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# 4/1/2019 Homework #14 (phy 112)

## Homework #14 (phy 112)

Due: 11:00pm on Wednesday, April 3, 2019
To understand how points are awarded, read the Grading Policy for this assignment.

## ± Refraction through Glass and Water

A plate of glass with parallel faces having a refractive index of 1.48 is resting on the surface of water in a tank. A ray of light
coming from above in air makes an angle of incidence 36.5 ∘ with the normal to the top surface of the glass.

Part A
What angle θ3 does the ray refracted into the water make with the normal to the surface? Use 1.33 for the index of
refraction of water.

## Hint 1. How to approach the problem

Use Snell's law to determine the angle of refraction that the ray makes as it goes from the air into the glass. Then
repeat this process as you follow the light ray from the glass into the water.

## Hint 2. Snell's law

Snell's law states that n1 sin(θ1 ) = n2 sin(θ2 ), where θ1 is the angle the light ray makes with the normal to the
surface as it propagates through a material of index of refraction n1 , and θ2 is the angle with respect to the normal
that the continuing beam makes as it propogates through the material of index of refraction n2 .

θ3 = 26.6 ∘

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Correct
Note that the index of refraction of the glass doesn't figure at all in finding the angle of refraction in water. The
mathematics reduces to:

## n1 sin(θ1 ) = n2 sin(θ2 ) = n3 sin(θ3 )

or

n1 sin(θ1 ) = n3 sin(θ3 ) .

The final angle is the same as if the light ray were passing directly from the air into the water.

## Geometry and Reflections

Learning Goal:
To learn and practice the geometry skills necessary for complex reflection setups.

## The law of reflection has the very simple form

θincident = θref lected ,

where θincident is the angle between the normal and the incident ray and θref lected is the angle between the normal and the
reflected ray. Although the law itself is easy to use, many realistic situations involve successive reflections from multiple
surfaces. The law of reflection does not become any more complicated in such cases, but the geometry of the rays does become
complicated. Consider the case of light shining onto a mirror, which is attached to another mirror at some angle α, as shown in
the figure . In this problem, we will find the angle at which light leaves
the arrangement of two mirrors.

Part A
If the light strikes the first mirror at an angle θ1 , what is the reflected angle θ2 ?

θ2 = θ1

Correct

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Part B
Now, find the angle θ3 (shown in the new figure ) in terms of θ1 .
You can easily find θ3 in terms of θ2 , then just substitute your
expression from Part A.
angles. When entering numerical values, assume the value is
in degrees, so just use the number "23" to indicate 23
degrees.

## Hint 1. Relationship between θ2 and θ3

θ2 and θ3 are complementary angles.

θ3 = 90 − θ1

Correct

Part C
Now, find the angle θ4 shown in the figure in terms of θ1 and α.
Express your answer in terms of θ1 , α, and any numerical
angles.

## Hint 1. Angles in a triangle

The sum of the angles in a triangle is 180∘ .

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θ4 = 180 − α − (90 − θ1 )

Correct

Part D
Find the angle θ6 shown in the figure in terms of θ1 and α. You
will need to assume that θ4 < 90 ∘ , as it appears in the picture.

angles.

## Hint 2. How to find θ6 in terms of θ5

You can find θ6 in terms of θ5 by using the law of reflection.

θ6 = 90 − (180 − α − (90 − θ1 ))

Correct
Virtually any reflection problem, no matter how intimidating it may seem, can be broken down into simple parts by
considering each individual reflection carefully.

## Total Internal Reflection Conceptual Question

Consider scenarios A to F in which a ray of light traveling in material 1 is incident onto the interface with material 2.

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## Material 1 (n1 ) Material 2 (n2 )

A air (1.00) water (1.33)
B water (1.33) air (1.00)
C diamond (2.42) air (1.00)
D air (1.00) quartz (1.46)
E benzene (1.50) water (1.33)
F diamond (2.42) water (1.33)

Part A
For which of these scenarios is total internal reflection possible?
List all correct answers in alphabetical order. For example, if scenarios A and E are correct, enter AE.

