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EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF HYBRID

COMPOSITES LACED WITH LEATHER WASTE,


BEACH SAND AND USED TEA POWDER
A PROJECT REPORT

Submitted by

JAGADISH KUMAR M. 412815114061


JEGAN M. 412815114062
MADHAVA PANDIYAN C.N. 412815114076
MOHAMED SAMEER 412815114080

in partial fulfillment for the award of degree

of

BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING
in

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

VALLIAMMAI ENGINEERING COLLEGE

KATTANKULATHUR, CHENNAI - 603 204

ANNA UNIVERSITY: CHENNAI 600 025


APRIL – 2019
BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the project entitled “Experimental investigation of

hybrid composites laced with leather waste, beach sand and used tea

powder” is a bonafide work carried out by the following students whose

names are given below

JAGADISH KUMAR M. 412815114061


JEGAN M. 412815114062
MADHAVA PANDIYAN C.N. 412815114076
MOHAMED SAMEER 412815114080

who successfully completed the project work under my direct supervision.

SIGNATURE SIGNATURE

Dr. K. SIVAKUMAR, M.E, Ph.D, Mr . S. SIVALINGAM, M.E,


HEAD OF THE DEPARTMENT SUPERVISOR
Mechanical Engineering ASSISTANT PROFESSOR
Valliammai Engineering College Mechanical Engineering
Kattankulathur, Chennai - 603 204 Valliammai Engineering College
Kattankulathur, Chennai - 603 204

Submitted for the Viva voce examination held on………………

Internal Examiner External Examiner


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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I sincerely express my deep sense of gratitude to Dr. T.R.


Pachamuthu, chairman and Dr. T.P. Ganesan, Director of
Valliammai Enginering College for providing all necessary facilities to
earn knowledge from the institution.

I convey my sincere thanks to the principal Dr. B.


Chidambararajan, M.E., Ph.D., Valliammai Engineering College for his
encouragement and support extended throughout the course of our study.

We wish to express our profound thanks with gratitude to our head


of the department Dr. K. SIVAKUMAR, M.E., Ph.D., for providing us to
do this project.

We take this opportunity to express our deep sense of gratitude and


indebtedness to our Project Supervisor Mr. S. SIVALINGAM, M.E, for
his excellent guidance, continuous motivation, and constant
encouragements given to us to do this project successfully.

We bestow our sincere thanks to our Project Coordinator Mr. P. RAMU,


M.E, without whose invaluable guidance, patient and constant
encouragement, anything would not have been materialized.

Lastly we would like to thank all our friends living in different


parts of the world & all our family members for their moral and financial
support during the tenure of our project.

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ABSTRACT

The leather industry is one of the prominent growing industries in the

world. This industry places a footprint on huge amount of wastes as

pollutants. This project describes a new approach of usage of leather

used tea powder and beach sand. Beach sand comprises mainly of silica

which can be a versatile material as fillers in composites due to its high

modulus, stiffness and chemical inertness.

This project is aimed to study the various properties of the mentioned

materials, test their use in the preparation of hybrid composites through

hand layup method.

The flexural, bending, hardness and impact tests of the specimens are

tested and their results compared. It was found that Sample 1 (4.1 % LW,

15.07 % GF) was found to be the best, followed by the Sample 3 (18 %

LW, 21.7 % STL, 9.9% GF) and Sample 2 (23.5 % LW, 54.5 % S).

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER TITLE PAGE
No. No.
ABSTRACT iv

LIST OF TABLES viii

LIST OF FIGURES ix

LIST OF SYMBOLS xi

1 INTRODUCTION 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 What composites are 1

1.3 Why composites 2

1.4 Classification of composite material 2

1.5 Phases of composite materials 4

1.5.1 Matrix Phase 4

1.5.1.1 Polymer matrix composites 5

1.5.1.2 Metal matrix composites 6

1.5.1.3 Ceramic matrix composites 7

1.5.2 Matrix selection 7

1.5.2.1 Functions of a matrix 8

1.5.3 Reinforcement phase 8

1.5.3.1 Fibre reinforced composites 9

1.5.3.2 Laminar composites 10

1.5.3.3 Particulate reinforced composites 10

1.5.3.4 Leather Composites 11

1.5.4 Advantages of composites 12


2 LITERATURE REVIEW 13

2.1 Overview 13

3 COMPOSITE MATERIALS 17

3.1 Leather waste 17

3.1.1 Leather 17

3.1.2 Tanning methods 17

3.1.3 Leather grades 19

3.1.4 Leather waste 21

3.2 Epoxy resin LY 556 and hardener HY 951 21

3.2.1 Introduction 21

3.2.2 Epoxy Resin LY 556 22

3.2.3 Hardener HY 951 23

3.3 Beach Sand 25

3.4 Tea waste 26

3.5 Glass fibre 27

4 PROJECT WORK PLAN 28

5 EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE 29

5.1 Mould making 29

5.2 Composite preparation 31

5.3 The tests 35

5.3.1 Flexural Test 35

5.3.2 Tensile Test 36

5.3.3 Impact Test 37

5.4.4 Hardness Test 38

6 CALCULATIONS 39
7 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 41

7.1 Flexural Test 41

7.2 Tensile Test 46

7.3 Impact Test 51

7.4 Hardness Test 53

7.5 Overall Comparison 55

8 COST ESTIMATION 56

9 CONCLUSION 57

10 APPENDIX 58

11 REFERENCES 65

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LIST OF TABLES

TABLE NUMBER CONTENT PAGE NUMBER

3.1.4 Properties of leather 21


waste

3.2.2 Properties of epoxy LY


556 23

3.2.3 Properties of hardener HY


951 24

3.3 Properties of beach sand 26

3.4 Properties of tea waste 26

3.5 Properties of glass fibre 27

6.1 Specification of slabs 39

6.2 Tabulation of results 40

7.3.1 Impact Test Values 52

7.4.1 Hardness test values 54

7.5.1 The observed values of


the specimens 55

10.1 Cost Estimation table 56

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LIST OF FIGURES

FIGURE NUMBER CONTENT PAGE NUMBER

1.4.1 First level of composite


classification 3

1.4.2 First classification of


matrix phase 5

1.4.3 Second classification of


matrix phase 6

5.1.1 Demarcating Process 29

5.1.2 Cutting Process 30

5.1.3 The prepared mould 31

5.2.1 Laying the filler materials 32

5.2.2 Applying resin onto filler


material 32

5.2.3 Weight placed onto 33


apparatus

5.2.4 One of the prepared


composites 34

5.2.5 The prepared composites


for hardness testing 34

5.3.1 Flexural Test Machine 36

5.3.2 Tensile Testing Machine 37

7.1.1 Specimen dimensions for


flexural/bending test 41
(mm)
7.1.2 The prepared samples
(after testing) 41

7.1.3 Flexural Test Graph 45

7.2.1 Specimen dimensions for


tensile test (mm) 46

7.2.2 The prepared samples


(after testing) 46

7.2.3 Tensile Test Graph 50

7.3.1 Specimen dimensions for


Izod test 51

7.3.2 The prepared samples 51


(after testing)

7.3.3 Impact Test Graph 52

7.4.1 Shore D hardness test 53

7.4.3 Hardness test graph 54

7.5.1 Overall Values Graph 55

x
LIST OF SYMBOLS

SERIAL SYMBOL` ABBREVIATION PAGE


NUMBER NUMBER

1 C Degree Celsius 6

2 WLB Waste Leather Base 14

3 BC Before Christ 17

4 STL Spent Tea Leaf 26

5 ASTM American Society for


Testing and Materials 35

6 Dia Diameter 39

7 LW Leather Waste 57

8 S Sand 57

9 GF Glass Fibre 57

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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 INTRODUCTION

In today’s world of modern engineering, we find a wide variety of materials


that are being used to manufacture and produce articles that we use in our day-to-day
lives. These materials have become integral, in a way akin to food, air and water; as
the human body needs them in order to survive, similarly the industries as well as
ourselves are dependent on these materials for satiating the needs of the day. Many
materials such as steel, plastics, etc. are some of the most commonly used engineering
materials; however, the modern engineering industry is on the lookout for new recruits
of materials that are lighter and much stronger than the conventional engineering
materials. It is for this reason that the birth of composite materials was very much
inevitable. Composites have become one of the aspiring and promising engineering
materials that could replace conventional engineering materials in the days to come.
The composites industry is an exciting industry to work in because new materials,
processes and applications are being developed all the time – like using hybrid virgin
and recycled fibres, faster and more automated manufacturing. The global composites
materials market is growing at about 5% per year, with carbon fibre demand growing
at 12% per year.

