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MEHRAN UNIVERSITY OF ENGINEERING AND

TECHNOLOGY SZAB CAMPUS KHAIRPUR MIR'S

ASSIGNMENT

ROLL NO:- K-17EL43

SUBJECT:- ELECTRICAL NETWORK ANALYSIS

SUBMITTED TO:- ENGR. SHAKIR ALI

D E PA R T M E N T O F E L E C T R I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G
Electrical Network Analysis

Introduction of Network Analysis and its Different


Topologies:-
1) Circuit Elements:-

 The mathematical models of a two terminal electrical devices.


 Completely characterized by its voltage and current relationship.
 Can't be subdivided into other two terminal devices.

2) Node:-

A point at which two or more circuit elements have common connection.

3) Node Pair:-

Node Pair is simply two nodes which can be identified by specifying voltage variable.

4) Branch:-

A single path containing one circuit element, which connect one node to any other node. It is
represented by line graph.

5) Path:-

A set of elements that maybe cross in order without passing through same node twice.

6) Loop:-

A closed selected path of a network is called loop. A path that maybe started from a particular
node to other nodes through branches and comes to original starting point. This is also known as
closed path or circuit.

7) Mesh:-

 A loop that doesn't contain any other loops within it.


 Any mesh is a circuit/loop but any circuit/loop may not be mesh.
 A mesh is one which can't be further divided into loops.

8) Network:-

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Electrical Network Analysis

The interconnection of two or more circuit elements from an electrical network/complex is


called network.

9) Circuit:-

The network that contains at least one closed path is called circuit. Every network is a circuit
but every circuit is not a network.

Topology:-
It is defined as the graphical representation of complicated network in order to analyze the
different parameters (current, voltage and power) in any easy way, it is simply the physical
layout of network. It also deals with the properties of the network which are unaffected when the
network is stretched, twisted, distorted the size and shape.

 Graph:-
A graph corresponding to a given network is obtained by replacing all circuit elements with
line.

 Connected Graph:-
A graph in which at least one path exists between any two nodes of the graph.

 Oriented Graph:-
A graph that has all nodes and branches numbered and also directions are given to
branches.

 Subgraph:-
If line is removed from graph, we get subgraph.

 TREE of connected graph:-


It is circuit less subgraph of N nodes and (n-1) branches. The tree of graph of N nodes has
following properties:
i. It contains all nodes of graph nodes are left and isolated portion.
ii. It contains (n-1) branches.
iii. There is no any closed path, when n = Number of nodes and (n-1) = number of tree
branches.

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Electrical Network Analysis

Example:- Draw the graph, oriented graph, branches and link for the below circuit.

Circuit 1.1

a) Graph:- b) Oriented Graph:-

Circuit 1.1(a) Circuit 1.1(b)

c) Tree:-

Total Branches = n-1

where n = number of nodes,

n-1=4-1=3

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Electrical Network Analysis

a) b)

c) d)

 Link:-
Number of Links = Number of branches - Number of trees.
L = B - (n-1)
Link physically remains, and are open through dotted lines and can be connected that time
if needed.

So the links for above circuit is:


L = 6 - (4 - 1)
L=3

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Electrical Network Analysis

a) b)

c) d)
 Inductor:-
It is current dependent source, It stores the current point acting a short circuit when fully
charged.

 Capacitor:-
It is voltage dependent source, It will act as open circuit when it is fully charged.

 Resistor:-
It can be represented by either link or branch.

 Cutsets:-
Since a tree includes branches that connects all the nodes of graph without following closed
path, therefore a particular tree, a cut set can be formed by cutting one tree branch and
maximum number of links at a time.
Total number of cutsets in a graph = Total number of branches of tree.

Example:- Write the Cutset Equations for below figure (1.1).

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Electrical Network Analysis

Fig(1.1)

Branches = 8

Nodes = 5

Links = B-(n-1) = 4

i. Cutset Equation 1:- Ib1 + Ib5 - Ib4 = 0


ii. Cutset Equation 2:- -Ib1 + Ib2+Ib6 = 0
iii. Cutset Equation 3:- Ib3 + Ib7 - Ib2 = 0
iv. Cutset Equation 4:- -Ib3 + Ib4 +Ib8 = 0

When Current entering the node then negative sign is taken as symbol, when current
is leaving the node then the positive sign is taken as symbol.

 Node Transformation Equation:-


It is used to find the node voltages of the network. The node voltage is difference between
the two paths of the graph or difference of voltage between nodes with reference node.

Example:- Write the equations of node for below figure (1.2) and then write these equations
in matrix form.

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Electrical Network Analysis

Fig (1.2)

1) e1 = V1 - V2 2) e2 = V2 - V3 3) e3 = V3 - V4 4) e4 = V4 - V1
5) e5 = V1 6) e6 = V2 7) e7 = V3 8) e8 = V4

[ ][] []
1 −1 0 0 e 1

0 1 −1 0 e 2

0 0 1 −1 e 3

−1 0 0 1 e 4

1 0 0 0 v 1
e 5

0 1 0 0 v 2
e 6

0 0 1 0 v 3
e 7

0 0 0 1 v 4
e 8
=

 Tie Set Equation:-

Example:- Write the equation for below figure (1.3) and write these equations in matrix
form.

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Electrical Network Analysis

Fig (1.3)

i. Equation 1:- e1 + e6 - e5 = 0
ii. Equation 2:- e2 + e7 - e6 = 0
iii. Equation 3:- e3 + e8 - e7 = 0
iv. Equation 4:- e4 + e5 - e8 = 0

[]
e1

e2

e3

e4

[ ]
1 0 0 0 −1 1 0 0 5

0 1 0 0 0 −1 1 0 e6

0 0 1 0 0 0 −1 1 e7

0 0 0 1 1 0 0 −1 e 8
=

 Loop Transformation Equation:-


In loop transformation equation, we calculate loop currents of graph.

Example:- Write the equations of loop for below figure (1.4) and then write these equations
in matrix form.

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Electrical Network Analysis

Fig (1.4)

1) Ib1 = I1 2) Ib2 = I2 3) Ib3 = I3 4) Ib4 = I4


5) Ib5 = I4-I1 6) Ib6 = I1-I2 7) Ib7 = I2-I3 8) Ib8 = I3-I4

[ ][]
1 0 0 0
0 1 0 0
0 0 1 0
0 0 0 1
−1 0 0 1 I 1

1 −1 0 0 I 2

0 1 −1 0 I 3

0 0 1 −1 I 4
= 0

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Electrical Network Analysis

Phasors:-
It provides a graphic mean for representing quantities that have both magnitude and
direction(angle). Phasors are specially useful for representing sine wave in terms of their
amplitude and phase angle and also for the analysis of reactive circuits.

Fig (2.1)

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Electrical Network Analysis

-) Phasor of 45° -) Phasor of 180°

Fig 2.2(a) Fig 2.2(b)

 Phasor Representation of Sine Wave :-


i. A full cycle can be represented by rotation of phasor through 0° - 360°
ii. Sine wave shows how phasor traces out the sine wave as it goes from 0° - 360°
iii. The length of phasor is equal to peak vale of sine wave (90 ° or 270°). The angle
of phasor measured from 0° is corresponding (reference) angle point on sine
wave.
iv. The drawn/below phasor is a phase shift of 45°.

Fig : 2.3 Phasor Representation of Sine Wave

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Electrical Network Analysis

 Conversion of Complex Number from Rectangular form to Polar form :-

a) 8+j6
Sol:-
c = 8+j6
c = √ 82 +62 = √ 100 = 10
c = 10.
tanϴ = P/B , ϴ = tan-1(6/8) = 36.87°.

b) 10-j5
Sol:-
c = 10-j5
c = √ 102+ 52 = √ 125 = 11.8
c = 11.8.
tanϴ = P/B , ϴ = tan-1(-5/10) = -26.56°.

c) -5-j10
Sol:-
c = -5-j10
c = √ 52+ 102 = √ 125 = 11.8
c = 11.8.
tanϴ = P/B , ϴ = tan-1(-10/-5) = 63.43°.

 Conversion of Complex Number from Circular function to Polar form :-


1. 10 < 30°
Sol:-
C = A + jB
So, A = cCosϴ = 10Cos30° = 8.66
and B = cSinϴ = 10Sin30° = 5
then C = 8.66 + j5

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Electrical Network Analysis

2. 200 < -45°


Sol:-
C = A + jB
So, A = cCosϴ = 200Cos(-45°) = 141.4
and B = cSinϴ = 200Sin(-45°) = -141.4

then C = 141.4 - j141.4

 Angular Velocity :-

The periodic and frequency are related to velocity of rotation of phasor. The velocity of
rotation is called angular velocity and denoted by ω. When phasor rotates through 360°
(2π) are complete cycle is traced out, therefore time required for phasor to go through 2π
radial is the period of sine wave. Because phasor rotates through 2π radial in time equal
to period (T).
The angular velocity can be expressed as:
ω = 2π/T
or
ω = 2πf
When phasor is rotated at velocity (ω) ; the ωt is angle through which phasor has passed
at any instant by using following relationship:

ϴ = ωt

The relationship between angle and time, the equation for instantaneous value of sine
wave voltage can be expressed as:

V = VpSinωt

Problem 1:- What is the value of sine wave voltage at 3µs from positive going zero
crossing when Vp = 10V and frequency is 50KHz?

Sol:-
V = VpSinωt = VpSin2πft
V = 10Sin(2 x 3.14 x 50x103 x 3x10-6)
V = 10Sin(0.942)
V = 10 x 0.016
V = 0.16Volts.

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Electrical Network Analysis

R-L Series Circuit :-


In as series R-L circuit, the current is same through both resistor as well as inductor,
thus the resistor voltage is in phase with current and inductor voltage leads current by
90°.
There is a phase difference of 90° between resistor voltage and inductor voltage.

Circuit 2.1

then, VS = VR + jVL
This equation can be written as:
VS = √ V r 2+Vl 2 and ϴ = tan-1 ( VL/ VR )

Phasor Diagram:-

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Electrical Network Analysis

Fig 2.4(a) Fig 2.4(b)

Fig 2.4(c)

Problem:- For a series R-L Circuit, determine the magnitude of total impedance and
phase angle .