## Hint 1. Total internal reflection

Total internal reflection occurs when, mathematically, the refracted angle is undefined (meaning, the sine of the
refracted angle is greater than 1, which has no solution). This means, physically, that there is no refracted ray at all!
Therefore, all of the light is reflected.

## Hint 2. Angle of refraction

Total internal reflection is only possible if the refracted ray is bent farther from the normal than the incident ray is from
the normal.

## Hint 3. Determine the role of the indices of refraction

Snell's law says that for a light ray passing from region 1 to region 2,
n1 sin(θ1 ) = n2 sin(θ2 ) ,

where θ1 is the angle of the incident ray from the normal, and θ2 is the angle of the refracted ray from the normal.

If θ2 > θ1 , meaning that the refracted ray is bent farther from the normal than the incident ray, what is the
relationship between n1 and n2 ?

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n1 < n2

n1 > n2

n1 = n2

BCEF

Correct

Part B
For the scenarios in which total internal reflection is possible, rank the scenarios on the basis of the critical angle, the angle
above which total internal reflection occurs. At this angle, the refracted ray is at 90 degrees from the normal.
Rank from largest to smallest. To rank items as equivalent, overlap them.

## Hint 1. Apply Snell's law

At the critical angle, the refracted ray is at 90 degrees from the normal. Therefore, Snell’s law can be used to
determine the critical angle. Snell's law states that

n1 sin(θ1 ) = n2 sin(θ2 ) ,

where θ1 is the angle of the incident ray from the normal, and θ2 is the angle of the refracted ray from the normal.
Solve this equation for the sine of the critical angle θc .

n2
sin(θc ) = n1

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Reset Help

largest smallest

Correct

## Is Light Reflected or Refracted?

When light propagates through two adjacent materials that have different optical properties, some interesting phenomena occur
at the interface separating the two materials. For example, consider a ray of light that travels from air into the water of a lake. As
the ray strikes the air-water interface (the surface of the lake), it is partly reflected back into the air and partly refracted or
transmitted into the water. This explains why on the surface of a lake sometimes you see the reflection of the surrounding
landscape and other times the underwater vegetation.

These effects on light propagation occur because light travels at different speeds depending on the medium. The index of
refraction of a material, denoted by n, gives an indication of the speed of light in the material. It is defined as the ratio of the
speed of light c in vacuum to the speed v in the material, or
c
n=
v
.

Part A
When light propagates from a material with a given index of refraction into a material with a smaller index of refraction, the
speed of the light

## Hint 1. Index of refraction

The index of refraction n of a material is defined as the ratio of the speed of light c in vacuum to the speed v in that
particular material, or
c
n=
v
.

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Since it is the ratio of two positive quantities that have the same units, the index of refraction is a pure (positive)
number. Note that the speed of light v in a certain material is inversely proportional to the index of refraction of that
material.

increases.

decreases.

remains constant.

Correct

Part B
What is the minimum value that the index of refraction can have?

## Hint 1. How to approach the problem

Remember that the speed of light v in a certain material is inversely proportional to the index of refraction of that
material. Thus, the minimum value of the index of refraction is calculated for the medium where the speed of light is
maximum. That occurs in vacuum where v = c.

+1

−1

between 0 and 1

Correct
The index of refraction of a material is always a positive number greater than 1 that tells us how fast the light
travels in the material. The greater the index of refraction of a material, the more slowly light travels in the material.

An example of reflection and refraction of light is shown in the figure. An incident ray of light traveling in the upper material
strikes the interface with the lower material. The reflected ray travels back in the upper material, while the refracted ray passes
into the lower material. Experimental studies have shown that the incident, reflected, and refracted rays and the normal to the
interface all lie in the same plane. Moreover, the angle that the reflected ray makes with the normal to the interface, called the
angle of reflection, is always equal to the angle of incidence. (Both of these angles are measured between the light ray and the
normal to the interface separating the two materials.) This is known as the law of reflection.

