TO THE TEACHER

Enclosed is your Olympian Gods Teaching Packet. It replaces the Intermediate/Middle School Teaching Packet and the Primary Readiness Packet. The overall theme of this packet is the Greek pantheon: Zeus, Hera, Hestia, Hephaestus, Aphrodite, Ares, Athena, Poseidon, Apollo, Artemis, Hermes, Hades, Demeter, and Dionysus.

Although some material is reprinted from the previous packets, many of the activities in this packet are new. Some of the new activities are specifically keyed by page number to d’Aulaires’ Book of Greek Myths in order to help teachers prepare their students for the National Mythology Exam. Other activities and informational pages are included for enrichment or extension. All materials are geared toward children in grades three and above, and they include a variety of activities for different levels of mythological expertise. The stories and activities supplement and complement myths found in d’Aulaires’ Book of Greek Myths.

Additional packets are available from the Excellence Through Classics Committee. They focus on the current theme of the National Mythology Exam and provide activities which reinforce and enrich that theme. These thematic materials are also appropriate for children in grades three and above. The thematic teaching packets currently available are Perseus and Mythological Monsters, The Underworld, Ancient Beginnings, Heracles, Jason, Theseus, and Transformations.

The rewards of studying mythology are many. Knowledge of mythology increases the appreciation of literary reference, provides a basis for the understanding of art, aids in the acquisition of vocabulary, and helps to create historical perspective. An interest in mythology can be a springboard to the study of foreign language, comparative mythology, anthropology, literature, art history, and world history.

As you invite mythology into your classroom, it is our hope that you and your children will find these packets enjoyable and useful.

THE OLYMPIAN GODS
TABLE OF CONTENTS* Olympian Overview
The Olympians: A Brief Introduction or Review ........................................................................ 1 Pronunciation Guide ................................................................................................................. 4 The Olympians: Appearance and Attributes ............................................................................. 5 Family Tree ............................................................................................................................... 7 Naming the Planets ................................................................................................................. 10 Plan a Planet ........................................................................................................................... 12 Make a Planet Mobile .............................................................................................................. 13 A Dictionary of Gods and Goddesses ...................................................................................... 14 The Gods and Goddesses of Ancient Greece and Rome ....................................................... 15 Greek Name / Roman Name Matching .................................................................................... 21 Symbols of the Gods and Goddesses ..................................................................................... 22

In the Beginning / Zeus / Hestia
In the Beginning Matching ....................................................................................................... 24 Three Puzzles About the War .................................................................................................. 25 In the Beginning Crossword Puzzle ......................................................................................... 28 Out of Chaos Crossword Puzzle .............................................................................................. 31 In the Beginning Word Search ................................................................................................. 33 The End of the War Word Search ............................................................................................ 35 Gaea and Uranus Picture ........................................................................................................ 37 Titanomachy ............................................................................................................................ 38 Musical Mythology: Zeus ........................................................................................................ 48 Hestia, Goddess of the Hearth ................................................................................................ 49 Musical Mythology: Vesta ....................................................................................................... 50 Review #1 ................................................................................................................................ 51

Hera
Hera Crossword Puzzle ........................................................................................................... 54 Transformations ...................................................................................................................... 56 Musical Mythology: Juno ........................................................................................................ 58

Hephaestus
Musical Mythology: Hephaestus ............................................................................................. 59 Hephaestus Activity ................................................................................................................. 60 More Hephaestus Activities ..................................................................................................... 62 Where is Lemnos? .................................................................................................................. 63 Hephaestus Picture ................................................................................................................. 65

Aphrodite
Animals and Monsters ............................................................................................................. 66 More Detailed Information About Aphrodite ............................................................................. 68 More Myths About Aphrodite ................................................................................................... 69 Musical Mythology: Venus....................................................................................................... 70 Aphrodite Picture ..................................................................................................................... 71
*NOTE: Answer Keys follow most activities.

TABLE OF CONTENTS* (continued) Ares
All of Zeus’ Relatives ............................................................................................................... 72 Who Could I Be? #1 ................................................................................................................. 73 Hephaestus / Aphrodite / Ares Crossword Puzzle ................................................................... 75 Hera / Hephaestus / Aphrodite / Ares Word Search ................................................................. 77 Bingo Game #1 ....................................................................................................................... 79 Musical Mythology: Mars ........................................................................................................ 83 The Wounding of Ares ............................................................................................................. 84

Athena
Musical Mythology: Athena...................................................................................................... 85 Think About Athena ................................................................................................................. 86 Arachne the Weaver ................................................................................................................ 87 Hanging By a Thread ............................................................................................................... 88 Athena Double Puzzle ............................................................................................................. 89 Musical Mythology: Arachne ................................................................................................... 91 Derivatives from “The Itsy-Bitsy Spider” .................................................................................. 92 Name That Spider ................................................................................................................... 93 Pom-Pom Spiders ................................................................................................................... 94

Poseidon
Athena / Poseidon Crossword Puzzle ..................................................................................... 95 Relationships ........................................................................................................................... 98 Athena / Poseidon Word Search ........................................................................................... 100 Who Could I Be? #2 .............................................................................................................. 102 Analogies .............................................................................................................................. 103 Musical Mythology: Neptune ................................................................................................ 105 The Contest for Athens – A Retelling .................................................................................... 106 Why Was it Better? ................................................................................................................ 107 Water, Water, Everywhere .................................................................................................... 108 Some Facts About Water ...................................................................................................... 109 Oil or Water? ......................................................................................................................... 110 Poseidon Picture ................................................................................................................... 111 Review #2 ............................................................................................................................. 112

Apollo / Artemis
Apollo / Artemis Crossword Puzzle ........................................................................................ 116 Apollo Word Pieces ............................................................................................................... 118 Artemis Word Pieces ............................................................................................................. 119 True Statements Apollo / Artemis ........................................................................................... 120 Bingo Game #2 ..................................................................................................................... 123 Musical Mythology: Apollo .................................................................................................... 126 Musical Mythology: Artemis.................................................................................................... 127 Artemis and Actaeon: Write Your Own Ending ..................................................................... 128 Make Artemis’ Stag and Quiver ............................................................................................. 129 Artemis and Actaeon Maze ................................................................................................... 130 Artemis and Actaeon Picture ................................................................................................. 131 Daphne and Apollo: A Retelling ............................................................................................ 132 Musical Mythology: Apollo and Daphne ................................................................................ 134 Apollo and Daphne Puppets................................................................................................... 135
*NOTE: Answer Keys follow most activities.

TABLE OF CONTENTS* (continued) Hermes
Word Search – Hermes ......................................................................................................... 137 Hermes Crossword ................................................................................................................ 139 Hermes Double Puzzle .......................................................................................................... 141 Mythological Names Rebus ................................................................................................... 142 Musical Mythology: Mercury ................................................................................................. 144 The Caduceus ....................................................................................................................... 145 Activities for Hermes and Apollo ............................................................................................ 146 Apollo and Hermes Picture .................................................................................................... 147

Hades / Demeter
The Underworld Double Puzzle ............................................................................................. 148 Who Could I Be? #3 ............................................................................................................... 149 Demeter / Hades Crossword ................................................................................................. 151 Hermes / Hades / Demeter Cloze Exercise ........................................................................... 153 Musical Mythology: Ceres .................................................................................................... 157 Musical Mythology: Hades and Persephone.......................................................................... 158 Home Sweet Home ................................................................................................................ 159 Write About Cerberus ............................................................................................................ 161 Constellations ........................................................................................................................ 162 Demeter Activities ................................................................................................................. 164 Demeter and Triptolemus Picture .......................................................................................... 165 Review #3 ............................................................................................................................. 166

General Mythology
Mythology Rap ...................................................................................................................... 170 Mythology Project: Teacher Information ............................................................................... 171 Mythology Project: Student Information ................................................................................ 172 Special Section on Cooperative Work ................................................................................... 176 Why Do We Say That? .......................................................................................................... 185 Words from the Gods: A Dictionary and Research Skills Activity ........................................... 187 General Bibliography For Classical Mythology ...................................................................... 190
* NOTE: Answer Keys follow most activities.

Illustrations on the cover sheet and pages 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 21, 22, 24, 28, 33, 35, 38, 48, 49, 50, 54, 56, 58, 59, 60, 62, 66, 68, 69, 70, 72, 73, 75, 77, 83, 84, 85, 87, 88, 89, 91, 93, 95, 100, 102, 105, 109, 110, 116, 118, 119, 126, 127, 128, 133, 134, 137, 139, 141, 142, 144, 145, 146, 148, 149, 151, 154, 155, 157, 158, 159, 161, 164, 170, 177, 178, 179, 180, 181, 182, 183, and 185 are from Clipart.com School Edition. The use of these pictures is authorized by the agreement between the subscriber and JUPITERIMAGES. These pictures have been printed in accordance with the site terms

OLYMPIAN OVERVIEW

The Olympians: A Brief Introduction or Review
THE CHILDREN OF THE TITANS, CRONUS AND RHEA
ZEUS Roman Name: Jupiter or Jove Zeus became the king of the Olympian gods after the battle with the Titans. He rules the upper air, and he uses thunder and lightning as weapons. He has power over humans (mortals) and often goes among them in disguise. He especially likes young ladies, and he has had many children, both mortal and immortal. His symbols are lightning, the eagle, the oak, and a crown and scepter. HERA Roman Name: Juno Hera was Zeus’ sister and wife. Hera is considered the Queen of Mount Olympus, beautiful in a mature way. She is also very jealous of Zeus’ affairs with mortal women, and she does spiteful things to them, like turn them into a cow or an echo. Her symbol is the peacock, from the story of Io. She is considered the goddess of women, marriage, and childbirth. POSEIDON Roman Name: Neptune

