor for basis
material and weld samples (HAZ), (Siempelkamp results for P91 at 625 ºC from the
HIDA project [12])

The reaction of the defect to strongly changing stress or the media influence (steam side) has not yet
been considered in this assessment. A very slow crack growth has to be expected under pure static
points of view as a result of the existing low stress intensity, if for not investigated reasons (frequent
or strongly changing stress or negative media influences etc.) technical cracking is initiated.
It was therefore possible to allow a limited further operation of the power plant unit in spite of the
defect weld until the next revision (after about 2 years).

5. Acknowledgments

The work presented in this paper was financial supported by the European Commission (R&D projects
HIDA, WELDON, INTEGRITY), which is gratefully acknowledged. The authors wish to thank the
Forschungsvereinigung der Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Eisen und Metall verarbeitenden Industrie e.V.
(AVIF) for financial support within the R&D-Project A 229: Criteria for damage development of high
temperature components made of martensitic 9-11 % Cr-Steels.

6. References

[1] Blum R. et al., “Newly Developed High-Temperature Ferritic-Martensitic Steels from USA, Japan
and Europe,” VGB Kraftwerkstechnik (English Issue), 74 (1994), 553-563.

[2] Brett S. J.; Bates J. S.; Thomson R. C.: Aluminium Nitride Precipitation in Low Strength Grade 91
Power Plant Steels. EPRI - 4th International Conference on Advances in Materials Technology for
Fossil Power Plants, South Carolina, 2004

[3] Peters J.: Quality Alert Notice No. 2006-001, Global Supply Group - A Bechtel Company, 2006

[4] A New Energy Landscape, Annual Report 2012 including Sustainability Report, Vattenfall AB

- 10 -
[5] Schubert J.; Klenk A.: Determination of weld stress factors for creep rupture strength of welded
joints. ECCC creep conference, 12.-14.09.2005, London

[6] Kimura K.; Tabuchi M.; Takahashi Y.; Yoshida K.; Yagi K.: Long-term Creep Strength and
Strength Reduction Factor for Welded Joints of ASME Grades 91, 92 and 122 Type Steels.
Safety and Reliability of Welded Components in Energy and Processing Industry: Proceedings of
the IIW International Conference 10. -11. July 2008 Graz, Austria

[7] Schubert J.; Schwass G.: Zeitstandverhalten von modernen martensitischen Stahlguss-
Schweißverbindungen im Temperaturbereich 550 bis 650 °C, 35. Vortragsveranstaltung der
Arbeitsgemeinschaften für warmfeste Stähle und Hochtemperaturwerkstoffe, 30.11.2012,

[8] Vlasak T.; Hakl J.; Novak P.; Sochor J.; Cech J.: Creep strength decrease of cast steel P91
weldments.22nd Int. Conference on Metallurgy and Materials, 2013, Brno, Czech Republic

[9] VGB-TW507, Ausgabe 1992: Richtreihen zur Bewertung der GefügeausFigureung und -
schädigung zeitstandbeanspruchter Werkstoffe von Hochdruckrohrleitungen und Kesselbauteilen,
VGB-Kraftwerkstechnik GmbH Essen, 1992

[10] VGB-TW507, 2. Ausgabe 2005: Richtreihen zur Bewertung der GefügeausFigureung und
Zeitstandschädigung warmfester Stähle für Hochdruckrohrleitungen und Kesselbauteile. VGB-
Power Tech Service GmbH Essen, 2005

[11] Maile K.; Pöllmann J.; Seliger P.; Reuter A.: Abschlussbericht zum AVIF-Vorhaben A 229,
Kriterien zur Schädigungsbeurteilung von Hochtemperaturbauteilen aus martensitischen 9-11 %
Cr-Stählen; MPA Universität Stuttgart und Siempelkamp Dresden, 2008

[12] BRITE-EURAM Project BE1702, Contract BRPR-CT95-0128, (1996-1999)

Validation, Expansion and Standardisation of Procedures for High Temperature
Defect Assessment (HIDA)
Final report 1702/PMB/58 - “Uniaxial Creep Rupture (1CrMoV-forged) and CCG, CFG (1CrMoV-
forged and P91 Steels) Tests of Lab Specimens and Post Test Metallography of CCG, CFG-
Specimens, Siempelkamp Prüf- und Gutachter-Gesellschaft mbH Dresden, 1999

[13] Gampe U.; Seliger P.: Creep crack growth testing of P91 and P22 pipe bends.
International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping 78 (2001) 859 – 864

[14] Celard N. J.; Nikbin K. M.; Webster G. A.: Validation, Expansion and Standardisation of
Procedures for High Temperature Defect Assessment (HIDA)
Final report of Imperial College London, April 2000

[15] European Project G5RD-CT-1999-00118 INTEGRITY (Integrity of repair welds in high

temperature plants operation under steady and cyclic loading conditions), 2000-2005

[16] European Project GRD2-2000-30363 WELDON (Weld Strength for High Temperature
Components Design and Operation), 2001-2006

[17] Thomas A.; Pathiraj B.; Veron P.: Feature Tests on welded and repair welded components at higher
temperature - Material performance and residual stress evaluation.
Engineering Fracture Mechanics, 74 (2007) 969-979

- 11 -
[18] Seliger P.; Lepinski S.: Zeitstand- und Kriechverhalten von dickwandigen Rohren aus
X10CrMoVNb9-1, hergestellt aus Schmiedestücken.
26. Vortragsveranstaltung der Arbeitsgemeinschaften für warmfeste Stähle und
Hochtemperaturwerkstoffe, 28.11.2003, Düsseldorf

[19] VdTÜV-Werkstoffblatt 511/3: Warmfester Stahl F91; X10CrMoVNb9-1; Werkstoff-Nr. 1.4903;

Stabstahl, Schmiedestück; VdTÜV e.V. Essen, März 2013

[20] Andersson P.; Bergmann M.; Brickstad B.; Dahlberg L.; Nilsson F.; Sattari- Far I.: A Procedure for
safety assessment of components with cracks – Handbook. revised edition, SAQ Kontroll AB
Stockholm, September 1998

[21] Ewald J.; Kussmaul K.: Keienburg, K.-H.: Hinweise auf Mechanismen und Einflussgrößen zur
Beurteilung des Bauteilverhaltens im Kriechbereich anhand von Kleinproben; VDI-Bericht 354
(1979), S. 39-57

[22] Maleki S.; Yanhui Zhang Y.; Nikbin K.: Prediction of creep crack growth properties of P91 parent
and welded steel using remaining failure strain criteria.
Int. Conf. WELDS 2009: Design, testing, assessment and safety of high-temperature welded
structures. Fort Myers, FL. USA. 24-26 June 2009

[23] Yatomi M.; Yoshida K.; Kimura T.: Difference of creep crack growth behaviour for base, heat
affected zone and welds of modified 9Cr-1Mo-steel.
MATERIALS AT HIGH TEMPERATURES 2011, Volume 28, Number 2, 109-113

[24] Dogan B.; Petrovski B.: High temperature behaviour of P91-steel weldments.
Proceedings of the 9th International Conference, Swansea, April 2001

- 12 -

View publication stats