The direction of propagation of the refracted ray, instead, is given by the angle that the refracted ray makes with the normal to
the interface, which is called the angle of refraction. The angle of refraction depends on the angle of incidence and the indices of
refraction of the two materials. In particular, if we let n1 be the index of refraction of the upper material and n2 the index of
refraction of the lower material, then the angle of incidence, θ1 , and the angle of refraction, θ2 , satisfy the relation

n1 sin θ1 = n2 sin θ2 .
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## This is the law of refraction, also known as Snell's law.

Part C
Now consider a ray of light that propagates from water (n = 1.33) to air (n = 1). If the incident ray strikes the water-air
interface at an angle θ1 ≠ 0, which of the following relations regarding the angle of refraction, θ2 , is correct?

## Hint 1. Find an expression for the ratio of the sines of θ1 and θ2

Let the index of refraction of water be n1 and that of air be n2 . Use Snell's law to find an expression for the ratio of
the sine of θ2 to the sine of θ1 .
Express your answer in terms of some or all of the variables n1 , n2 , and θ1 .

sin θ2 n1
= n2
sin θ1

θ2 > θ1

θ2 < θ1

θ2 = θ1

Correct
When light propagates from a certain material to another one that has a smaller index of refraction, that is,
n1 > n2 , the speed of propagation of the light rays increases and the angle of refraction is always greater than

the angle of incidence. This means that the rays are always bent away from the normal to the interface separating
the two media.

Part D
Consider a ray of light that propagates from water (n = 1.33) to glass (n = 1.52). If the incident ray strikes the water-glass
interface at an angle θ1 ≠ 0, which of the following relations regarding the angle of refraction θ2 is correct?

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## Hint 1. Find an expression for the ratio of the sines of θ1 and θ2

Let the index of refraction of water be n1 and that of glass be n2 . Use Snell's law to find an expression for the ratio
of the sine of θ2 to the sine of θ1 .

## Express your answer in terms of some or all of the variables n1 , n2 , and θ1 .

sin θ2 n1
= n2
sin θ1

θ2 > θ1

θ2 < θ1

θ2 = θ1

Correct
When light propagates from a certain material to another one that has a greater index of refraction, that is,
n1 < n2 , the speed of propagation of the light rays decreases and the angle of refraction is always smaller than

the angle of incidence. This means that the rays are always bent toward the normal to the interface separating the
two media.

Part E
Consider a ray of light that propagates from air (n = 1) to any one of the materials listed below. Assuming that the ray
strikes the interface with any of the listed materials always at the same angle θ1 , in which material will the direction of
propagation of the ray change the most due to refraction?

## Hint 1. How to approach the problem

The direction of propagation of the ray of light will change the most when the difference between the angle of
refraction and the angle of incidence is maximum. Since we are studying a situation where light propagates from air
to a material that has a greater index of refraction, we can make use of the results obtained in Part D. We know that,
in this case, the angle of refraction is always smaller than the angle of incidence. Thus, the difference between the
angle of refraction and the angle of incidence is maximum when the angle of refraction is smallest.

## Hint 2. Find an expression for the sine of the angle of refraction

Let the index of refraction of the unknown material be n2 . Use Snell's law to find an expression for the sine of the
angle of refraction, θ2 .
Express your answer in terms of some or all of the variables n2 and θ1 .

sin(θ1 )
sin θ2 =
n2

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ice (n = 1.309 )

water (n = 1.333 )

turpentine (n = 1.472 )

glass (n = 1.523 )

diamond (n = 2.417 )

Correct
The greater the change in index of refraction, the greater the change in the direction of propagation of light. To
avoid or minimize undesired bending of the light rays, light should travel through materials with matching indices of
refraction.

