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For other uses, see Romania (disambiguation).

Coordinates: 46�N 25�E


Romania

Rom�nia (Romanian)
Flag of Romania
Flag
{{{coat_alt}}}
Coat of arms
Anthem: "De?teapta-te, rom�ne!"
(English: "Awaken thee, Romanian!")
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Location of Romania (dark green)

� in Europe (green & dark grey)


� in the European Union (green) � [Legend]
Capital
and largest city
Bucharest
44�25'N 26�06'E
Official languages Romanian[1]
Recognised minority
languages[2]
See here
[show]
Ethnic groups (2011[3])

88.9% Romanians
6.1% Hungarians
3.3% Roma
0.2% Ukrainians
0.2% Germans

Demonym(s) Romanian
Government Unitary semi-presidential
republic
� President
Klaus Iohannis
� Prime Minister
Viorica Dancila
Legislature Parliament
� Upper house
Senate
� Lower house
Chamber of Deputies
Establishment history
� First Romanian polities
9th century / 1247a
� Principality of Wallachia
1330
� Principality of Moldavia
c. 1360
� Principality of Transylvania
1570
� First common rule under Michael the Brave
1600
� United Principalitiesb
24 January 1859
� Independence from
the Ottoman Empire
9 May 1877 / 1878c
� Kingdom of Romania
14 March 1881
� Greater Romaniad
1918 / 1920e
Area
� Total
238,397 km2 (92,046 sq mi) (81st)
� Water (%)
3
Population
� 2019 estimate
Decrease 19,518,117[4] (59th)
� 2011 census
20,121,641[3] (58th)
� Density
84.4/km2 (218.6/sq mi) (117th)
GDP (PPP) 2019 estimate
� Total
$543.169 billion[5] (41st)
� Per capita
$27,653[5] ( 57th)
GDP (nominal) 2019 estimate
� Total
$248.838 billion[5] (48th)
� Per capita
$12,668[5] ( 62nd)
Gini (2017) Positive decrease 35.9[6]
medium
HDI (2017) Increase 0.811[7]
very high � 52nd
Currency Romanian Leu (RON)
Time zone UTC+2 (EET)
� Summer (DST)
UTC+3 (EEST)
Date format dd.mm.yyyy (AD)
Driving side right
Calling code +40
Patron saint Saint Andrew
ISO 3166 code RO
Internet TLD .rof

Gelou ruled Transylvania around 895, according to the Gesta Hungarorum (a late
source of debated credibility); contemporaneous sources first write about Romanian
polities (in Muntenia and Oltenia) in 1247.
The double election of Alexandru Ioan Cuza in Moldavia and Wallachia
(respectively, 5 and 24 January 1859).
Independence proclaimed on 9 May 1877, internationally recognized in 1878.
Romania in the interwar period, following the proclamation of the union in 1918
inlcuding Bessarabia, Bukovina, Transylvania, parts of Banat, Cri?ana and
Maramure?, established after the Paris Peace Conference closing World War I in
1920.
Monarchy was abolished on 30 December 1947 upon the proclamation of the
People's Republic and was changed with the new constitution upon its adoption on 21
August 1965 as the Socialist Republic. The Communist regime fell on 22 December
1989, the new democratic government was installed on 20 May 1990 and the new post-
communist constitution was adopted on 21 November 1991. Romania joined the European
Union on 1 January 2007.
Also .eu, shared with other European Union member states.

Romania (/ro?'me?ni?/ (About this soundlisten) ro-MAY-nee-?; Romanian: Rom�nia


[rom?'ni.a] (About this soundlisten)) is a country located at the crossroads of
Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe. It borders the Black Sea to the
southeast, Bulgaria to the south, Ukraine to the north, Hungary to the west, Serbia
to the southwest, and Moldova to the east. It has a predominantly temperate-
continental climate. With a total area of 238,397 square kilometres (92,046 sq mi),
Romania is the 12th largest country and also the 7th most populous member state of
the European Union, having almost 20 million inhabitants. Its capital and largest
city is Bucharest, and other major urban areas include Cluj-Napoca, Timi?oara, Ia?
i, Constan?a, Craiova, and Bra?ov.

The River Danube, Europe's second-longest river, rises in Germany's Black Forest
and flows in a general southeast direction for 2,857 km (1,775 mi), coursing
through ten countries before emptying into Romania's Danube Delta. The Carpathian
Mountains, which cross Romania from the north to the southwest, include Moldoveanu
Peak, at an altitude of 2,544 m (8,346 ft).[8]

Modern Romania was formed in 1859 through a personal union of the Danubian
Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia. The new state, officially named Romania
since 1866, gained independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1877. Following World
War I, when Romania fought on the side of the Allied powers, Bukovina, Bessarabia,
Transylvania as well as parts of Banat, Cri?ana, and Maramure? became part of the
sovereign Kingdom of Romania. In June�August 1940, as a consequence of the
Molotov�Ribbentrop Pact and Second Vienna Award, Romania was compelled to cede
Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina to the Soviet Union, and Northern Transylvania to
Hungary. In November 1940, Romania signed the Tripartite Pact and, consequently, in
June 1941 entered World War II on the Axis side, fighting against the Soviet Union
until August 1944, when it joined the Allies and recovered Northern Transylvania.
Following the war, under the occupation of the Red Army's forces, Romania became a
socialist republic and member of the Warsaw Pact. After the 1989 Revolution,
Romania began a transition back towards democracy and a market economy.

The sovereign state of Romania is a developing country[9][10] and ranks 52nd in the
Human Development Index.[11] It has the world's 47th largest economy by nominal GDP
and an annual economic growth rate of 7% (2017), the highest in the EU at the time.
[12] Following rapid economic growth in the early 2000s, Romania has an economy
predominantly based on services, and is a producer and net exporter of machines and
electric energy, featuring companies like Automobile Dacia and OMV Petrom. It has
been a member of the United Nations since 1955, part of NATO since 2004, and part
of the European Union since 2007. An overwhelming majority of the population
identifies themselves as Eastern Orthodox Christians and are native speakers of
Romanian, a Romance language.