Circuit 2.2

Sol:-

Z= √ R 2+ Xl2 and XL = 2πfL = 2 x 3.14 x 10x103 x 2x10-3

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Electrical Network Analysis

XL = 125.6 Ω

Z= √ 10002+125.6 2 = 1007.58Ω

ϴ = tan-1 ( XL/ R ) = tan-1 ( 125.6/ 1000 ) = 7.158°

ϴ = 7.158°

ZT = 1007.58 < 7.158°

Impedance of Series Circuit :-


The Impedance of total opposition to sinusoidal current in circuit and is express in ohms.

Circuit 2.3

The Impedance of R-L series circuit is determined by resistance and inductive reactance.
Total impedance in phase is sum of R and jXL.

Z = R + jXL

Impedance Triangle:-

In A.C analysis, both R and XL are treated as phasor quantities, as shown in phasor diagram.

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Electrical Network Analysis

Fig 2.5(a)

While XL is appearing at 90° angle with respect to R. This relationship comes from that fact
that indicates voltage leads the current and thus the resistors voltage by 90°. Since Z is a phasor
sum of R and XL , its phasor representation is,

Fig 2.5(b)

and the Impedance trangle is:

Fig 2.5(c)

The Length of each phase represents the magnitude of quantity and ϴ is phase angle.

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Electrical Network Analysis

By pythagoras theorem, we have:

Z= √ R 2+ Xl2
and phase angle = ϴ = tan-1 ( XL/ R )

Combining both equations, we have:

Z= √ R 2+ Xl 2 < tan-1 ( XL/ R )

Variation of Impedance and Phase Angle with Frequency:-

Fig 2.6

The above phasor diagram shows impedance triangle and the base of this triangle represents
R. The resistance is independent of frequency, So if the frequency increases or decreases, the
resistance remains constant. The formula for inductive reactance = 2πfL , So if the frequency is
increased or decreased, the inductive reactance will also be increase and decrease. So, in series
R-L circuit above points must be remembered.

Problem :- The current I = 0.2 < 0° mA. Determine the source voltage and express
it also in polar form.

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Electrical Network Analysis

Circuit 2.4(a)

Sol:-

For Inductive Reactance,

XL = 2πfL = 2 x 3.14 x 10x103 x 100x10-3 = 6.28 KΩ

Circuit 2.4(b)

Z = R + jXL = √ R 2+ Xl 2 = √(10000)2+(6280)2
Z = 11.8 KΩ.

ϴ = tan-1 ( XL/ R ) = tan-1 ( 6.28/ 10 )

ϴ = 32.18°.

Z = 11.8 KΩ < 32.18°

As we Know, V = IZ

V = 0.2 < 0° mA x 11.8 < 32.18° KΩ

V = 2.36 < 32.18°

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Electrical Network Analysis

-) Phasor Diagram:-

Fig 2.7

Parallel R-L Circuit:-


A basic parallel R-L circuit expression of total impedance is developed by:

Circuit 2.5

ZT = R < 0° + XL < 90°

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Electrical Network Analysis

R . X L <0 ° +90 °
ZT = X
√ R2 + X L2 tan−1( RL )

XL
R . X L <90 ° −tan −1 ( )
ZT = R
√R + X
2
L
2

R . XL
then Z = and ϴ = 90° - tan-1 ( XL/ R )
√ R2 + X L2
or ϴ = tan-1 (R / XL )

Problem :- Find the total current of R-L circuit and also draw the phasor diagram.

Circuit 2.6

Sol:-

Vs 12
IR = =
R 220

IR = 54.54 mA

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Electrical Network Analysis

Vs 12
and IL = =
XL 150

IL = 80 < -90° mA.

I = I R + IL

I = 54.5 + 80 < -90°

I = 54.5 + ( 80Cos(-90°) + j80Sin(-90°) )

I = 54.5 + ( 0 + j80(-1) )

I = 54.5 - j80

So, I= √(54.5)2+(80)2 = 96.8 mA

and ϴ = tan-1 (IL / IR ) = tan-1 (-80 / 54.5 ) = -55.73°

So, IT = 96.8 < -55.73° mA.

and ϴ = 90° - tan-1 (XL / R )

ϴ = 90° - tan-1 (150 / 220 ) = 90° - 34.286°

ϴ = 55.7°

-) Phasor Diagram

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Electrical Network Analysis

Fig 2.8

Problem:- For each circuit determine magnitude and phase angle.

a)

Circuit 2.7

Sol :-

XL
R . X L <90 °−tan −1 ( )
As we know, ZT = R
√R + X
2
L
2

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Electrical Network Analysis

50
100 .50< 90° −tan −1 ( )
ZT = 100
√ 1002+ 502
−1 1
5000< 90 °−tan ( )
ZT = 2
111.8

5000< 90 °−26.56 °
ZT = 111.8

ZT = 44.7 < 63.43 °

b)

Circuit 2.8

Sol :-

XL
R . X L <90 °−tan −1 ( )
As we know, ZT = R
√R + X
2
L
2

1
2000 .1000< 90° −tan −1 ( )
ZT = 2
√ 2000 + 1000
2 2

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Electrical Network Analysis

2000000< 90 °−26.56 °
ZT =
2236

ZT = 894.5 < 63.5 °

 Susceptance and Admittance :-

Susceptance is the imaginary part of admittance where the real part is conductance.
Susceptance is measure in siemens.

Y = G +jB

where Y = admittance , G = conductance and B = susceptance.

Admittance is a measure of how easily a circuit or device will allow a current to flow. It is
defined as reciprocal of Impedance. It's unit is siemens.

1 1
R = Z and Z = or Y =
Y Z

1 1
XL = BL or BL = XL

Susceptance is reciprocal of reactance.

1 1
G= or R=
R G

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Electrical Network Analysis

where G = conductance

1
For a parallel R-L circuits, BL = or BL = BL < -90 ° = -jBL.
X L <90 °

1
and Admittance is Y = or Y = Y < ∓ θ .
Z <±θ

The admittance phasor diagram is the sum of conductance and susceptance.

Y = G - jBL

or Y= √G +B
2
L
2
.

Problem :- Determine admittance diagram of following circuit.

Circuit 2.9

Sol:-

1 1
G = = = 0.0033 Siemens.
R 330 Ω

XL = 2πfL = 2 x 3.14 x 1000 x 100x10-3

XL = 628Ω.

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Electrical Network Analysis

1 1
So, BL = = = 0.00159 Siemens
XL 628

Y = G - jBL = 0.0033 - j0.00159

Y= √ 0.00332+ 0.001592 = 0.00345 Siemens.

ϴ = tan-1 (BL / G ) = tan-1 (-0.00159 / 0.0033 )

ϴ = -27.9 °

So, YT = 0.00345 < -27.9 ° Siemens.

-) Phasor Diagram

Figure 2.9

Problem:- Determine the total current and the phase angle of the given circuit.

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Electrical Network Analysis

Circuit 2.10

Sol:-

XL = 2πfL = 2 x 3.14 x 1.5x103 x 150x10-3

XL = 1413.9Ω.

XL
R . X L <90 ° −tan −1 ( )
As we know, ZT = R
√R + X
2
L
2

1413.9
2200 x 1413.9< 90 °−tan−1( )
ZT = 2200
√ 22002 +1413.92
ZT = 1189.44Ω < 57 °

1 1
Y= = = 8.407 x 10-4
Z 1189.44

IT = VY = 10 x 8.407 x 10-4 = 8.407 mA.

-) Phasor Diagram

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Electrical Network Analysis

Figure 2.10

Problem:- In Circuit of figure, determine the values:

Circuit 2.11(a)

a) ZT b) IT c) ϴ

Sol:-

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Electrical Network Analysis

a) For Z1 , XL1 = 2πfL1 = 2 x 3.14 x 5x103 x 250x10-3

XL1 = 7.85KΩ.

Z1 = R1 + jXL1

Z1 = (4.7 + j7.85)KΩ. (1)

For Z2 , XL2 = 2πfL2 = 2 x 3.14 x 5x103 x 100x10-3

XL2 = 3.14KΩ.

1 1
R2 = 3.3KΩ. then G2 = = = 303 µSiemens.
R2 3300

1 1
and BL2 = = = 318 µSiemens.
XL 2 3140

BL2 = -j318µS = 318< -90 ° µS.

Y2 = G2 - jBL2 = 303 - j318µS.

−318
Y2 = √ 3032+ 3182 < tan −1 ( )
303

Y2 = 439.6 < -46.43 ° µS.

1 1
Then, Z2 = =
Y2 439.6<−46.43 ° µS .

Z2 = 2.28 < 46.43 ° KΩ.

Convert it into rectangular form.

Z2 = 2.28 ( Cos46.43 ° + jSin46.43 ° )

Z2 = ( 1.57 + j1.65 ) KΩ.

Now,

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Electrical Network Analysis

Circuit 2.11(b)

ZT = Z1 + Z2

ZT = ( 4.7 + j7.85 ) + ( 1.57 + j1.65 )

ZT = ( 6.27 + j9.5) KΩ.

−1 9.5
ZT = √ 6.272 +9.52 < tan ( )
6.27

ZT = 11.38 < 56.58 ° KΩ.

V 10< 0°
b) IT = = = 0.878 < -56.58 ° mA.
ZT 11.38 <56.58 ° K Ω

c) ϴ = 56.58 °

Problem:- Determine the voltage across each element? Sketch Voltage phasor diagram.

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Electrical Network Analysis

Circuit 2.12(a)

Sol:-

XL1 = 2πfL1 = 2 x 3.14 x 2x106 x 50x10-6

XL1 = 628Ω & R1 = 330Ω.

then Z1 = 330 + j628Ω

−1 628
Z1 = √ 3302+ 6282 < tan ( )
330

Z1 = 709.4 < 62.2 ° Ω.

and XL2 = 2πfL2 = 2 x 3.14 x 2x106 x 100x10-6

XL2 = 1.256KΩ & R2 = 1KΩ.

then Z2 = 1000 + j1256 Ω

1256
Z2 = √ 10002+1256 2 < tan −1 ( )
1000

Z2 = 1600 < 51.3 ° Ω.