Is light always both reflected and refracted at the interface separating two different materials? To answer this question, let's
consider the case of light propagating from a certain material to another material with a smaller index of refraction (i.e.,
n1 > n2 ).

Part F
In the case of n1 > n2 , if the incidence angle is increased, the angle of refraction

## Hint 1. How to approach the question

Recall that, according to Snell's law, the sine of the angle of refraction is directly proportional to the sine of the angle
of incidence. Thus, as the angle of incidence is increased, the angle of refraction changes accordingly. Moreover,
since the angle of refraction is greater than the angle of incidence, as you found in Part C, the angle of refraction can
reach its maximum value sooner than the angle of incidence.

decreases.

increases.

## increases up to a maximum value of 90 degrees.

remains constant.

Correct
Since the light is propagating into a material with a smaller index of refraction, the angle of refraction, θ2 , is always
greater than the angle of incidence, θ1 . Therefore, as θ1 is increased, at some point θ2 will reach its maximum
value of 90∘ and the refracted ray will travel along the interface. The angle of incidence for which θ2 = 90 ∘ is
called the critical angle θcrit . For any angle of incidence greater than θcrit , no refraction occurs. The ray no longer
passes into the second material. Instead, it is completely reflected back into the original material. This
phenomenon is called total internal reflection and occurs only when light encounters an interface with a second
material with a smaller index of refraction than the original material.

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Part G
What is the critical angle θcrit for light propagating from a material with index of refraction of 1.50 to a material with index of
refraction of 1.00?

## Hint 1. Find an expression for the sine of the angle of incidence

Use Snell's law to find a general expression for the sine of the angle of incidence, θ1 , for a ray of light that travels
from a material with index of refraction n1 to a material with index of refraction n2 .
Express your answer in terms of θ2 , n1 , and n2 .

n2 sin(θ2 )
sin θ1 =
n1

Correct
In conclusion, light is always both reflected and refracted, except in the special situation when the conditions for
total internal reflection occur. In that case, there is no refracted ray and the incident ray is completely reflected.

## A message from your instructor...

Check out the hints for part C. Remember when entering trig functions to enclose its argument in () so sin (θ) is the correct way

± A Sparkling Diamond I

A beam of white light is incident on the surface of a diamond at an angle θa . Since the index of refraction depends on the light's
wavelength, the different colors that comprise white light will spread out as they pass through the diamond. The indices of
refraction in diamond are nred = 2.410 for red light and nblue = 2.450 for blue light. The surrounding air has nair = 1.000.
Note that the angles in the figure are not to scale.

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Part A

Calculate v red , the speed of red light in the diamond. To four significant figures, c = 2.998 × 10
8
m/s .

## v red = 1.244×108 m/s

Correct

Part B

Calculate v blue , the speed of blue light in the diamond. To four significant figures, c = 2.998 × 10
8
m/s .

## v blue = 1.224×108 m/s

Correct

Part C
Derive a formula for δ, the angle between the red and blue refracted rays in the diamond.

Express the angle in terms of nred , nblue , and θa . Use nair = 1. Note that any trig function entered in your answer
must be followed by an argument in parentheses, and that the proper way to enter the inverse sine of x in this case
is asin(x).

## Hint 1. Apply Snell's law for blue light

Snell's law states that na sin θa = nb sin θb , where θa is the angle of the incident ray as it passes through material
a and θb is the angle of the refracted ray, which passes through material b . These angles are measured from the line

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normal to the interface between the two materials. Type an expression for sin θblue , where θblue is the angle of the
blue refracted ray.
Express your answer in terms of θa and nblue . Use nair = 1 .

1
sin θblue = nblue
sin(θa )

## Hint 2. Apply Snell's law for red light

Write an expression for sin θred , where θred is the angle of the red refracted ray.
Express your answer in terms of θa and nred . Use nair = 1 .

