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ASSIGNMENT

D E PA R T M E N T O F E L E C T R I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G

Electrical Network Analysis

Topologies:-

1) Circuit Elements:-

Completely characterized by its voltage and current relationship.

Can't be subdivided into other two terminal devices.

2) Node:-

3) Node Pair:-

Node Pair is simply two nodes which can be identified by specifying voltage variable.

4) Branch:-

A single path containing one circuit element, which connect one node to any other node. It is

represented by line graph.

5) Path:-

A set of elements that maybe cross in order without passing through same node twice.

6) Loop:-

A closed selected path of a network is called loop. A path that maybe started from a particular

node to other nodes through branches and comes to original starting point. This is also known as

closed path or circuit.

7) Mesh:-

Any mesh is a circuit/loop but any circuit/loop may not be mesh.

A mesh is one which can't be further divided into loops.

8) Network:-

D E PA R T M E N T O F E L E C T R I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G Page |2

Electrical Network Analysis

called network.

9) Circuit:-

The network that contains at least one closed path is called circuit. Every network is a circuit

but every circuit is not a network.

Topology:-

It is defined as the graphical representation of complicated network in order to analyze the

different parameters (current, voltage and power) in any easy way, it is simply the physical

layout of network. It also deals with the properties of the network which are unaffected when the

network is stretched, twisted, distorted the size and shape.

Graph:-

A graph corresponding to a given network is obtained by replacing all circuit elements with

line.

Connected Graph:-

A graph in which at least one path exists between any two nodes of the graph.

Oriented Graph:-

A graph that has all nodes and branches numbered and also directions are given to

branches.

Subgraph:-

If line is removed from graph, we get subgraph.

It is circuit less subgraph of N nodes and (n-1) branches. The tree of graph of N nodes has

following properties:

i. It contains all nodes of graph nodes are left and isolated portion.

ii. It contains (n-1) branches.

iii. There is no any closed path, when n = Number of nodes and (n-1) = number of tree

branches.

D E PA R T M E N T O F E L E C T R I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G Page |3

Electrical Network Analysis

Example:- Draw the graph, oriented graph, branches and link for the below circuit.

Circuit 1.1

c) Tree:-

n-1=4-1=3

D E PA R T M E N T O F E L E C T R I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G Page |4

Electrical Network Analysis

a) b)

c) d)

Link:-

Number of Links = Number of branches - Number of trees.

L = B - (n-1)

Link physically remains, and are open through dotted lines and can be connected that time

if needed.

L = 6 - (4 - 1)

L=3

D E PA R T M E N T O F E L E C T R I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G Page |5

Electrical Network Analysis

a) b)

c) d)

Inductor:-

It is current dependent source, It stores the current point acting a short circuit when fully

charged.

Capacitor:-

It is voltage dependent source, It will act as open circuit when it is fully charged.

Resistor:-

It can be represented by either link or branch.

Cutsets:-

Since a tree includes branches that connects all the nodes of graph without following closed

path, therefore a particular tree, a cut set can be formed by cutting one tree branch and

maximum number of links at a time.

Total number of cutsets in a graph = Total number of branches of tree.

D E PA R T M E N T O F E L E C T R I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G Page |6

Electrical Network Analysis

Fig(1.1)

Branches = 8

Nodes = 5

Links = B-(n-1) = 4

ii. Cutset Equation 2:- -Ib1 + Ib2+Ib6 = 0

iii. Cutset Equation 3:- Ib3 + Ib7 - Ib2 = 0

iv. Cutset Equation 4:- -Ib3 + Ib4 +Ib8 = 0

When Current entering the node then negative sign is taken as symbol, when current

is leaving the node then the positive sign is taken as symbol.

It is used to find the node voltages of the network. The node voltage is difference between

the two paths of the graph or difference of voltage between nodes with reference node.

Example:- Write the equations of node for below figure (1.2) and then write these equations

in matrix form.

D E PA R T M E N T O F E L E C T R I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G Page |7

Electrical Network Analysis

Fig (1.2)

1) e1 = V1 - V2 2) e2 = V2 - V3 3) e3 = V3 - V4 4) e4 = V4 - V1

5) e5 = V1 6) e6 = V2 7) e7 = V3 8) e8 = V4

[ ][] []

1 −1 0 0 e 1

0 1 −1 0 e 2

0 0 1 −1 e 3

−1 0 0 1 e 4

1 0 0 0 v 1

e 5

0 1 0 0 v 2

e 6

0 0 1 0 v 3

e 7

0 0 0 1 v 4

e 8

=

Example:- Write the equation for below figure (1.3) and write these equations in matrix

form.

D E PA R T M E N T O F E L E C T R I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G Page |8

Electrical Network Analysis

Fig (1.3)

i. Equation 1:- e1 + e6 - e5 = 0

ii. Equation 2:- e2 + e7 - e6 = 0

iii. Equation 3:- e3 + e8 - e7 = 0

iv. Equation 4:- e4 + e5 - e8 = 0

[]

e1

e2

e3

e4

[ ]

1 0 0 0 −1 1 0 0 5

0 1 0 0 0 −1 1 0 e6

0 0 1 0 0 0 −1 1 e7

0 0 0 1 1 0 0 −1 e 8

=

In loop transformation equation, we calculate loop currents of graph.

Example:- Write the equations of loop for below figure (1.4) and then write these equations

in matrix form.

D E PA R T M E N T O F E L E C T R I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G Page |9

Electrical Network Analysis

Fig (1.4)

5) Ib5 = I4-I1 6) Ib6 = I1-I2 7) Ib7 = I2-I3 8) Ib8 = I3-I4

[ ][]

1 0 0 0

0 1 0 0

0 0 1 0

0 0 0 1

−1 0 0 1 I 1

1 −1 0 0 I 2

0 1 −1 0 I 3

0 0 1 −1 I 4

= 0

D E PA R T M E N T O F E L E C T R I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G P a g e | 10

Electrical Network Analysis

Phasors:-

It provides a graphic mean for representing quantities that have both magnitude and

direction(angle). Phasors are specially useful for representing sine wave in terms of their

amplitude and phase angle and also for the analysis of reactive circuits.

Fig (2.1)

D E PA R T M E N T O F E L E C T R I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G P a g e | 11

Electrical Network Analysis

i. A full cycle can be represented by rotation of phasor through 0° - 360°

ii. Sine wave shows how phasor traces out the sine wave as it goes from 0° - 360°

iii. The length of phasor is equal to peak vale of sine wave (90 ° or 270°). The angle

of phasor measured from 0° is corresponding (reference) angle point on sine

wave.

iv. The drawn/below phasor is a phase shift of 45°.

D E PA R T M E N T O F E L E C T R I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G P a g e | 12

Electrical Network Analysis

a) 8+j6

Sol:-

c = 8+j6

c = √ 82 +62 = √ 100 = 10

c = 10.

tanϴ = P/B , ϴ = tan-1(6/8) = 36.87°.

b) 10-j5

Sol:-

c = 10-j5

c = √ 102+ 52 = √ 125 = 11.8

c = 11.8.

tanϴ = P/B , ϴ = tan-1(-5/10) = -26.56°.

c) -5-j10

Sol:-

c = -5-j10

c = √ 52+ 102 = √ 125 = 11.8

c = 11.8.

tanϴ = P/B , ϴ = tan-1(-10/-5) = 63.43°.

1. 10 < 30°

Sol:-

C = A + jB

So, A = cCosϴ = 10Cos30° = 8.66

and B = cSinϴ = 10Sin30° = 5

then C = 8.66 + j5

D E PA R T M E N T O F E L E C T R I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G P a g e | 13

Electrical Network Analysis

Sol:-

C = A + jB

So, A = cCosϴ = 200Cos(-45°) = 141.4

and B = cSinϴ = 200Sin(-45°) = -141.4

Angular Velocity :-

The periodic and frequency are related to velocity of rotation of phasor. The velocity of

rotation is called angular velocity and denoted by ω. When phasor rotates through 360°

(2π) are complete cycle is traced out, therefore time required for phasor to go through 2π

radial is the period of sine wave. Because phasor rotates through 2π radial in time equal

to period (T).

The angular velocity can be expressed as:

ω = 2π/T

or

ω = 2πf

When phasor is rotated at velocity (ω) ; the ωt is angle through which phasor has passed

at any instant by using following relationship:

ϴ = ωt

The relationship between angle and time, the equation for instantaneous value of sine

wave voltage can be expressed as:

V = VpSinωt

Problem 1:- What is the value of sine wave voltage at 3µs from positive going zero

crossing when Vp = 10V and frequency is 50KHz?

Sol:-

V = VpSinωt = VpSin2πft

V = 10Sin(2 x 3.14 x 50x103 x 3x10-6)

V = 10Sin(0.942)

V = 10 x 0.016

V = 0.16Volts.

D E PA R T M E N T O F E L E C T R I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G P a g e | 14

Electrical Network Analysis

In as series R-L circuit, the current is same through both resistor as well as inductor,

thus the resistor voltage is in phase with current and inductor voltage leads current by

90°.