1.2 WHAT COMPOSITES ARE

Composite material is a material composed of two or more distinct phases


(matrix phase and reinforcing phase) and having bulk properties significantly
different from those of any of the constituents. Many of the common materials
(metals, alloys, doped ceramics and polymers mixed with additives) also have a

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small amount of dispersed phases in their structures, however they are not
considered as composite materials since their properties are similar to those of their
base constituents (physical property of steel are similar to those of pure iron) .
Favorable properties of composites materials are high stiffness and high strength,
low density, high temperature stability, high electrical and thermal conductivity,
adjustable coefficient of thermal expansion, corrosion resistance, improved wear
resistance etc.

1.3 WHY COMPOSITES


These are the criteria that are required to satisfy the uses of composites: -
 Weight reduction in manufacturing of components and parts
 Resistance to thermal and chemical interactions
 Ease of machinability while retaining their superior properties

Composites are able to meet the various design requirements with significant
weight savings as well as high strength-to-weight ratio as compared to
conventional materials.

1.4 CLASSIFICATION OF COMPOSITE MATERIALS


Composite materials are commonly classified at following two distinct
levels:
• The first level of classification is usually made with respect to the matrix
constituent. The major composite classes include Organic Matrix Composites
(OMCs), Metal Matrix Composites (MMCs) and Ceramic Matrix Composites
(CMCs). The term organic matrix composite is generally assumed to include two
classes of composites, namely Polymer Matrix Composites (PMCs) and carbon
matrix composites commonly referred to as carbon-carbon composites.

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Fig 1.4.1 First level of composite classification

• The second level of classification refers to the reinforcement form - fibre


reinforced composites, laminar composites and particulate composites.
Fibre Reinforced composites (FRP) can be further divided into those containing
discontinuous or continuous fibres.

• Fibre Reinforced Composites are composed of fibres embedded in matrix


material. Such a composite is considered to be a discontinuous fibre or short
fibre composite if its properties vary with fibre length.

• Laminar Composites are composed of layers of materials held together by


matrix. Sandwich structures fall under this category.

• Particulate Composites are composed of particles distributed or embedded in a


matrix body. The particles may be flakes or in powder form. Concrete and
wood particle boards are examples of this category.

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1.5 PHASES OF COMPOSITE MATERIALS

Composites mainly constitute of two phases:


 Matrix phase
 Reinforcement phase
1.5.1 MATRIX PHASE
The matrix is the monolithic material into which the reinforcement is
embedded, and is completely continuous. This means that there is a path through
the matrix to any point in the material, unlike two materials sandwiched together.
In structural applications, the matrix is usually a lighter metal such as aluminum,
magnesium, or titanium, and provides a compliant support for the reinforcement.
In high temperature applications, cobalt and cobalt-nickel alloy matrices are
common.

The composite materials are commonly classified based on matrix constituent.


These three types of matrices produce three common types of composites: -

1. Polymer matrix composites (PMCs), of which GRP is the best-known


example, use ceramic fibers in a plastic matrix.

2. Metal-matrix composites (MMCs) typically use silicon carbide fibers


embedded in a matrix made from an alloy of aluminum and magnesium, but other
matrix materials such as titanium, copper, and iron are increasingly being used.
Typical applications of MMCs include bicycles, golf clubs, and missile guidance
systems; an MMC made from silicon-carbide fibers in a titanium matrix is
currently being developed for use as the skin (fuselage material) of the US
National Aerospace Plane.

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3. Ceramic-matrix composites (CMCs) are the third major type and examples
include silicon carbide fibers fixed in a matrix made from a borosilicate glass. The
ceramic matrix makes them particularly suitable for use in lightweight, high-
temperature components, such as parts for airplane jet engines.

1.5.1.1 POLYMER MATRIX COMPOSITES (PMC)/CARBON MATRIX


COMPOSITES/CARBON-CARBON COMPOSITES (CCC)

Fig 1.4.2 First classification of matrix phase

A small quantum of shrinkage and the tendency of the shape to retain its original
form are also to be accounted for. But reinforcements can change this condition
too. The advantage of thermoplastics systems over thermosets are that there are no
chemical reactions involved, which often result in the release of gases or heat.
Manufacturing is limited by the time required for heating, shaping and cooling the
structures.
Thermosets are the most popular of the fiber composite matrices without which,
research and development in structural engineering field could get truncated.
Aerospace components, automobile parts, defense systems etc., use a great deal of

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this type of fiber composites. Epoxy matrix materials are used in printed circuit
boards and similar areas.

Fig 1.4.3 Second classification of matrix phase

Direct condensation polymerization followed by rearrangement reactions to form


heterocyclic entities is the method generally used to produce thermoset resins.
Water, a product of the reaction, in both methods, hinders production of void-free
composites. These voids have a negative effect on properties of the composites in
terms of strength and dielectric properties. Polyesters phenolic and Epoxies are the
two important classes of thermoset resins.
Epoxy resins are widely used in filament-wound composites and are suitable for
moulding prepress. They are reasonably stable to chemical attacks and are
excellent adherents having slow shrinkage during curing and no emission of
volatile gases. These advantages, however, make the use of epoxies rather
expensive. Also, they cannot be expected beyond a temperature of 140ºC.
1.5.1.2 METAL MATRIX COMPOSITES (MMC)

Metal matrix composites, at present though generating a wide interest in research


fraternity, are not as widely in use as their plastic counterparts. High strength,

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fracture toughness and stiffness are offered by metal matrices than those offered by
their polymer counterparts. They can withstand elevated temperature in corrosive
environment than polymer composites. Most metals and alloys could be used as
matrices and they require reinforcement materials which need to be stable over a
range of temperature and non-reactive too. However the guiding aspect for the
choice depends essentially on the matrix material. Light metals form the matrix for
temperature application and the reinforcements in addition to the aforementioned
reasons are characterized by high moduli.