1
sin θred = nred
sin(θa )

## Which refracted angle is larger?

θred

θblue

sin(θa ) sin(θa )
δ = asin(
nred
) − asin( nblue
)

Correct

Part D
Calculate δ numerically for θa = 45

.

## Hint 1. How to approach the problem

Plug the given numerical values into the formula you derived from Part C.

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δ = 0.287 ∘

Correct
The red and blue light rays are split by almost a third of a degree as they pass through the diamond. This explains
why diamonds are cut to have faceted surfaces—if the rays are spread out enough, each color will shine out of a
different facet on the surface of the diamond, producing a brilliant sparkle.

## Polarization of Light and Malus's Law

Learning Goal:
To understand polarization of light and how to use Malus's law to calculate the intensity of a beam of light after passing through
one or more polarizing filters.
The two transverse waves shown in the figure both travel in the +z
direction. The waves differ in that the top wave oscillates horizontally
and the bottom wave oscillates vertically. The direction of oscillation of
a wave is called the polarization of the wave. The upper wave is
described as polarized in the +x direction whereas the lower wave is
polarized in the +y direction. In general, waves can be polarized along
any direction.

## Recall that electromagnetic waves, such as visible light, microwaves,

and X rays, consist of oscillating electric and magnetic fields. The
polarization of an electromagnetic wave refers to the oscillation
direction of the electric field, not the magnetic field. In this problem all
figures depicting light waves illustrate only the electric field.

## A linear polarizing filter, often just called a polarizer, is a device that

only transmits light polarized along a specific transmission axis
direction. The amount of light that passes through a filter is quantified
in terms of its intensity. If the polarization angle of the incident light
matches the transmission axis of the polarizer, 100% of the light will pass through, so the transmitted intensity will equal the
incident intensity. More generally, the intensity of light emerging from a polarizer is described by Malus's law:

I = I0 cos
2
θ ,

where I0 is the intensity of the polarized light beam just before entering the polarizer, I is the intensity of the transmitted light
beam immediately after passing through the polarizer, and θ is the angular difference between the polarization angle of the
incident beam and the transmission axis of the polarizer. After passing through the polarizer, the transmitted light is polarized in
the direction of the transmission axis of the polarizing filter.

In the questions that follow, assume that all angles are measured counterclockwise from the +x axis in the direction of the +y
axis.

Part A
A beam of polarized light with intensity I0 and polarization angle θ0 strikes a polarizer with transmission axis θTA . What
angle θ should be used in Malus's law to calculate the transmitted intensity I1 ?

This process is illustrated in the figure , where the polarization of the light wave is visually illustrated by a magenta double
arrow oriented in the direction of polarization, the transmission axis of the polarizer is represented by a blue double arrow,
and the direction of motion of the wave is illustrated by a purple arrow.

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θ0

θTA

θTA − θ0

θTA + θ0

(θTA − θ0 )/2

Correct

Part B
What is the polarization angle θ1 of the light emerging from the polarizer?

θ0

θTA

θTA − θ0

θTA + θ0

(θTA − θ0 )/2

Correct

Part C
If I0 = 20.0 W/m2 , θ0 = 25.0 degrees , and θTA = 40.0 degrees , what is the transmitted intensity I1 ?

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I1 = 18.7 W/m
2

Correct
If the polarization axis of the incident light and the transmission axis of the filter are aligned (so θ = 0 degrees) or
if they point in exactly opposite directions (so θ = 180 degrees), then cos2 θ = 1in Malus's law, indicating that
100% of the incident intensity will be transmitted.

Most natural light sources emit "unpolarized" light, perhaps better described as "randomly polarized" light. These light sources
emit numerous brief bursts of light whose polarization directions are unrelated, so on average the resulting beam has all
polarization angles equally represented. When unpolarized light with intensity I0 passes through a polarizer, its intensity I is cut
in half, regardless of the orientation of the transmission axis of the polarizer:

1
I = I0 .
2

Part D
One way to produce a beam of polarized light with intensity I and polarization angle θ would be to pass unpolarized light
with intensity I0 through a polarizer whose transmission axis is oriented such that θTA = θ. How large must I0 be if the
transmitted light is to have intensity I ?
I . For example, if I0 = (1/4)I , enter 0.25 * I.