There is a phase difference of 90° between resistor voltage and inductor voltage.

Circuit 2.1

then, VS = VR + jVL

This equation can be written as:

VS = √ V r 2+Vl 2 and ϴ = tan-1 ( VL/ VR )

Phasor Diagram:-

D E PA R T M E N T O F E L E C T R I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G P a g e | 15

Electrical Network Analysis

Fig 2.4(c)

Problem:- For a series R-L Circuit, determine the magnitude of total impedance and

phase angle .

Circuit 2.2

Sol:-

D E PA R T M E N T O F E L E C T R I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G P a g e | 16

Electrical Network Analysis

XL = 125.6 Ω

Z= √ 10002+125.6 2 = 1007.58Ω

ϴ = 7.158°

The Impedance of total opposition to sinusoidal current in circuit and is express in ohms.

Circuit 2.3

The Impedance of R-L series circuit is determined by resistance and inductive reactance.

Total impedance in phase is sum of R and jXL.

Z = R + jXL

Impedance Triangle:-

In A.C analysis, both R and XL are treated as phasor quantities, as shown in phasor diagram.

D E PA R T M E N T O F E L E C T R I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G P a g e | 17

Electrical Network Analysis

Fig 2.5(a)

While XL is appearing at 90° angle with respect to R. This relationship comes from that fact

that indicates voltage leads the current and thus the resistors voltage by 90°. Since Z is a phasor

sum of R and XL , its phasor representation is,

Fig 2.5(b)

Fig 2.5(c)

The Length of each phase represents the magnitude of quantity and ϴ is phase angle.

D E PA R T M E N T O F E L E C T R I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G P a g e | 18

Electrical Network Analysis

Z= √ R 2+ Xl2

and phase angle = ϴ = tan-1 ( XL/ R )

Fig 2.6

The above phasor diagram shows impedance triangle and the base of this triangle represents

R. The resistance is independent of frequency, So if the frequency increases or decreases, the

resistance remains constant. The formula for inductive reactance = 2πfL , So if the frequency is

increased or decreased, the inductive reactance will also be increase and decrease. So, in series

R-L circuit above points must be remembered.

Problem :- The current I = 0.2 < 0° mA. Determine the source voltage and express

it also in polar form.

D E PA R T M E N T O F E L E C T R I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G P a g e | 19

Electrical Network Analysis

Circuit 2.4(a)

Sol:-

Circuit 2.4(b)

Z = R + jXL = √ R 2+ Xl 2 = √(10000)2+(6280)2

Z = 11.8 KΩ.

ϴ = 32.18°.

As we Know, V = IZ

D E PA R T M E N T O F E L E C T R I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G P a g e | 20

Electrical Network Analysis

-) Phasor Diagram:-

Fig 2.7

A basic parallel R-L circuit expression of total impedance is developed by:

Circuit 2.5

D E PA R T M E N T O F E L E C T R I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G P a g e | 21

Electrical Network Analysis

R . X L <0 ° +90 °

ZT = X

√ R2 + X L2 tan−1( RL )

XL

R . X L <90 ° −tan −1 ( )

ZT = R

√R + X

2

L

2

R . XL

then Z = and ϴ = 90° - tan-1 ( XL/ R )

√ R2 + X L2

or ϴ = tan-1 (R / XL )

Problem :- Find the total current of R-L circuit and also draw the phasor diagram.

Circuit 2.6

Sol:-

Vs 12

IR = =

R 220

IR = 54.54 mA

D E PA R T M E N T O F E L E C T R I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G P a g e | 22

Electrical Network Analysis

Vs 12

and IL = =

XL 150

I = I R + IL

I = 54.5 + ( 0 + j80(-1) )

I = 54.5 - j80

ϴ = 55.7°

-) Phasor Diagram

D E PA R T M E N T O F E L E C T R I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G P a g e | 23

Electrical Network Analysis

Fig 2.8

a)

Circuit 2.7

Sol :-

XL

R . X L <90 °−tan −1 ( )

As we know, ZT = R

√R + X

2

L

2

D E PA R T M E N T O F E L E C T R I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G P a g e | 24

Electrical Network Analysis

50

100 .50< 90° −tan −1 ( )

ZT = 100

√ 1002+ 502

−1 1

5000< 90 °−tan ( )

ZT = 2

111.8

5000< 90 °−26.56 °

ZT = 111.8

b)

Circuit 2.8

Sol :-

XL

R . X L <90 °−tan −1 ( )

As we know, ZT = R

√R + X

2

L

2

1

2000 .1000< 90° −tan −1 ( )

ZT = 2

√ 2000 + 1000

2 2

D E PA R T M E N T O F E L E C T R I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G P a g e | 25

Electrical Network Analysis

2000000< 90 °−26.56 °

ZT =

2236

Susceptance is the imaginary part of admittance where the real part is conductance.

Susceptance is measure in siemens.

Y = G +jB

Admittance is a measure of how easily a circuit or device will allow a current to flow. It is

defined as reciprocal of Impedance. It's unit is siemens.

1 1

R = Z and Z = or Y =

Y Z

1 1

XL = BL or BL = XL

1 1

G= or R=

R G

D E PA R T M E N T O F E L E C T R I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G P a g e | 26

Electrical Network Analysis

where G = conductance

1

For a parallel R-L circuits, BL = or BL = BL < -90 ° = -jBL.

X L <90 °

1

and Admittance is Y = or Y = Y < ∓ θ .

Z <±θ

Y = G - jBL

or Y= √G +B

2

L

2

.

Circuit 2.9

Sol:-

1 1

G = = = 0.0033 Siemens.

R 330 Ω

XL = 628Ω.

D E PA R T M E N T O F E L E C T R I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G P a g e | 27

Electrical Network Analysis

1 1

So, BL = = = 0.00159 Siemens

XL 628

ϴ = -27.9 °

-) Phasor Diagram

Figure 2.9

Problem:- Determine the total current and the phase angle of the given circuit.

D E PA R T M E N T O F E L E C T R I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G P a g e | 28

Electrical Network Analysis

Circuit 2.10

Sol:-

XL = 1413.9Ω.

XL

R . X L <90 ° −tan −1 ( )

As we know, ZT = R

√R + X

2

L

2

1413.9

2200 x 1413.9< 90 °−tan−1( )

ZT = 2200

√ 22002 +1413.92

ZT = 1189.44Ω < 57 °

1 1

Y= = = 8.407 x 10-4

Z 1189.44

-) Phasor Diagram

D E PA R T M E N T O F E L E C T R I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G P a g e | 29

Electrical Network Analysis

Figure 2.10

Circuit 2.11(a)

a) ZT b) IT c) ϴ

Sol:-

D E PA R T M E N T O F E L E C T R I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G P a g e | 30

Electrical Network Analysis

XL1 = 7.85KΩ.

Z1 = R1 + jXL1

XL2 = 3.14KΩ.

1 1

R2 = 3.3KΩ. then G2 = = = 303 µSiemens.

R2 3300

1 1

and BL2 = = = 318 µSiemens.

XL 2 3140

−318

Y2 = √ 3032+ 3182 < tan −1 ( )

303

1 1

Then, Z2 = =

Y2 439.6<−46.43 ° µS .

Now,

D E PA R T M E N T O F E L E C T R I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G P a g e | 31

Electrical Network Analysis

Circuit 2.11(b)

ZT = Z1 + Z2

−1 9.5

ZT = √ 6.272 +9.52 < tan ( )

6.27

V 10< 0°

b) IT = = = 0.878 < -56.58 ° mA.

ZT 11.38 <56.58 ° K Ω

c) ϴ = 56.58 °

Problem:- Determine the voltage across each element? Sketch Voltage phasor diagram.

D E PA R T M E N T O F E L E C T R I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G P a g e | 32

Electrical Network Analysis

Circuit 2.12(a)

Sol:-

−1 628

Z1 = √ 3302+ 6282 < tan ( )

330

1256

Z2 = √ 10002+1256 2 < tan −1 ( )

1000

D E PA R T M E N T O F E L E C T R I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G P a g e | 33

Electrical Network Analysis

Now,

Circuit 2.12(b)

VL1 = I1 x XL1 = 14.09 < -62.2 ° mA x 628 < 90 ° Ω = 8.85 < 27.8 ° Volts.

VR2 = I2 x R2 = 6.25 < -51.3 ° mA x 1000Ω = 6.25 < -51.3 ° Volts.

VL2 = I2 x XL2 = 6.25 < -51.3 ° mA x 1256 < 90 ° Ω = 7.85 < 38.9 ° Volts.

-) Phasor Diagram:-

D E PA R T M E N T O F E L E C T R I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G P a g e | 34

Electrical Network Analysis

Figure 2.11

When sinusoidal voltage is applied to R-C Circuit, each resulting voltage drop and current

in circuit is also sinusoidal with same frequency as the applied voltage.