1.5.1.3 CERAMIC MATRIX COMPOSITES (CMC)

Ceramics can be described as solid materials which exhibit very strong ionic
bonding in general and in few cases covalent bonding. High melting points, good
corrosion resistance, stability at elevated temperatures and high compressive
strength, render ceramic-based matrix materials a favourite for applications
requiring a structural material that doesn’t give way at temperatures above 1500ºC.
Naturally, ceramic matrices are the obvious choice for high temperature
applications.
1.5.2 MATRIX SELECTION
The matrix plays a minor role in the tensile load-carrying capacity of a
composite structure. However, selection of a matrix has a major influence on the
interlaminar shear as well as in-plane shear properties of the composite material.
The interlaminar shear strength is an important design consideration for structures
under bending loads, whereas the in-plane shear strength is important under torsion
loads. The matrix provides lateral support against the possibility of fibre buckling

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under compression loading, thus influencing to some extent the compressive
strength of the composite material. The interaction between fibres and matrix is
also important in designing damage tolerant structures. Finally, the processability
and defects in a composite material depend strongly on the physical and thermal
characteristics, such as viscosity, melting point, and curing temperature of the
matrix.

1.5.2.1 FUNCTIONS OF A MATRIX


In a composite material, the matrix material serves the following functions:
• Holds the fibres together.
• Protects the fibres from environment.
• Distributes the loads evenly between fibres so that all fibres are subjected to the
same amount of strain.
• Enhances transverse properties of a laminate.
• Improves impact and fracture resistance of a component.

1.5.3 REINFORCEMENT PHASE


The role of the reinforcement in a composite material is fundamentally one
of increasing the mechanical properties of the neat resin system. All of the
different fibres used in composites have different properties and so affect the
properties of the composite in different ways.
However, individual fibres or fibre bundles can only be used on their own in a few
processes such as filament winding. For most other applications, the fibres need to
be arranged into some form of sheet, known as a fabric, to make handling possible.
Different ways for assembling fibres into sheets and the variety of fibre

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orientations possible lead to there being many different types of fabrics, each of
which has its own characteristics.
Reinforcements for the composites can be fibers, fabrics particles or whiskers.
Fibers are essentially characterized by one very long axis with other two axes
either often circular or near circular. Particles have no preferred orientation and so
does their shape. Whiskers have a preferred shape but are small both in diameter
and length as compared to fibers.
A reinforcement that embellishes the matrix strength must be stronger and stiffer
than the matrix and capable of changing failure mechanism to the advantage of the
composite. This means that the ductility should be minimal or even nil the
composite must behave as brittle as possible.

1.5.3.1 FIBER REINFORCED COMPOSITES/FIBRE REINFORCED


POLYMER (FRP) COMPOSITES
Fibers are the important class of reinforcements, as they satisfy the desired
conditions and transfer strength to the matrix constituent influencing and
enhancing their properties as desired.
Glass fibers are the earliest known fibers used to reinforce materials. Ceramic and
metal fibers were subsequently found out and put to extensive use, to render
composites stiffer more resistant to heat.
Fibers fall short of ideal performance due to several factors. The performance of a
fiber composite is judged by its length, shape, orientation, and composition of the
fibers and the mechanical properties of the matrix.
The orientation of the fiber in the matrix is an indication of the strength of the
composite and the strength is greatest along the longitudinal directional of fiber.

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This doesn’t mean the longitudinal fibers can take the same quantum of load
irrespective of the direction in which it is applied. Optimum performance from
longitudinal fibers can be obtained if the load is applied along its direction. The
slightest shift in the angle of loading may drastically reduce the strength of the
composite.
Unidirectional loading is found in few structures and hence it is prudent to give a
mix of orientations for fibers in composites particularly where the load is expected
to be the heaviest.
Short-length fibers incorporated by the open- or close-mould process are found to
be less efficient, although the input costs are considerably lower than filament
winding.
1.5.3.2 LAMINAR COMPOSITES
Laminar composites are found in as many combinations as the number of
materials. They can be described as materials comprising of layers of materials
bonded together. These may be of several layers of two or more metal materials
occurring alternately or in a determined order more than once, and in as many
numbers as required for a specific purpose.
Clad and sandwich laminates have many areas as it ought to be, although they are
known to follow the rule of mixtures from the modulus and strength point of view.
Other intrinsic values pertaining to metal-matrix, metal-reinforced composites are
also fairly well known.
1.5.3.3 PARTICULATE REINFORCED COMPOSITES (PRC)
Microstructures of metal and ceramics composites, which show particles of
one phase strewn in the other, are known as particle reinforced composites. Square,
triangular and round shapes of reinforcement are known, but the dimensions of all

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their sides are observed to be more or less equal. The size and volume
concentration of the dispersoid distinguishes it from dispersion hardened materials.
The dispersed size in particulate composites is of the order of a few microns and
volume concentration is greater than 28%. The difference between particulate
composite and dispersion strengthened ones is, thus, oblivious. The mechanism
used to strengthen each of them is also different. The dispersed in the dispersion-
strengthen materials reinforces the matrix alloy by arresting motion of dislocations
and needs large forces to fracture the restriction created by dispersion.
Three-dimensional reinforcement in composites offers isotropic properties,
because of the three systematical orthogonal planes.
1.5.3.4 LEATHER COMPOSITES
Leather is a fibrous protein consisting of collagen in a three dimensionally
crosslinked network. Chrome tanning of leather improves the appearance of leather
but at the same time emits both solid and liquid chrome leather wastes. Scrap
rubber recycling using untreated and neutralized leather fibrous particles in natural
rubber has been studied. Vulcanization, mechanical, morphological and swelling
properties of the natural rubber - scrap rubber composites containing neutralized
leather have been discussed. Use of chrome leather particles has been found to
improve the consumption of scrap rubber powder in natural rubber formulations.
Polymer composites based on leather wastes as fillers are reported to be useful for
many applications such as in construction materials, automobile interior moldings,
heat and sound insulating boards, shoe soles, flooring materials and moldings with
good anti-static properties, air permeability and good appearances.
When waste leather fibers are added to elastomers, the former could function as
short fiber reinforcement for the matrix provided the inherent fibrous nature of the

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former is retained during processing. Since processing of elastomers is carried out
relatively at high temperatures, retention of the fibrous nature in leather under such
conditions however is very difficult. It is therefore prudent to use and consider the
leather waste in the particulate form and study its effectiveness either as filler or as
a processing aid in elastomer formulations.

1.5.4 ADVANTAGES OF COMPOSITES


Summary of the advantages exhibited by composite materials, which are of
significant use in aerospace industry are as follows:
• High resistance to fatigue and corrosion degradation.
• High ‘strength or stiffness to weight’ ratio. As enumerated above, weight savings
are significant ranging from 25-45% of the weight of conventional metallic
designs.
• Due to greater reliability, there are fewer inspections and structural repairs.
• Directional tailoring capabilities to meet the design requirements. The fibre
pattern can be laid in a manner that will tailor the structure to efficiently sustain
the applied loads.
• Fibre to fibre redundant load path.
• Improved dent resistance is normally achieved. Composite panels do not sustain
damage as easily as thin gauge sheet metals.
• It is easier to achieve smooth aerodynamic profiles for drag reduction. Complex
double-curvature parts with a smooth surface finish can be made in one
manufacturing operation.
• Composites offer improved torsional stiffness.
• Improved friction and wear properties as well as resistance to impact damage.

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CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 OVERVIEW
Literally the term composite means a solid material that results when two or
more different substances, each with own characteristics are combined to create a
new substance whose properties are superior to those of the original components
for any specific application. The term composite more specifically refers to a
structural material with in which a reinforcement material is embedded. And the
engineering definition would also go along side - A material system composed of a
mixture or combination of two or more constituents that differ in form or material
composition and air essentially insoluble in each other. In principle, composites
can be fabricated out of any combination of two or more materials-metallic,
organic, or inorganic; but the constituent forms are more restricted. The matrix is
the body constituents, serving to enclose the composite and give it a bulk form.
Major structural constituents are fibres, particulates, laminates or layers, flakes and
fillers.
When two or more materials are interspersed, there is always a contiguous region.
Simply this may be the common boundary of the two phases concerned, in which
case it is called an interface. A composite having a single interface is feasibly
fabricated when the matrix and reinforcement are perfectly compactable.
On the other end, there may an altogether separate phase present between the
matrix phase and the reinforcement phase. The matrix is body constituent, serving
to enclose the composite and give it a bulk form. Major structural are fibres,
particulates, laminates or layers, flakes and fillers.