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Electrical Network Analysis

Now,

Circuit 2.12(b)

I1 = Vs / Z1 = 10 / 709.4 < 62.2 ° Ω. = 14.09 < -62.2 ° mA.

I2 = Vs / Z2 = 10 / 1600 < 51.3 ° Ω = 6.25 < -51.3 ° mA.

Now Calculate the Voltage Drop Across Each Element.

 VR1 = I1 x R1 = 14.09 < -62.2 ° mA x 330Ω = 4.64 < -62.2 ° Volts.


 VL1 = I1 x XL1 = 14.09 < -62.2 ° mA x 628 < 90 ° Ω = 8.85 < 27.8 ° Volts.
 VR2 = I2 x R2 = 6.25 < -51.3 ° mA x 1000Ω = 6.25 < -51.3 ° Volts.
 VL2 = I2 x XL2 = 6.25 < -51.3 ° mA x 1256 < 90 ° Ω = 7.85 < 38.9 ° Volts.

-) Phasor Diagram:-

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Electrical Network Analysis

Figure 2.11

R-C Circuit Sinusoidal Response:-


When sinusoidal voltage is applied to R-C Circuit, each resulting voltage drop and current
in circuit is also sinusoidal with same frequency as the applied voltage.

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Electrical Network Analysis

Circuit 2.13

As shown in above circuit, resistors voltage, capacitor voltage and current are all sine
waves with frequency of source.

Sinusoidal response with general phase relationship phase of V R , VC and I relative to


source voltage. VR and I are in phase, VR leads VC , VC lags VS , and VR and VC are at 90 °
means out of phase, and phase shift is introduced because of capacitance.

The amplitude of phase relationship of voltage and current depend on the ohmic values of
resistance and capacitive reactance. When circuit is purely resistive phase angle between V and I
is zero. When circuit is purely capacitive, the phase angle between V and I is 90 ° with current
leading the voltage.

When there is combination of resistance and capacitive reactance in circuit, the phase
angle between applied voltage and IT is same where between zero and 90 ° , depending on the
relative values of resistance and reactance.

Circuit 2.14 Fig 2.12

Impedance of RC Circuit:-
Impedance is total opposition to sinusoidal current expressed in units is ohm. In purely
capacitive circuit, the impedance is the total capacitive reactance.

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Electrical Network Analysis

Circuit 2.15

XC = -jXC

The total impedance of the circuit is: Z = R - jXC

Fig 2.13(a) Fig 2.13(b)

Z= √R + X
2
C
2
. < - tan-1 (XC / R)

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Electrical Network Analysis

Problem:- For series RC circuit determine the magnitude of total Impedance and phase angle.

Circuit 2.16

Sol:-

1 1
XC = = = 1592Ω.
2 πf C 2 x 3.14 x 10 x 103 x 0.01 x 10−6

Now, ZT = √R + X
2
C
2
. < - tan-1 (XC / R)

ZT = √ 10002+15922 . < - tan-1 (1592 / 1000)

ZT = 1880 < -57.7 ° .

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Electrical Network Analysis

Problem:- If the current expressed in polar form is I = 0.2 < 0 ° mA. Determine source
voltage and also express in polar form.

Circuit 2.17

Sol:-

1 1
XC = = = 15.92 KΩ, and R = 10
2 πf C 2 x 3.14 x 103 x 0.01 x 10−6

then Z = √ 100002+15920 2 = 18.8 KΩ.

VS = IZ = 0.2 < 0 ° mA x 18.8 KΩ = 0.2 x 18.8 < 0 ° Volts.

Vs = 3.76 < 0 ° Volts.

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Electrical Network Analysis

R-C Parallel Circuit:-


A basic parallel R-C Circuit is shown in fig, the expression for total impedance is given
by:

Circuit 2.18

R< 0 °+ Xc< 90°


Z=
R− jXc

R . Xc
Z= < 90 ° +tan -1
( XC / R)
√ R2 + Xc 2
Problem:- Determine the magnitude of total impedance and phase angle.

Circuit 2.19

Sol:-

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Electrical Network Analysis

100 .50
Z= then Z = 44.72Ω.
√1002 +502
ϴ = 90 ° +tan -1
( XC / R)

ϴ = 90 ° +tan -1
( 50 / 100)

ϴ = 90 ° +tan -1
( 0.5 )

ϴ = 90 ° +26.5°

ϴ = 116.5 °

Then ZT = 44.72 < 116.5 ° Ω.

 Conductance, Susceptance and Admittance:-

1
G= =G<0 °
R< 0 °

The parallel capacitive susceptance (B C) is reciprocal of capacitive reactance is


expressed as:

1
BC = = BC < 90 °
Xc<−90 °

BC = jBC

1
Admittance is the reciprocal of Impedance , Y = or Y = Y < ∓ θ .
Z <±θ

Y = G + jBC

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Electrical Network Analysis

Problem:- Determine the admittance of circuit given, Sketch admittance phasor diagram.

Circuit 2.20

Sol:-

1 1
G= = = 0.0030 Siemens.
R 330

1
XC = then BC = 2 π fC
2 π fC

and BC = 2 x 3.14 x 103 x 0.2x 10-6

BC = 0.001256 Siemens.

Y = G + jBC

Y = 0.0030 + j0.001256

Y= √ 0.00302+ 0.0012562 < tan -1


( 0.001256 / 0.0030 )

Y = 0.00325 < 22.78 ° Siemens.

1 1
Now, Z= =
Y 0.00325< 22.78°

Z = 307.69 < -22.78 ° Ω. Ans.

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Electrical Network Analysis

 Admittance Diagram:-

Fig 2.14

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Electrical Network Analysis

Problem:- Determine the total current of fig. Sketch the general phasor diagram.

Circuit 2.21

Sol:-

As , Y = 0.00325 < 22.78 ° Siemens.

and IT = VY

IT = 10 < 0 ° x 0.00325 < 22.78 °

IT = 0.0325 < 22.78 ° A

 Phasor Diagram:-

Fig 2.15

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Electrical Network Analysis

Problem:- Find the total impedance, current and the phase angle by which IT leads VS.

Circuit 2.22

Sol:-

1
For ZT , XC1 = then XC1 = 318.3Ω.
2 π f C1

1
XC2 = then XC2 = 636.6Ω.
2 π f C2

As R1 and C1 are in series, then:

Z1 = R - jXC1

Z1 = 1000 - j318.3 Ω

And R2 and C2 are in parallel, then:

1 1
G2 = = = 0.01478 Siemens.
R2 680

1 1
BC2 = = = 0.001578 Siemens.
XC2 636.6

Y2 = G + jBC2

Y2 = 0.01478 + j0.001578

Y2 = √ 0.001472 +0.001572

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Electrical Network Analysis

Y2 = 0.00215 < 46.8 °

1 1
Z2 = = = 465.8 < -46.8 °
Y2 0.00215< 46.8 °

Converting it into rectangular form:

Z2 = 465.8 ( Cos(-46.8 ° ¿ + jSin(-46.8 ° ¿ )

Z2 = 318 - j339.5 Ω

ZT = Z1 + Z2

ZT = 1000 - j318.3 + 318 - j339.5

ZT = 1318 - j657.8 Ω

ZT = 1473 > -26.5 °

V 10
IT = VY = =
ZT 1473>−26.5 °

IT = 6.78 < 26.5 ° mA

The total current leads the Capacitor applied voltage by 26.53 °

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Electrical Network Analysis

R-L-C Series Circuit:-


A series RLC circuit shown in below fig that contains resistance, inductance and capacitance.

Circuit 2.23

XC has the opposite effect that causes the current to leads the voltage.

XL causes the total current to lag the applied voltage, Hence XL and XC tends to offset each
other.

XT = | XL - XC | (1)

Eq (1) means the absolute value of difference of two reactance's.

 XL > XC ( Predominantly inductive reactance)


 XC > XL ( Predominantly capacitive reactance)

Z = R + j(XL - XC)
Z = √ R 2+ X T 2 < tan-1 ( XT / R )

Problem:- Find the total impedance of series RLC circuit.

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Electrical Network Analysis

Circuit 2.24

Sol:-

XL = 2 π f L = 2 x 3.14 x 100 x 10x10-3

XL = 6.28Ω

1 1
and XC = =
2 π fC 2 x 3.14 x 100 x 500 x 10
−6

XC = 3.18Ω and R = 5.6Ω


then Z = √ R + X T 2
2
< tan-1 ( XT / R )
Z = √ 5.62+ 3.12 < tan-1 ( 3.1 / 5.6 )

Z = 6.4 < 28.9 ° Ω

Problem:- Find the total impedance of the circuit and drop across each element.

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Electrical Network Analysis

Circuit 2.25

Sol:-

XT = XL - XC = 25Ω - 60Ω = -35Ω

Z = R + jXT = 75 - j35 Ω

Z= √R + X
2
T
2
< tan-1 ( XT / R )

Z= √ 752+ 352 < tan-1 ( -35 / 75 )

Z = 82.76 < -24.9 ° Ω

Vs 10
I = = 82.76<−24.9°
ZT

I = 0.12 < 24.9 ° A

a) VR = IZ = 0.12 < 24.9 ° x 75

VR = 9 < 24.9 ° Volts.

b) VL = IXL = 0.12 < 24.9 ° x 25 < 90 °

VL = 3 < 115 ° Volts.

c) VC = IXC = 0.12 < 24.9 ° x 60 < -90 °

VC = 7.2 < -65 ° Volts.

 Impedance of Parallel R-L-C Circuit:-

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Electrical Network Analysis

Circuit 2.26
A parallel R-L-C circuit as shown in fig, The total Impedance can be calculated
by using the sum of reciprocals method.

1 1 1 1
= = =
Z R< 0 ° X L <90 ° X C <−90°
1
Z= 1 1 1
+ +
R<0 ° X L < 90 ° X C <−90 °

or Conductance, Susceptance and Admittance.


1
-) G = 0°
R< 0 ° = G <
1
-) BC = X <−90° = jBC
C
1
-) BL = = -jBL
X L <90 °
1
and Y = or Y = Y < ∓ θ .
Z <±θ
or Y = G + jBC - jBL

Problem:- Find the total impedance in polar form.