D E PA R T M E N T O F E L E C T R I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G P a g e | 35

Electrical Network Analysis

Circuit 2.13

As shown in above circuit, resistors voltage, capacitor voltage and current are all sine

waves with frequency of source.

source voltage. VR and I are in phase, VR leads VC , VC lags VS , and VR and VC are at 90 °

means out of phase, and phase shift is introduced because of capacitance.

The amplitude of phase relationship of voltage and current depend on the ohmic values of

resistance and capacitive reactance. When circuit is purely resistive phase angle between V and I

is zero. When circuit is purely capacitive, the phase angle between V and I is 90 ° with current

leading the voltage.

When there is combination of resistance and capacitive reactance in circuit, the phase

angle between applied voltage and IT is same where between zero and 90 ° , depending on the

relative values of resistance and reactance.

Impedance of RC Circuit:-

Impedance is total opposition to sinusoidal current expressed in units is ohm. In purely

capacitive circuit, the impedance is the total capacitive reactance.

D E PA R T M E N T O F E L E C T R I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G P a g e | 36

Electrical Network Analysis

Circuit 2.15

XC = -jXC

Z= √R + X

2

C

2

. < - tan-1 (XC / R)

D E PA R T M E N T O F E L E C T R I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G P a g e | 37

Electrical Network Analysis

Problem:- For series RC circuit determine the magnitude of total Impedance and phase angle.

Circuit 2.16

Sol:-

1 1

XC = = = 1592Ω.

2 πf C 2 x 3.14 x 10 x 103 x 0.01 x 10−6

Now, ZT = √R + X

2

C

2

. < - tan-1 (XC / R)

D E PA R T M E N T O F E L E C T R I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G P a g e | 38

Electrical Network Analysis

Problem:- If the current expressed in polar form is I = 0.2 < 0 ° mA. Determine source

voltage and also express in polar form.

Circuit 2.17

Sol:-

1 1

XC = = = 15.92 KΩ, and R = 10

2 πf C 2 x 3.14 x 103 x 0.01 x 10−6

KΩ

D E PA R T M E N T O F E L E C T R I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G P a g e | 39

Electrical Network Analysis

A basic parallel R-C Circuit is shown in fig, the expression for total impedance is given

by:

Circuit 2.18

Z=

R− jXc

R . Xc

Z= < 90 ° +tan -1

( XC / R)

√ R2 + Xc 2

Problem:- Determine the magnitude of total impedance and phase angle.

Circuit 2.19

Sol:-

D E PA R T M E N T O F E L E C T R I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G P a g e | 40

Electrical Network Analysis

100 .50

Z= then Z = 44.72Ω.

√1002 +502

ϴ = 90 ° +tan -1

( XC / R)

ϴ = 90 ° +tan -1

( 50 / 100)

ϴ = 90 ° +tan -1

( 0.5 )

ϴ = 90 ° +26.5°

ϴ = 116.5 °

1

G= =G<0 °

R< 0 °

expressed as:

1

BC = = BC < 90 °

Xc<−90 °

BC = jBC

1

Admittance is the reciprocal of Impedance , Y = or Y = Y < ∓ θ .

Z <±θ

Y = G + jBC

D E PA R T M E N T O F E L E C T R I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G P a g e | 41

Electrical Network Analysis

Problem:- Determine the admittance of circuit given, Sketch admittance phasor diagram.

Circuit 2.20

Sol:-

1 1

G= = = 0.0030 Siemens.

R 330

1

XC = then BC = 2 π fC

2 π fC

BC = 0.001256 Siemens.

Y = G + jBC

Y = 0.0030 + j0.001256

( 0.001256 / 0.0030 )

1 1

Now, Z= =

Y 0.00325< 22.78°

D E PA R T M E N T O F E L E C T R I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G P a g e | 42

Electrical Network Analysis

Admittance Diagram:-

Fig 2.14

D E PA R T M E N T O F E L E C T R I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G P a g e | 43

Electrical Network Analysis

Problem:- Determine the total current of fig. Sketch the general phasor diagram.

Circuit 2.21

Sol:-

and IT = VY

Phasor Diagram:-

Fig 2.15

D E PA R T M E N T O F E L E C T R I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G P a g e | 44

Electrical Network Analysis

Problem:- Find the total impedance, current and the phase angle by which IT leads VS.

Circuit 2.22

Sol:-

1

For ZT , XC1 = then XC1 = 318.3Ω.

2 π f C1

1

XC2 = then XC2 = 636.6Ω.

2 π f C2

Z1 = R - jXC1

Z1 = 1000 - j318.3 Ω

1 1

G2 = = = 0.01478 Siemens.

R2 680

1 1

BC2 = = = 0.001578 Siemens.

XC2 636.6

Y2 = G + jBC2

Y2 = 0.01478 + j0.001578

Y2 = √ 0.001472 +0.001572

D E PA R T M E N T O F E L E C T R I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G P a g e | 45

Electrical Network Analysis

1 1

Z2 = = = 465.8 < -46.8 °

Y2 0.00215< 46.8 °

Z2 = 318 - j339.5 Ω

ZT = Z1 + Z2

ZT = 1318 - j657.8 Ω

V 10

IT = VY = =

ZT 1473>−26.5 °

D E PA R T M E N T O F E L E C T R I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G P a g e | 46

Electrical Network Analysis

A series RLC circuit shown in below fig that contains resistance, inductance and capacitance.

Circuit 2.23

XC has the opposite effect that causes the current to leads the voltage.

XL causes the total current to lag the applied voltage, Hence XL and XC tends to offset each

other.

XT = | XL - XC | (1)

XC > XL ( Predominantly capacitive reactance)

Z = R + j(XL - XC)

Z = √ R 2+ X T 2 < tan-1 ( XT / R )

D E PA R T M E N T O F E L E C T R I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G P a g e | 47

Electrical Network Analysis

Circuit 2.24

Sol:-

XL = 6.28Ω

1 1

and XC = =

2 π fC 2 x 3.14 x 100 x 500 x 10

−6

then Z = √ R + X T 2

2

< tan-1 ( XT / R )

Z = √ 5.62+ 3.12 < tan-1 ( 3.1 / 5.6 )

Problem:- Find the total impedance of the circuit and drop across each element.

D E PA R T M E N T O F E L E C T R I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G P a g e | 48

Electrical Network Analysis

Circuit 2.25

Sol:-

Z = R + jXT = 75 - j35 Ω

Z= √R + X

2

T

2

< tan-1 ( XT / R )

Vs 10

I = = 82.76<−24.9°

ZT

D E PA R T M E N T O F E L E C T R I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G P a g e | 49

Electrical Network Analysis

Circuit 2.26

A parallel R-L-C circuit as shown in fig, The total Impedance can be calculated

by using the sum of reciprocals method.

1 1 1 1

= = =

Z R< 0 ° X L <90 ° X C <−90°

1

Z= 1 1 1

+ +

R<0 ° X L < 90 ° X C <−90 °

1

-) G = 0°

R< 0 ° = G <

1

-) BC = X <−90° = jBC

C

1

-) BL = = -jBL

X L <90 °

1

and Y = or Y = Y < ∓ θ .

Z <±θ

or Y = G + jBC - jBL

D E PA R T M E N T O F E L E C T R I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G P a g e | 50

Electrical Network Analysis

Circuit 2.27

Sol:-

1 1 1 1

= = =

Z R< 0 ° X L <90 ° X C <−90°

1 1 1 1

= = =

Z 100 100<90 ° 50<−90 °

1

= 0.01 - 0.01j + 0.02j

Z

1

= 0.01 + 0.01j

Z

1

Z = < - tan-1 ( 0.01 / 0.01 )

√0.01 +0.012

2

Z = 70.7 < - 45 °

D E PA R T M E N T O F E L E C T R I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G P a g e | 51

Electrical Network Analysis

Circuit 2.28

Sol:-

1

G= 10< 0 ° = 0.1 < 0 ° Siemens.

1

BL = = -j0.2 Siemens.

5< 90 °

1

BC = 10<−90 ° = j0.1 Siemens

Y = G + jBC - jBL

Y = 0.1 - j0.1

Problem:- Find the total current and current across each element.

D E PA R T M E N T O F E L E C T R I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G P a g e | 52

Electrical Network Analysis

Circuit 2.29

Sol:-

VS 5

IR = = = 2.27 A

Z 2.2

VS 5

IXL = = = 0.5 < - 90 ° = -j0.5 A

XL 10< 90 °

VS 5

IXC = = = 1 < 90 ° = 1j A

XC 5 ←90°

IT = IR + IXL + IXC

IT = 2.27 -j0.5 + 1j

IT = 2.27 + j0.5.