Poseidon was the god of the sea, and he has the power to cause storms, tidal waves, and earthquakes when he strikes his trident on the water or the land. He is the brother of Zeus. He became the father of many children including the Cyclopes in The Odyssey. You can recognize him by the trident, sea symbols, his long beard, and his chariot coming out of the waves which is usually pulled by four white horses. HADES Roman Name: Pluto or Dis

Hades was the gloomy god of the underworld, guardian of all the dead people, both good and bad. Since he does not like the light, he does not live on Mount Olympus. One day, however, he did go up on earth to steal Persephone for his wife. His symbols are a two-pronged scepter, four black horses that pull his chariot, and the three-headed dog, Cerberus. Sometimes the underworld itself is called Hades. DEMETER Roman Name: Ceres

Demeter was the goddess of grain and the harvest. If she was not happy, things would not grow. After Hades took her daughter, Persephone, the earth was frozen and bare for a long time. Zeus became upset and made the girl come back to earth for part of the year. Her symbols are sheaves of grain or baskets of fruit. Do you eat anything that sounds like her Roman name? HESTIA Roman Name: Vesta

Hestia was the first child of Cronus and Rhea. She is a goddess of the hearth and its sacred fire. Fire was very important to ancient people so they prayed to Hestia to keep it burning. Her symbol is the hearth. There are not many stories about her, and she did not have a throne with the others but rather sat on the floor near the fire.
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OLYMPIAN OVERVIEW

The Olympians: A Brief Introduction or Review (continued) THE CHILDREN OF ZEUS AND HERA
HEPHAESTUS Roman Name: Vulcan

Hephaestus was the god of the forge. He was an excellent blacksmith. He made Zeus’ lightning bolts, and he fashioned armor for both gods and mortals. He is said to be ugly and deformed with thin, weak legs because Zeus threw him from Mount Olympus. He is usually pictured at his forge or anvil, sometimes being helped by three Cyclopes, the one-eyed sons of Gaea (the earth) and Uranus (the sky). He married Aphrodite, goddess of love and beauty, but she was not faithful to him. ARES Roman Name: Mars Ares was the tall, handsome god of war. He was vain and cruel, and he did not have respect from the other Olympians. The spirit of Strife, called Eris, went with him. She threw down her golden apple of discord which made people fight. Then Ares would jump into battle just for blood. He was loved by Aphrodite, and their son is Eros. Ares’ symbols are armor, a war-chariot, vultures, and dogs.

THE CHILDREN OF ZEUS AND LETO (Latona)
APOLLO Roman Name: Apollo

Apollo was sometimes called Phoebus. He was the god of music and poetry, and he was often pictured with long golden hair, a lyre, and a bow and arrows. Apollo is associated with the sun. He was very important to Greeks and others who often went to his temple at Delphi to get advice for their future from the Oracle. Apollo and the nine Muses, goddesses of the arts, are often shown together dancing. Apollo is also known as a handsome lover, especially in the story of Daphne in Ovid’s Metamorphoses. ARTEMIS Roman Name: Diana

Artemis was the goddess of the hunt and the moon. She is often pictured with a short dress, a bow and arrows, and a crescent moon on her head. She is the twin sister of Apollo. Artemis never married but spent her life hunting in the woods with her hounds.

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OLYMPIAN OVERVIEW

The Olympians: A Brief Introduction or Review (continued) OTHER OLYMPIANS
ATHENA Roman Name: Minerva

Athena was sometimes called Pallas. She was the goddess of wisdom and useful arts. Fully formed and wearing armor, she was born out of Zeus’ head. She is usually pictured with her armor, often with the head of Medusa on her shield or aegis. Other symbols are an owl and an olive tree or branch. The city of Athens was named for her, and her temple, the Parthenon, is still there. She was Zeus’ favorite daughter. Her most famous story is about Arachne, the weaver. APHRODITE Roman Name: Venus

Aphrodite was the goddess of love and beauty, born fully grown out of the sea on a cushion of foam. She was so beautiful almost no man could resist her. Zeus had her marry Hephaestus so the gods would not fight over her. She often had other lovers. Her symbols are seashells, a chariot pulled by doves, and a mirror. HERMES Roman Name: Mercury

Hermes was the messenger of the gods and the protector of travelers. He led dead souls to the Underworld. Hermes was the son of Zeus and Maia, a Titan’s daughter. From the day of his birth, he was tricky and strong. He invented the lyre from a turtle shell, stole the cattle of Apollo, and then traded them for the lyre. His symbols are winged sandals and hat, a wand with snakes on it, a traveling hat, and a cloak. DIONYSUS Roman Name: Bacchus

Dionysus was the god of grapes, wine, and revelry. Zeus was his father. He had a mortal mother, Semele, but was born out of Zeus’ thigh. His worshippers danced around the hills until they worked themselves into an ecstatic frenzy.

Submitted by Susan Hengelsberg Perry, NY 3
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OLYMPIAN OVERVIEW

PRONUNCIATION GUIDE
These pronunciations are taken from Morford and Lenardon’s Classical Mythology. Accented syllables are in bold type. Values of the long vowels are as follows: ā ē ī ō ū aegis Aphrodite Apollo Ares Artemis Athena Bacchus Ceres Cyclopes Delphi Demeter Dionysus Gaea Hades Hephaestus Hera Hermes Hestia Maia Persephone Phoebus Poseidon Semele Zeus as in cape as in bee as in ice as in boat as in too ē - jis af - rō- dī - tē a - pol - lō ar - ēz ar - te - mis a - thē - na bak - kus sē - rēs sī - klō - pēs del - fī de - mē - ter dī - ō - nī - sus jē -a hā - dēs he - fes - tus he - ra her - mēs hes - ti- a mā - ya per - sef - ō - nē fē - bus po - sī - don sem - e - lē zus

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OLYMPIAN OVERVIEW

THE OLYMPIANS: APPEARANCE AND ATTRIBUTES
1. ZEUS: A. B. C. D. 2. HERA: A. B. C. king of the gods, brother and husband of Hera God of the sky and weather, ruler of gods and men Appearance: mature, bearded, clothed Attributes: eagle, oak tree, scepter, thunderbolt Important representation: “Olympian Zeus” by Phidias queen of the gods, sister and wife of Zeus Goddess of women, marriage, childbirth Appearance: ladylike, mature, fully clothed, often veiled Attributes: crown, scepter, cuckoo, peacock, fleur-de-lis

3. POSEIDON: brother of Zeus A. God of the sea, horses, earthquakes B. Appearance: resembles Zeus C. Attributes: trident, horse, bull, dolphin, entourage of sea nymphs, sea monsters, and other creatures of the sea. 4. HADES: brother of Zeus, husband of Persephone A. God of death and the underworld B. Appearance: seldom depicted, but resembles Zeus C. Attributes: two-pronged scepter, Cerberus 5. DEMETER: sister of Zeus, mother of Persephone A. Goddess of the crops B. Appearance: resembles Hera C. Attributes: torches, stalk or sheaf of grain D. Object of a mystery cult at Eleusis near Athens since the yearly cycle of the crops is an intimation of immortality 6. HESTIA: sister of Zeus A. Goddess of the hearth B. Appearance: resembles Hera, always depicted in an attitude of immobility C. Attributes: hearth, fire, home D. Displaced from her throne by Dionysus prior to 432 BCE 7. HEPHAESTUS: son of Zeus and Hera, husband of Aphrodite A. Lame god of fire and the forge, divine handyman or artisan B. Appearance: bearded, serious, usually at his forge, often wears a skull cap C. Attributes: hammer, anvil, bellows, fire, forge

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THE OLYMPIANS: APPEARANCE AND ATTRIBUTES (continued)
8. ARES: son of Zeus and Hera A. God of violence and ugly passions of war, divine swashbuckler B. Appearance: unpopular so seldom depicted, but appears as a handsome young man in armor C. Attributes: armor, vulture, dog, war-chariot, Eris

9. APOLLO: son of Zeus and Leto, twin brother of Artemis A. God of light, prophecy, archery, music, fine arts, medicine, law B. Appearance: young handsome male with long hair C. Attributes: lyre, bow and arrows, laurel wreath, oracle at Delphi D. Apollo became the embodiment of the Hellenic spirit

10. ARTEMIS: daughter of Zeus and Leto, twin sister of Apollo A. Virgin goddess of the woods and hunt, cares for wild beasts B. Appearance: young attractive female dressed for the hunt C. Attributes: bow and arrows, small animals nearby, stags, palm tree 11. ATHENA: daughter of Zeus and Metis A. Virgin goddess of wisdom, arts and crafts, the honorable aspects of warfare, protector of Athens B. Appearance: young, beautiful, serious, clothed in armor C. Attributes: shield, aegis, snake, owl, lamp, helmet, Nike, olive D. Important representation: cult figure in the Parthenon by Phidias 12. APHRODITE: rose from sea foam, wife of Hephaestus, mother of Eros (her son by Ares) A. Goddess of love and beauty B. Appearance: originally draped and stiff, later more sensual C. Attributes: doves, mirror, flowers, blossoms, The Graces, Eros D. Important representations: Aphrodite of Cnidus by Praxiteles, Venus de Milo 13. HERMES: son of Zeus and Maia A. Divine messenger, god of travelers, merchants and thieves, leads the dead to Hades B. Appearance: young man, sometimes bearded C. Attributes: broad brimmed traveler’s hat, snake-wound herald’s staff called the caduceus, winged hat and sandals D. Important representation: Hermes by Praxiteles 14. DIONYSUS: son of Zeus and Semele A. God of the energy of nature and of wine, patron of poetry, drama, and song B. Appearance: young, sensual, sometimes bearded, often drunk C. Attributes: a rout of Maenads, satyrs, vines, grapes D. Worshipped as an object of a mystery cult

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FAMILY TREE
Each child can create a family tree. You might want to use the reduced pictures instead of writing the names of the gods, goddesses, and their parents. The configuration is visually understandable although logically the “roots” of the tree should be the ancestors.

