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IOSR Journal of XXXXXXXX (IOSRJXXXX)(11 Italic)

ISSN : XXXX-XXXX Volume X, Issue X (XXXX-XXXX 2012), PP XX-XX


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Design and Analysis of Two Six-port Correlators

Engr. Muhammad Irfan Khan1, Dr. Syed Waqar Shah2


1
(Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Engineering & Technology, Peshawar, Pakistan)
2
(Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Engineering & Technology, Peshawar, Pakistan)

ABSTRACT : This paper presents design and analysis of two different Ultra Wide band (UWB) six-port
correlators for transmitter and receiver applications. The two designs analyzed and compared in terms of
transmission parameters, relative bandwidth and occupied area. On one side, design of microwave
components for multi-Giga Hertz bandwidth is a non-trivial challenge. Meeting such challenging performance
specifications requires a high degree of Electronic Design Automation (EDA)-tool skills and theoretical
understanding of the limits and possibilities offered by the used circuit implementation. On the other side, an
appropriate design methodology must be established and systematically used along the entire project
development. Two different designs of a six-port correlator for more than 3 GHz frequency bandwidth are
presented. The systematic design approach applied in the case of the six-port correlator can be extrapolated for
any microwave circuit using passive components with transmission lines.

Keywords – Correlator, Transmission lines, Ultra wide Band (UWB)

I.INTRODUCTION
A lot of research activity in the field of Ultra-wideband (UWB) circuit and communication system
design was and is performed within the academia and industry. Among the possible ways to implement UWB
transceivers for high data rates, the six-port transceiver using the six-port correlator has shown very good
performances with low consumption power, relative simplicity at circuit level and low manufacturing cost.
However, these advantages can be achieved only by using accurate and appropriate design methodology using
complex design tools.

Six-port technology surfaced as an elegant means for measuring microwave quantities in 1960’s and
1970’s. Later on it was used in RADAR applications. It was very recently that six-port technology was used for
constructing communication receivers [1]. The use of six-port as a communication receiver was initiated for the
first time in 1994 by Ji. Li, R. G. Bosisio and Ke Wu [2]. Being a wideband solution, six-port still suffers with
the problem of limited bandwidth. These days UWB greater than 40% of relative bandwidth is needed to
achieve high speed over short ranges for a wireless link [3].

II. BASIC BUILDING BLOCKS AND OPERATION


The Six-port transceiver is a passive RF circuit. The basic building blocks are composed of three 90°
hybrid couplers and one 3 dB Wilkinson power divider as shown in Fig 1.

Figure 1 Block diagram of a typical six-port circuit


Design & Analysis of two six port Correlators
It has seven ports but only six are used. When used as a transmitter, port 1 is fed with local oscillator
(LO) signal, port 2-3 and port 5-6, usually terminated with switching devices, are fed with baseband data while
the output signal. i.e; RF signal is taken from port 4. In receiver mode, port1 is fed with LO signal, port 4 with
RF signal while port 2-3 and port 5-6 are used for demodulating the received signal using a switch which in
most cases is an active component.

III. ULTRA WIDEBAND (UWB)


Ultra wide band is extremely wide spread spectrum where RF energy is spread over gigahertz of
spectrum. It is wider than any narrowband system by orders of magnitude. It can be loosely defined as any
wireless transmission scheme that occupies a bandwidth of more than 25% of a center frequency, or more than
1.5 GHz. UWB uses coded pulses of extremely short duration. UWB signals can be designed to appear as
random noise spread across a wide spectrum. Fig 2 shows the difference between narrowband and UWB
communication. UWB occupies more than 500 MHz of spectrum.

Figure 2 Comparison of UWB and narrowband Spectrum

IV. DESIGNING THE SIX PORT CORRELATOR


Two designs were made for a six-port transceiver, one; a conventional design and other with external
matching networks. First, a conventional design was made and then another design with external matching
networks was made. The results deviated from expectations when power divider and couplers are connected
together. Thus, optimization was needed at microstrip schematic level. Line parameters had to be adjusted at the
same time maintaining perfect geometry of the six-port circuit at layout level. Fig 3 shows a flow chart
indicating different stages during design process of both the six-port transceivers.
Specifying Design
Requirements