D E PA R T M E N T O F E L E C T R I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G P a g e | 53

Electrical Network Analysis

a) Total Impedance

c) Phasor Diagram

Circuit 2.30(a)

Sol:-

1 1

and CT =

200 µ F

+ 200 µ F

= 100µF

XL = 37.7Ω

1 1 1

and XC = = = = 26.53Ω

2 πfC ωC 377 x 100 x 10−6

XC = 26.53Ω then:

D E PA R T M E N T O F E L E C T R I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G P a g e | 54

Electrical Network Analysis

Circuit 2.30(b)

ZT = 10Ω + j11.17Ω

E 20V

IT = =

ZT 15 Ω< 48.16 °

VR = 13.30 V < - 48.16

VL = 50.14 V < 41.84°

VC = 35.28V < -138.16°

c) Phasor Diagram:-

D E PA R T M E N T O F E L E C T R I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G P a g e | 55

Electrical Network Analysis

Fig 2.16

E = √ V R2 +(V L −V C )2

E = √ 13.32+(14.86)2

E = 20V

b) Admittance Diagram

c) Total Voltage and Current through each element and their total sum.

d) The equivalent series circuit as far as the terminal characteristics of the network are

???????????concerned.

D E PA R T M E N T O F E L E C T R I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G P a g e | 56

Electrical Network Analysis

Circuit 2.31(a)

Sol:-

RT = 10Ω || 40Ω = 8Ω

XL = ωL = (1000) x (4mH) = 4Ω

1 1

XC = = = 10Ω

ωC 1000 x 100 x 10

−6

Circuit 2.31(b)

D E PA R T M E N T O F E L E C T R I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G P a g e | 57

Electrical Network Analysis

1 1 1

YT = + ¿−90 ° + ¿ 90 °

8Ω 4Ω 10 Ω

YT = 0.125S - j0.15S

1 1

and ZT = =

YT 0.195 S<−50.194 °

b) Admittance Diagram

D E PA R T M E N T O F E L E C T R I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G P a g e | 58

Electrical Network Analysis

Fig 2.17

c) Total Voltage and Current through each element and their total sum.

V 61.56 <50.194 °

IL = =

XL 4 Ω<90 °

V 61.56 <50.194 °

IC = =

XC 10 Ω<−90°

V 61.56 <50.194 °

IR = =

R 8 Ω<0 °

IR = 7.7A < 0°

IT = √I R

2

+( I L −I C )2

D E PA R T M E N T O F E L E C T R I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G P a g e | 59

Electrical Network Analysis

IT = √ 7.72+(9.237)2

IT = 12A.

ZT = 3.28Ω + j3.94 Ω

ZT = R + jXL

XL = ωL or L = XL / ω = 3.94Ω / 1000

L = 3.94mH

Circuit 2.31(c)

P = 472.32 W

RESONANCE:-

D E PA R T M E N T O F E L E C T R I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G P a g e | 60

Electrical Network Analysis

In an electrical circuit, the condition that exists when the inductive reactance and the

capacitive reactance are of equal magnitude, causing electrical energy to oscillate between the

magnetic field of the inductor and the electric field of the capacitor.

Here XL = XC or XL - XC = 0

as Z= √ R +( X

2

L −X C )2 then Z = √ R 2+ 0 = R

Resonant Frequency:-

At resonance XL = XC , then

1

2πfrL = (fr is the resonant frequency)

2 πfrC

1 1

fr2 = or fr = ( for series circuit)

(2 π )2 LC 2 π √ LC

√

2

1 1 R

For parallel circuit, −

2π LC L2

1) When a series in R-L-C Circuit attains resonance X L = XC i.e the net reactance

of circuit is zero.

5) Since V L = VC, V = VR , i.e the supply voltage is in phase with the supply

current.

of circuit at resonance.

1

Q - Factor =

2 π f r CR

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Electrical Network Analysis

Table 2.1

Impedance at Resonance Minimum given by Z = R Maximum given by

Z = L/CR

Current at Resonance Maximum I = V/R V

Minimum I =

L /CR

Resonant Frequency 1

When f < fr

f r=

2 π √ LC

Circuit is Capacitive (as

1

√ 1

2 π LC L

− 2

R2

the net reactance is net reactance is negative)

negative)

When f > fr Circuit is Inductive ( as the Circuit is Capacitive (as the

net reactance is positive) net reactance is positive)

Power factor at resonance Unity Unity

Q - factor XL / R XL / R

It magnifies at resonance Voltage Current

AC Power:-

AC Impedance is a complex quantity made up of real resistance and imaginary

reactance.

Z = R + jX [Ω]

AC Apparent power is a complex quantity made up of real active power and

imaginary reactive power.

S = P + jQ [VA]

AC Active/Real Power (P):-

The active power is the power that is dissipated in the resistance of the load. It uses

the same formula used for DC.

P = I2R = V2/R [Watt]

AC Reactive/Imaginary Power (Q):-

The reactive power is the power that is exchanged between reactive components

(Inductor and capacitor).

Q = I2X = V2/X

Unit:- Volts-Amp-Reactive [VAR]

Q is negative for capacitor and is positive for inductor.

D E PA R T M E N T O F E L E C T R I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G P a g e | 62

Electrical Network Analysis

The apparent power is the power that is “appears” to flow to the load.

S = VI = I2Z = V2Z [VA]

Power Traingle:-

The power triangle graphically shows the relationship between real(P), reactive(Q)

and apparent power(S).

POLYPHASE CIRCUITS

Power Factor:- The cosine angle between the voltage and current is in A.C circuit is

known as the power factor. Power factor involves the relationship between two types of

power, working power and reactive power.

Electrical energy is almost exclusively generated, transmitted and distributed in the

form of Alternating current, therefore the question of power factor comes immediately

into picture. Most of the loads (80%) in electrical distribution systems are inductive in

nature and hence they have low power factor which is highly undesirable. Low power

factor causes an increase in reactive current, resulting and additional loss of active power

in all elements of power systems. It is important to have power factor as close as to unity

as possible.

KW

Cos Ф =

KVA

Three Phase System:- The system which has three phases, i.e., the current will pass

through the three wires, and there will be one neutral wire for passing the fault current to

the earth is known as the three phase system. In other words, the system which uses three

wires for generation, transmission and distribution is known as the three phase system.

The three phase system is also used as a single phase system if one of their phase and the

D E PA R T M E N T O F E L E C T R I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G P a g e | 63

Electrical Network Analysis

neutral wire is taken out from it. The sum of the line currents in the 3-phase system is

equal to zero, and their phases are differentiated at an angle of 120º.

The three-phase system has four wire, i.e., the three current carrying conductors and the

one neutral. The cross section area of the neutral conductor is half of the live wire. The

current in the neutral wire is equal to the sum of the line current of the three wires and

consequently equal to √3 times the zero phase sequence components of current.

The three-phase system has several advantages like it requires fewer conductors as

compared to the single phase system. It also gives the continuous supply to the load. The

three-phase system has higher efficiency and minimum losses.

In this method of interconnection, the similar ends say, 'star' ends of three coils are

joined together at point N as shown in below figure (3.1).

Fig 3.1

The point N is known as star point or neutral point. The three conductors meeting at

point N are replaced by a single conductor known as neutral conductor, and this above

system is four wire - 3 phase system as shown in figure (a). And these conductors are

balanced and having exactly equal magnitude but are 120° out of phase with each other.

Hence their vector sum is zero. i.e IR + IY + IB = 0 .

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Electrical Network Analysis

These three currents (IR, IY, IB) in three phase system, At no instant will all the three

currents flow in the same direction either outwards or inwards.

Fig 3.2

Voltages and Currents in Star Connection:-

The voltage induced in each winding is called the phase voltage (V ph) and current in

each phase is known as phase current (I ph) , and the voltage available between any pair of

terminals is called line voltage (VL) and current flowing in each line is called line current

(IL).

Fig 3.3

VYB = EY - EB (L2 & L3)

VBR = EB - ER (L3 & L1)

If ER = EY = EB = Eph , then :

60 °

VRY = 2 x Eph x Cos( ¿

2

VRY = 2 x Eph x

√3

2

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Electrical Network Analysis

VRY = √ 3 Eph

Now VRY = VYB = VBR = VL

Hence VL = √ 3 Eph

1) Line voltages are 120 ° apart.

2) Line voltages are 30 ° ahead of their respective phase voltages.

3) Angle between line currents and corresponding line voltages is ( 30 ° +Ф)

with current lagging.

Line currents and phase currents:-

a. Current in Line 1 = IR

b. Current in Line 2 = IY

c. Current in Line 3 = IB

IR = IY = IB = Iph

So IL = Iph

Power:-

Total active power = 3 x phase power.

P = 3Vph Iph CosФ

VL

As , Vph = and Iph = IL

√3

VL

Then P = 3 IL CosФ

√3

So , P = √ 3 VL IL CosФ

balanced 3 phase 400V supply. Find the line current, power factor, power and total volt-

ampere.

Sol:-

Z = 8+j6 Ω then Zph = √ 82 +62 and Zph = 10Ω

D E PA R T M E N T O F E L E C T R I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G P a g e | 66

Electrical Network Analysis

VL 400

Vph = = = 231 Volts.