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[1] “Processing and characterization of waste leather based polycaprolactone
biocomposites” –Seena Joseph, Tushar Ambone, E. Deenadayalan, et al
(December 2015)
It infers that addition of leather powder to polycaprolactone (PCL) resulted
in improvement of tensile modulus of neat PCL and reduction in percentage
crystallinity of PCL matrix was observed with increase in WLB content.

[2] “Polymer sand composites based on the mixed and heavily contaminated
thermoplastic waste” – I. Slieptsova, B. Savchenko, N. Sova, A. Slieptsov (2015)
This paper gives an idea of the represents production and characterization of
highly filled polymer composites based on recycled plastics and sand as a filler.
With increase of filling degree from 50% to 80% decrease in tensile strength and
increase in compressive and bending strength is observed.

[3] “Epoxy-silica particulate nanocomposites: Chemical interactions


reinforcement and fracture toughness” - G. Ragostaa, M. Abbatea, et al (August
2005)
The paper discusses that the curing behavior of the epoxy matrix was not
adversely affected by the inorganic phase. A conspicuous increase of modulus and
yield strength was found by increasing the silica content.

[4] “Natural rubber/leather waste composite foam: A new eco-friendly


material and recycling approach” - Nelissa Garcia, Deuber Lincon Agostini, et
al (November 2014)

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This paper inferred that the mechanical parameters were found to depend on
the leather dust concentration. Moreover, the stiffness rose with the increase of
leather shavings.

[5] “Preparation and characterization of leather polymer composites” – Om


Kumar, A. Suresh Babu, Jacob Moses Anbiah (August 2015)
This work deals with the utilization of industrial leather wastes, with Poly
Vinyl Butyral (PVB) and post-consumer milk pouches, by preparing a composite
material as a product that has commercial value and applications.

[6] “Utilization of Spent Tea Leaves and Waste Plastics for Composite
Boards” – Juanito P Jimenez Jr., Erlinda Mari, Edgaro M. Vilena, Rico J.
Cabangon (January 2013)
This paper deals with the use of used tea leaves and waste plastics as
composites. The materials exhibited remarkable dimensional stability.

[7] “Effects of spent tea leaf powder on the properties and functions of
cellulose green composite films” - J. Duan, K. Obi Reddy, B. Ashok, et al (March
2016)
This paper concludes that the used tea leaves along with cellulose as the
matrix showed excellent mechanical properties as well as excellent adsorption.

[8] “Physical and Sound Absorption Properties of Spent Tea Leaf Fiber Filled
Polyurethane Foam Composite” - Qumrul Ahsan, Chia Pooi Ching, Mohammed
Yuhazri bin Yaakob (October 2014)

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The paper shows that the spent tea leaves provide the best sound absorption
coefficient and for composites using granulated fibers from any grade have lower
sound absorption coefficient. Also, tea leaves are rich in tannin, which contribute
towards high durability, high resistance to fungal and termites, and high resistance
to fire.
[9] “Natural rubber: leather composites” – K. Ravichandran, N. Nachimuthu
(June 2005)
This journal infers that suitably neutralized leather wastes can assist the
addition of large quantities of scrap rubber into a virgin rubber matrix without
affecting the vulcanization characteristics seriously. The natural rubber-scrap
rubber compositions containing treated leather could be processed safely in the
temperature range of 140 - 150 °C without much reversion in the matrix.
Morphological studies of treated leather particles have revealed a loosely bound
structure when compared with the closely knitted fibrous structure of the untreated
leather.

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CHAPTER 3
COMPOSITE MATERIALS
The following materials were used in the preparation of composite samples:
3.1 LEATHER WASTE
3.1.1 LEATHER
Leather is a collective term for all hides and skins which have been tanned.
These can come from any type of animal. Because it is a by-product of the meat
industry most leather is produced from cow, sheep, goat and pigskin. There are
smaller amounts of deerskin and exotic leathers such as crocodile, lizard and the
like. The majority of leather products are made from cow-hide especially in the
upholstery trade as these provide the skin area needed to cut the largest panels.
The most common raw material is cattle hide. It can be produced at manufacturing
scales ranging from artisan to modern industrial scale. Leather is used to make a
variety of articles, including footwear, automobile seats, clothing, bags, book
bindings, fashion accessories, and furniture. It is produced in a wide variety of
types and styles and decorated by a wide range of techniques. The earliest record
of leather artifacts dates back to 2200 BC.
3.1.2 TANNING METHODS
Leather is mainly produced by tanning. The different tanning methods are: -

 Vegetable-tanned leather is tanned using tannins extracted from vegetable


matter, such as tree bark prepared in bark mills. It is the oldest known method.
It is supple and brown in color, with the exact shade depending on the mix of
materials and the color of the skin. The color tan derives its name from the
appearance of undyed vegetable-tanned leather. Vegetable-tanned leather is not

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stable in water; it tends to discolor, and if left to soak and then dry, it shrinks
and becomes harder. This is a feature of oak-bark-tanned leather that is
exploited in traditional shoemaking. In hot water, it shrinks drastically and
partly congeals, becoming rigid and eventually brittle. Boiled leather is an
example of this, where the leather has been hardened by being immersed in hot
water, or in boiled wax or similar substances. Historically, it was occasionally
used as armor after hardening, and it has also been used for book binding.
 Chrome-tanned leather, invented in 1858, is tanned using chromium
sulfate and other chromium salts . It is also known as "wet blue" for the pale
blue color of the undyed leather. The chrome tanning method usually takes
approximately one day to complete, making it best suited for large-scale
industrial use. This is the most common method in modern use. It is more
supple and pliable than vegetable-tanned leather and does not discolor or lose
shape as drastically in water as vegetable-tanned. However, there are
environmental concerns with this tanning method, as chromium is a heavy
metal.
 Aldehyde-tanned leather is tanned
using glutaraldehyde or oxazolidine compounds. It is referred to as "wet white"
due to its pale cream color. It is the main type of "chrome-free" leather, often
seen in shoes for infants and automobiles. Formaldehyde has been used for
tanning in the past; it is being phased out due to danger to workers and
sensitivity of many people to formaldehyde.
 Chamois leather is a form of aldehyde tanning that produces a porous and
highly water-absorbent leather. Chamois leather is made using marine oils

18
(traditionally cod oil) that oxidize to produce the aldehydes that tan the
leather.
 Brain tanned leathers are made by a labor-intensive process that uses
emulsified oils, often those of animal brains such as deer, cattle, and buffalo.
They are known for their exceptional softness and washability.
 Alum leather is transformed using aluminium salts mixed with a variety of
binders and protein sources, such as flour and egg yolk. Alum leather is not
actually tanned; rather the process is called "tawing", and the resulting material
reverts to rawhide if soaked in water long enough to remove the alum salts.
3.1.3 LEATHER GRADES

In general, leather is produced in the following grades:

 Top-grain leather includes the outer layer of the hide, known as the grain,
which features finer, more densely packed fibers, resulting in strength and
durability. Depending on thickness, it may also contain some of the more
fibrous under layer, known as the corium. Types of top-grain leather include:
 Full-grain leather contains the entire grain layer, without any removal of
the surface. Rather than wearing out, it develops a patina during its useful
lifetime. It is usually considered the highest quality leather. Furniture and
footwear are often made from full-grain leather. Full-grain leather is
typically finished with a soluble aniline dye. Russia leather is a form of full-
grain leather.
 Corrected grain leather has the surface subjected to finishing treatments to
create a more uniform appearance. This usually involves buffing or sanding
away flaws in the grain, then dyeing and embossing the surface.