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OLYMPIAN OVERVIEW

Teacher’s Key FAMILY TREE

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FAMILY TREE PICTURES

Janeene Blank Birmingham, MI 9
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OLYMPIAN OVERVIEW

Naming the Planets
The ancient Greeks noticed that there were a few “stars” that moved among the other stars. They did not twinkle, but glowed steadily, and they had a different position every night. They called these heavenly bodies “planets” which means “wanderer” in Greek. People long ago could see five of the planets clearly. Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn can easily be seen with the naked eye. Mercury lies so near the sun that it can seldom be seen because it sinks below the horizon before it is completely dark at night. The planets were named for Roman gods and goddesses because of some characteristic that reminded ancient astronomers of that mythical persona. MERCURY This small planet speeds around the sun in only 88 days. It is easy to see why it was named for the messenger god who could travel between Earth and Mount Olympus in the twinkling of an eye. Beautiful and serene, this planet is often called the morning star or the evening star. It is the third brightest body in the heavens. It was named for the goddess of love and beauty. The name for our home planet comes not from Greek or Roman mythology, but from the German word “erde.” However, other words that refer to Earth do come from mythology. Gaea, the name for Mother Earth, is used when we talk about places (geography), and mineral structure (geology). It is used to begin many words (geo-). The word “terra” is a Latin word for the earth, and it gives us terrestrial, terra firma, and territory. This red planet is named for the god of war. Perhaps its red color reminded the ancient astronomers of blood or of anger. The two satellites, Phobos and Deimos, are named for the dogs of war that followed Mars, and they mean “fear” and “evil spirits.” These oddly shaped pieces of matter have an orbit between Mars and Jupiter. Some of them are almost large enough to be small planets, and some have names. Can you find out the names of two very large ones?

VENUS

EARTH

MARS

THE ASTEROID BELT

JUPITER

The king of the Olympian gods had several names. Among them was the Roman name, Jupiter. The largest of the planets is named for him. The many satellites of Jupiter are named for people with whom he had some connection. Two large ones are Ganymede and Io. Can you discover the names of others? Can you find out who they were in mythology? Saturn was the Roman god of agriculture, but he was often identified with the Greek god, Cronus, who was the son of the earth mother, Gaea, and who became the father of the king of the gods. Saturn was a Titan which means he was huge. The planet Saturn is a gas giant, second only to Jupiter in size. The rings of Saturn are clearly visible from earth. It was the first planet known to have rings, although we have since discovered that other planets do have them. Uranus was the god who was the personification of the heavens, and he was married to Gaea. This is another of the gas giants. Perhaps it was named Uranus because of its size. Can you discover the number of satellites and their names? Neptune is sometimes the eighth planet from the sun, sometimes the ninth. It is ninth when Pluto’s orbit carries it inside Neptune’s. The Roman god, Neptune, was the god of the sea and the god of earthquakes. Perhaps the color the planet glows accounts for its name. It was located by mathematics in 1846.
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SATURN

URANUS

NEPTUNE

OLYMPIAN OVERVIEW

Naming the Planets (continued)
PLUTO Is it any wonder the most distant, tiny planet was named for the cold lord of the underworld? Dark and secretive, Pluto, the planet, seems a little like Pluto, the Roman god. The one satellite of Pluto is almost as large as the planet itself, and it is called Charon. Why is that a good name for a satellite of Pluto? I think it should be called by a name from mythology like the others, don’t you?

10th Planet

Joette McDonald Vermilion, OH 11
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OLYMPIAN OVERVIEW

PLAN A PLANET
You have just discovered another planet in our solar system. You must look at its characteristics and then decide what name you will give it, following the tradition of naming the planets after characters from Roman mythology. 1. Where does your planet lie? How many other planets are between it and the sun? Draw a diagram below to show the orbit of your new planet.

2. How big is your planet? Compare it in size to one of the other planets. _________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ 3. What is your planet made of? Is it a gas giant? Does it have water? What kinds of rocks and minerals are found there? Does it have an atmosphere? ________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ 4. If you look at the planet from Earth, what color does it appear? ________________________________ 5. How many satellites does your planet have? _______________ 6. Would it be possible for people from Earth to colonize your planet? ____________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ 7. What else is special about your planet? __________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________

The name of this newly discovered planet is __________________________ Discovered by ____________________________________________
Joette McDonald Vermilion, OH 12
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Date _____________________

OLYMPIAN OVERVIEW

Make a Planet Mobile
Materials 1 clothes hanger per child newspaper heavy string or yarn tempera paint clay-dough* Instructions Step 1: Make a wad of paper for each planet, then tie a string around it. Vary the size of the ball of paper and the length of string to the size and orbit of the planet. Note: the tighter the paper wad, the better the planet. Step 2: Cover each paper wad with claydough, carefully covering all paper surfaces. Step 3: Allow to dry. Step 4: Paint the proper color and hang. Step 5: Make a cardboard ring for Saturn

*Clay-dough recipe 2 c. flour 1 c. salt 1 tsp. oil water to make pie-dough consistency

Joette McDonald Vermilion, OH

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OLYMPIAN OVERVIEW

A Dictionary of Gods and Goddesses
As you continue to gather information about gods and goddesses, you may want to keep a record in dictionary form. Prepare one page for each deity. Use the following form to record your information. Greek Name ____________________________________________

Roman Name

____________________________________________

God/Goddess of

____________________________________________

Symbols

____________________________________________

Information and/or stories about this god or goddess _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ Picture or drawing of this god

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The Gods and Goddesses of Ancient Greece and Rome
Greek Name Title or The God or Goddess of . . . Roman Name Symbol

ZEUS

KING

JUPITER/JOVE

EAGLE / OAK

HERA

QUEEN

JUNO

PEACOCK

DEMETER

GRAIN

CERES

WHEAT

HESTIA

HEARTH

VESTA

HOME / FIRE

POSEIDON HADES

SEA UNDERWORLD

NEPTUNE PLUTO

TRIDENT / DOLPHIN CERBERUS

HERMES

MESSENGER

MERCURY

WINGED HAT / SANDALS

ARTEMIS

HUNT

DIANA

MOON / DEER

APOLLO

SUN

APOLLO

LYRE

ARES

WAR

MARS

VULTURE

HEPHAESTUS

FIRE / FORGE

VULCAN

ANVIL

APHRODITE

LOVE

VENUS

CUPID / DOVE

ATHENA

WISDOM / WAR WEAVING

MINERVA

OLIVES / OWL

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I Know All About the Gods and Goddesses of Ancient Greece and Rome
Quiz: Version I
Complete the chart below by filling in the missing terms or names. Greek Name Title or God/Goddess of . . . Roman Name Symbol

1. _________________

_______________

_______________

TRIDENT

2. _________________

UNDERWORLD

_______________

_______________

3. ZEUS

_______________

_______________

_______________

4. _________________

QUEEN

_______________

_______________

5. DEMETER

_______________

_______________

_______________

6. _______________

HEARTH

_______________

_______________

7. HEPHAESTUS

_______________

_______________

_______________

8. APHRODITE

_______________

_______________

_______________

9. _______________

_______________

MARS

_______________

10. _______________

WISDOM / WAR WEAVING

_______________

OLIVES / OWL

11. ______________

_______________

DIANA

_______________

12. _______________

SUN

_______________

_______________

13. _______________

_______________

MERCURY

_______________

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I Know All About the Gods and Goddesses of Ancient Greece and Rome
Quiz: Version 2
Complete the chart below by filling in the missing terms or names. Greek Name Title or God/Goddess of . . . Roman Name Symbol

1. POSEIDON

_______________

_______________

_______________

2. _________________

_______________

PLUTO

_______________

3. _______________

_______________

_______________

EAGLE / OAK

4. HERA

_______________

_______________

_______________

5. _______________

HARVEST

_______________

_______________

6. _______________

_______________

_______________

HOME / FIRE

7. _______________

BLACKSMITH

_______________

_______________

8. _______________

_______________

_______________

DOVE / CUPID

9. _______________

_______________

_______________

VULTURE

10. _______________

_______________

MINERVA

_______________

11. ARTEMIS

_______________

_______________

_______________

12. _______________

_______________

_______________

LYRE / MUSIC

13. HERMES

_______________

_______________

_______________

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OLYMPIAN OVERVIEW

Teacher’s Key I Know All About the Gods and Goddesses of Ancient Greece and Rome
Quiz 1 and Quiz 2
Greek Name Title or Roman Name God/Goddess of . . . Symbol

1. POSEIDON 2. HADES 3. ZEUS 4. HERA

SEA UNDERWORLD KING QUEEN

NEPTUNE PLUTO JUPITER / JOVE JUNO

TRIDENT / DOLPHIN CERBERUS EAGLE / OAK PEACOCK

5. DEMETER

GRAIN

CERES

WHEAT

6. HESTIA 7. HEPHAESTUS 8. APHRODITE 9. ARES 10. ATHENA

HEARTH FIRE / FORGE LOVE WAR WISDOM / WAR WEAVING HUNT

VESTA VULCAN VENUS MARS MINERVA

HOME / FIRE ANVIL CUPID / DOVE VULTURE OLIVES / OWL

11. ARTEMIS

DIANA

MOON / DEER

12. APOLLO

SUN

APOLLO

LYRE

13. HERMES

MESSENGER

MERCURY

WINGED HAT / SANDALS

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OLYMPIAN OVERVIEW

I Know All About the Gods and Goddesses of Ancient Greece and Rome
Quiz: Version III
Complete the chart below by filling in the missing terms or names. Greek Name Title or God/Goddess of . . . Roman Name Symbol

1. _______________

WAR

_______________

_______________

2. _______________

_______________

_______________

CERBERUS

3. _______________

HUNTING

_______________

_______________

4. _______________

_______________

JUPITER / JOVE

_______________

5. _______________

QUEEN

_______________

_______________

6. _______________

_______________

CERES

_______________

7. _______________

SEA

_______________

_______________

8. HESTIA

_______________

_______________

HOME / FIRE

9. _______________

_______________

_______________

ANVIL

10. APHRODITE

_______________

_______________

_______________

11. _______________

WISDOM / WAR WEAVING SUN

_______________

_______________

12. _______________

_______________

_______________

13. _______________

_______________

_______________

WINGED HAT SANDALS

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OLYMPIAN OVERVIEW

Teacher’s Key I Know All About the Gods and Goddesses of Ancient Greece and Rome
Quiz III
Greek Name Title or Roman Name God/Goddess of . . . Symbol