Substrate
Specifications

Microstrip Design
With External
Microstrip Design
Matching
Networks

Optimization Simulations Simulations Optimization

Satisfied Satisfied

No No
Yes Yes

Layout Design Layout Design

Momentum Momentum
Simulations Simulations

Satisfied Satisfied

No No

Yes Yes
Comparison

Conclusion

Figure 3 Design methodology of six-port correlators

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Design & Analysis of two six port Correlators
V. CONVENTIONAL SIX PORT CORRELATOR
The design was made quite easily by connecting three identical couplers to each other and to a power
divider in such a fashion that it would occupy minimum possible area on the PCB. The microstrip design of the
Term Term

six-port coupler is shown in Fig 4. Term3


Num=3
Term4
Num=4
Z=50 Ohm Z=50 Ohm

MLIN
MLIN
TL16
Subst="MSub1" TL13
MLIN Subst="MSub1"
W=W50
L=L50 TL11 W=W50
Subst="MSub1" L=L50 MTEE_ADS MLIN
MTEE_ADS W=W50 Tee1 TL1
Tee6 L=L50 MTEE_ADS Subst="MSub1" Subst="MSub1"
Subst="MSub1" Tee5 W1=W50 W=W35
W1=W50 Subst="MSub1"
W2=W35 L=L35
W2=W35 W1=W50 W3=W50
W3=W50 W2=W35
MLIN W3=W50
MLIN
TL9 MLIN MLIN TL5
Subst="MSub1" TL12 TL10 Subst="MSub1"
W=W35 Subst="MSub1" Subst="MSub1" W=W50
L=L35 W=W50 W=W35 L=L50
L=L50 L=L35
MCURVE MTEE
Tee15 MTEE_ADS
Curve12
Subst="MSub1" Tee7
Subst="MSub1"
W=WPD W1=WPD Subst="MSub1"
Angle=180 W2=0.315 mm W1=W50 MLIN MCROSO
MLIN W3=W50 W2=W35 TL28 Cros2
Radius=1.583 mm TL27 W3=W50 Subst="MSub1" Subst="MSub1" Term
Subst="MSub1" W1=W50 Term2
W=W50
W=WPD L=1.0731 mm W2=W35 Num=2
L=LPD W3=W35 Z=50 Ohm
MCURVE W4=W50
Curve13
MLIN MLIN
MTEE R Subst="MSub1"
TL4 TL2
Tee13 R1 W=W50
Subst="MSub1" Subst="MSub1"
Subst="MSub1" R=100.00 Ohm Angle=90
W=W50 W=W50
W1=WPD Radius=1 mm
Term MLIN L=L50 L=L50
W2=WPD MCURVE
Term1 TL25
Subst="MSub1" W3=PW50 Curve14
Num=1 MLIN
Z=50 Ohm W=PW50 Subst="MSub1"
L=PL50 MLIN TL29 W=W50 MLIN
TL26 Subst="MSub1" Angle=90 TL3
Subst="MSub1" W=W50 Radius=1 mm Subst="MSub1"
W=WPD L=1.0731 mm W=W35
MTEE L=L35
L=LPD
Tee14
MCURVE Subst="MSub1"
Curve11 W1=WPD MLIN
W2=0.315 mm TL18 MLIN
Subst="MSub1" MLIN MTEE_ADS
W3=W50 Subst="MSub1" TL6
W=WPD TL20 MLIN Tee3
Angle=180 W=W35 TL17 Subst="MSub1"
MTEE_ADS Subst="MSub1" Subst="MSub1"
Radius=1.583 mm L=L35 Subst="MSub1"W1=W50 W=W50 Term
Tee12 W=W50 L=L50
Subst="MSub1" MTEE_ADS L=L50 W=W35 W2=W35 Term7
W1=W50 Tee9 L=L35 W3=W50 Num=7
W2=W35 Subst="MSub1" Z=50 Ohm
MTEE_ADS
W3=W50 W1=W50 Tee10
W2=W35 Subst="MSub1" MCROSO
W3=W50 W1=W50 Cros1
MLIN W2=W35 Subst="MSub1"
TL19 W3=W50 W1=W50
W2=W50
MLIN Subst="MSub1"
TL21 W=W50 W3=W35
MLIN W4=W35
Subst="MSub1" L=L50 TL24
W=W50 Subst="MSub1"
L=L50 W=W50
L=L50
Term
Term6 Term
Num=6 Term5
Z=50 Ohm Num=5
Z=50 Ohm

Figure 4 Schematic of conventional six-port correlator

Curves were used to connect the couplers to the power-divider. Bends or Corns were avoided as the
curves have the property of generating smooth plots. Port 1 can act as an LO input while port 2 as an RF output
for a transmitter. In case of a receiver, port 2 will act as an RF input while Port 1 remains as an LO input.