19
 Nubuck is top-grain leather that has been sanded or buffed on the grain side
to give a slight nap of short protein fibers, producing a velvet-like surface.
 Split leather is created from the corium left once the top-grain has been
separated from the hide, known as the drop split. In thicker hides, the drop split
can be further split into a middle split and a flesh split.
 Suede is made from the underside of a split to create a soft, napped finish. It
is often made from younger or smaller animals, as the skins of adults often
result in a coarse, shaggy nap.
 Bicast leather is split leather that has a polyurethane or vinyl layer applied
to the surface and embossed to give it the appearance of a grain. It is slightly
stiffer than top-grain leather but has a more consistent texture.
 Patent leather is leather that has been given a high-gloss finish by the
addition of a coating. Dating to the late 1700s, it became widely popular
after inventor Seth Boyden developed the first mass-production process,
using a linseed oil-based lacquer, in Newark, New Jersey, in 1818. Modern
versions are usually a form of bicast leather.
 Bonded leather, also called reconstituted leather, is a material that uses leather
scraps that are shredded and bonded together with polyurethane or latex onto a
fiber mesh. The amount of leather fibers in the mix varies from 10% to 90%,
affecting the properties of the product.

20
3.1.4 LEATHER WASTE
The leather processing industry produces large amounts of solid organic
wastes in the form of un-tanned (trimmings , fleshings, splits) and tanned
(trimmings, splits and shavings) waste from raw hides and skins, semi-provessed
leather, as well as sludge as a result of wastewater treatment. If these solid wastes
are not properly treated and disposed of, they can cause environmental damage to
soil and groundwater as well as emissions of odour and poisonous greenhouse
gases into the atmosphere.
Young’s Density Poisson’s Tensile load Melting
Modulus (kg/m3) Ratio (N/mm2) temperature
(GPa) (°C)
0.51 108 0.81 24.3 117

Table 3.1.4 Properties of leather waste

3.2 EPOXY RESIN LY 556 AND HARDENER HY 951

3.2.1 INTRODUCTION

Epoxy is either any of the basic components or the cured end products of epoxy
resins, as well as a colloquial name for the epoxide functional group. Epoxy resins,
also known as polyepoxides, are a class of
reactive prepolymers and polymerswhich contain epoxide groups. Epoxy resins
may be reacted (cross-linked) either with themselves through catalytic
homopolymerisation, or with a wide range of co-reactants including polyfunctional
amines, acids (and acid anhydrides), phenols, alcohols and thiols (usually called
mercaptans). These co-reactants are often referred to as hardeners or curatives, and

21
the cross-linking reaction is commonly referred to as curing. Reaction of
polyepoxides with themselves or with polyfunctional hardeners forms
a thermosetting polymer, often with favorable mechanical properties and high
thermal and chemical resistance. Epoxy has a wide range of applications, including
metal coatings, use in electronics/electrical components/LEDs, high tension
electrical insulators, paint brush manufacturing, fiber-reinforced plastic materials
and structural adhesives.

3.2.2 EPOXY RESIN LY 556

Epoxy LY 556 is a Bisphenol – A based resin. It is commonly called


Araldite LY 556. It sets by the interaction with a hardener, often amine-based.
Heat is not necessary although warming will reduce the curing time and improve
the strength of the bond. After curing, the joint is impervious to boiling water and
all common organic solvents. Important epoxy resins are produced from
combining epichlorohydrin and bisphenol A to give bisphenol A diglycidyl ethers.
Increasing the ratio of bisphenol A to epichlorohydrin during manufacture
produces higher molecular weight linear polyethers with glycidyl end groups,
which are semi-solid to hard crystalline materials at room temperature depending
on the molecular weight achieved. This route of synthesis is known as the "taffy"
process. More modern manufacturing methods of higher molecular weight epoxy
resins is to start with liquid epoxy resin (LER) and add a calculated amount of
bisphenol A and then a catalyst is added and the reaction heated to circa 160 °C
(320 °F). This process is known as "advancement". There are numerous patents
and articles on this process which has been popular for over 20 years. As the
molecular weight of the resin increases, the epoxide content reduces and the

22
material behaves more and more like a thermoplastic. Very high molecular weight
polycondensates (ca. 30 000 – 70 000 g/mol) form a class known as phenoxy resins
and contain virtually no epoxide groups (since the terminal epoxy groups are
insignificant compared to the total size of the molecule). These resins do however
contain hydroxyl groups throughout the backbone, which may also undergo other
cross-linking reactions, e.g. with aminoplasts, phenoplasts and isocyanates.

Visual Colour Epoxy Viscosity Density Flash Storage


Aspects (Gardner, Content at 25 °C at 25 °C Point Temperature
ISO 4630) (eq/kg) (mPa s) (g/cm3) (°C) (°C)
Clear/Pale <=2 5.30 – 10000 - 1.15 – >200 2 - 40
yellow 5.45 12000 1.20
liquid

Table 3.2.2 Properties of Epoxy LY 556


3.2.3 Hardener HY 951

It is an amine-based hardener. It is commonly called Aradur HY 951. It is


compatible with epoxy Araldite LY 556, which is to be mixed in the ratio 10:1. It
can be used at room temperature. On their own, epoxy resins are very stable fluids
with relatively long shelf lives. It is only when mixed with an epoxy hardener that
they can cure properly. If applied onto a floor without the hardener, the resin
would remain a near liquid indefinitely and could not transform into a durable
flooring system. Unlike paints, which rely on the evaporation of moisture to
eventually harden into a thin film, an epoxy floor coating achieves its high

23
performance protective characteristics by undergoing a controlled chemical
reaction that occurs between carefully calibrated resin and hardener components.
Once the different elements of the floor coating are mixed together, some may
require “induction”, wherein they are left for 15-30 minutes to react to each other
and allow the chemical process to take place before installation. Still other systems
may have very short pot lives that demand the blended liquid be immediately
“ribboned” out onto the prepared concrete substrate and spread, since leaving the
mixed product as a mass in the bucket would further accelerate the reaction speed.
When this does occur, the container and contents can becomes very hot and in
some cases even begin to emit smoke as a result of the extreme molecular activity.
While individual component may be kept on the shelf for months or longer, once
the epoxy coating and hardener have been mixed, the contractor may have only 15
minutes to install the combined material. Multiple layers of product may be
installed, with the next coating being applied within a recoat window typically
falling within the 4 to 12 hour range. The method of application may vary, based
on the specific formula’s chemical makeup, thickness, and cure time.

Visual Viscosity at 25 Density at 25 Flash Point Storage


Aspects °C (mPa s) °C (g/cm3) (°C) Temperature
(°C)
Clear/Pale 10 - 20 0.98 110 2 - 40
yellow liquid

Table 3.2.3 Properties of Hardener HY 951

24
3.3 BEACH SAND

Sand is a loose granular material blanketing the beaches, riverbeds and


deserts of the world. Composed of different materials that vary depending on
location, sand comes in an array of colors including white, black, green and even
pink. The most common component of sand is silicon dioxide in the form of
quartz. The Earth's landmasses are made up of rocks and minerals, including
quartz, feldspar and mica.