1. ARES 2. HADES 3. ARTEMIS 4. ZEUS 5. HERA 6. DEMETER 7. POSEIDON 8. HESTIA 9. HEPHAESTUS 10. APHRODITE 11. ATHENA

WAR UNDERWORLD HUNTING KING QUEEN GRAIN SEA HEARTH FIRE / FORGE LOVE WISDOM / WAR WEAVING SUN MESSENGER

MARS PLUTO DIANA JUPITER / JOVE JUNO CERES NEPTUNE VESTA VULCAN VENUS MINERVA

VULTURE CERBERUS MOON / DEER EAGLE / OAK PEACOCK WHEAT TRIDENT / DOLPHIN HOME / FIRE ANVIL CUPID / DOVE OLIVES / OWL

12. APOLLO 13. HERMES

APOLLO MERCURY

LYRE WINGED HAT / SANDALS

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OLYMPIAN OVERVIEW

Greek Name / Roman Name Matching
Write the letter of the Roman name in the blank next to the Greek name of the same god or goddess. Greek Names _____ 1. Zeus _____ 2. Hera _____ 3. Athena _____ 4. Hades _____ 5. Demeter _____ 6. Artemis _____ 7. Apollo _____ 8. Hermes _____ 9. Hephaestus _____ 10. Aphrodite _____ 11. Hestia _____ 12. Poseidon _____ 13. Ares Roman Names A. Apollo B. Ceres C. Juno D. Neptune E. Pluto F. Minerva G. Jupiter H. Mercury I. Diana J. Vulcan K. Mars L. Venus M. Vesta

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OLYMPIAN OVERVIEW

Symbols of the Gods and Goddesses
Match the following gods and goddesses with their symbols.

_____ 1. Zeus _____ 2. Poseidon _____ 3. Hades _____ 4. Demeter _____ 5. Hestia _____ 6. Hephaestus _____ 7. Ares _____ 8. Apollo _____ 9. Artemis _____ 10 Athena _____ 11. Aphrodite _____ 12. Hermes _____ 13. Hera

A. Helmet of invisibility, two-pronged scepter B. Owl, shield, breastplate, and olive branch C. Dove and Cupid D. Sun, music, and lyre E. Thunderbolt, eagle, and oak tree F. Stag and crescent moon G. Peacock H. Trident and horse I. Magic wand, winged sandals and helmet J. Sheaf of wheat, grain, and fruit K. Hearth and fire L. Anvil and forge M. Vulture, dog, war chariot, and armor

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OLYMPIAN OVERVIEW

Teacher’s Key Greek Name/Roman Name Matching
1. G 2. C 3. F 4. E 5. B 6. I 7. A 8. H 9. J 10. L 11. M 12. D 13. K

Teacher’s Key Symbols of the Gods and Goddesses
1. E 2. H 3. A 4. J 5. K 6. L 7. M 8. D 9. F 10. B 11. C 12. I 13. G

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IN THE BEGINNING / ZEUS / HESTIA

In The Beginning Matching
This exercise covers material in d’Aulaires’ Book of Greek Myths, pp. 9-20 Match the person, place, or thing with the description. A. B. C. D. E. the Aegis Amaltheia Zeus Cronus Cyclopes/Hekatonchires* F. G. H. I. J. Echidna/Typhon Hades Metis Mount Aetna Poseidon K. L. M. N. O. Prometheus/Epimetheus Rhea Sprites Tartarus Titans

_____ 1. The Cyclopes made a cap of invisibility for me. _____ 2. We are the eleven brothers and sisters of Cronus. _____ 3. The Cyclopes made lightning bolts for me. _____ 4. I was lord of the universe after Gaea and Uranus ruled. _____ 5. I am the volcano where Typhon was trapped. _____ 6. Our names mean forethought and afterthought. _____ 7. I am Zeus’ breastplate. _____ 8. We are the monsters sent by Mother Earth to attack Zeus. _____ 9. The Cyclopes gave me a trident. _____ 10. I had “horns of plenty.” _____ 11. I am the wife of Cronus and the mother of the six Olympian gods. _____ 12. I am the dark pit which held the Titans. _____ 13. We are the monsters who fought with Zeus against the Titans. _____ 14. I am Zeus’ first wife who tricked Cronus into eating a magic herb. _____ 15. We took care of baby Zeus and made noise to cover his cries.
*Throughout this packet, the hundred-handed fifty-headed monsters are referred to by their Greek name, the Hekatonchires. 24
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IN THE BEGINNING / ZEUS / HESTIA

Three Puzzles About the War
This difficult exercise covers material in d’Aulaires’ Book of Greek Myths, p. 17 Figure out the number that corresponds to the letter. They are NOT consecutive. One letter’s number has been provided for you. The sentences you create will be about gods, Titans, and monsters who participated in the war.

Puzzle #1 Olympians Versus Titans

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 19

____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ 1 10 16 7 20 19 23 20 8 14 ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ _____ ____ ____ ____ ____ 20 1 3 7 20 19 23 20 8 14 ____ ____ ____ ____. 15 20 8 14

____ ____ ____ 9 18 24

____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ 13 16 3 18 20 24

Puzzle #2 An Educated Guess

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 25

____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ 8 10 5 20 12 9 17 12 21 24 ____ ____ ____ ____ 2 11 22 9 ____ ____ 5 22

____ ____ ____ 17 4 3

____ ____ ____ 9 17 12

____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____. 8 10 5 8 17 12 25 26

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IN THE BEGINNING / ZEUS / HESTIA

Three Puzzles About the War (continued)

Puzzle #3 Thanks!

A B C D E F G H

I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 21

____ 2

____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____, 20 10 21 16 14 3 20

____ 2

____ ____ ____ 9 2 23

____ ____ 7 6

____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____, ____ ____ ____ 21 3 13 21 25 21 11 21 5 21 20 24 2 3 16 ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ 5 21 17 1 20 3 21 3 17 ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ 17 21 6 20 25 ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ 11 7 5 20 25 ____ ____ ____ ____ 26 14 10 14

____ ____ ____ ____ 6 10 7 19

____ ____ ____ 20 1 14

____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____. 9 24 9 5 7 23 14 25

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IN THE BEGINNING / ZEUS / HESTIA

Teacher’s Key In The Beginning Matching
1. G 2. O 3. C 4. D 5. I 6. K 7. A 8. F 9. J 10. B 11. L 12. N 13. E 14. H 15. M

Teacher’s Key Three Puzzles About the War
Puzzle #1: Prometheus and Epimetheus joined Zeus. Puzzle #2: Prometheus had the gift of prophecy. Puzzle #3: A trident, a cap of invisibility, and lightning bolts were gifts from the Cyclopes.

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IN THE BEGINNING / ZEUS / HESTIA

In The Beginning Crossword Puzzle
This exercise covers material in d’Aulaires’ Book of Greek Myths, pp. 9-20 Complete the puzzle by identifying the speaker of each clue on the next page.

WORD BANK aegis Amaltheia cap Cronus Cyclopes Echidna flint Gaea lightning Metis Pontus Prometheus Rhea stone Tartarus Titanesses Titans Trident Typhon Uranus

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IN THE BEGINNING / ZEUS / HESTIA

In The Beginning Crossword Puzzle Clues
Across 1. Two of my children are Cerberus and the Hydra. 4. I am Gaea's second husband. 5. I came out of darkness, and I was lonely. 6. I am the Titan who became the ruler after Uranus. 8. We are the six giant daughters of Uranus and Gaea. 10. I am the weapon that the Cyclopes made for Zeus. 12. Cronus thought I was a baby because I was wrapped in baby clothes. 13. I am the weapon that the Cyclopes made for Poseidon. 16. I, the first lord of the universe, married Gaea. 17. I am pinned under Mount Aetna. 18. I am Zeus' first wife. 19. I am the material out of which Gaea made the sickle.

Down 2. I am the invisible gift that the Cyclopes made for Hades. 3. Ambrosia and nectar flows from my horns. 4. I fought on Zeus' side against the Titans because I can look into the future. 7. We have only one eye, but we are strong. 9. I am the breastplate of Zeus. 11. I am the place where Uranus flung the Cyclopes. 14. We are the six giant sons of Uranus and Gaea. 15. I am married to Cronus.

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IN THE BEGINNING / ZEUS / HESTIA

Teacher’s Key In The Beginning Crossword

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IN THE BEGINNING / ZEUS / HESTIA

Out of Chaos Crossword Puzzle
This exercise covers material in d’Aulaires’ Book of Greek Myths, pp. 9-20

Across 2. What Metis was the goddess of 5. Number of sisters that Rhea had 7. Food and drink of the gods (three words) 10. Second husband of Mother Earth 13. First lord of the universe 15. First children of Mother Earth 16. Zeus' "nanny" 18. What Greek gods resembled 19. Three strong smiths who were not handsome 20. Third lord of the universe

Down 1. Cronus' Titaness wife 3. What Cronus thought the magic herb would make him 4. Second lord of the universe 6. Wife of Uranus 8. Home of the gods (2 words) 9. Peaceful age during the early rule of Cronus 11. Number of heads on each of the Hekatonchires 12. Island where Zeus grew up 14. Weapon that Mother Earth gave to Cronus 17. What the "impenetrable breastplate" was called
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IN THE BEGINNING / ZEUS / HESTIA

Teacher’s Key Out of Chaos

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IN THE BEGINNING / ZEUS / HESTIA

In the Beginning Word Search
This exercise covers material in d’Aulaires’ Book of Greek Myths, pp. 9-20

Locate the following words in the puzzle grid. They may be vertical or horizontal.