The design was simulated from 5.5 to 9.5 GHz. Fig 5 and 6 show the results for amplitude response,
amplitude imbalance, phase response and phase imbalance at all the output ports.

(a) (b)

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Design & Analysis of two six port Correlators

(c) (d)
Figure 5 (a) (b) Amplitude Response (c) (d) Amplitude imbalance

(a) (b)

(c) (d)
Figure 6 (a) (b) Phase response (c) (d) Phase imbalance

VI. SIX-PORT CORRELATOR WITH EXTERNAL MATCHING NETWORKS


Three identical quadrature hybrids with external matching networks connected with a Wilkinson power
divider for design a six-port correlator with external matching networks. The impedance of both Zline and Zstub
being 1.33Zo. The addition of Zline and Zstub shown in Fig 7 to the six-port correlator gives one a lot of
flexibility in the design process.

Figure 7 Design of external matching network

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Design & Analysis of two six port Correlators
Fig 8 shows a microstrip schematic design of a six-port correlator. Note that couplers are connected
here in different geometry as compared to the six-port design shown in Fig 5

Figure 8 Schematic of six-port correlator with external matching networks

All the outputs are now on same side in order to keep the size of PCB as small as possible. But for the
purpose of PCB manufacturing, the output terminations have to be given some bend in order to make some
space for the connectors which is quite a hectic job and results will need to be tuned again. In order to cover
lesser space on PCB, another design with stubs oriented towards inside was also tried but could not be
implemented efficiently due to lack of time.

Fig 9 and 10 show the simulation results for amplitude response, amplitude imbalance, and phase
response and phase imbalance at all the output ports.

(a) (b)

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Design & Analysis of two six port Correlators

(c) (d)
Figure 9 (a) (b) Amplitude response (c) (d)Amplitude imbalance

(a) (b)

(c) (d)

Figure 10 (a)(b) Phase response (c)(d) Phase imbalance


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Design & Analysis of two six port Correlators

VII. CONCLUSION
The relative bandwidth of a quadrature hybrid is about 10 to 15% but can be increased up to 50% or
even more with the addition of external matching networks. The amplitude response becomes much flatter with
external matching networks. The same flatness is evident when the couplers with external matching networks
are combined with Wilkinson power divider to make a complete six-port circuit. A flat amplitude response was
noticed. Also, amplitude imbalance remains between 1 dB over major portion of the bandwidth. The phase
imbalance in both designs remains almost around 90o but the addition of external matching networks keeps the
response much flatter at higher frequencies. Both designs had its pros and cons. While the correlator with
external matching networks improved relative bandwidth, the conventional six-port correlator would occupy
lesser space and reduce PCB size by 57%. Also, it was much simpler to design a conventional six-port
correlator; whereas, the design with external matching networks took a lot of time in optimization.

The addition of external matching networks with Zline and Zstub equal to 1.33Zo, gives a designer the
flexibility and ease of improving the relative bandwidth by mere tuning of the stubs.

The goal was to design these two correlators of different structural dimensions by following an
understood design methodology. It was not an easy task to design two different six-pot correlators and compare
them, particularly when power divider had to be connected to the quadrature hybrids. But, by following a clear
and step-wise design methodology, the task was made much simpler and disciplined. This methodology divided
the entire design into smaller designs which were independently created at different levels of abstraction (i.e;
ideal, microstrip and layout) and then connected with other components. An iterative process of optimization,
outlined between microstrip schematic level and layout level, was already anticipated. Thus, following a clear
and distinct design methodology is an essential part of any RF system design project.

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[3] Ultra-Wideband Six-port Transmitter and Receiver Pair 3.1-4.8 GHz Pär Håkansson and Shaofang Gong Linköping University,
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[11] Hoer, C. A., “The Six-Port Coupler: A New Approach to Measuring Voltage, Current, Power, Impedance and Phase,” IEEE Trans.
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Design & Analysis of two six port Correlators

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