Weathering processes — such as wind, rain and freezing/thawing cycles — break


down these rocks and minerals into smaller grains. Unlike some other minerals,
quartz is hard, insoluble in water and doesn't decompose easily from the
weathering processes. Streams, rivers and wind transport quartz particles to the
seashore, where the quartz accumulates as light-colored beach sand. (Although
continental sand is composed mostly of quartz, it also contains bits of feldspar and
other rock fragments.)

Tropical islands, such as the Hawaiian Islands, don't have a rich source of quartz,
so the sand is different in those locations. The beach sand on tropical islands often
looks white because it is made up of calcium carbonate, which comes from the
shells and skeletons of reef-living marine organisms, including corals, mollusks
and microorganisms called foraminifera. Sand forms when the reef breaks down,
either by mechanical forces — such as waves and currents — or from bio-erosion
caused by grazing fish, urchins and other marine life. The famous pink sand of
Bermuda is also composed of eroded calcium carbonate; the sand gets its ruddy
hue from the abundant red foraminifera, Homotrema rubrum. Tropical beaches

25
may also have black sand, which is composed of black volcanic glass. Sometimes,
erosive forces separate the mineral olivine from other volcanic fragments, leading
to green sand beaches, such as Hawaii's Papakōlea Beach.
Specific Particle Size Minimum dry Maximum Critical state
Gravity d10, d50, d60 density dry density friction angle
(mm) (kg/m3) (kg/m3) (°)
2.65 0.10, 0.19, 1461 1774 30
0.22

Table 3.3 Properties of Beach Sand


3.4 TEA WASTE
Tea is one of the most popular beverages in the world and is professed as
being healthy. Statistics indicate that the annual tea production in the world
reached about 4.5 million tons. Mainly tea is obtained from the leaves of Camellia
sinensis L. Spent tea leaves (STL) remain after the preparation of tea and result as
a solid waste product. Waste tea not only pollutes the environment but also
represents a loss of valuable resource. To tackle this problem, during the past few
decades, some researchers investigated the possibility of exploiting STL as
adsorbents for synthetic dyes and toxic metals, bio-energy, and as reinforcing filler
for construction and polymer composites.
Moisture Content Specific Surface Specific gravity True bulk
(%) Area (m2/g) Density (g/cm3)
11.85 174.8 0.286 1.02

Table 3.4 Properties of Tea waste

26
3.5 GLASS FIBRE
Glass fiber also called fiberglass. It is material made from extremely
fine fibers of glass Fiberglass is a lightweight, extremely strong, and robust
material. Although strength properties are somewhat lower than carbon fiber and it
is less stiff, the material is typically far less brittle, and the raw materials are much
less expensive. Its bulk strength and weight properties are also very favorable
when compared to metals, and it can be easily formed using molding processes.
Glass is the oldest, and most familiar, performance fiber. Fibers have been
manufactured from glass since the 1930s. They have been one of the most
frequently used filler materials in composites due to their low weight and high
tensile strength as well as resistance to chemical and thermal attack. The type used
in the project is class E fibre, due to its low cost and nigh - chemical resistive
nature.
Tensile Compressive Density Thermal Softening
Strength Strength (g/cm3) Expansion Temperature
(MPa) (MPa) (μm/m°C) (°C)
3445 1080 2.58 5 846

Table 3.5 Properties of Glass fibre

27
CHAPTER 4

PROJECT WORK PLAN

Literature & Journal references

Site Selection

Material Purchase

Mould making

Preparation of composite (using hand layup)

Testing

Calculations and Analysis

Result compilation

Report Generation

28
CHAPTER 5

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE

5.1 MOULD MAKING

The prerequisite of any composite preparation process lies within the


process of mould making. It is important to satisfy the various parameters of the
mould to ensure that the composite formed is free of any irregularity or crevices.
The mould is made out of mild steel sheets. The preparation stage consists of the
following stages: -

 DEMARCATING
The sheet metal of the required length is demarcated along its length to be ready
for the cutting operation.

Fig. 5.1.1 Demarcating process

29
 CUTTING
After marking, the sheet metal is cut along the marked contours using a cutting
vice.

Fig. 5.1.2 Cutting process

 BENDING

The cut sheet metal is again marked along the edges to be bent. It is then bent to
the required dimensions using a vice and mallet. A minimum of four moulds had
been prepared for the composite making process.

30
Fig. 5.1.3 The prepared mould

5.2 COMPOSITE PREPARATION


The composite was prepared using hand layup method. Initially, the mould
is prepared by cleaning its inner surfaces off dirt and oils using wet wipes. It is
then placed on a smooth wooden work surface and the base is taped using cello
tape to prevent the resin mixture from seeping out and also to hold the mould into
place. The mould is coated with a layer of buffing wax and butter paper is placed
onto it to aid in easier removal of the composite.

31
Fig. 5.2.1 Laying the filler materials

The resin and hardener are mixed thoroughly in the ratio 10:1 in batches and the
first layer of resin is poured into the mould. The mould set up is tilted along the
sides to distribute the resin evenly. Then, calculated amounts of the filler materials
are laid up onto the resin, followed by another layer of resin mixture. It is to be
kept in mind that the resin mixture is to soak the filler materials thoroughly,
otherwise this could lead to formation of air bubbles and eventually weaken the
composite internally.

Fig. 5.2.2 Applying resin onto filler material

32
The layers of resin-filler materials are laid up until the mixture reached a thickness
of about a centimeter, the last layer of resin is poured and the surface is
smoothened using a roller. It is then shaken moderately to remove any air bubbles.
A slab of brick is placed onto the composite mixture to compress it and remove
further air bubbles.

Fig. 5.2.3 Weight placed on apparatus

The set up is left to cure at ambient temperature where a temperature rise is


observed, within the range of 90 – 140 °C, hot to the touch but insufficient enough
to burn the filler materials. The curing time lasted for about two days to yield
better results. Similarly, the other composites of varying filler materials were
prepared.

33
Fig. 5.2.4 One of the prepared composites

For the hardness testing and study purpose, a separate batch of samples (using a
combination of leather waste and other fillers without glass fibre) were prepared,
this time using a plastic disposable cup as the mould. The samples were about 5 cm
in diameter and approximately 1 cm thick.

Fig. 5.2.5 The prepared composites for hardness testing

34
The samples were subjected to the following tests: -

 Flexural Test
 Tensile test
 Impact Test
 Hardness test

5.3 THE TESTS

5.3.1 FLEXURAL TEST


Flexural test, or compression test, is designated by the code ASTM D790.
These test methods cover the determination of flexural properties of unreinforced
and reinforced plastics, including high-modulus composites and electrical
insulating materials in the form of rectangular bars molded directly or cut from
sheets, plates, or molded shapes. These test methods are generally applicable to
both rigid and semi-rigid materials. However, flexural strength cannot be
determined for those materials that do not break or that do not fail in the outer
surface of the test specimen within the 5.0 % strain limit of these test methods.
These test methods utilize a three-point loading system applied to a simply
supported beam. The flexural testing machine for three point loading system is
shown below.

35
Fig. 5.3.1 Flexural Test Machine

5.3.2 TENSILE TEST


It is designated by the code ASTM D638. This test method is designed to
produce tensile property data for the control and specification of plastic materials.
These data are also useful for qualitative characterization and for research and
development. Some material specifications that require the use of this test method,
but with some procedural modifications that take precedence when adhering to the
specification. Therefore, it is advisable to refer to that material specification before
using this test method. Tensile properties are known to vary with specimen
preparation and with speed and environment of testing. Consequently, where
precise comparative results are desired, these factors must be carefully controlled.
The tensile testing machine apparatus is shown below.

