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8 Definition of key term

1.8.1 Exposure

Scott R Smith (2013) in his study of Developing a Protocol for Observational Comparative
Effectiveness Research: A User's Guide defined “exposure” in terms of epidemiology. The
study defined “exposure” as the terms that can be widely applied to any factor that may be
correlated with an outcome of interest. When using observational data sources, researchers
often depends on existing data elements to analyse whether individuals have been exposed
to a factor of interest.

Mainack Mondal (2017) in her study of Understanding & Controlling User Privacy in Social
Media via Exposure defined “exposure” for a piece of content as the set of people who
actually view the content. The researcher used exposure control, a model which known as
an improved and more inclusive privacy to better apprehension users’ privacy requirement.
Allegedly, the usage of social media such as Facebook News Feed had directly increased the
exposure of content, and hence consequence a feeling to the users that their privacy is
violated. Thus, the study draw out a conclusion that exposure are the element that should
be control to manage privacy.


1. Smith, Scott R (2013). Developing a Protocol for Observational

Comparative Effectiveness Research: A User's Guide. Agency for
Healthcare Research and Quality (US).
2. Mondal, Mainack (2017) Understanding & Controlling User Privacy in
Social Media via Exposure. A dissertation submitted towards the degree
Doctor of Engineering of the Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science
of Saarland University
1.8.2 Usage

The term of “usage” always related with concept of perceived usefulness and ease of use.
The concept was applied by Davis, et al. (1989) in his study of Perceived Usefulness,
Perceived Ease of Use, and User Acceptance of Information Technology. The researcher
conclude that there a negative relationship between ease of use and usage. The results
indicate that ease of use is not a determinant of use at all, but rather that usage influences
perceived ease of use. Davis, et al. (1989) stated that the importance of usefulness may
signify that requirement of extra effort to perform highly functional yet difficult system. An
explanation used to clarify the facts is users develop their attitudes about a system's ease of
use through prolonged usage. This could lead to a negative ease of use-usage relationship
through a number of factors.


Davis, F.D. "Perceived Usefulness, Perceived Ease of Use, and User Acceptance of
Information Technology," MIS Quarterly (13:3), September 1989, pp. 319-340
1.8.3 Addictiveness

Godman (1990) in his study of British journal of addictiveness defined “addiction” as a

process whereby a behaviour, which functioning as both to produce pleasure and to provide
relief from internal discomfort, its formed in a pattern which characterized by (1) recurrent
failure to control the behaviour (powerlessness) and (2) continuation of the behaviour
despite significant negative consequences (unmanageability). The researcher explained that
the concept of addiction was found to be a synthesis of dependence (gratification of needs;
i.e. positive reinforcement motivation) and compulsion (evasion or avoidance of internal
discomfort; i.e. negative reinforcement motivation), and hence to contain information which
neither of these other terms alone provides


Godman, Aviel. M.D (1990). British journal of addictiveness. Minnesota Institute of

Psychiatry, 1347 Summit Avenue, St Paul, MN 55105, USA
1.8.4 Collaborative learning

There a board of meaning of collaborative learning which explained by Dillenbourg (1999) in

his study of What do you mean by collaborative learning? In short, collaborative learning
concern on four criteria in defining the situation (symmetry, degree of division of labour),
the interactions (e.g. symmetry, negotiability, ...), processes (grounding, mutual modelling)
and effects. The key for understanding collaborative learning is in the relations between
those four items. The four criteria that mentioned did not express by Roschelle's & Teasley's
in contrast defining the words collaborative. Roschelle's & Teasley's (1995) explained that
collaborative defined as a coordinated, synchronous activity that is the result of a continued
attempt to construct and maintain a shared conception of a problem. There a distinct
perception between this two research on the concept of collaborative learning.


1. Roschelle, J. & Teasley S.D. (1995) The construction of shared knowledge in

collaborative problem solving. In C.E. O'Malley (Ed), Computer-Supported
Collaborative Learning. (pp. 69-197). Berlin: Springer-Verlag
2. Dillenbourg, pierre. What do you mean by collaborative learning?. P. Dillenbourg.
Collaborative learning: Cognitive and Computational Approaches., Oxford: Elsevier,
pp.1-19, 1999.