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3/31/2019 Chapter 3 Homework

Chapter 3 Homework
Due: 1:59pm on Monday, January 14, 2019
You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due. Grading Policy

BioFlix Quiz: Tour of an Animal Cell

Watch the animation then answer the questions.

Part A
Where is the genetic information of the cell stored?

Hint 1. DNA storage


The genetic material of a eukaryotic cell, DNA, is stored in a large membrane-bound organelle that shares its outer membrane with the endoplasmic reticulum.

ANSWER:

lysosomes

rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER)

Golgi apparatus

smooth endoplasmic reticulum (ER)

nucleus

Correct
DNA is the genetic information of the cell, and it is stored in the nucleus.

Part B
The structural framework in a cell is the

Hint 1. Cell Structure


Think about what gives our body structure; what keeps it from collapsing? Is there anything similar in a cell?

ANSWER:

cytoskeleton.

extracellular matrix.

endoplasmic reticulum (ER).

plasma membrane.

endomembrane system.

Correct
The cytoskeleton is the structural framework in a cell ("cyto" refers to cell and "skeleton" refers to a structural framework).

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3/31/2019 Chapter 3 Homework

Part C
Where in a cell is ATP made?

Hint 1. Endosymbiosis

It is thought that the organelle that produces our ATP was once a free-living micro-organism. Which organelle does that describe?

ANSWER:

ribosomes

nucleus

chloroplasts

mitochondria

lysosomes

Correct
ATP is made in mitochondria.

Part D
What carries instructions for making proteins from the nucleus into the cytoplasm?

Hint 1. Nuclear Messages


There is one molecule that functions as a messenger between the nucleus and the ribosomes.

ANSWER:

ribosomes

mRNA

Rough ER

DNA

ATP

Correct
The "m" in mRNA stands for "messenger"; mRNA is the messenger that carries genetic instructions from the nucleus to the cytoplasm.

Part E
One of the ways smooth endoplasmic reticulum (ER) differs from rough endoplasmic reticulum is that rough ER is covered by

Hint 1. Function of the rough ER


The rough endoplasmic reticulum is very important in protein production. What could be attached to the rough ER to help make proteins?

ANSWER:

the extracellular matrix.

the Golgi apparatus.

the cytoskeleton.

mitochondria.

ribosomes.

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3/31/2019 Chapter 3 Homework

Correct
Ribosomes dock on the rough ER, and proteins are completed inside the rough ER.

Part F
Which of the following is part of the endomembrane system?

Hint 1. Function of the Endomembrane System


The endomembrane system is a group of membrane-bound compartments and vesicles important in modifying and trafficking molecules within the cell.

ANSWER:

cytoskeleton

mitochondria

flagellum

ribosomes

Golgi apparatus

Correct
The endomembrane system includes the ER, the Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, and vesicles. It manufactures, processes, and transports lipids and proteins. The
Golgi apparatus processes and packages proteins.

Part G
Which of the following organelles breaks down worn-out organelles?

Hint 1. Degradation
One organelle in an animal cell is particularly good at lysing (or degrading) various components within the cell.

ANSWER:

Golgi apparatus

smooth endoplasmic reticulum (ER)

rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER)

mitochondria

lysosomes

Correct
Lysosomes contain digestive enzymes and break down worn-out organelles.

Part H
Where are lipids made in the cell?

Hint 1. Lipid production


Lipid production is a very complex process. It must occur in a membrane that has easy access to the rest of the cell and can contain a variety of enzymes. Which
answer best fits this description?

ANSWER:

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3/31/2019 Chapter 3 Homework

mitochondria

rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER)

smooth endoplasmic reticulum (ER)

Golgi apparatus

ribosomes

Correct
The smooth ER makes lipids.

Part I
What structure acts as a selective barrier, regulating the traffic of materials into and out of the cell?

Hint 1. Structure location


Since this structure regulates material entering and exiting the cell, it must make up the entire cell's barrier.

ANSWER:

nuclear envelope

endomembrane system

cytoskeleton

plasma membrane

extracellular matrix

Correct
The plasma membrane surrounds the cell and regulates the movement of materials into and out of the cell.

Visualize It! Chapter 3 Figure 1a

You will identify the major features of a prokaryotic cell.

Part A
Label the structures of this prokaryotic cell.
Drag the appropriate labels to their respective targets.
ANSWER:

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3/31/2019 Chapter 3 Homework

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Inclusions

Cytoplasm

Nucleoid

Flagellum
Glycocalyx

Cytoplasmic
Cell wall membrane

Correct

Visualize It! Chapter 3 Figure 1b

You will identify the major features of a eukaryotic cell.