√3 √3

V ph 231

Iph = = = 23.1 A and Iph = IL = 23.1 A

Z ph 10

R 8

Power Factor = = = 0.8

Z 10

P = √ 3 VL IL CosФ = √ 3 x 400 x 23.1 x 0.8 = 12800W = 12.8 kW.

S = √ 3 VL IL = √ 3 x 400 x 23.1 = 16000 VA = 16kVA.

Advantages of 3 Phase :-

1) It is more economical as it requires less conducting material as compared to single

phase.

2) 3 phase motors give more output as compare to single phase motors.

3) 3 phase motors have uniform torques while single phase motors have pulsating

torques.

4) Domestic power and industrial/commercial power can supplied from same.

5) Voltage regulation is better in 3 phase system.

6) 3 phase system has less ripples in its waveform and can be easily converted to

smooth DC as compared to single phase.

7) Mostly industrial load is 3 phase, so it has variety of applications.

In this form of interconnection, the dissimilar ends of the three phase winding are

joined together i.e the ‘starting’ end of one phase is joined to the ‘finishing’ end of the

other phase and so on as shown in figure(3.4) below:

D E PA R T M E N T O F E L E C T R I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G P a g e | 67

Electrical Network Analysis

Fig 3.4

In other words, the three windings are joined in series to form a closed mesh. If the

system is balanced, then sum of three voltages round the closed mesh is zero. This type

of connection is 3 – phase 3 – wire system because it doesn’t have neutral conductor.

In Delta Connection, the voltage between any pair of lines is equal to the phase

voltage of phase winding connected between the two lines considered. Since phase

sequence is R Y B , the voltage having its positive direction from R to Y leads by 120

° on that having its positive direction from Y to B. Calling the voltage between lines

1 and 2 as VRY and between lines 2 and 3 as V YB , we find that VRY leads VYB by 120 °

, Similarly VYB leads VBR by 120 ° . Let VRY = VYB = VBR = VL, Then the VL = Vph

D E PA R T M E N T O F E L E C T R I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G P a g e | 68

Electrical Network Analysis

Fig 3.5

It will be seen from above figure (b) that current in each line is the vector difference

of the two phase currents flowing through that line.

a. Current in Line 1 is : I1 = IR - IB

b. Current in Line 2 is : I2 = IY – IR

c. Current in Line 3 is : I3 = IB – IY

If IR = IY = Iph then current in line no 1 is,

I1 = 2 Iph Cos (60 ° / 2)

I1 = 2 Iph √ 3 / 2

I1 = √ 3 Iph .

Similarly, I2 = IY – IR = √ 3 Iph

I3 = IB – IY = √ 3 Iph

So IL = √ 3 Iph

It is noted from figure (b) that:

1) Line currents are 120 ° apart.

2) Line currents are 30 ° behind the respective phase currents.

3) The angle between the line currents and the corresponding line

voltages is ( 30 ° + Ф ) with the current lagging.

Power:-

Phase power = Vph Iph CosФ.

Total Power = 3Vph Iph CosФ.

As Vph = VL and Iph = IL / √ 3

Then P = 3VL x IL / √ 3 x CosФ

P = √ 3 VLILCosФ

D E PA R T M E N T O F E L E C T R I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G P a g e | 69

Electrical Network Analysis

-) For Delta Connection the Resistance between (1) and (2) is:

R 12( R23 + R31 )

R12 + R23 + R31

-) For Star Connection the Resistance between (1) and (2) is:

R1 + R 2

Since resistances are equivalent, then:

R 12( R23 + R31 )

R 1 + R2 =

R12 + R23 + R31

(1)

Similarly, between terminals (2) and (3) is:

R 23( R 12+ R31 )

R 2 + R3 =

R12 + R23 + R31

(2)

Similarly, between terminals (3) and (1) is:

R 31( R12 + R23 )

R 3 + R1 =

R12 + R23 + R31

(3)

Subtract equation (2) from (1) and add it in equation (3).

R12 . R31 R23 . R31

R1 – R3 = - and

R 12+ R23 + R31 R 12+ R23 + R31

R12 . R31 R23 . R31

R1 + R 3 = + So,

R 12+ R23 + R31 R 12+ R23 + R31

2 R12 . R31

2R1 =

R 12+ R23 + R31

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Electrical Network Analysis

R12 . R31

So, R1 =

R 12+ R23 + R31

(A)

R23 . R12

R2 =

R 12+ R23 + R31

(B)

R23 . R31

R3 =

R 12+ R23 + R31

(C)

Dividing equation(A) by equation(B) we get,

R 1 R31 R1

= or R31 =R23 ( )

R 2 R23 R2

R 1 R12 R1

=

R 3 R23

or R12=R23 R

3

( )

Put R12 and R31 in equation(A) we get,

R1 R

R 1=

R 23 ( ) ( )

R2

. R23 1

R3

R1 R

R23

( )

R3 ( )

+ R23+ R 23 1

R2

2 R 12

R . 23

R2 . R 3

R 1=

R 1 . R 2+ R 2 . R3 + R 1 . R 3

R 2 . R3

R1 . R 2 + R2 . R 3 + R 1 . R3

R23=

R1

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Electrical Network Analysis

R 1 . R2

So, R12= + R 1+ R 2 (D)

R3

R 2 . R3

R23=R2 + + R3 (E)

R1

R 1 . R3

R31= + R 1+ R 3 (F)

R2

Port:- Two associated terminals are given, the terminal pair or part suggesting port of

entry into network.

Two Port:- The network have two ports of entry (or driving part) is called two-port

network.

Examples:- Transmission Line, Transformer, Extension, Transistor etc.

Parameters:-

1) Open Circuit Parameter / Z – Parameter.

2) Short Circuit Parameter / Y – Parameter.

3) Transmission Line Parameter.

4) Inverse Transmission Line Parameter.

5) Hybrid Parameter or H – Parameter.

6) Inverse Hybrid Parameter.

1) Z – Parameter:-

V = ZI

[]

V1

V2

= Z []

I1

I2

[]

V1

V2

= [

Z 11 Z 12

Z 21 Z 22 ] []

I1

I2

V1 = Z11I1 + Z12I2 (1)

V2 = Z21I1 + Z22I2 (2)

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Electrical Network Analysis

V1 = Z11I1 + Z12I2

V 1 −Z 12 I 2

Z11 = I2 = 0

I1

V1

Z11 =

I1

From equation (2)

V 2 −Z 22 I 2

Z21 = I2 = 0

I1

V2

Z21 =

I1

From equation (1)

V 1 −Z 11 I 1

Z12 = I1 = 0

I2

V1

Z12 =

I2

From equation (2)

V 2 −Z 21 I 1

Z22 = I1 = 0

I2

V2

Z22 =

I2

[ ]

V1 V1

I1 I2

Z=

V2 V2

I1 I2

2) Y – Parameter:-

V = IZ or I = V / Z or I = VY

[]

I1

I2

= [Y 11 Y 12

Y 21 Y 22] [ ]

V1

V2

I1 = Y11V1 + Y12V2 (1)

I2 = Y21V1 + Y22V2 (2)

From equation (1)

I 1−Y 12 V 2

Y11 = V2 = 0

V1

I1

Y11 =

V1

D E PA R T M E N T O F E L E C T R I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G P a g e | 73

Electrical Network Analysis

I 2−Y 22 V 2

Y21 = V2 = 0

V1

I2

Y21 =

V1

From equation (1)

I 1−Y 11 V 1

Y12 = V1 = 0

V2

I1

Y12 =

V2

From equation (2)

I 2−Y 21 V 1

Y22 = V1 = 0

V2

I2

Y22 =

V2

[ ]

I1 I1

V1 V2

Y=

I2 I2

V1 V2

[]

V1

I1

= T[ ] V2

−I 2

[] [ ] [ ]

V1

I1

=

A B

C D

V2

−I 2

V1 = AV2 - BI2 (1)

I1 = CV2 - DI2 (2)

From equation (1)

V 1 + B I2

A= I2 = 0

V2

V1

A=

V2

D E PA R T M E N T O F E L E C T R I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G P a g e | 74

Electrical Network Analysis

V 1 −A V 2

B= V2 = 0

−I 2

−V 1

B=

I2

From equation (2)

I 1 +D I 2

C= I2 = 0

V2

I1

C=

V2

From equation (2)

I 1−C V 2

D= V2 = 0

−I 2

−I 1

D=

I2

[ ]

V1 −V 1

V2 I2

T=

I1 −I 1

V2 I2

[ ]

V2

I2

= T

'

[ ]

V1

−I 1

[]

V2

I2

=

'

A' B'

'

C D [ '

'

V1

−I 1 ] [ ]

V 2 = A V 1 - B I1 (1)

I2 = C' V1 – D' I1 (2)

From equation (1)

'

' V 2+ B I 1

A = I1 = 0

V1

V2

A' =

V1

From equation (1)

V2 = A ' V1 - B ' I1 And V1 = 0. So,

V2

B' =

I1

From equation (2)