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Electrical Network Analysis

Circuit 2.27

Sol:-

1 1 1 1
= = =
Z R< 0 ° X L <90 ° X C <−90°

1 1 1 1
= = =
Z 100 100<90 ° 50<−90 °

1
= 0.01 - 0.01j + 0.02j
Z

1
= 0.01 + 0.01j
Z

1
Z = < - tan-1 ( 0.01 / 0.01 )
√0.01 +0.012
2

Z = 70.7 < - tan-1 ( 1 )

Z = 70.7 < - 45 °

Problem:- Find the total admittance in polar form.

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Electrical Network Analysis

Circuit 2.28

Sol:-

1
G= 10< 0 ° = 0.1 < 0 ° Siemens.

1
BL = = -j0.2 Siemens.
5< 90 °

1
BC = 10<−90 ° = j0.1 Siemens

Y = G + jBC - jBL

Y = 0.1 + j0.1 - j0.2

Y = 0.1 - j0.1

Converting rectangular form into polar form, we get:

Y = 0.1414 < - 45 ° Siemens.

Problem:- Find the total current and current across each element.

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Electrical Network Analysis

Circuit 2.29

Sol:-

VS 5
IR = = = 2.27 A
Z 2.2

VS 5
IXL = = = 0.5 < - 90 ° = -j0.5 A
XL 10< 90 °

VS 5
IXC = = = 1 < 90 ° = 1j A
XC 5 ←90°

Now Total Current:

IT = IR + IXL + IXC

IT = 2.27 -j0.5 + 1j

IT = 2.27 + j0.5.

Problem:- For the Series R-L-C Circuit, Determine:

D E PA R T M E N T O F E L E C T R I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G P a g e | 53
Electrical Network Analysis

a) Total Impedance

b) Voltage Drop across each element

c) Phasor Diagram

d) Prove the total sum of voltages as source voltage.

Circuit 2.30(a)

Sol:-

a) For Total Impedance:- RT = 6Ω + 4Ω = 10Ω , LT = 0.05H + 0.05H = 0.1H

1 1
and CT =
200 µ F
+ 200 µ F
= 100µF

then XL = 2πfL = ωL = 377 x 0.1 = 37.7Ω

XL = 37.7Ω

1 1 1
and XC = = = = 26.53Ω
2 πfC ωC 377 x 100 x 10−6

XC = 26.53Ω then:

D E PA R T M E N T O F E L E C T R I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G P a g e | 54
Electrical Network Analysis

Circuit 2.30(b)

ZT = R < 0° + XL < 90° + XC < -90°

ZT = 10Ω + j37.7Ω - j26.53Ω

ZT = 10Ω + j11.17Ω

ZT = √ 102+ 11.172 < tan-1 ( 11.17 / 10 )

ZT = 15Ω < 48.16°

b) For Voltage Drop Across Each Element:-

E 20V
IT = =
ZT 15 Ω< 48.16 °

IT = 1.33A < - 48.16°

 VR = IR = 1.33A < - 48.16° x 10Ω


VR = 13.30 V < - 48.16

 VL = IXL = 1.33A < - 48.16° x 37.7Ω < 90°


VL = 50.14 V < 41.84°

 VC = IXC = 1.33A < - 48.16° x 26.53Ω < - 90°


VC = 35.28V < -138.16°

c) Phasor Diagram:-

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Electrical Network Analysis

Fig 2.16

d) Prove the total sum of voltages as source voltage:-

E = √ V R2 +(V L −V C )2
E = √ 13.32+(14.86)2
E = 20V

Problem:- For the Parallel R-L-C Circuit, Determine:

a) Total Admittance and Total Impedance

b) Admittance Diagram

c) Total Voltage and Current through each element and their total sum.

d) The equivalent series circuit as far as the terminal characteristics of the network are
???????????concerned.

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Electrical Network Analysis

d) Power Delivered to the Network.

Circuit 2.31(a)

Sol:-

a) Total Impedance and Total Admittance

RT = 10Ω || 40Ω = 8Ω

LT = 6mH || 12mH = 4mH

CT = 80µF + 20µF = 100µF

XL = ωL = (1000) x (4mH) = 4Ω

1 1
XC = = = 10Ω
ωC 1000 x 100 x 10
−6

Circuit 2.31(b)

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Electrical Network Analysis

YT = YR + YL + YC = G < 0° + BL < -90° + BC < 90°

1 1 1
YT = + ¿−90 ° + ¿ 90 °
8Ω 4Ω 10 Ω

YT = 0.125S < 0° + 0.25S < -90° + 0.1S < 90°

YT = 0.125S - j0.25S + j0.1S

YT = 0.125S - j0.15S

YT = √ 0.1252+ 0.152 < tan-1 ( -0.15 / 0.125)

YT = 0.195S < - 50.194°

1 1
and ZT = =
YT 0.195 S<−50.194 °

ZT = 5.13Ω < 50.194°

b) Admittance Diagram

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Electrical Network Analysis

Fig 2.17

c) Total Voltage and Current through each element and their total sum.

E = IZT = (12A < 0°) x (5.13Ω < 50.194°)

E = 61.56 < 50.194°

V 61.56 <50.194 °
IL = =
XL 4 Ω<90 °

IL = 15.39A < - 39.81°

V 61.56 <50.194 °
IC = =
XC 10 Ω<−90°

IC = 6.153A < 140.19°

V 61.56 <50.194 °
IR = =
R 8 Ω<0 °

IR = 7.7A < 0°

IT = √I R
2
+( I L −I C )2

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Electrical Network Analysis

IT = √ 7.72+(9.237)2
IT = 12A.

d) The equivalent series circuit

As, ZT = 5.13Ω < 50.194° , then:

ZT = 5.13Ω ( Cos(50.1°) + jSin(50.1°) )

ZT = 3.28Ω + j3.94 Ω

ZT = R + jXL

then R = 3.28Ω and XL = 3.94 Ω , So:

XL = ωL or L = XL / ω = 3.94Ω / 1000

L = 3.94mH

Circuit 2.31(c)

e) Power Delivered to the Network

P = I2R = 122 x 3.28Ω

P = 472.32 W

RESONANCE:-

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Electrical Network Analysis

In an electrical circuit, the condition that exists when the inductive reactance and the
capacitive reactance are of equal magnitude, causing electrical energy to oscillate between the
magnetic field of the inductor and the electric field of the capacitor.

Here XL = XC or XL - XC = 0

as Z= √ R +( X
2
L −X C )2 then Z = √ R 2+ 0 = R

The circuit, when XL = XC and Z = R, is said to be resonance and V = VR

 Resonant Frequency:-

At resonance XL = XC , then
1
2πfrL = (fr is the resonant frequency)
2 πfrC
1 1
fr2 = or fr = ( for series circuit)
(2 π )2 LC 2 π √ LC


2
1 1 R
For parallel circuit, −
2π LC L2

 Effects of Series Resonance:-

1) When a series in R-L-C Circuit attains resonance X L = XC i.e the net reactance
of circuit is zero.

2) Z = R, i.e the impedance of circuit is minimum.

3) Since Z is minimum, I = V / Z will be maximum.

4) Since I is maximum, the power dissipated would be maximum P = I2R.

5) Since V L = VC, V = VR , i.e the supply voltage is in phase with the supply
current.

 Q-Factor in R-L-C Series Circuit:-

In a case of R-L-C series circuit Q-Factor is defined as the voltage magnification


of circuit at resonance.
1
Q - Factor =
2 π f r CR

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Electrical Network Analysis

 Comparison of Series and Parallel Resonance:-


Table 2.1

Description Series Circuit Parallel Circuit


Impedance at Resonance Minimum given by Z = R Maximum given by
Z = L/CR
Current at Resonance Maximum I = V/R V
Minimum I =
L /CR
Resonant Frequency 1

When f < fr
f r=
2 π √ LC
Circuit is Capacitive (as
1
√ 1
2 π LC L
− 2
R2

Circuit is Inductive ( as the


the net reactance is net reactance is negative)
negative)
When f > fr Circuit is Inductive ( as the Circuit is Capacitive (as the
net reactance is positive) net reactance is positive)
Power factor at resonance Unity Unity
Q - factor XL / R XL / R
It magnifies at resonance Voltage Current

 AC Power:-
AC Impedance is a complex quantity made up of real resistance and imaginary
reactance.
Z = R + jX [Ω]
AC Apparent power is a complex quantity made up of real active power and
imaginary reactive power.
S = P + jQ [VA]
 AC Active/Real Power (P):-
The active power is the power that is dissipated in the resistance of the load. It uses
the same formula used for DC.
P = I2R = V2/R [Watt]
 AC Reactive/Imaginary Power (Q):-
The reactive power is the power that is exchanged between reactive components
(Inductor and capacitor).
Q = I2X = V2/X
Unit:- Volts-Amp-Reactive [VAR]
Q is negative for capacitor and is positive for inductor.

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Electrical Network Analysis

 AC Apparent Power (S):-


The apparent power is the power that is “appears” to flow to the load.
S = VI = I2Z = V2Z [VA]
 Power Traingle:-
The power triangle graphically shows the relationship between real(P), reactive(Q)
and apparent power(S).

POLYPHASE CIRCUITS
 Power Factor:- The cosine angle between the voltage and current is in A.C circuit is
known as the power factor. Power factor involves the relationship between two types of
power, working power and reactive power.
Electrical energy is almost exclusively generated, transmitted and distributed in the
form of Alternating current, therefore the question of power factor comes immediately
into picture. Most of the loads (80%) in electrical distribution systems are inductive in
nature and hence they have low power factor which is highly undesirable. Low power
factor causes an increase in reactive current, resulting and additional loss of active power
in all elements of power systems. It is important to have power factor as close as to unity
as possible.
KW
Cos Ф =
KVA
 Three Phase System:- The system which has three phases, i.e., the current will pass
through the three wires, and there will be one neutral wire for passing the fault current to
the earth is known as the three phase system. In other words, the system which uses three
wires for generation, transmission and distribution is known as the three phase system.
The three phase system is also used as a single phase system if one of their phase and the

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Electrical Network Analysis

neutral wire is taken out from it. The sum of the line currents in the 3-phase system is
equal to zero, and their phases are differentiated at an angle of 120º.