AMALTHEIA CRONUS CYCLOPES ECHIDNA GAEA METIS RHEA

TARTARUS TITANS TRIDENT TYPHON URANUS ZEUS

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IN THE BEGINNING / ZEUS / HESTIA

Teacher’s Key In the Beginning Word Search

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IN THE BEGINNING / ZEUS / HESTIA

The End of the War Word Search
This exercise covers material in d’Aulaires’ Book of Greek Myths, pp. 16-23 In this grid, find the words suggested by the clues at the bottom of the page. The words may be backwards, forwards, horizontal, vertical, or diagonal.

CLUES
1. Two monsters that Mother Earth sent to fight against Zeus (three words) 2. Place where Zeus put the Titans after the war 3. Professions of the Cyclopes (three words) 4. Guards at the gates of Tartarus 5. God of fire 6. Demeter's daughter 7. Goddess of love 8. Lord of the sea 9. God of wine 10. Goddess of the hunt 11. Goddess of the harvest 12. Herald of the gods 13. Goddess of wisdom, war, weaving, olives, and owls 14. God of light and music 15. What the Cyclopes built for the gods on Mount Olympus 16. What hid the gods on Mount Olympus 17. Goddess of the hearth 18. Titan sent to carry the sky on his shoulders 19. Mountain that Typhon planned to hurl at Zeus 20. Lord of the dead 21. The gods' and goddesses' "blood" 22. Zeus' queen 23. God of war 24. Goddess who wore a gown of iridescent drops 35
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IN THE BEGINNING / ZEUS / HESTIA

The End of the War Word Search Teacher’s Key

1. Typhon and Echidna 2. Tartarus 3. smiths and masons 4. Hekatonchires 5. Hephaestus 6. Persephone 7. Aphrodite 8. Poseidon 9. Dionysus 10. Artemis 11. Demeter 12. Hermes

13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24.

Athena Apollo palace clouds Hestia Atlas Aetna Hades ichor Hera Ares Iris

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IN THE BEGINNING / ZEUS / HESTIA

GAEA AND URANUS

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IN THE BEGINNING / ZEUS / HESTIA

TITANOMACHY
(tī - tan – ÄM – eh - kē) Titanomachy is the name for the struggle between the Titans and the gods. The giant Titans fought the six Olympians who were born to Cronus and Rhea. The Cyclopes and the FiftyHeaded Hundred-Handed Monsters (the Hekatonchires) fought on the side of the Olympians along with two of the Titans, Epimetheus and Prometheus. The monsters, Echidna and Typhon, fought on the side of the Titans. Zeus and the Olympians won, thanks to the thunderbolts forged by the Cyclopes. On the following pages are cutout pictures of the main characters from the Titanomachy. (There are pictures of the other Olympian gods, too, for use in projects other than this one.) To prepare the participants for the battle, mount each cutout on construction paper. Cut along the outlines. Using the patterns for the Small Figures Stand and the Large Figures Stand, make a stand for each cutout from tag board. Glue the long narrow folded edge of the stand to the back of the cutout. Designate a place in the classroom as the “field of contest,” and position the figures on the proper sides. Fighting for the Titans Cronus Rhea Other Titans and Titanesses (but NOT Epimetheus or Prometheus) Echidna Typhon

Fighting for the Olympians Zeus Hera Hades Poseidon Demeter Hestia Three Cyclopes Three Hekatonchires Prometheus Epimetheus

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IN THE BEGINNING / ZEUS / HESTIA

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IN THE BEGINNING / ZEUS / HESTIA

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IN THE BEGINNING / ZEUS / HESTIA

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IN THE BEGINNING / ZEUS / HESTIA

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IN THE BEGINNING / ZEUS / HESTIA

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IN THE BEGINNING / ZEUS / HESTIA

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IN THE BEGINNING / ZEUS / HESTIA

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IN THE BEGINNING / ZEUS / HESTIA

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IN THE BEGINNING / ZEUS / HESTIA

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IN THE BEGINNING / ZEUS / HESTIA

Musical Mythology Zeus
(Tune: “On Top of Old Smoky”)

On top of Olympus all covered with cloud Great Jupiter sits there so mighty and proud. He’s king of the thunder and lightning and storm. He walks among mortals in various forms. He’s father of many, for he likes to roam Among the young ladies, but far from his home ‘Cause Juno is jealous when trouble she sees. She changes his lovers to rocks, beasts, and trees. If a mortal’s in trouble and the gods can’t agree He holds up his scales for their fate to decree. But if men do not please him, then they’ll get a jolt For Zeus will take aim with his hot thunderbolt

Liz Hubbard, Sagel, ID Susan Hengelsberg, Perry, NY Ann Edwards, Belle, MO

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IN THE BEGINNING / ZEUS / HESTIA

HESTIA
Goddess of the Hearth
The oldest sister of Zeus, Hestia, is not featured in many myths. Nevertheless, since the hearth was of utmost importance to the ancients as a source of heat and light, they honored her daily at the beginning and the ending of every meal. Hestia represented home and family, and thus she is not involved in any mythological adventures. There was a public hearth sacred to Hestia in every city. In Rome, six priestesses called the Vestals kept perpetual watch over her fire in the temple. The safety of the city of Rome was believed to be dependent upon the continuation of this flame. One of the few stories that is told about Hestia involves Dionysus. Dionysus was the youngest of the Olympian gods. He was the god of wine, and he brought lots of joy to people. He was also Zeus’ son, and Zeus really liked him. Zeus wanted him to have a golden throne like the other gods and goddesses. But since Dionysus’ mother was a mortal woman, Hera became very angry and said she didn’t want Dionysus there. When Zeus insisted, Hera sat quietly. The problem was that there were only twelve thrones in the hall. So Hestia silently got up and went to sit by the hearth. She said that was where she chose to be so Dionysus could have her throne.

Mary Ann Titus Westerville, OH

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IN THE BEGINNING / ZEUS / HESTIA

Musical Mythology Vesta
(Tune: “It Isn’t Any Trouble Just to S-M-I-L-E”)

We all know a goddess. She is V-E-S-T-A. We all know a goddess. She is V-E-S-T-A. Vestal virgins stay awake for Vesta’s sacred fire’s sake. We all know a goddess. She is V-E-S-T-A. The goddess of the hearth is called H-E-S-T-I-A. The goddess of the hearth is called H-E-S-T-I-A. She sits beside the fire and she never seems to tire. The goddess of the hearth is called H-E-S-T-I-A. Vesta gladly gave her throne to Dionysus. Vesta gladly gave her throne to Dionysus. Juno really threw a fit when Bacchus had no place to sit. Vesta gladly gave her throne to Dionysus.

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IN THE BEGINNING / ZEUS / HESTIA

REVIEW #1
This exercise covers material in d’Aulaires’ Book of Greek Myths, pp. 9-23 1. Who makes noise to drown out the cries of baby Zeus? _________________________ 2. Gaea is ________________________________________. 3. What does Metis give to Cronus that is supposed to make him strong? _________________________________________________ 4. How many Titans and Titanesses are there? ____________________________ 5. Who is Amaltheia? _____________________________________________________ 6. What is the distinguishing characteristic of the Cyclopes? ______________________ 7. The Titan who chased Uranus away is _________________________. 8. What does Rhea give to Cronus instead of baby Zeus? _______________________ 9. What are the Cyclopes’ two occupations? __________________________ and ________________________________ 10. Uranus is _______________________________________. 11. What do the Cyclopes make for Hades? ____________________________ 12. Theft was invented after the _________________________ Age was over. 13. Whom does Cronus marry? ______________________ 14. What do the Cyclopes make for Poseidon? ______________________________ 15. Whose idea is it to hide baby Zeus and trick Cronus? __________________________ 16. Out of the darkness came ____________________ and __________________________. 17. Who is the mother of Cerberus, the Sphinx, and the Chimaera? _________________ 18. From Amaltheia’s hide Zeus makes a _____________________________ called the _____________________________. 19. Under what mountain is Typhon buried? _________________________________ 20. Mother Earth gives Cronus a weapon made of flint. What is it? _______________

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IN THE BEGINNING / ZEUS / HESTIA

REVIEW #1 (continued)
21. Where does Uranus put the Cyclopes and hundred-handed monsters? ________________ 22. Which gods and goddesses does Cronus swallow? _______________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________ 23. What flows in the gods’ veins instead of blood? __________________________ 24. Which Titans defect and fight on Zeus’ side during the war between the Olympians and the Titans? __________________________ and _________________________ 25. For whom do the Cyclopes and the hundred-handed monsters fight in the war between the Olympians and the Titans? __________________________________ 26. What do the Cyclopes make for Zeus? _______________________________________ 27. Who is Zeus’ first wife? __________________________________ 28. Since Cronus fears that his children will want to rule the universe, he __________________________________ them. 29. Where does Zeus put the Titans when he defeats them? __________________________ 30. Which Titan carries the sky on his shoulders? ____________________________ 31. What flows from Amaltheia’s horns? _________________________________ and ________________________________ 32. Who sends Typhon and Echidna to fight against Zeus? ___________________________ 33. On what mountain do the gods and goddesses live? ____________________________ 34. To what island does Rhea take Zeus? __________________________________ 35. Whom does Mother Earth marry after Uranus departs? _________________________ 36. Which goddess is the rainbow? _________________________ 37. Three sets of children born to Gaea and Uranus are ____________________________, _______________________________, and _________________________________
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_______________________________ _______________________________