I0 = 2I

Correct

Part E
A beam of unpolarized light with intensity I0 falls first upon a polarizer with transmission axis θTA,1 then upon a second
polarizer with transmission axis θTA,2 , where θTA,2 − θTA,1 = 90 degrees (in other words the two axes are perpendicular
to one another). What is the intensity I2 of the light beam emerging from the second polarizer?
Express your answer as a decimal number times the symbol I0 . For example, if I2 = (1/4)I0 , enter 0.25 * I_0.

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## Hint 1. How to approach the problem

Consider doing the problem in two steps. First, determine the intensity I1 and polarization angle θ1 of the light
emerging from the first polarizer. Then calculate the intensity I2 of the light emerging from the second polarizer
based on those answers as well as on the transmission axis angle of the second polarizer, θTA,2 .

## Hint 2. Determine the intensity of light between the two polarizers

What is the intensity I1 of the light emerging from the first polarizer, before it attempts to pass through the second
polarizer?
Express your answer as a decimal number times the symbol I0 . For example, if I1 = (1/4)I0 , enter 0.25 *
I_0.

I1 = 0.5I0

## Hint 3. Determine the angle to be used in Malus's law

When Malus's law is applied to calculate the intensity of light that emerges from the second polarizer, what angle θ
should be used? Recall that all angles are measured counterclockwise from the +x axis in the direction of the +y
axis.

Hint 1. Find the orientation of the light between the two polarizers
What is θ1 , the polarization of the light after it has passed through the first polarizer?

θ1 = 0 degrees

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0 degrees

45 degrees

90 degrees

180 degrees

I2 = 0

Correct
Adjacent polarizers with perpendicular transmission axes are said to be "crossed." No light can get through both
polarizers, regardless of the light's initial polarization state.

Part F
Notice that a polarizer modifies the light intensity according to Malus's law and also reorients the polarization angle of the
beam to match its own transmission axis. Hence it is possible for light to pass through a pair of crossed polarizers if a third
polarizer is inserted between them with an intermediate transmission axis direction. What is the new intensity I2 of the light
emerging from the final polarizer in Part E if a third polarizer (Polarizer A in the figure ), whose transmission axis is offset 45
degrees from each of the others, is inserted between the original

two polarizers?
I0 . For example, if I2 = (1/4)I0 , enter 0.25 * I_0.

## Hint 1. How to approach the problem

Besides the intensities I0 , I1 , and I2 used in Part E, notice in the figure the new intensity IA immediately following
the inserted polarizer. Use the rules learned in the previous parts to relate intensities across each polarizer
individually. First relate I0 to I1 , then I1 to IA , and finally IA to I2 . Combine your expressions to relate I0 to I2
directly.

Hint 2. Relate I0 to I1
What is the value of I1 in terms of I0 ?

Express your answer as a decimal number times the symbol I0 . For example, if I1 = (1/4)I0 , enter 0.25 *
I_0.

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I1 = 0.5I0

Hint 3. Relate I1 to IA
What is the value of IA in terms of I1 ?

Express your answer as a decimal number times the symbol I1 . For example, if IA = (1/4)I1 , enter 0.25 *
I_1.

IA = (cos(
45π
)) I1
180

Hint 4. Relate IA to I2

## What is the value of I2 in terms of IA ?

Express your answer as a decimal number times the symbol IA . For example, if I2 = (1/4)IA , enter 0.25 *
I_A.

I2 = (cos(
45π
)) IA
180

I2 = 0.125I0

Correct
Polarizing filters for visible light are made of Polaroid, which contains long molecular chains that have been
aligned by stretching the material during production. Polaroid is commonly used in sunglasses because it reduces
the intensity of unpolarized sunlight light by 50%. Glare is often at least partially polarized, so Polaroid
sunglasses, when properly oriented, can selectively reduce glare by even more than 50%.