The three-phase system has four wire, i.e., the three current carrying conductors and the
one neutral. The cross section area of the neutral conductor is half of the live wire. The
current in the neutral wire is equal to the sum of the line current of the three wires and
consequently equal to √3 times the zero phase sequence components of current.

The three-phase system has several advantages like it requires fewer conductors as
compared to the single phase system. It also gives the continuous supply to the load. The
three-phase system has higher efficiency and minimum losses.

Star or Wye(Y) Connection:-


In this method of interconnection, the similar ends say, 'star' ends of three coils are
joined together at point N as shown in below figure (3.1).

Fig 3.1

The point N is known as star point or neutral point. The three conductors meeting at
point N are replaced by a single conductor known as neutral conductor, and this above
system is four wire - 3 phase system as shown in figure (a). And these conductors are
balanced and having exactly equal magnitude but are 120° out of phase with each other.
Hence their vector sum is zero. i.e IR + IY + IB = 0 .

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Electrical Network Analysis

These three currents (IR, IY, IB) in three phase system, At no instant will all the three
currents flow in the same direction either outwards or inwards.

Fig 3.2
 Voltages and Currents in Star Connection:-
The voltage induced in each winding is called the phase voltage (V ph) and current in
each phase is known as phase current (I ph) , and the voltage available between any pair of
terminals is called line voltage (VL) and current flowing in each line is called line current
(IL).

Fig 3.3

Line Voltage ( VRY) = ER - EY (L1 & L2)


VYB = EY - EB (L2 & L3)
VBR = EB - ER (L3 & L1)
If ER = EY = EB = Eph , then :
60 °
VRY = 2 x Eph x Cos( ¿
2
VRY = 2 x Eph x
√3
2

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Electrical Network Analysis

VRY = √ 3 Eph
Now VRY = VYB = VBR = VL
Hence VL = √ 3 Eph

It is noted from figure (3.3) that :


1) Line voltages are 120 ° apart.
2) Line voltages are 30 ° ahead of their respective phase voltages.
3) Angle between line currents and corresponding line voltages is ( 30 ° +Ф)
with current lagging.
 Line currents and phase currents:-
a. Current in Line 1 = IR
b. Current in Line 2 = IY
c. Current in Line 3 = IB
IR = IY = IB = Iph
So IL = Iph
 Power:-
Total active power = 3 x phase power.
P = 3Vph Iph CosФ
VL
As , Vph = and Iph = IL
√3
VL
Then P = 3 IL CosФ
√3
So , P = √ 3 VL IL CosФ

 Problem:- A balance star connected load of (8+j6) Ω per phase is connected to a


balanced 3 phase 400V supply. Find the line current, power factor, power and total volt-
ampere.
Sol:-
Z = 8+j6 Ω then Zph = √ 82 +62 and Zph = 10Ω

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Electrical Network Analysis

VL 400
Vph = = = 231 Volts.
√3 √3
V ph 231
Iph = = = 23.1 A and Iph = IL = 23.1 A
Z ph 10
R 8
Power Factor = = = 0.8
Z 10
P = √ 3 VL IL CosФ = √ 3 x 400 x 23.1 x 0.8 = 12800W = 12.8 kW.
S = √ 3 VL IL = √ 3 x 400 x 23.1 = 16000 VA = 16kVA.

 Advantages of 3 Phase :-
1) It is more economical as it requires less conducting material as compared to single
phase.
2) 3 phase motors give more output as compare to single phase motors.
3) 3 phase motors have uniform torques while single phase motors have pulsating
torques.
4) Domestic power and industrial/commercial power can supplied from same.
5) Voltage regulation is better in 3 phase system.
6) 3 phase system has less ripples in its waveform and can be easily converted to
smooth DC as compared to single phase.
7) Mostly industrial load is 3 phase, so it has variety of applications.

Delta (∆) or Mesh Connection:-


In this form of interconnection, the dissimilar ends of the three phase winding are
joined together i.e the ‘starting’ end of one phase is joined to the ‘finishing’ end of the
other phase and so on as shown in figure(3.4) below:

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Electrical Network Analysis

Fig 3.4

In other words, the three windings are joined in series to form a closed mesh. If the
system is balanced, then sum of three voltages round the closed mesh is zero. This type
of connection is 3 – phase 3 – wire system because it doesn’t have neutral conductor.

 Line Voltages and Phase Voltages:-


In Delta Connection, the voltage between any pair of lines is equal to the phase
voltage of phase winding connected between the two lines considered. Since phase
sequence is R Y B , the voltage having its positive direction from R to Y leads by 120
° on that having its positive direction from Y to B. Calling the voltage between lines
1 and 2 as VRY and between lines 2 and 3 as V YB , we find that VRY leads VYB by 120 °
, Similarly VYB leads VBR by 120 ° . Let VRY = VYB = VBR = VL, Then the VL = Vph

 Line Currents and Phase Currents:-

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Electrical Network Analysis

Fig 3.5

It will be seen from above figure (b) that current in each line is the vector difference
of the two phase currents flowing through that line.
a. Current in Line 1 is : I1 = IR - IB
b. Current in Line 2 is : I2 = IY – IR
c. Current in Line 3 is : I3 = IB – IY
If IR = IY = Iph then current in line no 1 is,
I1 = 2 Iph Cos (60 ° / 2)
I1 = 2 Iph √ 3 / 2
I1 = √ 3 Iph .
Similarly, I2 = IY – IR = √ 3 Iph
I3 = IB – IY = √ 3 Iph
So IL = √ 3 Iph
It is noted from figure (b) that:
1) Line currents are 120 ° apart.
2) Line currents are 30 ° behind the respective phase currents.
3) The angle between the line currents and the corresponding line
voltages is ( 30 ° + Ф ) with the current lagging.
 Power:-
Phase power = Vph Iph CosФ.
Total Power = 3Vph Iph CosФ.
As Vph = VL and Iph = IL / √ 3
Then P = 3VL x IL / √ 3 x CosФ
P = √ 3 VLILCosФ

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Delta – Star Transformation:-


-) For Delta Connection the Resistance between (1) and (2) is:
R 12( R23 + R31 )
R12 + R23 + R31
-) For Star Connection the Resistance between (1) and (2) is:
R1 + R 2
Since resistances are equivalent, then:
R 12( R23 + R31 )
R 1 + R2 =
R12 + R23 + R31
(1)
Similarly, between terminals (2) and (3) is:
R 23( R 12+ R31 )
R 2 + R3 =
R12 + R23 + R31
(2)
Similarly, between terminals (3) and (1) is:
R 31( R12 + R23 )
R 3 + R1 =
R12 + R23 + R31
(3)
Subtract equation (2) from (1) and add it in equation (3).
R12 . R31 R23 . R31
R1 – R3 = - and
R 12+ R23 + R31 R 12+ R23 + R31
R12 . R31 R23 . R31
R1 + R 3 = + So,
R 12+ R23 + R31 R 12+ R23 + R31
2 R12 . R31
2R1 =
R 12+ R23 + R31

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R12 . R31
So, R1 =
R 12+ R23 + R31
(A)
R23 . R12
R2 =
R 12+ R23 + R31
(B)
R23 . R31
R3 =
R 12+ R23 + R31
(C)

Star – Delta Transformation:-


Dividing equation(A) by equation(B) we get,
R 1 R31 R1
= or R31 =R23 ( )
R 2 R23 R2

Now divide equation(A) by equation(C) we get,


R 1 R12 R1
=
R 3 R23
or R12=R23 R
3
( )
Put R12 and R31 in equation(A) we get,

R1 R

R 1=
R 23 ( ) ( )
R2
. R23 1
R3
R1 R
R23
( )
R3 ( )
+ R23+ R 23 1
R2

2 R 12
R . 23
R2 . R 3
R 1=
R 1 . R 2+ R 2 . R3 + R 1 . R 3
R 2 . R3

R1 . R 2 + R2 . R 3 + R 1 . R3
R23=
R1

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R 1 . R2
So, R12= + R 1+ R 2 (D)
R3

R 2 . R3
R23=R2 + + R3 (E)
R1

R 1 . R3
R31= + R 1+ R 3 (F)
R2

TWO - PORT NETWORK


 Port:- Two associated terminals are given, the terminal pair or part suggesting port of
entry into network.
 Two Port:- The network have two ports of entry (or driving part) is called two-port
network.
Examples:- Transmission Line, Transformer, Extension, Transistor etc.
 Parameters:-
1) Open Circuit Parameter / Z – Parameter.
2) Short Circuit Parameter / Y – Parameter.
3) Transmission Line Parameter.
4) Inverse Transmission Line Parameter.
5) Hybrid Parameter or H – Parameter.
6) Inverse Hybrid Parameter.