IN THE BEGINNING / ZEUS / HESTIA

Teacher’s Key REVIEW #1
1. sprites 2. Mother Earth 3. magic herb 4. twelve – six of each 5. the goat who nursed baby Zeus 6. one eye 7. Cronus 8. a rock 9. smiths and masons 10. Father Sky 11. cap of invisibility 12. Golden 13. Rhea 14. trident 15. Mother Earth 16. Gaea and Uranus 17. Echidna 18. breastplate, aegis 19. Aetna 20. sickle 21. Tartarus 22. Hades, Poseidon, Demeter, Hestia, Hera 23. ichor 24. Prometheus and Epimetheus 25. Zeus and the Olympians 26. thunderbolts 27. Metis 28. swallows 29. Tartarus 30. Atlas 31. ambrosia and nectar 32. Mother Earth 33. Olympus 34. Crete 35. Pontus 36. Iris 37. Titans, Cyclopes, Hekatonchires (hundred-handed monsters)

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HERA

Hera Crossword Puzzle
This exercise covers material in d’Aulaires’ Book of Greek Myths, pp. 24-27

Across 3. What the word "bosporus" means (two words) 4. The beautiful queen of Olympus 7. Final destination of Io 9. Place where the apple tree was planted (four words) 10. Creature who guarded the apple tree (three words) 12. Number of eyes that Argus closed when he slept 14. Location of the river Inachos 16. God who bored Argus to death Down 1. The name of the strait that separates Europe from Asia Minor 2. Who the snow-white cow REALLY was 5. Killer of Echidna 6. Number of eyes that Argus had (two words) 8. The "giver" of the little apple tree (two words) 9. Creature sent to sting Io 11. Creature who received Argus' eyes after he died 13. Io's father 15. Who the cuckoo REALLY was
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HERA

Teacher’s Key Hera Crossword

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HERA

Transformations
The gods and goddesses are very fond of transforming one thing into another thing. For example, Zeus changed Io into a cow, Zeus changed himself into a cuckoo, and Hera transformed the tail of her peacock with the eyes of Argus. Try your hand at transforming a word. JUNO is the Latin name for the queen of the gods, and HERA is the Greek name for the queen of the gods. Transform Juno into Hera by climbing down the word ladder, changing one letter of the word at a time so that the new word matches the definition.

Juno
_________________ The sixth month

_________________ Another word for song

_________________ A fish

_________________ A musical instrument

_________________ An island south of Florida

_________________ A solid block

_________________ A remedy

_________________ Concern

_________________ A rabbit

_________________ Opposite of there

Hera
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HERA

Teacher’s Key Transformations Juno
_______

June_____ The sixth month tune_______
Another word for song

______

_______

tuna____

A fish

_____

tuba________
______

A musical instrument

Cuba_______

An island south of Florida

_____

cube_______
______

A solid block

cure_______

A remedy

______

care_______

Concern

______

hare_______

A rabbit

______

here_______

Opposite of there

Hera

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HERA

Musical Mythology Juno
(Tune: “Reuben, Reuben, I’ve Been Thinking”)

Juno, Juno, I’ve been thinking Why do you act spitefully? Why do you cause, with such vengeance, Many metamorphoses? You’re a goddess, queen of heaven, Wife of mighty Jupiter, But we know he often cheated With the nymphs he did prefer. Jove changed Io to a heifer, Your fly chased her ‘round the world. Poor Callisto gained a bear’s shape Then into the heavens was hurled. Semele, by Jove, exploded. Bacchus from his thigh was born, Fearsome plague you caused in Athens People sickened night and morn. Hercules, Jove’s son, you pestered From his birth with rotten tricks, So the same on great Aeneas Your jealousy of Venus fixed.
Liz Hubbard, Sagel, ID Susan Hengelsberg, Perry, NY Ann Edwards, Belle, MO 58
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HEPHAESTUS

Musical Mythology Hephaestus
(Tune: “Turkey in the Straw”)

Oh the Greeks had a god And Hephaestus was his name When the Romans talked about him They said Vulcan meant the same But whatever name you call him He’s as smart as he can be And he’s such a clever blacksmith He makes shields and jewelry. Hooray for Vulcan! Look what he makes! A shield for Achilles. He loves to create. And we just can’t list All of his arts. He was lame, but a craftsman. He had beauty in his heart.

Liz Hubbard, Sagel, ID Susan Hengelsberg, Perry, NY Ann Edwards, Belle, MO 59
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HEPHAESTUS

Hephaestus Activity
Whenever a god or goddess wanted something made of metal, Hephaestus created the most extraordinarily wonderful things. He made a shield and other armor for Achilles at the request of Thetis, robots of gold in the form of young women who could move and speak, a necklace for Harmonia, and the invincible sword of Peleus.

Mimnermus, a Greek poet of the seventh century BCE, tells of one of the works of Hephaestus.

“Helios has as his lot toil day after day and there is never any rest either for him or his horses, when rosy-fingered dawn leaving the stream of Ocean makes her way up into the sky. But a beautiful hollow cup, winged and of precious gold, fashioned by the hands of Hephaestus, bears him, sleeping deeply, from the land of the Hesperides to the country of the Ethiopians, where he makes his swift chariot and horses stand, until the rising dawn comes.”

Vocabulary
In a dictionary, find the meaning of each vocabulary word as it is used in the excerpt above. lot bears fashioned toil _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________

Questions
1. What are the Hesperides? ____________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 2. Where is the land of the Ethiopians? _________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________ 3. Which other characters from literature were physically not beautiful but produced beauty? ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________
Bernice Jefferis Cleveland Heights, OH 60
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HEPHAESTUS

Teacher’s Key Hephaestus Activity
Vocabulary
lot: bears: fashioned: toil: fate; fortune in life carries made work

Questions
1. The Hesperides are daughters of Atlas and Hesperis. They live in a garden far to the west (where the sun sets), and they guard the golden apple tree of Hera. Hesperis, in Latin, means “western.” This garden was thought to be near the Atlas Mountains in northern Africa at the western extreme of the Mediterranean Sea. 2. The ancient country of Ethiopia mentioned in mythology was located in northern Africa in a “dimly defined region” near the Red Sea at the eastern extreme of the Mediterranean Sea. This is where the Greeks believed that the sun rose. 3. Ugly Duckling Cyrano de Bergerac Rumplestiltskin Hunchback of Notre Dame The Beast in Beauty and the Beast

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More Hephaestus Activities
Make a shield For younger children who may need a beginning place, a large circle drawn around the bottom of a wastebasket on tagboard or construction paper serves as the shield. It can be decorated with scenes from the child’s past, present, and future or with objects that symbolize the child’s characteristics. Or it can be decorated simply with designs that are pleasing. Design a robot Assigning this as a homework task will produce a wide variety of robots. Having a whole class design one provides for endless discussion about what, how, and why certain features should be included or excluded. Make jewelry Again this could be assigned as homework, or found-materials could be provided such as paperclips, buttons, and aluminum foil. Old or broken pieces of costume jewelry could be recycled. Write the words to a song about Hephaestus, Hera, or Thetis Choose an existing song whose melody is well known. Write one with the whole class, and then let individuals either write more verses or write new songs. Write a poem about Hephaestus, Hera, or Thetis Retell the story of Hephaestus’ fall from the point of view of Hephaestus, Zeus, or one of the other Olympians. Research occupations A “smith” works in metals. Find out what sort of work these people do. cooper potter tanner farrier herder scrivener drover wainwright Write the story into a play Make puppets, create dialogue, and produce a play for the class. You could also use classmates for the roles. Interview Hephaestus, Hera, or Thetis Produce this interview as a radio or television newscast. Write a news article Create the front page of a newspaper describing the event.
Bernice Jefferis Cleveland Heights, OH 62
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HEPHAESTUS

Where Is Lemnos?
The locations mentioned in mythology can usually be found on a map. This is a map of Greece. Locate the following places on the map and label each.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Peloponnesus Athens Gulf of Corinth Ithaca Crete

6. Rhodes 7. Lemnos 8. Dardanelles 9. Sea of Marmara 10. Troy

11. 12. 13. 14.

Aegean Sea Mediterranean Sea Cyclades Olympia

Questions
1. How could you account for so many small islands in this part of the Mediterranean Sea? _________________________________________________________________________ 2. Look in an atlas to find the latitude of this part of the world. _____________________________ 3. Compare the Mediterranean climate to the climate where you live. ________________________ __________________________________________________________________________
Bernice Jefferis Cleveland Heights, OH 63
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HEPHAESTUS

Teacher’s Key More Hephaestus Activities: Research Occupations
cooper potter tanner farrier herder scrivener drover wainwright a person who makes barrels or casks a person who makes earthenware pots or dishes a person whose work is changing hide into leather by soaking it in tannin (tannic acid) a person who shoes horses a person who tends a herd of animals a scribe or clerk a person who herds animals to market a person who builds or repairs wagons

Teacher’s Key Where Is Lemnos?

1. underwater volcanic action 2. approximately 30 to 40 degrees north latitude 3. Mediterranean climates are characterized by wet winters and dry summers. San Francisco, California, in the United States is approximately the same latitude as the Mediterranean Sea in Europe.