36
Fig. 5.3.2 Tensile Testing Machine

5.3.3 IMPACT TEST


One of the most common tests, of the physical characteristics of plastic
materials is the notched Izod impact test as specified by ASTM D 256 Standard
Test Method for Determining the Izod Pendulum Impact Resistance of Plastics.
This test fixes one end of a notched specimen in a cantilever position by means of
a vice. A striker on the arm of a pendulum or similar energy carrier then strikes the
specimen. The energy absorbed by the specimen in the breaking process is known
as the breaking energy. The breaking energy can be converted into an indication of
a materials impact resistance using such units as foot-pounds or joules. While use
of the data generated from a test for designing a part is not necessarily
recommended, it still provides reasonable service as a quality control tool. Most
US resin manufacturers have years of Izod test data and many customers are
accustomed to selecting product based on the data.

37
5.3.4 HARDNESS TEST
Shore hardness is a measure of the resistance of a material to penetration of
a spring loaded needle-like indenter. Hardness of Polymers (rubbers, plastics) is
usually measured by Shore scales. Hardness of hard elastomers and most other
polymer materials (Thermoplastics, Thermosets) is measured by Shore D scale.
Shore hardness is tested with an instrument called Durometer, which utilizes an
indenter loaded by a calibrated spring. The measured hardness is determined by the
penetration depth of the indenter under the load. Two different indenter shapes (see
the picture below) and two different spring loads are used for two Shore scales (A
and D). The loading forces of Shore A: 1.812 lb (822 g), Shore D: 10 lb (4536 g).
Shore hardness value may vary in the range from 0 to 100. Maximum penetration
for each scale is 0.097-0.1 inch (2.5-2.54 mm). This value corresponds to
minimum Shore hardness: 0. Maximum hardness value 100 corresponds to zero
penetration.

38
CHAPTER 6

CALCULATIONS

6.1 GENERAL SPECFICATIONS

The various amounts of materials used were weighed using a beaker and
portable digital weighing machine and the values were tabulated and calculated.
Parameters Composite Slab Composite Pellets
Dimensions (cm) 23 x 23 x 0.7 5 (dia) x 1 (thickness)
Volume (m3) 370.3 x 10-6 1.57 x 10-6

Table 6.1 Specifications of slabs

Weight of 1 L resin bottle = 1.071 kg

Resin density = Mass/Volume

= 1.071/1x10-5

= 1071 kg/m3

6.2 LEATHER WASTE + GLASS FIBRE COMPOSITE SLAB (SAMPLE 1)

Weight of slab = 398 g

Weight of resin used = 321.3 g

% weight of resin in slab = 321.3x100/398

= 80.72 %

Weight of glass fibres of size 23x23 cm = 60 g

% weight of glass fibre = 60/398

39
= 15.07 %

Weight of leather waste used = 16.67 g

% weight of leather waste = 16.67/398

= 4.1 %

Ratio L:G:E = 4.1 : 15.07 : 80.72

Simplified ratio (with respect to leather waste) = 1 : 3.67 : 19.68

6.3 BEACH SAND + LEATHER WASTE COMPOSITE SLAB (SAMPLE 2)

Using the same formula, the ratio was calculated to be 1 : 2.44 : 0.68

6.4 LEATHER WASTE + GLASS FIBRE + TEA WASTE COMPOSITE


SLAB (SAMPLE 3)

Using the same formula, the ratio was calculated to be 1 : 1.2 : 0.55 : 3.01

Table 6.2 TABULATION OF RESULTS

Composite Percentage of fillers used (% by weight) Weight Ratio (With


Leatherwaste Beach Tea Glass Resin of slab respect to
Sand Waste Fibre (g) leather
waste)
Sample 1 4.1 - - 15.07 80.72 398 1 : 3.67 : 19.68
Sample 2 23.5 57.5 - - 16 902 1 : 2.44 : 0.68
Sample 3 18 - 21.7 9.9 54.2 603.2 1: 1.2 : 0.55 :
3.01

40
CHAPTER 7

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

7.1 FLEXURAL TEST


The flexural tests were carried out using computerized universal testing
machine as per ASTM standards. The machine utilizes a three point loading system
applied on a specimen of simply supported configuration. Three specimens are
used for the test and the value is tabulated and the graph is generated. Fig. 7.1.1
shows the ASTM D790 standard dimensions, which is used for the testing purpose.

Fig 7.1.1 Specimen dimensions for flexural/bending test (mm)


And accordingly, the samples are prepared to dimensions as shown in fig 7.1.2.

Fig 7.1.2 The prepared samples (after testing)

41
The flexural tests of the three composite slabs are observed in the following results
accordingly: -
SAMPLE 1

42
SAMPLE 2

43
SAMPLE 3

44
The flexural tests of the three composite slabs are summarized in the graph below:

Flexural Load (kN)


1.2

0.95 0.98
1

0.8 0.72

0.6
Flexural Load (kN)

0.4

0.2

0
Sample 1 Sample 2 Sample 3

Fig. 7.1.3 Flexural Test Graph

From the graph, it can be seen that the sample 2 (beach sand + leather waste) has a
higher value of flexural load as compared to the samples 1 (leather waste + glass
fibre) and samples 3 (Leather waste + glass fibre + tea waste) The addition of tea
waste causes a reduction in the flexural load, while the inclusion of sand
contributes to the higher flexural durability.
Furthermore, the reason for the reduction in the flexural durability in sample 3
could be due to the presence of milk particles, which easily break down and cause
weakening of the resin-fibre bond. Since complete purification of the tea waste is a
tedious and expensive process, it is used powdered and untreated.

45
7.2 TENSILE TEST
The tensile tests were carried out using computerized universal testing
machine as per ASTM standards. Three samples of each specimen are used for
each test and average value is reported. The fig. 7.2 shows the ASTM D638
standard dimensions, which is used for the testing purpose.

Fig 7.2.1 Specimen dimensions for tensile test (mm)


And accordingly, the samples are prepared to dimensions as shown in fig 7.2.2.

Fig 7.2.2 The prepared samples (after testing)

46
The tensile tests of the three composite slabs are observed in the following results
accordingly: -
SAMPLE 1

47
SAMPLE 2

48
SAMPLE 3

49
The tensile tests of the three composite slabs are summarized in the graph below:
60
Tensile Test Parameters
51.75
50

40

30 Fmax (kN)
UTS (MPa)

20 18.71

9.18
10

3.51
1.61 2.39

0
Sample 1 Sample 2 Sample 3

Fig. 7.2.3 Tensile Test Graph

From the graph, it can be seen that the sample 1 (Leather waste + glass fibre) has a
higher value of tensile strength as compared to the samples 2 (beach sand + leather
waste) and samples 3 (Leather waste + glass fibre + tea waste), while Fmax also
tends to vary respectively in the samples. The inclusion of beach sand or tea waste
did not contribute to higher tensile durability. Instead the beach sand contributed
its brittle nature in sample 2, which has the lowest value of tensile durability.

50
7.3 IMPACT TEST
The load is applied as an impact blow from a weighted pendulum
hammer that is released from a position at a fixed height h. The specimen is
positioned at the base and with the release of pendulum, which has a knife edge,
strikes and fractures the specimen at the notch. The dimensions of a standard
specimen for ASTM D256 are 63.5 × 12.7 × 3.2 mm (2.5 × 0.5 × 0.125 in). The
most common specimen thickness is 3.2 mm (0.13 in), but the width can vary
between 3.0 and 12.7 mm (0.12 and 0.50 in).