1) Z – Parameter:-

V = ZI

[]
V1
V2
= Z []
I1
I2

[]
V1
V2
= [
Z 11 Z 12
Z 21 Z 22 ] []
I1
I2
V1 = Z11I1 + Z12I2 (1)
V2 = Z21I1 + Z22I2 (2)

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From equation (1)


V1 = Z11I1 + Z12I2
V 1 −Z 12 I 2
Z11 = I2 = 0
I1
V1
Z11 =
I1
From equation (2)
V 2 −Z 22 I 2
Z21 = I2 = 0
I1
V2
Z21 =
I1
From equation (1)
V 1 −Z 11 I 1
Z12 = I1 = 0
I2
V1
Z12 =
I2
From equation (2)
V 2 −Z 21 I 1
Z22 = I1 = 0
I2
V2
Z22 =
I2

[ ]
V1 V1
I1 I2
Z=
V2 V2
I1 I2

2) Y – Parameter:-

V = IZ or I = V / Z or I = VY

[]
I1
I2
= [Y 11 Y 12
Y 21 Y 22] [ ]
V1
V2
I1 = Y11V1 + Y12V2 (1)
I2 = Y21V1 + Y22V2 (2)
From equation (1)
I 1−Y 12 V 2
Y11 = V2 = 0
V1
I1
Y11 =
V1

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From equation (2)


I 2−Y 22 V 2
Y21 = V2 = 0
V1
I2
Y21 =
V1
From equation (1)
I 1−Y 11 V 1
Y12 = V1 = 0
V2
I1
Y12 =
V2
From equation (2)
I 2−Y 21 V 1
Y22 = V1 = 0
V2
I2
Y22 =
V2

[ ]
I1 I1
V1 V2
Y=
I2 I2
V1 V2

3) Transmission Line Parameter:-

[]
V1
I1
= T[ ] V2
−I 2

[] [ ] [ ]
V1
I1
=
A B
C D
V2
−I 2
V1 = AV2 - BI2 (1)
I1 = CV2 - DI2 (2)
From equation (1)
V 1 + B I2
A= I2 = 0
V2
V1
A=
V2

From equation (1)

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Electrical Network Analysis

V 1 −A V 2
B= V2 = 0
−I 2
−V 1
B=
I2
From equation (2)
I 1 +D I 2
C= I2 = 0
V2
I1
C=
V2
From equation (2)
I 1−C V 2
D= V2 = 0
−I 2
−I 1
D=
I2

[ ]
V1 −V 1
V2 I2
T=
I1 −I 1
V2 I2

4) Inverse Transmission Line Parameter:-

[ ]
V2
I2
= T
'
[ ]
V1
−I 1

[]
V2
I2
=
'
A' B'
'
C D [ '

'
V1
−I 1 ] [ ]
V 2 = A V 1 - B I1 (1)
I2 = C' V1 – D' I1 (2)
From equation (1)
'
' V 2+ B I 1
A = I1 = 0
V1
V2
A' =
V1
From equation (1)
V2 = A ' V1 - B ' I1 And V1 = 0. So,
V2
B' =
I1
From equation (2)

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'
' I 2+ D I 1
C = I1 = 0
V1
I2
C' =
V1
From equation (2)
I2 = C' V1 – D' I1 And V1 = 0. So,
−I 2
D' =
I1

[ ]
V2 V2
V1 I1
T' =
I2 −I 2
V1 I1

5) Hybrid Parameter:-

[] []
V1
I2
= h
I1
V2

[] [ ] []
V1
I2
h11 h12
=
h21 h22
I1
V2
V1 = h11I1 + h12V2 (1)
I2 = h21I1 + h22V2 (2)
V1 V1
Then : h11 = and h12 =
I1 V2
I2 I2
And h21 = and h22 =
I1 V2

[ ]
V1 V1
I1 V2
So, h=
I2 I2
I1 V2

6) Inverse Hybrid Parameter:-

[]
I1
V2
= g []
V1
I2

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[]
I1
V2
= [
g 11 g 12
g 21 g 22 ] []
V1
I2
I1 = g11V1 + g12I2 (1)
V2 = g21V1 + g22I2 (2)
I1 I1
Then : g11 = and g12 =
V1 I2
V2 V2
And g21 = and g22 =
V1 I2

[ ]
I1 I1
V1 I2
So, h=
V2 V2
V1 I2

Interconnection of Two – Port Network:-


a) Cascaded Algorithm
b) Series Algorithm
c) Parallel Algorithm

a) Cascaded Algorithm:-

-) Transmission Line Parameter (1)

[ ]
V 11
I 11
= [ ][ ]
A 1 B1 V 21
C1 D1 −I 21

(1)
-) Transmission Line Parameter (2)

[ ]
V 12
I 12
= [ ][ ]
A 2 B2 V 22
C2 D2 −I 22

(2)

Now[ ] [ ]
V 21
−I 21
=
V 12
I 12

Now further, [ ] [ ][ ]
V 21
−I 21
=
A 2 B2 V 22
C2 D2 −I 22

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Then from equation (1)

[
V 11
I 11
= ] [ ][ ][ ]
A 1 B1
C1 D1
A 2 B2 V 22
C 2 D2 −I 22
Hence,

[
V 11
I 11 ] [ ]
= T1 x T2
V 22
−I 22

So, [V 1n
I1 n ] [ ]
= T1 x T2 ……………..Tn
V 2n
−I 2 n

Or [ V 1n
I1 n] [ ] = Teq
V 2n
−I 2 n

-) Z – Parameter:-

Z= [ Z 11 Z 12
Z 21 Z 22 ][
Z +Z
= 1 3
Z3
Z3
Z 1 +Z 2 ]
b) Series Algorithm:-

[] [ ] [ ]
V1
V2
=
V 11
V 21
+
V 12
V 22
+ ………… + [ ]
V 1n
V 2n

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[] [ ] [ ]
V1
V2
= Z1
I 11
I 21
+ Z2
I 12
I 22
+ ………… + Zn [ ]
I 1n
I 2n
For the series network,

[] [ ] [ ]
I1
I2
=
I 11
I 21
=
I 12
I 22
= …………..
I 1n
I 2n [ ]
So, [ ]
V1
V2
= ( Z1 + Z2 + Z3 + ……… + Zn ) [] I1
I2

[] []
V1
V2
= Zeq
I1
I2

c) Parallel Algorithm:-

Y [ ] V1
V2
= [] I1
I2

So, [ ]
V1
V2
= [ ] [ ] [ ]
V 11
V 21
=
V 12
V 22
=
V 13
V 23
= ………..

Then, []
I1
I2
= [ ] [ ] [ ]
I 11
I 21
+
I 12
I 22
+
I 13
I 23

[]
I1
I2
= Y1 [ ] [ ] [ ]
V 11
V 21
+ Y2
V 12
V 22
+ Y3
V 13
V 23

[]
I1
I2
= (Y1+Y2+Y3) [] V1
V2

[]
I1
I2
= Yeq [ ] V1
V2

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 Problem:- Reduce the network shown in figure, calculate it’s all parameters.

Sol:-
For S – 1
Z11 = 3Ω + 2Ω = 5Ω
Z12 = Z21 = 2Ω Zeq1 = [ ]
5 2
2 5
and ∆Zeq1 = 21
Z22 = 5Ω
Using Algorithm, find Teq1

[ ] [ ]
Z 11 ∆ Z 5 21
Z 21 Z 21 2 2
Teq1 = =
1 Z 22 1 5
Z 21 Z 21 2 2
For S – 2
Teq2 = [ ] [ ]
1 0
Y 1
=
1 0
2 1
For S – 3
Teq3 = [ ] [ ]
1 Z
0 1
=
1 2
0 1
Now, Teq = Teq1 x Teq2 x Teq3

[ ]
5 21
Teq =
2 2
1 5
x [ ] [ ]
1 0
2 1
x
1 2
0 1
2 2

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[ ]
5 21
Teq =
2
1
2
5
x [ ]
1 2
2 5
2 2

[ ]
47 115
2 2
Teq = and ∆Teq = 1
11 27
2 2
Using Table, Calculate it’s Zeq

[ ] [ ]
A ∆T 47 2
C C 11 11
Zeq = =
1 D 2 27
C C 11 11
Now Yeq,

[ ] [ ]
D −∆ T 27 −2
B B 115 115
Yeq = =
−1 A −2 47
B B 115 115
Now Heq, finally

[ ] [ ]
B ∆T 115 2
D D 27 27
Heq = =
−1 C −2 11
D D 27 27

 Problem:- Solve the network and find it’s Teq.

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Sol:-

For S – 1 (Delta Connection)

[ ]
11 −1
Yeq1 = [ Y A +Y C −Y C
−Y C Y B +Y C ] =
30
−1
5
5
9
20
1
and ∆Yeq1 =
8
.
Using Table, Converting into Zeq

[ ] [ ]
Y 22 −Y 12 18 8
∆Y ∆Y 5 5
Zeq1 = =
−Y 21 Y 11 8 44
∆Y ∆Y 5 15
For S – 2 (Vertical)

[ ]
1 0
Teq2 = [ ]
1 0
Y 1
= 1
3
1
and ∆Teq2 =1.

Using Table, we have:

[ ]
A ∆T
Zeq2 =
C
1
C
D
=
3 3
3 3 [ ]
C C

[ ]
18 8
Now, Zeq1 + Zeq2 =
5
8
5
44
+ [ ]
3 3
3 3
5 15

[ ]
33 23
5 5 1350
Zeq12 = and ∆Zeq12 =
23 89 75
5 15
Now using table,

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[ ] [ ]
Z 11 ∆Z 33 90
Z 21 Z 21 23 23
Teq12 = =
1 Z 22 5 89
Z 21 Z 21 23 69
For S – 3 (Vertical)
Teq3 = [ ] [
1 0
Y 1
=
1 0
1 /2 1 ] and ∆Teq3 = 1

[ ]
33 90
Now, Teq12 x Teq3 =
23
5
23
89
x [ 1 0
1 /2 1 ]
23 69

[ ]
78 90
23 23
. Teq =
119 89
138 69

 Problem:- Solve the network and find its all parameters for the given below circuit.

Sol:-

For S-1 (Delta Connection)

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Electrical Network Analysis

[ ]
3
−1
Yeq1 = [ Y A +Y C −Y C
−Y C Y B +Y C ] =
2
−1
4
3
For S-2 (Delta Connection)

] [ ]
2 −1
Yeq2 = [ Y A +Y C −Y C
−Y C Y B +Y C
=
3
−1
2
2
3
3
Now, Yeq = Yeq1 x Yeq2

[ ] [ ]
3 2 −1
−1
2 3 2
Yeq = x
4 −1 3
−1
3 2 3

[ ]
−33
22
Yeq =
3
−4
23
1
and ∆Yeq =
4
.
Now, we find Zeq

[ ]
Y 22 −Y 12

[ ]
6 6
∆Y ∆Y
Zeq = = 16
−Y 21 Y 11 6
3
∆Y ∆Y
For T – Parameter,

[ ] [ ]
−Y 22 −1 9 3
Y 21 Y 21 8 4
Teq = =
−∆ Y −Y 11 3 9
Y 21 Y 21 16 8

Now H-Parameter,

[ ] [ ]
1 −Y 12 2
Y 11 Y 11 1
3
Heq = =
Y 21 ∆ Y −8 1
Y 11 Y 11 9 6

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Electrical Network Analysis

 Problem:- Calculate the Yeq of the below network.