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HEPHAESTUS

HEPHAESTUS
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APHRODITE

Animals and Monsters
This exercise covers material in d’Aulaires’ Book of Greek Myths, pp. 9-30

Word Bank
cow Cyclopes doves dragon Echidna fly gadfly goat Hekatonchires peacock robots Typhon

In the blank, write the type of animal or the name of the monster. 1. My name is Amaltheia. I am Zeus’ nanny on the island of Crete. _____________________________ 2. My name is Io. I was a beautiful girl. Then I met Zeus. _____________________________________ 3. Hera sent me to sting Io. I chased her all the way to Egypt. _________________________________ 4. We are children of Uranus and Gaea. We help Hephaestus. _________________________________ 5. When Aphrodite rose out of the sea, we were waiting to pull her chariot. ________________________ 6. I had six baby monsters, and then Argus killed me. ________________________________________ 7. Before I played a game of changing shapes, I was Metis. ___________________________________ 8. I got my tail decorations from Argus when Hermes bored him to death. _________________________ 9. We can think and talk just like real people. _______________________________________________ 10. Zeus crushed me under Mount Aetna and now I spit out lava. _______________________________ 11. Unfortunately, we are uglier than our brothers, the Cyclopes. _______________________________ 12. Mother Earth put me in a garden to guard an apple tree. ___________________________________

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Teacher’s Key Animals and Monsters
1. goat 2. cow 3. gadfly 4. Cyclopes 5. doves 6. Echidna 7. fly 8. peacock 9. robots 10. Typhon 11. Hekatonchires 12. dragon

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APHRODITE

More Detailed Information About Aphrodite
Beautiful Aphrodite, goddess of love, was formed from the foam of the sea. Clothed only in her long, fair hair, she was carried on the waves by the breath of the West Wind, Zephyrus, along the coast of Cythera and was finally brought to shore on the island of Cyprus. Flowers sprang from the ground on which she walked, and birds sang their greetings to her. She was welcomed by the three Graces, also called the Charites, who dressed her in gorgeous robes and adorned her with jewels. The Graces conducted her to the assembly of immortals on Mount Olympus. The gods greatly admired her beauty, and many wished to marry her. Hera urged Zeus to find a husband for her as quickly as possible. Although Poseidon, Ares, Dionysus, and Hermes offered to marry her, Zeus gave her to lame, ugly Hephaestus who promised to make fabulous jewelry for her. Among his gifts was a finely-woven golden girdle, the cestus, which possessed the magical power to make the person who wore it absolutely irresistible. Perhaps he was unwise to give her such a gift, for Aphrodite was already so beautiful that few could resist her. Aphrodite had the power to make both gods and mortals fall in love. Only the virgin goddesses, Athena, Artemis, and Hestia were able to resist her. Her power often brought great happiness to her victims, but it sometimes brought sorrows and troubles, too. Aphrodite often sent Zeus chasing after mortal women. In order to make her feel the effects of her own power, Zeus caused her to fall in love with a mortal, the Trojan prince, Anchises. She appeared before Anchises who was working as a shepherd on Mount Ida. She told him that she was the daughter of King Orteus of Phrygia and that she wished to become his spouse. Anchises agreed, but when she told him that she was really a goddess, he was afraid. Aphrodite promised that nothing would happen to him if he never told anyone of her true identity. The child of Aphrodite and Anchises was Aeneas, a hero of the Trojan War. Aphrodite protected Aeneas, and at the destruction of Troy, helped him to travel to Italy where he founded a new land for the Trojans. That land eventually became the land of the Romans. The Romans were very devoted to Aeneas’ mother and paid tribute to her as the goddess Venus. One of her immortal sons, Eros, was her constant companion. He was a winged child who carried a bow and a quiver of arrows. He was full of mischief and often shot unsuspecting victims with his arrows. Those struck by his arrows were not killed; they fell in love! Aphrodite had many children by gods, particularly Ares, and mortals. However, when she bathed in the sea off Cythera near the place where she first appeared, she became young again. Aphrodite was usually symbolized by the doves which pulled her golden chariot. Other symbols associated with her were swans, sparrows, myrtle, and roses.

Barbara Green Cleveland Heights, OH 68
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APHRODITE

More Myths About Aphrodite
You may wish to know more about the story of Aphrodite and her powers. Select one of the following stories to read. “The Judgment of Paris” “Pygmalion” “Eros (Cupid) and Psyche” Then share your story by doing one of the following activities.

1. Make a shoe-box diorama to illustrate a scene from the story.

2. Prepare a book with illustrations to tell your version of the story.

3. Draw scenes from the story on fanfold paper. Make a tape recording of the story to accompany your illustrations.

4. Choose a character from the story and retell the story from your point of view.

5. Write a play based on the story. Prepare puppets and present the play as a puppet show.

6. Create a comic strip version of the story.

Barbara Green Cleveland Heights, OH 69
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APHRODITE

Musical Mythology Venus
(Tune: “Ninety-nine Bottles of Beer on the Wall”)

Oh, I saw a young goddess Who stuck in my mind, So lovely and fair was she That now to all others I simply am blind, Venus, so lovely, so pretty, so kind.

Liz Hubbard, Sagel, ID Susan Hengelsberg, Perry, NY Ann Edwards, Belle, MO

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APHRODITE

APHRODITE
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All of Zeus’ Relatives
This exercise covers material in d’Aulaires’ Book of Greek Myths, pp. 9-32

Word Bank
Ares Cronus Demeter Gaea Hades Hephaestus Hera Hestia Io Metis Poseidon Rhea Titans Titanesses Uranus

Fill in the blanks. You will use one of the words in the word bank twice. 1. Who is Zeus’ grandmother? 2. Who are Zeus’ brothers? ______________________________________ ______________________________________ ______________________________________ 3. Who is Zeus’ queen? 4. Who is Zeus’ grandfather? 5. Who is Zeus’ mother? 6. Who are Zeus’ aunts? 7. Who was Zeus’ first wife? 8. Who are Zeus’ sisters? ______________________________________ ______________________________________ ______________________________________ ______________________________________ ______________________________________ ______________________________________ ______________________________________ ______________________________________ 9. Who are Zeus and Hera’s sons? ______________________________________ ______________________________________ 10. Who are Zeus’ uncles? 11. Who is Zeus’ cow-bride? 12. Who is Zeus’ father? ______________________________________ ______________________________________ ______________________________________

After you have filled in all the information, create a family tree showing all of Zeus’ relatives.
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Who Could I Be? #1
This exercise covers material in d’Aulaires’ Book of Greek Myths, pp. 24-32

Word Bank
Aphrodite Ares Argus Cyclopes 1. My golden apple causes war. Times of peace are such a bore! 2. I was a girl, but now I eat grass. I hope this punishment will pass. 3. I like my jewelry and my doves, But Ares is the god I love. 4. We serve Hephaestus underground. Better helpers can’t be found. 5. A bodyguard for one small cow. My eyes are on the peacock now. 6. I let my special arrows fly. A pretty girl now loves a guy. 7. We help Hephaestus walk around. We prop him up so he can pound. 8. I saw a cloud up in the sky. “Why was it there,” I wondered. “Why?” 9. We follow war; we always do With Oblivion and Panic, too. Eris Eros Famine Hephaestus Hera Io Pain Robots

Who am I? __________________________

Who am I? __________________________

Who am I? __________________________

Who are we? ________________________

Who am I? __________________________

Who am I? __________________________

Who are we? ________________________

Who am I? __________________________

Who are we? ________________________ ________________________

10. I like blood, but not my own. The deeds I do you can’t condone. 11. I joined my parents’ argument. I shouldn’t have. My legs are bent.

Who am I? __________________________

Who am I? __________________________
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Teacher’s Key All of Zeus’ Relatives
1. Gaea 2. Poseidon, Hades 3. Hera 4. Uranus 5. Rhea 6. Titanesses 7. Metis 8. Hestia, Hera, Demeter 9. Ares, Hephaestus 10. Titans 11. Io 12. Cronus

Teacher’s Key Who Could I Be?
1. Eris 2. Io 3. Aphrodite 4. Cyclopes 5. Argus 6. Eros 7. Robots 8. Hera 9. Pain, Famine 10. Ares 11. Hephaestus

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Hephaestus / Aphrodite / Ares Crossword Puzzle
This exercise covers material in d’Aulaires’ Book of Greek Myths, pp. 28-32

Across 1. Two of the vicious crowd following Ares (three words) 2. Metals of which the robots were made (three words) 5. Two sons of Zeus and Hera (three words) 7. Items that were in Eros’ quiver 8. Son of Aphrodite 11. God who threw Hephaestus off of Mount Olympus 14. Unwise present that Hephaestus gave to Aphrodite (two words) 15. Constant companion of Ares 16. Goddess who nursed Hephaestus back to health Down 1. Two more of the vicious crowd following Ares (three words) 2. Prized possession of Eris (two words) 3. Island where Hephaestus landed 4. God admired by Aphrodite for his good looks 5. God who made the twelve thrones for the Olympians 6. Goddesses who welcomed Aphrodite ashore (two words) 9. Island where Aphrodite came ashore 10. Wife of Hephaestus 12. Monsters who helped Hephaestus at his forges 13. Goddess whose side Hephaestus took during an argument 75
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ARES

Teacher’s Key Hephaestus / Aphrodite / Ares Crossword

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HERA / HEPHAESTUS / APHRODITE / ARES WORD SEARCH
This exercise covers material in d’Aulaires’ Book of Greek Myths, pp. 24-32 In this grid, find the words suggested by the clues at the bottom of the page. The words may be backwards, forwards, horizontal, vertical, or diagonal. Find all twenty words. One word appears twice since it is the answer to two questions.

CLUES 1. I am Io’s father. 15. I gave the apple tree to Hera. 2. Argus killed me. 16. I am the jealous wife of Zeus. 3. We help Hephaestus walk. 17. I am the son of Aphrodite and Ares. 4. Zeus sent me to sting Io. 18. I throw the golden apple of discord. 5. Hermes bored me to death. 19. I am the mother of Ares and Hephaestus. 6. I am Aphrodite’s favorite bird. 20. The eyes of Argus are placed on my tail. 7. I told a long, pointless story to Argus. 8. We help Hephaestus at his forge. 9. I tossed Hephaestus off Mount Olympus. 10. I am the garden where the golden apple tree was planted. 11. The three of us were there to greet Aphrodite when she rose from the sea. 12. Unfortunately, I am married to Hephaestus. 13. I took care of Hephaestus when he landed on Lemnos. 14. A gadfly chased me to Egypt in the form of a cow.
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TEACHER’S KEY HERA / HEPHAESTUS / APHRODITE / ARES WORD SEARCH

1. Inachos 2. Echidna 3. robots 4. gadfly 5. Argus 6. dove 7. Hermes 8. Cyclopes 9. Zeus 10. Hesperides

11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20.