Fig 7.3.1 Specimen dimensions for Izod test


And accordingly, the samples are prepared to dimensions as shown in fig 7.2.2.

Fig 7.3.2 The prepared samples (after testing)

51
The impact tests of the three composite specimens are observed in the following
results accordingly: -
Parameter Sample 1 Sample 2 Sample 3
Impact Values 12 2 10
(Joules)
Table 7.3.1 Impact Test values
The impact tests of the three composite slabs are summarized in the graph below:

Impact Values (Joules)


14
12
12
10
10

6 Impact Values (Joules)

4
2
2

0
Sample 1 Sample 2 Sample 3

Fig. 7.3.3 Impact Test Graph

From the above data, it can be seen that sample 1 (Leather waste + Glass fibre) has
the highest impact strength of 12 J as compared to sample 3 (Leather waste + Glass
fibre + tea waste) and sample 2 (beach sand + leather waste). The brittle nature of
the sand caused the sample 2 to break off easily at just 2 J. The tea waste in sample
3 added to the toughness and was able to hold the sample together until 10 J.

52
7.4 HARDNESS TEST
Durometer Hardness is used to determine the relative hardness of soft
materials, usually plastic or rubber. The test measures the penetration of a specified
indentor into the material under specified conditions of force and time. The
hardness value is often used to identify or specify a particular hardness of
elastomers or as a quality control measure on lots of material. The specimen is first
placed on a hard flat surface. The indenter for the instrument is then pressed into
the specimen making sure that it is parallel to the surface. The hardness is read
within one second (or as specified by the customer) of firm contact with the
specimen. The test specimens are generally 6.4mm (¼ in) thick. It is possible to
pile several specimens to achieve the 6.4mm thickness, but one specimen is
preferred.

Fig 7.4.1 Shore D hardness test

53
The hardness tests of the three composite specimens are observed in the following
results accordingly: -
Parameter Sample 1 Sample 2 Sample 3
Shore D hardness 52 42 44
Table 7.4.1 Hardness Test values
The hardness tests of the three composite slabs are summarized in the graph below:

Shore D hardness
60

50

40

30
Shore D hardness
20

10

0
Sample 1 Sample 2 Sample 3

Fig. 7.4.3 Hardness Test Graph

From the above data, it can be seen that sample 1 (Leather waste + Glass fibre) has
the highest hardness of 52 as compared to sample 3 (Leather waste + Glass fibre +
tea waste) and sample 2 (beach sand + leather waste). The inclusion of beach sand
reduced the toughness of the material, while the tea waste contributed to the high
hardness value of the sample 3 due to the rich tannin content in it.

54
7.5 OVERALL COMPARISON
The overall comparison of the various parameters of the three composite
specimens can be summarized as follows: -
Parameter Sample 1 Sample 2 Sample 3
Tensile load (kN) 3.51 1.61 2.39
Tensile Strength 51.75 9.18 18.71
(MPa)
Flexural Load 0.95 0.98 0.72
(kN)
Impact values 12 2 10
(Joules)
Shore D hardness 52 42 44
Fig 7.5.1 The observed values of the specimens
The graphs of the above data can be summarized as follows: -
60

51.75 52
50
44
42
40
Tensile Load (kN)
Tensile Strength (MPa)
30
Flexural Load (Kn)

18.71 Impact Values (J)


20
Shore D Hardness
12
9.18
10
3.51 2.39
0.95 1.61 0.98 0.72
0
Sample 1 Sample 2 Sample 3

55
CHAPTER 8
COST ESTIMATION

S. No DESCRIPTION QUANTITY COST (Rs.)


1 Epoxy Resin LY 2 kg
556 1320
2 Hardener HY 951 200 g
3 Glass fibre fabric 1 (1.5 m x 1.5 m) 500
4 Leather waste 1 kg Collected from tannery
5 Roller 1 50
6 Brush 1 20
7 Buffing Wax 200 g 150
8 Measuring Cup 1 88
(500 ml)
9 Polythene Sheets 2 40
10 Gloves 6 160
11 Testing 3 specimens 3100
Total 5428

Table 10.1 Cost Estimation table

56
CHAPTER 9
CONCLUSION

The present investigation dealt with the preparation of leather waste, sand and used
tea powder composites through the hand layup method. The flexural, bending,
hardness and impact tests of the specimens were tested and their results were
compared. The conclusions based on the current work on the preparation and
analysis of composites laced with leather waste, beach sand and tea waste are as
follows: -
The inclusion of beach sand in the composite resulted in the increase in flexural
load and composite weight but reduction in other properties such as tensile
strength, hardness etc. The addition of tea waste and leather waste to the composite
resulted in a slight enhancement of strength properties. The tea waste increased the
hardness of the composite but at the same time, decreased the flexural load. The
use of leather waste and glass fibre alone was sufficient as there was enormous
increase in the tensile strength as compared to the other two samples. The use of
leather waste in the composite led to the increase in mechanical properties. Sample
1 (4.1 % LW, 15.07 % GF) had an impact energy of about 12 J, which can be
compared to the impact strength of steel (16 J), followed by sample 3 (18 % LW,
21.7 % STL, 9.9% GF) having impact energy of 10 J and sample 2 (23.5 % LW,
54.5 % S) the lowest of the three with impact energy of 2 J. Thus the Sample 1
composite was found to be the best, when compared with the other two samples.
The resulting composite can be implemented in the use of floor tiles, as heat seals
in refrigerators and air conditioners, as well as wall linings in theatre halls.

57
CHAPTER 9
APPENDIX

58
59
60
61
62
63
64
CHAPTER 10

REFERENCES

1. “Processing and characterization of waste leather based


polycaprolactone biocomposites” –Seena Joseph, Tushar Ambone, E.
Deenadayalan, et al (December 2015)
2. “Polymer sand composites based on the mixed and heavily
contaminated thermoplastic waste” – I. Slieptsova, B. Savchenko, N.
Sova, A. Slieptsov (2015)
3. “Epoxy-silica particulate nanocomposites: Chemical interactions
reinforcement and fracture toughness” - G. Ragostaa, M. Abbatea, et al
(August 2005)
4. “Natural rubber/leather waste composite foam: A new eco-friendly
material and recycling approach” - Nelissa Garcia, Deuber Lincon
Agostini, et al (November 2014)
5. “Preparation and characterization of leather polymer composites” –
Om Kumar, A. Suresh Babu, Jacob Moses Anbiah (August 2015)
6. “Utilization of Spent Tea Leaves and Waste Plastics for Composite
Boards” – Juanito P Jimenez Jr., Erlinda Mari, Edgaro M. Vilena, Rico J.
Cabangon (January 2013)

65
7. “Effects of spent tea leaf powder on the properties and functions of
cellulose green composite films” - J. Duan, K. Obi Reddy, B. Ashok, et al
(March 2016
8. “Physical and Sound Absorption Properties of Spent Tea Leaf Fiber
Filled Polyurethane Foam Composite” - Qumrul Ahsan, Chia Pooi
Ching, Mohammed Yuhazri bin Yaakob (October 2014)
9. https://www.florock.net/2017/09/epoxy-hardeners-use/
10.http://www.mdp.eng.cam.ac.uk/web/library/enginfo/cueddatabooks/material
s.pdf
11.http://www.neumannleathers.com/leatherinfo.htm

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