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Electrical Network Analysis

'

' I 2+ D I 1

C = I1 = 0

V1

I2

C' =

V1

From equation (2)

I2 = C' V1 – D' I1 And V1 = 0. So,

−I 2

D' =

I1

[ ]

V2 V2

V1 I1

T' =

I2 −I 2

V1 I1

5) Hybrid Parameter:-

[] []

V1

I2

= h

I1

V2

[] [ ] []

V1

I2

h11 h12

=

h21 h22

I1

V2

V1 = h11I1 + h12V2 (1)

I2 = h21I1 + h22V2 (2)

V1 V1

Then : h11 = and h12 =

I1 V2

I2 I2

And h21 = and h22 =

I1 V2

[ ]

V1 V1

I1 V2

So, h=

I2 I2

I1 V2

[]

I1

V2

= g []

V1

I2

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Electrical Network Analysis

[]

I1

V2

= [

g 11 g 12

g 21 g 22 ] []

V1

I2

I1 = g11V1 + g12I2 (1)

V2 = g21V1 + g22I2 (2)

I1 I1

Then : g11 = and g12 =

V1 I2

V2 V2

And g21 = and g22 =

V1 I2

[ ]

I1 I1

V1 I2

So, h=

V2 V2

V1 I2

a) Cascaded Algorithm

b) Series Algorithm

c) Parallel Algorithm

a) Cascaded Algorithm:-

[ ]

V 11

I 11

= [ ][ ]

A 1 B1 V 21

C1 D1 −I 21

(1)

-) Transmission Line Parameter (2)

[ ]

V 12

I 12

= [ ][ ]

A 2 B2 V 22

C2 D2 −I 22

(2)

Now[ ] [ ]

V 21

−I 21

=

V 12

I 12

Now further, [ ] [ ][ ]

V 21

−I 21

=

A 2 B2 V 22

C2 D2 −I 22

D E PA R T M E N T O F E L E C T R I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G P a g e | 77

Electrical Network Analysis

[

V 11

I 11

= ] [ ][ ][ ]

A 1 B1

C1 D1

A 2 B2 V 22

C 2 D2 −I 22

Hence,

[

V 11

I 11 ] [ ]

= T1 x T2

V 22

−I 22

So, [V 1n

I1 n ] [ ]

= T1 x T2 ……………..Tn

V 2n

−I 2 n

Or [ V 1n

I1 n] [ ] = Teq

V 2n

−I 2 n

-) Z – Parameter:-

Z= [ Z 11 Z 12

Z 21 Z 22 ][

Z +Z

= 1 3

Z3

Z3

Z 1 +Z 2 ]

b) Series Algorithm:-

[] [ ] [ ]

V1

V2

=

V 11

V 21

+

V 12

V 22

+ ………… + [ ]

V 1n

V 2n

D E PA R T M E N T O F E L E C T R I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G P a g e | 78

Electrical Network Analysis

[] [ ] [ ]

V1

V2

= Z1

I 11

I 21

+ Z2

I 12

I 22

+ ………… + Zn [ ]

I 1n

I 2n

For the series network,

[] [ ] [ ]

I1

I2

=

I 11

I 21

=

I 12

I 22

= …………..

I 1n

I 2n [ ]

So, [ ]

V1

V2

= ( Z1 + Z2 + Z3 + ……… + Zn ) [] I1

I2

[] []

V1

V2

= Zeq

I1

I2

c) Parallel Algorithm:-

Y [ ] V1

V2

= [] I1

I2

So, [ ]

V1

V2

= [ ] [ ] [ ]

V 11

V 21

=

V 12

V 22

=

V 13

V 23

= ………..

Then, []

I1

I2

= [ ] [ ] [ ]

I 11

I 21

+

I 12

I 22

+

I 13

I 23

[]

I1

I2

= Y1 [ ] [ ] [ ]

V 11

V 21

+ Y2

V 12

V 22

+ Y3

V 13

V 23

[]

I1

I2

= (Y1+Y2+Y3) [] V1

V2

[]

I1

I2

= Yeq [ ] V1

V2

D E PA R T M E N T O F E L E C T R I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G P a g e | 79

Electrical Network Analysis

Problem:- Reduce the network shown in figure, calculate it’s all parameters.

Sol:-

For S – 1

Z11 = 3Ω + 2Ω = 5Ω

Z12 = Z21 = 2Ω Zeq1 = [ ]

5 2

2 5

and ∆Zeq1 = 21

Z22 = 5Ω

Using Algorithm, find Teq1

[ ] [ ]

Z 11 ∆ Z 5 21

Z 21 Z 21 2 2

Teq1 = =

1 Z 22 1 5

Z 21 Z 21 2 2

For S – 2

Teq2 = [ ] [ ]

1 0

Y 1

=

1 0

2 1

For S – 3

Teq3 = [ ] [ ]

1 Z

0 1

=

1 2

0 1

Now, Teq = Teq1 x Teq2 x Teq3

[ ]

5 21

Teq =

2 2

1 5

x [ ] [ ]

1 0

2 1

x

1 2

0 1

2 2

D E PA R T M E N T O F E L E C T R I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G P a g e | 80

Electrical Network Analysis

[ ]

5 21

Teq =

2

1

2

5

x [ ]

1 2

2 5

2 2

[ ]

47 115

2 2

Teq = and ∆Teq = 1

11 27

2 2

Using Table, Calculate it’s Zeq

[ ] [ ]

A ∆T 47 2

C C 11 11

Zeq = =

1 D 2 27

C C 11 11

Now Yeq,

[ ] [ ]

D −∆ T 27 −2

B B 115 115

Yeq = =

−1 A −2 47

B B 115 115

Now Heq, finally

[ ] [ ]

B ∆T 115 2

D D 27 27

Heq = =

−1 C −2 11

D D 27 27

D E PA R T M E N T O F E L E C T R I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G P a g e | 81

Electrical Network Analysis

Sol:-

[ ]

11 −1

Yeq1 = [ Y A +Y C −Y C

−Y C Y B +Y C ] =

30

−1

5

5

9

20

1

and ∆Yeq1 =

8

.

Using Table, Converting into Zeq

[ ] [ ]

Y 22 −Y 12 18 8

∆Y ∆Y 5 5

Zeq1 = =

−Y 21 Y 11 8 44

∆Y ∆Y 5 15

For S – 2 (Vertical)

[ ]

1 0

Teq2 = [ ]

1 0

Y 1

= 1

3

1

and ∆Teq2 =1.

[ ]

A ∆T

Zeq2 =

C

1

C

D

=

3 3

3 3 [ ]

C C

[ ]

18 8

Now, Zeq1 + Zeq2 =

5

8

5

44

+ [ ]

3 3

3 3

5 15

[ ]

33 23

5 5 1350

Zeq12 = and ∆Zeq12 =

23 89 75

5 15

Now using table,

D E PA R T M E N T O F E L E C T R I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G P a g e | 82

Electrical Network Analysis

[ ] [ ]

Z 11 ∆Z 33 90

Z 21 Z 21 23 23

Teq12 = =

1 Z 22 5 89

Z 21 Z 21 23 69

For S – 3 (Vertical)

Teq3 = [ ] [

1 0

Y 1

=

1 0

1 /2 1 ] and ∆Teq3 = 1

[ ]

33 90

Now, Teq12 x Teq3 =

23

5

23

89

x [ 1 0

1 /2 1 ]

23 69

[ ]

78 90

23 23

. Teq =

119 89

138 69

Problem:- Solve the network and find its all parameters for the given below circuit.

Sol:-

D E PA R T M E N T O F E L E C T R I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G P a g e | 83

Electrical Network Analysis

[ ]

3

−1

Yeq1 = [ Y A +Y C −Y C

−Y C Y B +Y C ] =

2

−1

4

3

For S-2 (Delta Connection)

] [ ]

2 −1

Yeq2 = [ Y A +Y C −Y C

−Y C Y B +Y C

=

3

−1

2

2

3

3

Now, Yeq = Yeq1 x Yeq2

[ ] [ ]

3 2 −1

−1

2 3 2

Yeq = x

4 −1 3

−1

3 2 3

[ ]

−33

22

Yeq =

3

−4

23

1

and ∆Yeq =

4

.