Part A
Label the structures of this eukaryotic cell.
Drag the appropriate labels to their respective targets.
ANSWER:

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3/31/2019 Chapter 3 Homework

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Nuclear envelope

Nucleolus
Mitochondrion

Centriole

Golgi body
Cilium

Ribosomes
Rough
endoplasmic
reticulum
Smooth
endoplasmic
reticulum

Cytoskeleton

Correct

Video Tutor: Bacterial Cell Walls

Watch the Video Tutor on Bacterial Cell Walls and then answer the questions below.

Part A
Peptidoglycans are composed of sugars and _____.

Hint 1. Peptidoglycans

The glycan refers to the sugars, and the peptide refers to the other component. Think of what makes up a peptide.

ANSWER:

lipids

nucleic acids

amino acids

teichoic acids

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3/31/2019 Chapter 3 Homework

Correct
Amino acids combine to form the peptide portion of the peptidoglycan.

Part B
One chain of alternating NAGs and NAMs is connected to another chain via _____.

Hint 1. Crossbridges
The crossbridges are composed of four amino acids.

ANSWER:

tetrapeptides

teichoic acids

enzymes

lipids

Correct
Tetrapeptides are composed of four amino acids and make up the "peptido" portion of peptidoglycan.

Part C
One of the main differences between a Gram-positive and a Gram-negative bacterial cell wall is that the peptidoglycan portion of a Gram-positive cell wall is _____ as
compared to a Gram-negative cell wall.

Hint 1. Difference
Because of this difference, a Gram-positive bacterial wall might be considered more robust.

ANSWER:

composed of a greater percentage of NAGs than NAMs

positively charged

more lipid rich

thicker

Correct
The peptidoglycan layer of Gram-positive bacteria is much thicker than that of Gram-negative bacteria.

Part D
Within the peptidoglycan layer, the crossbridges that connect the chains of alternating sugar molecules extend between _____.

Hint 1. Glycan
The sugar molecules involved are larger than their analogs.

ANSWER:

two glucose molecules

two N-acetylglucosamine molecules

two N-acetylmuramic acid molecules

an N-acetylmuramic acid and an N-acetylglucosamine

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3/31/2019 Chapter 3 Homework

Correct
The crossbridges link NAM molecules to one another and provide the structural integrity of the peptidoglycan layer.

Part E
The peptidoglycan cell wall of bacteria is most analogous to _____.

Hint 1. Durability
The peptidoglycan layer of the cell wall must be strong and yet porous to allow the passage of ions, amino acids, and nutrients.

ANSWER:

a sugary candy shell

a chain-link fence

an impenetrable brick wall

a rain coat

Correct
The peptidoglycan cell wall is meshlike, allowing for easy passage of ions, amino acids, and nutrients and maintaining structural integrity.

Part F
What role do the teichoic acids play within the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria?

Hint 1. Embedded Chemicals


Some of the teichoic acids are anchored to the cytoplasmic membrane that lies beneath the peptidoglycan layer.

ANSWER:

They act as crossbridges, holding the peptides and sugar molecules together.

They serve as pores allowing the passage of ions, nutrients, and amino acids into the cell.

They serve to stabilize the cell wall and hold it in place.

They serve as adhesins, allowing bacteria to bind to one another.

Correct
Some of the teichoic acids are anchored to lipids within the cytoplasmic membrane and are thus called lipoteichoic acids.

Part G
The region between the outer and inner membranes of a Gram-negative bacterial cell is known as the __________, and it is the location of enzymes that assemble
peptidoglycan.

Hint 1. Space
This space is filled with cellular matrix and the peptidoglycan layer of the cell wall.

ANSWER:

intramembranous space

cytoplasm

periplasmic space

lipopolysaccharide layer

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3/31/2019 Chapter 3 Homework

Correct
The periplasmic space is an area surrounding the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane.

Part H
A patient is infected with Gram-negative bacteria and is experiencing only mild symptoms. When the patient is given an antibiotic causing lysis of the bacterial cells, he
suddenly experiences an increase in inflammation and fever, as well as the formation of blood clots. What explanation best describes what happened?

Hint 1. Lysis
When a cell undergoes lysis, it is destroyed and its structural components are released into the surrounding tissues and fluids.

ANSWER:

The antibiotic is toxic and is affecting the patient adversely.

The lysis of the cells releases lipid A from the lipopolysaccharide layer.

Any part of the bacterial cell wall released during lysis is seen as foreign and thereby elicits a severe immune response by the body's immune system.

The lysis of the cells releases NAG and NAM from the cell wall.

Correct
Lipid A is known to cause inflammation, fever, and blood clots.

Score Summary:
Your score on this assignment is 97.9%.
You received 1.96 out of a possible total of 2 points.

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