Sol:-

For S – 1 (Horizontal)

[ ][ ]
T1= 1 Z = 1 4
0 1 0 1

For S – 2 (Vertical)

[ ][ ]
T2= 1 0 = 1 0
Y 1 4 1

[ ][ ]
Now Teq12 =
1 4 . 1 0
0 1 4 1

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Teq12 = [ 17
4
4
1 ] and ∆Teq12 = 1

Using Table, Convert into Y-Parameter

[ ][ ]
D −∆ T 1 −1
Y eq12= B B = 4 4
−1 A −1 17
B B 4 4

For S – 3 (Delta Connection)

[ ][ ]
5 −1
Y 11 Y 12 12 4
Y eq3 = =
Y 21 Y 22 −1 7
4 12

[ ]
5 −1
Y eq3 = 12 4
−1 7
4 12

[ ][ ]
1 −1 5 −1
4 4 12 4
Y eq =Y eq12 +Y eq = +
−1 17 −1 7
4 4 4 12

[ ] [ ]
2 −2 2 −1
Y eq = 3 4 3 2
=
−2 58 −1 29
4 12 2 6

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 Problem:- Calculate it’s H-Parameter.

Sol:-

For S – 1 (Star Connection)

[Z
Z eq 1= 11
][ ]
Z 12
Z 21 Z 22
=6 4
4 10
and ∆Zeq1 = 60-16 = 44.

Using Table, we have:

[ ][ ]
Z 22 −Z 12 10 −4
Y eq1= ∆ Z ∆ Z = 44 44
−Z21 Z 11 −4 6
∆Z ∆Z 44 44

[ ]
5 −1
22 11
Y eq1=
−1 3
11 22

For S – 2 (Delta Connection)

[Y
Y eq2= 11
Y 12
][
= 3 −1
Y 21 Y 22 −1 5 ]
and ∆Yeq2 = 14.

Now, Yeq = Yeq1 + Yeq2

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[ ][
5 −1
Y eq = 22
−1
11 + 3 −1
3 −1 5 ]
11 22

[ ]
71 −12
22 11
Y eq =
−12 113
11 22
7447
and ∆Yeq = .
484

Now converting it in to Heq, using table.

[ ]
1 −Y 12
Y Y 11
H eq = 11
Y 21 ∆Y
Y 11 Y 11

[ ]
22 24
71 71
H eq =
−24 677
71 142

FOURIER SERIES
A Fourier series is expansion of periodic functions in term of an infinite sum of Sine
and Cosine.

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Electrical Network Analysis

∞ ∞
1
Expression: f(t) = a + ∑ a cos ( nx ) dx+ ∑ bn sin ( nx ) dx
2 0 n=1 n n =1
π
1
Where a0 = ∫ f ( x ) dx ,
2 π −π
π
1
an = ∫ f ( x ) cos (nx )dx
π −π
π
1
And bn = ∫ f ( x ) sin (nx) dx
π −π
an and bn are well known as coefficient of Cosine and Sine wave.
Basically fourier series is used to represent periodic signal in terms of cosine and sine
wave.
 Periodic Signals:- Periodic signal is just a signal that repeats its pattern at same period.

Sine waves and Cosine waves depends on frequency and amplitude.


 Background:- Fourier Series is basically used to calculate heat equation and introduced
by Jean Baptiste Joseph Fourier.
Through Fourier series research, the fact was established that continuous
functions can be represented by trigonometric series.
 Applications:-
i. MP3 format uses audio compression.
ii. Most audio and image like JPEG and MP3.
iii. Partial Differential Equation, we use to solve higher order differential equations
by method of separation of variables.
iv. Advanced noise cancellation and call phone network signal processing (Best
application).
v. Control Theory finds dynamic response of function.
 Formulas:-
T

∫ Cosn ω0 tdt=0
0
T

∫ Sinnω 0 tdt =0
0
T

∫ Cosn ω0 t . Sinnω0 tdt=0


0
Now,

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π
1
a0 =
2 π −π
∫ f (t ) dt
(+ c )
0 π

∫ (−c ) +∫ ¿
−π 0
1
a 0= ¿

a0 =0

π
1
an = ∫ f ( t ) cos (n ωt )dt
π −π
π
1
bn = ∫ f ( t ) sin( n ωt) dt
π −π

 Procedure to Calculate Fourier Coefficient:-


i. Multiply equation (1) by suitable factor on both sides.
ii. Integrate the resulting expression terms by over the interval, if term
varies from 0 to T.
iii. Make the use of different trigonometric formulas to evaluate Fourier
coefficients.

For a0 =?

[ ]
T T ∞ T T

∫ f (t ) dt=∫ a 0 dt +∑ ∫ an Cosn ω0 tdt +∫ b n Sinnω 0 tdt


0 0 n=1 0 0
T ∞

∫ f (t ) dt=a 0 [t ]T0 +∑ [ 0+0 ]


0 n=1
T

∫ f (t ) dt =a 0 [T −0 ]
0
T
1
Then , a0 = ∫ f (t ) dt
T 0

Now, an = ?
Multiply equation by C osn ω 0 t

[
T T ∞ T T

∫ f (t ) C osn ω 0 t dt=∫ a 0 C osn ω0 t dt +∑ ∫ an Cosn ω 0 t .C osn ω0 tdt +∫ bn Sinn ω0 t . C o


0 0 n=1 0 0

T T
∫ f (t ) Cosnω 0 tdt=a 0 [0 ]T0 +[an ( 2t ) + bn ( 0 )T0 ]
0 0

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Electrical Network Analysis

∫ f (t ) Cosnω0 tdt=a n [ 2t ]
0

T
2
Or an = ∫ f (t ) Cosnω 0 tdt
T 0

And bn = ?
Multiply equation by sin n ω0 t

[
T T ∞ T T

∫ f (t ) sin n ω0 t dt=∫ a0 sin n ω0 t dt +∑ ∫ a n Cosn ω0 t . sin n ω 0 tdt +∫ b n Sinn ω0 t .sin n ω


0 0 n=1 0 0

T
t T
0
T
∫ f (t ) sin n ω0 t dt =a0 [0]0 +[0+b n ()
2 0
]

∫ f (t ) sin n ω0 t dt=bn [ 2t ]
0

T
2
Or bn = ∫ f ( t ) sin n ω0 t dt
T 0

 Problem:- For the waveform shown in the figure, find the fourier series?

Sol:-

V(t) = +V 0 ≤ t ≤ t/4
V(t) = -V t/4 ≤ t ≤ 3t/4
V(t) = +V 3t/4 ≤ t ≤ t

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Electrical Network Analysis

a0 =? a n=? b n=?
So, a0 =0 and bn =0 (because there is cosine wave)

For an ,
T
2
an = ∫ f (t ) Cosnω 0 tdt
T 0
vCosn ω 0 tdt
t/4 3 t /4 t

∫ vCosn ω0 tdt + ∫ −vCosn ω0 tdt + ∫ ¿


0 t /4 3t/4
2
an= ¿
T
Cosn ω0 tdt
t/4 3t/4 t

∫ Cosn ω 0 tdt + ∫ −Cosn ω0 tdt+ ∫ ¿


0 t/4 3t /4
2V
a n= ¿
T
Sinn ω0 t
n ω0
¿
¿
Sinn ω0 t
n ω0
¿
¿ ]
Sinn ω0 t
n ω0
¿
¿
¿
2V
an = ¿
T

Sinn ω0 ( 4t )−( Sinnω ( 3t4 )−Sinn ω ( 4t ))+( Sinnω t−Sinnω ( 34t ))


0 0 0 0
]
2V
an= ¿
n ω0 T

As, ω 0=2 πf =
T
π 3π π 3π
Sinn
2()( ( )
− Sinn
2
−Sinn
2 ( )) (
+ Sinn ( 2 π )−Sinn
2 ( ))
V
an= ¿

D E PA R T M E N T O F E L E C T R I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G P a g e | 92
Electrical Network Analysis

N = 1,3,5,……. (Odd)
V
a1= [1−(−1−1 ) + ( 0+1 ) ]
π
4V
a1 =
π

−4 V 4V
Similarly, a3 = and a5 =
3π 5π

Hence, v(t) = a1 cos ω 0 t + a3 cos 3 ω 0 t + a5 cos 5 ω 0 t

4V 4V
v(t) = cos ω0 t - cos 3 ω0 t +
π 3π

4V 4V
cos 5 ω0 t + …+ Cosn ω 0 t
5π nπ

cos ω 0 t
1 1
v(t) = 4 V - cos 3 ω 0 t + cos 5 ω 0 t ¿
¿ 3 5
π

D E PA R T M E N T O F E L E C T R I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G P a g e | 93
Electrical Network Analysis

 Problem:- Find the response of the circuit.


E = 0.318Em + 0.500Em sin ωt – 0.012Em cos 2 ωt – 0.422Em cos 4 ωt

Sol:-

Here we consider only first three of them.


E = 0.318Em + 0.500Em sin ωt – 0.422Em cos 4 ωt
E = 63.60 +100 sin ωt – 42.4 sin(2 ωt +90 ° )

Using phasor notation circuit below,

By applying superposition theorem, we can solve this so firstly consider E0.

XL = 2πfL = 2 x 3.14 x 0 x 0.01 = 0

D E PA R T M E N T O F E L E C T R I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G P a g e | 94
Electrical Network Analysis

XL = 0
ZT = R = 6< 0 °
E 0 63.6
I0 = = =10.6 A
R 6
VR0 = I0.R = 10.6 x 6 = 63.6
VR0 = 63.6
VL0 = 0

Now Average Power,


P0 = I02.R = (10.6)2 x 6
P0 = 674.2 Watts.

Now,

XL = ωL = 377 x 0.1 = 37.7Ω


ZT = R + jXL = 6 + j37.7
ZT = 38.17 < 80.9 °
E1 70.7
I1 = =
Z T 38.17<80.9 °
I1 = 1.85 < - 80.9 ° A

VR1 = I1.R = 1.85 < - 80.9 ° x 6


VR1 = 11.11 < - 80.9 ° Volts.
VL1 = I1.XL = 1.85 < - 80.9 ° x 37.7 < 90 °
VL1 = 69.74 < 9.10 ° Volts.

P1 = I12.R = 20.5 Watts.


