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musculoskeletal

system
Dale dimaano
Diane Sarmiento
q4a
Skeletal
System
Skeletal system
Functions
Total
F u n c bones
tions

Around 206

Around 305

15% of body mass


Total
F u n c bones
tions
General features
*Based on shapes*
Structures of a long bone

1. Epiphysis
-Epiphyseal plate or growth plate
-Epiphyseal line
2. Diaphysis
3. Articular Cartilage
4. Periosteum
Inside a long bone

1. Medullary cavity
2. Red marrow
3. Yellow marrow
4. Endosteum
Histology
4 types of bone cells 2 major types of bone tissue
2 major types of bone tissue

1. Compact bone
2 major types of bone tissue
2. Spongy bone
2 major types of bone tissue

Compact Bone Spongy Bone

Made up of osteons Made up of trabeculae

Calcium is present in high quan7ty Very small amount of calcium

Almost 80% or above weight of human The rest 20% weight of the skeleton is
skeleton is contributed by compact bones contributed by spongy bones

Cylindrical in shape Cuboidal in shape

Contain yellow marrow Mostly contain red bone marrow

Compact bones form major part of human Spongy bones form major part of our
body’s long bones. For e.g. arms, legs, etc. short bones. For e.g. ankles or wrist
Cartilage
Types of cartilage
1. Hyaline cartilage
2. Fibrocartilage
3. Elastic cartilage
Fibrous connective tissue
Makes up…
1. Ligaments
2. Tendons
o s s i f i c at i o n
os facio
“bone” “to make”
1. Intramembranous ossification
2. Endochondral ossification
Ossification
Ossification
factors affecting bone growth
1. Vitamin D
2. Growth Hormone (GH)
Calcium
F u nhomeostasis
ctions
1. PTH
2. CT
Bone remodeling
Bone repair
Bone
F u nmarkings
ctions

1. Angle
2. Ramus
3. Body
Features
F u n c tofi obones
ns
Organization
Functions

2 main divisions
1. Axial
2. Appendicular
AXIAL skeleton
AXIAL skeleton

The skull
AXIAL skeleton

Cranium
1. Frontal bone
2. Parietal bones
3. Occipital bones
- Foramen magnum
4. Temporal bones
5. Sphenoid bone
6. Ethmoid bone
AXIAL skeleton

Facial bones
1. Mandible
2. Maxilla
3. Zygomatic bone
4. Nasal bone
AXIAL skeleton

The hyoid bone


AXIAL skeleton

The vertebral
column
33 vertebrae
AXIAL skeleton

Vertebrae
1. Cervical (7)
- atlas & axis
2. Thoracic (12)
3. Lumbar (5)
4. Sacrum
5. Coccyx

*Intervertebral disks
AXIAL skeleton

The rib cage


AXIAL skeleton

Ribs
1. True ribs
2. False ribs
3. Floating ribs
AXIAL skeleton

Sternum
1. Manubrium
2. Body
3. Xiphoid process
Appendicular
skeleton
Appendicular skeleton
Pectoral Girdle & Upper Limb
Pectoral Girdle
1. Scapula (shoulder blade)
2. Clavicle (collarbone)

Upper limb
1. Humerus
- capitulum
- trochlea
2. Radius
3. Ulna
4. Carpal
5. Metacarpal
6. Phalanges
Appendicular skeleton

Pelvic Girdle
Pelvic Girdle & lower Limb
1. Coxal bones (hip bones)
a. Ilium
b. Ischium
c. Pubis

Lower limb
1. Femur (thigh bone)
2. Tibia
3. Patella (kneecap)
4. Fibula
5. Tarsal
6. Metatarsal
7. Phalanges
Articulations
Functions

3 types of joints
1. Fibrous
2. Cartilaginous
3. Synovial

Functional Classification
1. Synarthrosis
2. Amphiarthrosis
3. Diarthrosis
Synovial
F u n c t i joint
ons
Synovial
F u n c t i joint
ons
Diseases
Osteoporosis
Diseases
Scoliosis Lordosis Kyphosis
“swayback” “hunchback”
Diseases
Osteogenesis imperfecta
Diseases
Arthritis
Diseases
Rickets/Osteomalacia
Muscular System
general features
1. Contractility

2. Excitability

3. Extensibility

4. Elasticity
homeostatic function
flow of blood and other lymphatic fluids

thermoregulation
tendons
3 major types of muscles
s
structure of a muscle
structure of a muscle
classes of muscle fibers
s

Slow Oxidative (SO) Intermediate Fast Glycolytic (FG)


Type I Type- IIB Type II
muscle contraction
origins and insertions

stationary opposer
supporter

coupled movement

moves actions 1.Prime mover

2.Antagonist

3.Synergist

4.Fixator
how to
name
muscles
Sternocleidomastoid

Rectus femoris
nomenclature
major

Deltoid Trapezius

Platysma

Vastus minor

shape
size
nomenclature
What’s the difference?

longus vs longissimus

minor vs minimus

magnus vs major vs maximus


Function
nomenclature
location Risus - “to laugh”
Risorius muscle
transverse
Tibialis
anterior
muscles

rectus

oblique

Direction of muscle
fibers
nomenclature
Flexor Levator
Pronator
carpi anguli oris
teres
radialis

Extensor
indicis
muscle Depressor
anguli oris
Flexion/extension
Supinator
Levator/Depressor

Supination/pronation

actions
nomenclature
Abductor
policis Adductor
brevis policis
brevis

Pyloric sphincter
Adductor/Abductor
Sphincter

actions
Muscular system divisions
muscles & facial
expressions
eye muscles
abdominal muscles
postural muscles

back muscles
arm muscles

forearm muscles
Leg muscles
Leg muscles
Leg muscles
common muscular conditions

strain spasms

cramp
facial ticks
muscular diseases

Muscular Dystrophy
Fibromyalgia

Myasthenia Gravis
Rhabdomyosarcoma
Botulism