Problem 23.25

Two plane mirrors intersect at right angles. A laser beam strikes the first of them at a point d = 14.0cm from their point of
intersection, as shown in .

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Part A
For what angle of incidence at the first mirror will this ray strike the midpoint of the second mirror (which is s = 29.0cm

θ = 44.0 ∘

Correct

Problem 23.41

## As shown in , a layer of water covers a slab of material X in a beaker. A ray of light

traveling upward follows the path indicated. Assume that θ1 = 46 ∘ and θ2 = 65 ∘ .

Part A
Using the information on the figure, find the index of refraction of material X.

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4/1/2019 Homework #14 (phy 112)

n
X
= 2.26

Correct

Part B
Using the information on the figure, find the angle the light makes with the normal in the air .

ϕ = 73 ∘

Correct

Problem 23.52

Unpolarized light with intensity I0 is incident on an ideal polarizing filter. The emerging light strikes a second ideal polarizing filter
whose axis is at 42.0 ∘ to that of the first.

Part A
Determine the intensity of the beam after it has passed through the second polarizer.

Enter the factor only. For example, enter 0.250 , that means your answer is I = 0.250 I0 .

I = 0.276 I0

Correct

Part B
Determine its state of polarization.

The light is linearly polarized along the axis of the first filter.

The light is linearly polarized along the axis of the second filter.

The light is linearly polarized perpendicular to the axis of the second filter.

The light is linearly polarized perpendicular to the axis of the first filter.

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4/1/2019 Homework #14 (phy 112)

Correct

Problem 23.54

A beam of unpolarized light of intensity I0 passes through a series of ideal polarizing filters with their polarizing directions turned
to various angles as shown in .

Part A
What is the light intensity (in terms of I0 ) at point A?

IA
= 0.500
I0

Correct

Part B
What is the light intensity (in terms of I0 ) at point B?

IB
= 0.125
I0

Correct

Part C
What is the light intensity (in terms of I0 ) at point C ?

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4/1/2019 Homework #14 (phy 112)

IC
= 9.38×10−2
I0

Correct

Part D
If we remove the middle filter, what will be the light intensity at point C ?

I
C

= 0

Correct

## Problem 23.55 - Enhanced - with Solution

Three ideal polarizing filters are stacked, with the polarizing axis of the second and third filters at 27.0 ∘ and 58.0 ∘ , respectively,
to that of the first. If unpolarized light is incident on the stack, the light has intensity 105 W/cm2 after it passes through the
stack.

## You may want to review (Pages 754 - 759) .

For related problem-solving tips and strategies, you may want to view a Video Tutor Solution of Linear polarization.

Part A
If the incident intensity is kept constant, what is the intensity of the light after it has passed through the stack if the second
polarizer is removed?

I = 50.5 W/cm
2

Correct
1
Set Up: For unpolarized light incident on a filter, I = I0 and the light is linearly polarized along the filter axis.
2
2
For polarized light incident on a filter, I = Imax (cos ϕ) , where Imax is intensity of the incident light, and the
emerging light is linearly polarized along the filter axis.

Solve: With all three polarizers, if the incident intensity is I0 the transmitted intensity is
1 ∘ 2 ∘ ∘ 2
I = ( I0 )(cos 27.0 ) [cos(58.0 − 27.0 )] = 0.292I0 .
2
2
I 105W/cm
2
I0 = = = 360W/cm . With only the first and third polarizers,
0.292 0.292

1 ∘ 2 2 2
I = ( I0 )(cos 58.0 ) = 0.140I0 = (0.140)(360W/cm ) = 50.5W/cm .
2

Score Summary:

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4/1/2019 Homework #14 (phy 112)

## Your score on this assignment is 100%.

You received 62 out of a possible total of 62 points.

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