Now, we find Zeq

[ ]

Y 22 −Y 12

[ ]

6 6

∆Y ∆Y

Zeq = = 16

−Y 21 Y 11 6

3

∆Y ∆Y

For T – Parameter,

[ ] [ ]

−Y 22 −1 9 3

Y 21 Y 21 8 4

Teq = =

−∆ Y −Y 11 3 9

Y 21 Y 21 16 8

Now H-Parameter,

[ ] [ ]

1 −Y 12 2

Y 11 Y 11 1

3

Heq = =

Y 21 ∆ Y −8 1

Y 11 Y 11 9 6

D E PA R T M E N T O F E L E C T R I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G P a g e | 84

Electrical Network Analysis

Sol:-

For S – 1 (Horizontal)

[ ][ ]

T1= 1 Z = 1 4

0 1 0 1

For S – 2 (Vertical)

[ ][ ]

T2= 1 0 = 1 0

Y 1 4 1

[ ][ ]

Now Teq12 =

1 4 . 1 0

0 1 4 1

D E PA R T M E N T O F E L E C T R I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G P a g e | 85

Electrical Network Analysis

Teq12 = [ 17

4

4

1 ] and ∆Teq12 = 1

[ ][ ]

D −∆ T 1 −1

Y eq12= B B = 4 4

−1 A −1 17

B B 4 4

[ ][ ]

5 −1

Y 11 Y 12 12 4

Y eq3 = =

Y 21 Y 22 −1 7

4 12

[ ]

5 −1

Y eq3 = 12 4

−1 7

4 12

[ ][ ]

1 −1 5 −1

4 4 12 4

Y eq =Y eq12 +Y eq = +

−1 17 −1 7

4 4 4 12

[ ] [ ]

2 −2 2 −1

Y eq = 3 4 3 2

=

−2 58 −1 29

4 12 2 6

D E PA R T M E N T O F E L E C T R I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G P a g e | 86

Electrical Network Analysis

Sol:-

[Z

Z eq 1= 11

][ ]

Z 12

Z 21 Z 22

=6 4

4 10

and ∆Zeq1 = 60-16 = 44.

[ ][ ]

Z 22 −Z 12 10 −4

Y eq1= ∆ Z ∆ Z = 44 44

−Z21 Z 11 −4 6

∆Z ∆Z 44 44

[ ]

5 −1

22 11

Y eq1=

−1 3

11 22

[Y

Y eq2= 11

Y 12

][

= 3 −1

Y 21 Y 22 −1 5 ]

and ∆Yeq2 = 14.

D E PA R T M E N T O F E L E C T R I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G P a g e | 87

Electrical Network Analysis

[ ][

5 −1

Y eq = 22

−1

11 + 3 −1

3 −1 5 ]

11 22

[ ]

71 −12

22 11

Y eq =

−12 113

11 22

7447

and ∆Yeq = .

484

[ ]

1 −Y 12

Y Y 11

H eq = 11

Y 21 ∆Y

Y 11 Y 11

[ ]

22 24

71 71

H eq =

−24 677

71 142

FOURIER SERIES

A Fourier series is expansion of periodic functions in term of an infinite sum of Sine

and Cosine.

D E PA R T M E N T O F E L E C T R I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G P a g e | 88

Electrical Network Analysis

∞ ∞

1

Expression: f(t) = a + ∑ a cos ( nx ) dx+ ∑ bn sin ( nx ) dx

2 0 n=1 n n =1

π

1

Where a0 = ∫ f ( x ) dx ,

2 π −π

π

1

an = ∫ f ( x ) cos (nx )dx

π −π

π

1

And bn = ∫ f ( x ) sin (nx) dx

π −π

an and bn are well known as coefficient of Cosine and Sine wave.

Basically fourier series is used to represent periodic signal in terms of cosine and sine

wave.

Periodic Signals:- Periodic signal is just a signal that repeats its pattern at same period.

Background:- Fourier Series is basically used to calculate heat equation and introduced

by Jean Baptiste Joseph Fourier.

Through Fourier series research, the fact was established that continuous

functions can be represented by trigonometric series.

Applications:-

i. MP3 format uses audio compression.

ii. Most audio and image like JPEG and MP3.

iii. Partial Differential Equation, we use to solve higher order differential equations

by method of separation of variables.

iv. Advanced noise cancellation and call phone network signal processing (Best

application).

v. Control Theory finds dynamic response of function.

Formulas:-

T

∫ Cosn ω0 tdt=0

0

T

∫ Sinnω 0 tdt =0

0

T

0

Now,

D E PA R T M E N T O F E L E C T R I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G P a g e | 89

Electrical Network Analysis

π

1

a0 =

2 π −π

∫ f (t ) dt

(+ c )

0 π

∫ (−c ) +∫ ¿

−π 0

1

a 0= ¿

2π

a0 =0

π

1

an = ∫ f ( t ) cos (n ωt )dt

π −π

π

1

bn = ∫ f ( t ) sin( n ωt) dt

π −π

i. Multiply equation (1) by suitable factor on both sides.

ii. Integrate the resulting expression terms by over the interval, if term

varies from 0 to T.

iii. Make the use of different trigonometric formulas to evaluate Fourier

coefficients.

For a0 =?

[ ]

T T ∞ T T

0 0 n=1 0 0

T ∞

0 n=1

T

∫ f (t ) dt =a 0 [T −0 ]

0

T

1

Then , a0 = ∫ f (t ) dt

T 0

Now, an = ?

Multiply equation by C osn ω 0 t

[

T T ∞ T T

0 0 n=1 0 0

T T

∫ f (t ) Cosnω 0 tdt=a 0 [0 ]T0 +[an ( 2t ) + bn ( 0 )T0 ]

0 0

D E PA R T M E N T O F E L E C T R I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G P a g e | 90

Electrical Network Analysis

∫ f (t ) Cosnω0 tdt=a n [ 2t ]

0

T

2

Or an = ∫ f (t ) Cosnω 0 tdt

T 0

And bn = ?

Multiply equation by sin n ω0 t

[

T T ∞ T T

0 0 n=1 0 0

T

t T

0

T

∫ f (t ) sin n ω0 t dt =a0 [0]0 +[0+b n ()

2 0

]

∫ f (t ) sin n ω0 t dt=bn [ 2t ]

0

T

2

Or bn = ∫ f ( t ) sin n ω0 t dt

T 0

Problem:- For the waveform shown in the figure, find the fourier series?

Sol:-

V(t) = +V 0 ≤ t ≤ t/4

V(t) = -V t/4 ≤ t ≤ 3t/4

V(t) = +V 3t/4 ≤ t ≤ t

D E PA R T M E N T O F E L E C T R I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G P a g e | 91

Electrical Network Analysis

a0 =? a n=? b n=?

So, a0 =0 and bn =0 (because there is cosine wave)

For an ,

T

2

an = ∫ f (t ) Cosnω 0 tdt

T 0

vCosn ω 0 tdt

t/4 3 t /4 t

0 t /4 3t/4

2

an= ¿

T

Cosn ω0 tdt

t/4 3t/4 t

0 t/4 3t /4

2V

a n= ¿

T

Sinn ω0 t

n ω0

¿

¿

Sinn ω0 t

n ω0

¿

¿ ]

Sinn ω0 t

n ω0

¿

¿

¿

2V

an = ¿

T

0 0 0 0

]

2V

an= ¿

n ω0 T

2π

As, ω 0=2 πf =

T

π 3π π 3π

Sinn

2()( ( )

− Sinn

2

−Sinn

2 ( )) (

+ Sinn ( 2 π )−Sinn

2 ( ))

V

an= ¿

nπ

D E PA R T M E N T O F E L E C T R I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G P a g e | 92

Electrical Network Analysis

N = 1,3,5,……. (Odd)

V

a1= [1−(−1−1 ) + ( 0+1 ) ]

π

4V

a1 =

π

−4 V 4V

Similarly, a3 = and a5 =

3π 5π

4V 4V

v(t) = cos ω0 t - cos 3 ω0 t +

π 3π

4V 4V

cos 5 ω0 t + …+ Cosn ω 0 t

5π nπ

cos ω 0 t

1 1

v(t) = 4 V - cos 3 ω 0 t + cos 5 ω 0 t ¿

¿ 3 5

π

D E PA R T M E N T O F E L E C T R I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G P a g e | 93

Electrical Network Analysis

E = 0.318Em + 0.500Em sin ωt – 0.012Em cos 2 ωt – 0.422Em cos 4 ωt

Sol:-

E = 0.318Em + 0.500Em sin ωt – 0.422Em cos 4 ωt

E = 63.60 +100 sin ωt – 42.4 sin(2 ωt +90 ° )

D E PA R T M E N T O F E L E C T R I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G P a g e | 94

Electrical Network Analysis

XL = 0

ZT = R = 6< 0 °

E 0 63.6

I0 = = =10.6 A

R 6

VR0 = I0.R = 10.6 x 6 = 63.6

VR0 = 63.6

VL0 = 0

P0 = I02.R = (10.6)2 x 6

P0 = 674.2 Watts.

Now,

ZT = R + jXL = 6 + j37.7

ZT = 38.17 < 80.9 °

E1 70.7

I1 = =

Z T 38.17<80.9 °

I1 = 1.85 < - 80.9 ° A

VR1 = 11.11 < - 80.9 ° Volts.

VL1 = I1.XL = 1.85 < - 80.9 ° x 37.7 < 90 °

VL1 = 69.74 < 9.10 ° Volts.

Now,

ZT = R + jXL = 6 + j75.4

ZT = 75.6 < 85.45 °

D E PA R T M E N T O F E L E C T R I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G P a g e | 95

Electrical Network Analysis

E2 29.9<−90 °

I2 = =

Z T 75.6<85.45 °

I2 = 0.39 < - 175.45 ° A

VR2 = 2.34 < - 175.45 ° Volts.