Now,

XL = ωL = 754 x 0.1 = 75.4Ω


ZT = R + jXL = 6 + j75.4
ZT = 75.6 < 85.45 °

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Electrical Network Analysis

E2 29.9<−90 °
I2 = =
Z T 75.6<85.45 °
I2 = 0.39 < - 175.45 ° A

VR2 = I2.R = 0.39 < - 175.45 ° x 6


VR2 = 2.34 < - 175.45 ° Volts.
VL2 = I2.XL = 0.39 < - 175.45 ° x 75.4 < 90 °
VL2 = 29.4 < -85.45 ° Volts

P2 = I22.R = 0.912 Watts.

So the equations of fourier series are,


I ( t )=10.6+1.85 √ 2 sin ( 377 t −80.9° ) +0.39 √ 2sin ( 754 t−175.45 ° ) +…
V R ( t )=63.6+ 11.1 √2 sin ( 377 t−80.9 ° )+ 2.34 √ 2sin ( 754 t−175.45 ° ) +. .
V L (t )=0+69.74 √ 2 sin ( 377 t +9.05 ° ) +29.93 √2 sin ( 754 t−85.45 ° ) +…

Now Effective value of current, voltage and power.


a) Ieff = √ I 02 + I 12 + I 22 = √ 10.62+ 1.852+ 0.392
Ieff = 10.76 A

b) VReff = √ 63.62 +11.12 +2.342


VReff = 64.6 V

c) VLeff = √ 02 +69.742 +29.92


VLeff = 75.89 V

d) Peff = Ieff2.R = 10.762 x 6 = 694.4 Watts.

D E PA R T M E N T O F E L E C T R I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G P a g e | 96
Electrical Network Analysis

 Problem:- For the waveform determine the trigonometric fourier series.

Sol:-
T
1
a0 = ∫ f (t ) dt
T 0
0 d ( ωt )
π 2π

∫ vSinωt d ( ωt )+∫ ¿
0 π
1
a0= ¿

π
1
a0 = [∫ vSin ωt d ( ωt ) ]
2π 0
v π v
a0 = [−cos ωt ]0 =
2π π
v
a0 =
π
Now an,
T
2
an = ∫ f (t)Cosn ωt dt
T 0
π

∫ vSinωt .Cosn ωt d ω t
0 ]
2
an= ¿

π

∫ 12 {sin ( ωt +nωt ) +sin ( ωt −nωt ) } d ωt


0 ]
v
an = ¿
π

D E PA R T M E N T O F E L E C T R I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G P a g e | 97
Electrical Network Analysis

π π

∫ sin ωt ( n+1 ) d ωt+∫ sin ωt ( 1−n ) d ωt


0 0 ]
v
a n= ¿

[( −cos ( n+1 ) ωt π −cos ( 1−n ) ωt


)]
π
an =
v
2π n+ 1 0
) (
+
1−n 0

an =
2π [
v −cos ( n+1 ) π
n+1
+
1 cos ( n−1 ) π
n+1
+
n−1

1
n−1 ]
For n = even,
Cos(n+1) π = -1 and Cos(n-1) π = -1
an =
v 1
[ +
1

2 π n+1 n+ 1 n−1 n−1
1

1
]
an =
v 2
[ −
2 π n+1 n−1
2
]
an = [
v 2 ( n−1 ) −2(n+1)
2 π ( n+1)(n−1) ]
−2 v
an =
π (n2−1)
−2 v −2 v −2 v
So, a2 = , a 4= and a6 =
3π 15 π 35 π
For n = odd,
Cos(n+1) π = 1 and Cos(n-1) π = 1
a1 =
v −1
[ +
1
+
2 π n+1 n+1 n−1 n−1
1

1
]
a1=0 , a3 =0 and a5 =0

Now finally bn = ?
T
2
bn = ∫ f (t) Sinn ωt dt
T 0
π

∫ vSinωt . Sinnωt d ω t
0 ]
2
bn = ¿

π

∫ 12 {cos ( ωt−nωt )−cos ( ωt +nωt ) } d ωt


0 ]
v
bn= ¿
π
π π

∫ cos ωt ( 1−n ) d ωt −∫ cos ωt ( 1+ n ) d ωt


0 0 ]
v
bn = ¿

D E PA R T M E N T O F E L E C T R I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G P a g e | 98
Electrical Network Analysis

[( sin (1−n ) ωt π sin (1+ n ) ωt


)]
π
bn =
v
2π 1−n ) (
0

1+ n 0

bn =
2π [
v sin ( 1−n ) π sin (1+ n ) π
1−n

1+ n ]
For n = 1, equation becomes infinite
For n = 2,3,4,5,……….
Sin(1-n) π = 0 and Sin(1+n) π =0
Hence bn = 0
For n = 1,
π

∫ sin ωt . Sinnωt d ω t
0 ]
v
b 1= ¿
π
π

∫ sin2 ω td ω t
0 ]
v
b 1= ¿
π
π

∫ 1−cos2 2 ωt d ω t
0 ]
v
b1= ¿
π
v ω t sin2 ωt π
b1 = [ − ]
π 2 4 0
v
b1=
2

Hence the fourier series,

V 2 vCos 2 ωt 2 vCos 4 ωt 2 vCos 6 ωt vSinωt


v ( t )= − − − +…
π 3π 15 π 35 π 2

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Electrical Network Analysis

 Problem:- For the waveform find fourier series of trigonometric functions.

Sol:-
Since the line passes through origin,
Y= mx , y = v(t)
V
m = perp/base = and x = ωt
π
V
Now, v(t) = ( ¿ ωt 0 ≤ ω t ≤ π
π
v(t) = 0 π ≤ ω t ≤ 2π

D E PA R T M E N T O F E L E C T R I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G P a g e | 100
Electrical Network Analysis

For a0 = ?
T
1
a0 = ∫ f (t ) dt
T 0

1
a0 = ∫ f ( t ) dt
2π 0
π

∫ ( Vπ )ωt d ω t 2π
0 + ∫ 0d ωt ]
1 π
a 0= ¿

π

∫ ( Vπ )ωt d ω t
0 ]
1
a 0= ¿

2 π
v (ω t)
a0 = 2 [ ] ]
2π 2 0
v
a0 =
4

For an = ?

T
2
an = ∫ v (t)Cosn ωt dt
T 0

π 2π
V
∫( π )
ωt . Cosnωt d ω t+ ∫ 0.Cosn ωt d ω t
0 π ]
2
an = ¿

∫ ωt . Cosnωt d ω t
0
]
V
a n= 2
¿
π

Apply Integration by Parts,

π
V d ωt
an =
π2
[ωt ∫ Cosn ωt d ω t−∫ d ωt ∫
[ Cosn ωt d ω t ]]
0

π
V Sinnωt Sinn ωt d ω t
an = 2
[ωt . −∫ ]
π n n 0

D E PA R T M E N T O F E L E C T R I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G P a g e | 101
Electrical Network Analysis

π
V Cosn ωt
an = 2
[ωt . Sinn ωt+ ]
nπ n 0

V Cosn π 1
an =
nπ 2
[ωt . Sinn π +
n
− 0+ ]
n ( )
V Cosn π 1
an =
nπ 2
[
n

n
] () for n=1,2,3,….. Sinn π =0

−2 V
an =
n2 π2

When n is even, Cosn π =1 and an =0

When n is odd,

−2 V −2V −2 V −2 V
an = , a1= , a3 = and a5 =
n2 π2 π2 9 π2 25 π 2

For bn = ?

T
2
bn = ∫ v (t)Sinn ωt dt
T 0

π 2π
V
∫( π )
ωt . Sinn ωt d ω t +∫ 0. Sinn ωt d ω t
0 π ]
2
b n= ¿

∫ ωt . Sinn ωt d ω t
0
]
V
b n= 2 ¿
π

Apply Integration by Parts,

V −Cosn ωt −Cosn ωt d ω t π
bn =
π2
[ωt .
n
−∫ n
]
0

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Electrical Network Analysis

π
−V Sinnωt
bn = 2
[ωt . Cosn ωt− ]
nπ n 0

−V Sinnπ
bn = [πCosnπ− −(0−0)]
nπ 2
n

For n=1,2,3,…… Sinn π =0

−V
bn = [πCosnπ ]
nπ 2

−V Cosnπ
bn =

V −V V
So, b1= , b2= and b3 =
π 2π 3π

Now, Fourier Series:

v 2v 2v 2v V V V
v ( t )= − 2 cos ωt− cos 3 ωt− cos 5 ωt+ sin ωt− sin 2 ωt + sin 3 ωt
4 π (3 π ) 2
(5 π )2
π 2π 3π

D E PA R T M E N T O F E L E C T R I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G P a g e | 103
Electrical Network Analysis

 Problem:- For the waveform, determine the fourier series of trigonometric functions.

Sol:-

Y= mx
V
V(t) = ( ¿ ωt
π
Here a0 = 0, and an = 0, we will find bn because the waveform is sinusoidal.
Now,

T
2
bn = ∫ v (t)Sinn ωt dt
T 0

∫ ( Vπ ) ωt . Sinnωt d ω t
−π ]
2
b n= ¿

∫ ωt . Sinn ωt d ω t
−π
]
V
b n= 2 ¿
π

Apply Integration by Parts,

π
V −Cosn ωt −Cosn ωt d ω t
bn = 2
[ωt . −∫ ]
π n n −π

π
V Cosn ωt Sinn ωt
bn = 2
[−ωt . + 2
]
π n n −π

D E PA R T M E N T O F E L E C T R I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G P a g e | 104
Electrical Network Analysis

−n πCosnπ + Sinnπ− ( nπCosn (−π ) + Sinn (−π ) ]


V
bn = 2 2 ¿
n π

V
bn = [ −n πCosnπ + Sinnπ−nπCosnπ−Sinnπ ]
n2 π2

V
bn = 2 2
[ −2 n πCosnπ ]
n π

−2 V Cosnπ
bn =

2V −2V 2V −2 V
So, b1= , b2= , b3 = and b 4=
π 2π 3π 4π

Hence,

2v 2V 2V 2v 1 1
v ( t )= sin ωt− sin 2 ωt+ sin 3 ωt +… v ( t )= [sin ωt− sin 2 ωt + sin 3 ωt +…]
π 2π 3π π 2 3

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