VL2 = I2.XL = 0.39 < - 175.45 ° x 75.4 < 90 °

VL2 = 29.4 < -85.45 ° Volts

I ( t )=10.6+1.85 √ 2 sin ( 377 t −80.9° ) +0.39 √ 2sin ( 754 t−175.45 ° ) +…

V R ( t )=63.6+ 11.1 √2 sin ( 377 t−80.9 ° )+ 2.34 √ 2sin ( 754 t−175.45 ° ) +. .

V L (t )=0+69.74 √ 2 sin ( 377 t +9.05 ° ) +29.93 √2 sin ( 754 t−85.45 ° ) +…

a) Ieff = √ I 02 + I 12 + I 22 = √ 10.62+ 1.852+ 0.392

Ieff = 10.76 A

VReff = 64.6 V

VLeff = 75.89 V

D E PA R T M E N T O F E L E C T R I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G P a g e | 96

Electrical Network Analysis

Sol:-

T

1

a0 = ∫ f (t ) dt

T 0

0 d ( ωt )

π 2π

∫ vSinωt d ( ωt )+∫ ¿

0 π

1

a0= ¿

2π

π

1

a0 = [∫ vSin ωt d ( ωt ) ]

2π 0

v π v

a0 = [−cos ωt ]0 =

2π π

v

a0 =

π

Now an,

T

2

an = ∫ f (t)Cosn ωt dt

T 0

π

∫ vSinωt .Cosn ωt d ω t

0 ]

2

an= ¿

2π

π

0 ]

v

an = ¿

π

D E PA R T M E N T O F E L E C T R I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G P a g e | 97

Electrical Network Analysis

π π

0 0 ]

v

a n= ¿

2π

)]

π

an =

v

2π n+ 1 0

) (

+

1−n 0

an =

2π [

v −cos ( n+1 ) π

n+1

+

1 cos ( n−1 ) π

n+1

+

n−1

−

1

n−1 ]

For n = even,

Cos(n+1) π = -1 and Cos(n-1) π = -1

an =

v 1

[ +

1

−

2 π n+1 n+ 1 n−1 n−1

1

−

1

]

an =

v 2

[ −

2 π n+1 n−1

2

]

an = [

v 2 ( n−1 ) −2(n+1)

2 π ( n+1)(n−1) ]

−2 v

an =

π (n2−1)

−2 v −2 v −2 v

So, a2 = , a 4= and a6 =

3π 15 π 35 π

For n = odd,

Cos(n+1) π = 1 and Cos(n-1) π = 1

a1 =

v −1

[ +

1

+

2 π n+1 n+1 n−1 n−1

1

−

1

]

a1=0 , a3 =0 and a5 =0

Now finally bn = ?

T

2

bn = ∫ f (t) Sinn ωt dt

T 0

π

∫ vSinωt . Sinnωt d ω t

0 ]

2

bn = ¿

2π

π

0 ]

v

bn= ¿

π

π π

0 0 ]

v

bn = ¿

2π

D E PA R T M E N T O F E L E C T R I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G P a g e | 98

Electrical Network Analysis

)]

π

bn =

v

2π 1−n ) (

0

−

1+ n 0

bn =

2π [

v sin ( 1−n ) π sin (1+ n ) π

1−n

−

1+ n ]

For n = 1, equation becomes infinite

For n = 2,3,4,5,……….

Sin(1-n) π = 0 and Sin(1+n) π =0

Hence bn = 0

For n = 1,

π

∫ sin ωt . Sinnωt d ω t

0 ]

v

b 1= ¿

π

π

∫ sin2 ω td ω t

0 ]

v

b 1= ¿

π

π

∫ 1−cos2 2 ωt d ω t

0 ]

v

b1= ¿

π

v ω t sin2 ωt π

b1 = [ − ]

π 2 4 0

v

b1=

2

v ( t )= − − − +…

π 3π 15 π 35 π 2

D E PA R T M E N T O F E L E C T R I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G P a g e | 99

Electrical Network Analysis

Sol:-

Since the line passes through origin,

Y= mx , y = v(t)

V

m = perp/base = and x = ωt

π

V

Now, v(t) = ( ¿ ωt 0 ≤ ω t ≤ π

π

v(t) = 0 π ≤ ω t ≤ 2π

D E PA R T M E N T O F E L E C T R I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G P a g e | 100

Electrical Network Analysis

For a0 = ?

T

1

a0 = ∫ f (t ) dt

T 0

2π

1

a0 = ∫ f ( t ) dt

2π 0

π

∫ ( Vπ )ωt d ω t 2π

0 + ∫ 0d ωt ]

1 π

a 0= ¿

2π

π

∫ ( Vπ )ωt d ω t

0 ]

1

a 0= ¿

2π

2 π

v (ω t)

a0 = 2 [ ] ]

2π 2 0

v

a0 =

4

For an = ?

T

2

an = ∫ v (t)Cosn ωt dt

T 0

π 2π

V

∫( π )

ωt . Cosnωt d ω t+ ∫ 0.Cosn ωt d ω t

0 π ]

2

an = ¿

2π

∫ ωt . Cosnωt d ω t

0

]

V

a n= 2

¿

π

π

V d ωt

an =

π2

[ωt ∫ Cosn ωt d ω t−∫ d ωt ∫

[ Cosn ωt d ω t ]]

0

π

V Sinnωt Sinn ωt d ω t

an = 2

[ωt . −∫ ]

π n n 0

D E PA R T M E N T O F E L E C T R I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G P a g e | 101

Electrical Network Analysis

π

V Cosn ωt

an = 2

[ωt . Sinn ωt+ ]

nπ n 0

V Cosn π 1

an =

nπ 2

[ωt . Sinn π +

n

− 0+ ]

n ( )

V Cosn π 1

an =

nπ 2

[

n

−

n

] () for n=1,2,3,….. Sinn π =0

−2 V

an =

n2 π2

When n is odd,

−2 V −2V −2 V −2 V

an = , a1= , a3 = and a5 =

n2 π2 π2 9 π2 25 π 2

For bn = ?

T

2

bn = ∫ v (t)Sinn ωt dt

T 0

π 2π

V

∫( π )

ωt . Sinn ωt d ω t +∫ 0. Sinn ωt d ω t

0 π ]

2

b n= ¿

2π

∫ ωt . Sinn ωt d ω t

0

]

V

b n= 2 ¿

π

V −Cosn ωt −Cosn ωt d ω t π

bn =

π2

[ωt .

n

−∫ n

]

0

D E PA R T M E N T O F E L E C T R I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G P a g e | 102

Electrical Network Analysis

π

−V Sinnωt

bn = 2

[ωt . Cosn ωt− ]

nπ n 0

−V Sinnπ

bn = [πCosnπ− −(0−0)]

nπ 2

n

−V

bn = [πCosnπ ]

nπ 2

−V Cosnπ

bn =

nπ

V −V V

So, b1= , b2= and b3 =

π 2π 3π

v 2v 2v 2v V V V

v ( t )= − 2 cos ωt− cos 3 ωt− cos 5 ωt+ sin ωt− sin 2 ωt + sin 3 ωt

4 π (3 π ) 2

(5 π )2

π 2π 3π

D E PA R T M E N T O F E L E C T R I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G P a g e | 103

Electrical Network Analysis

Problem:- For the waveform, determine the fourier series of trigonometric functions.

Sol:-

Y= mx

V

V(t) = ( ¿ ωt

π

Here a0 = 0, and an = 0, we will find bn because the waveform is sinusoidal.

Now,

T

2

bn = ∫ v (t)Sinn ωt dt

T 0

∫ ( Vπ ) ωt . Sinnωt d ω t

−π ]

2

b n= ¿

2π

∫ ωt . Sinn ωt d ω t

−π

]

V

b n= 2 ¿

π

π

V −Cosn ωt −Cosn ωt d ω t

bn = 2

[ωt . −∫ ]

π n n −π

π

V Cosn ωt Sinn ωt

bn = 2

[−ωt . + 2

]

π n n −π

D E PA R T M E N T O F E L E C T R I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G P a g e | 104

Electrical Network Analysis

V

bn = 2 2 ¿

n π

V

bn = [ −n πCosnπ + Sinnπ−nπCosnπ−Sinnπ ]

n2 π2

V

bn = 2 2

[ −2 n πCosnπ ]

n π

−2 V Cosnπ

bn =

nπ

2V −2V 2V −2 V

So, b1= , b2= , b3 = and b 4=

π 2π 3π 4π

Hence,

2v 2V 2V 2v 1 1

v ( t )= sin ωt− sin 2 ωt+ sin 3 ωt +… v ( t )= [sin ωt− sin 2 ωt + sin 3 ωt +…]

π 2π 3π π 2 3

D E PA R T M E N T O F E L E C T R I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G P a g e | 105

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