Graces Aphrodite Thetis Io Gaea Hera Eros Eris Hera peacock

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ARES

Bingo Game #1
This exercise covers material in d’Aulaires’ Book of Greek Myths, pp. 9-32 Beginnings – Zeus – Hera – Hephaestus – Aphrodite – Ares There are two clues for each answer so you can play two completely different games

Lemnos – island where Hephaestus landed LEMNOS -- ISLAND WHERE THETIS LIVED

Cythera – island where Aphrodite returns CYTHERA -- ISLAND WHERE THE THREE GRACES MET A GODDESS

Crete – island where Zeus grew up CRETE -- ISLAND WHERE AMALTHEIA LIVED

Eris – constant companion of Ares ERIS – SPIRIT OF STRIFE WHO THREW APPLES OF DISCORD

Thetis -- sea nymph who cared for Hephaestus THETIS -- SEA NYMPH WHO LIVED ON THE ISLAND OF LEMNOS

Argus – bodyguard of Hera ARGUS -- 100 EYED MONSTER

Peacock – Hera’s favorite bird PEACOCK -- CREATURE WHO RECEIVED EYES OF ARGUS

Cow – Io’s other form COW -- CREATURE WHO WAS BITTEN AND CHASED BY A GADFLY

Gadfly – creature that stung Io GADFLY -- CREATURE SENT BY HERA TO CHASE IO TO EGYPT
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ARES

Bingo Game #1 (continued)
Inachos – Io’s father INACHOS -- GOD WHOSE RIVER WAS STRUCK BY ZEUS’ LIGHTNING BOLT

Zeus – the conqueror of Typhon ZEUS -- HUSBAND OF METIS

Hera – mother of Hephaestus and Ares HERA -- GODDESS WHO MARRIED A “CUCKOO”

Metis – first wife of Zeus METIS -- GODDESS OF PRUDENCE

Hephaestus – god who created the twelve golden thrones HEPHAESTUS -- GOD WHO SIDED WITH HERA IN AN ARGUMENT

Ares – the most vain and arrogant god ARES -- GOD WHO WAS FOLLOWED BY PAIN, PANIC, FAMINE, AND OBLIVION

Aphrodite – goddess who is attended by the Three Graces APHRODITE -- GODDESS WHO CAN RENEW HER BEAUTY

Hermes – god who bored Argus to death HERMES -- HERALD OF THE GODS

Cronus – Zeus’ father CRONUS -- WIELDER OF THE SICKLE

Uranus – Zeus’ grandfather URANUS – GOD CHASED BY THE SICKLE

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ARES

Bingo Game #1 (continued)
Rhea – Hera’s mother RHEA -- DEMETER’S MOTHER

Gaea – Hera’s grandmother GAEA -- HADES’ GRANDMOTHER

Atlas – Titan who supports the sky on his shoulders ATLAS -- STRONGEST OF THE TITANS

Eros – son of Aphrodite EROS -- ALSO KNOWN AS CUPID

Cyclopes – strong blacksmiths and masons CYCLOPES -- SONS OF GAEA AND URANUS WHO BUILT THE PALACE ON OLYMPUS

Have the students randomly place the following 24 words on a bingo board. (See following page) Ares Aphrodite Argus Atlas Cow Crete Cronus Cyclopes Cythera Eris Eros Gadfly Gaea Hephaestus Hera Hermes Inachos Lemnos Metis Peacock Rhea Thetis Uranus Zeus

They can write LIBER, the Latin word for “free,” in the free space.

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Musical Mythology Mars
(Tune: “When Johnny Comes Marching Home Again”) When soldiers marched from ancient Rome They sang of Mars. Because he was the god of war They sang of Mars. March is the month they named for him The Roman year was starting then And they all went marching Singing a song of Mars. Eris was the spirit of strife She marched with Mars She threw her golden apple down And started wars, And Mars leapt into the thick of things His sword against the armor rings And they all go marching Singing a song of Mars. A god who’s tall and handsome But quite vain was Mars. He’d jump to battle when he heard The clash of arms. But when he came wounded from the war He screamed and rolled upon the floor And Jove put ointment On his baby son Mars.

Liz Hubbard, Sagel, ID Susan Hengelsberg, Perry, NY Ann Edwards, Belle, MO 83
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ARES

The Wounding of Ares
During the Trojan War, the Greek army camped along the shore, and the people of Troy fought from behind the strong walls which circled their city. The battles waged by the brave heroes were watched closely by the gods and goddesses high above on Mount Olympus. The deities took definite sides and tried to support their chosen heroes. Athena was on the side of the Greeks, and Ares was for the Trojans. One day the sound of swords striking shields could be heard across the plain. Through clouds of dust, the warriors of both sides fought bravely and fiercely. Ares entered the fight to help the Trojans and while on the field of battle, he was attacked by the great Greek hero, Diomedes. Now the god Ares should have easily won a battle with a mortal hero, but unknown to Ares, Diomedes had the help of Athena, the goddess of warfare. Hidden under a helmet of darkness, Athena rode in Diomedes’ chariot. She urged him to fight bravely. As he battled Ares, Diomedes charged forward in the chariot. At his side, Athena drew her silver bow and swiftly shot arrows which severely injured Ares. With a mighty roar, the badly wounded god was forced to flee back to Mount Olympus to heal. Through the trickery and battle skill of Athena, Diomedes was spared in his battle against Ares.

The Wounded Ares
Think about how Ares felt when he returned to Mount Olympus in his wounded condition. He was the fierce god of war and could not have been happy to have been wounded in battle by Athena. Write an explanation Ares could have given for his wounds which protects his image as an Olympian. When you have finished, share your explanation with the class. Use your imagination! _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________
David Baumbach Pittsburgh, PA 84
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ATHENA

Musical Mythology Athena
(Tune: “Darlin’ Clementine”)

Oh, Athena, oh Athena Bright of eyes and true of heart In your armor, guarding Athens, You will always do your part. You were born full-grown and armored From the head of mighty Zeus You’re the goddess of great wisdom And the arts of daily use. Oh Athena, we may know you By your owl and olive tree And the aegis ‘round your shoulders With the Gorgon head to see. You competed with Arachne In a tapestry to weave Hers was perfect, you were jealous As a spider now she’ll grieve.
Liz Hubbard, Sagel, ID Susan Hengelsberg, Perry, NY Ann Edwards, Belle, MO 85
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ATHENA

Think About Athena
1. Prepare some open-ended questions for the students to wonder over such as Was Arachne punished because she was boastful or because of what she put on her weaving? Was Arachne’s contempt for the gods justified? What did Arachne think of Athena? Do you think Athena should have destroyed Arachne’s weaving? A good lively discussion will help open the story’s layers of meaning. It might then be beneficial to web any interests that the children name for further investigation such as weaving, spiders, boasting, competition, choices, and consequences. Individual and group projects can be launched. 2. Practice validations. Have a discussion about boasting. Have you ever known someone who boasted? What did that feel like? Have you ever been the one who did the boasting? What did that feel like? Did you feel better or worse afterwards? After some discussion, explain that affirmations or validations are specific traits or behaviors that we like about someone. Then try this activity. Get a ball of yarn and gather the class into a large circle. Begin by asking someone to give a validation to another student. For example, “Karen, I really like the way you get things done. You quietly do what we need. Thank you.” The student then ties the yarn three times around his own wrist and hands the yarn to the person just named. That person does the same thing to someone else, giving a validation and then tying the yarn around her wrist. This continues until everyone has spoken and been validated. Everyone will be connected by the web of yarn. Then the teacher can cut the yarn, making a friendship bracelet around each person’s wrist. It reminds the students that the invisible web cannot be broken.

Mary Ann Titus Westerville, OH

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ATHENA

Arachne the Weaver
In Latin, texere means “to weave,” and a “weaver” is a textor.

Some English words that are derived from these Latin words are TEXTURE TEXTILE TEXT CONTEXT PRETEXT the character of fabric determined by the fabric’s threads the woven fabric a structure of words the whole situation taken together literally to weave before or to pretend

To explore the word texture, bring in a variety of fabric, perhaps silk, burlap, linen, flannel, cotton, and wool. Allow the students to feel the texture of these textiles and to describe what they feel. The students will probably be familiar with textbooks although they may not have heard about the text of a speech. Differentiate between notes, paraphrasing, commentary, translation, and text. Discuss the difference between “out of context” and “in context.” Words have a specific meaning only when they are in context. Point out that “base” has many possible meanings until you put it in the context of a sentence. Consider the following sentences. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. He ran to third base. He will base his opinion on the evidence. The solution is either an acid or a base. The base of a statue is called a pedestal. The paint has an oil base. His actions showed him to be a base coward. The base of a word is its root.

Other words with multiple meanings determined by context are “run,” “bar,” and “bank.” Brainstorm others. Start a sentence with the phrase, “Under the pretext of . . ..” and let the students create their own scams. The newspaper might be a source of topics for these sentences.
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ATHENA

Hanging By a Thread
When Athena turned Arachne into a spider, she “hung by the thread” that she spun for her webs. The Latin word for “to hang” is PENDERE. Listed below are English derivatives from this Latin word. 1. 2. 3. 4. Underline the letters in the derivatives which suggest that these words are derived from PENDERE. Match the derivative with its meaning. Use each derivative in context in the sentences at the bottom of the page. Figure out a way to relate the word “hanging” to each of the derivatives. For example, the appendix is “hanging” at the end of the large intestine. _____ appendix _____ compensate _____ depend _____ impending _____ pendant _____ pending _____ pendulum _____ stipend _____ suspend _____ suspenders A. (verb) to make equivalent, to pay B. (noun) bands to hold up trousers C. (verb) to rely on D. (noun) a fixed payment for service E. (noun) an outgrowth of the large intestine F. (verb) to stop temporarily G. (noun) an ornamental hanging object H. (adj.) to be about to happen, threatening I. (noun) a part hung from a fixed point that swings freely J. (adj.) not decided

PENDERE in Context
1. The jury is still debating; the verdict is ______________________________. 2. She received a beautiful diamond ______________________________ for her birthday. 3. The surgeon removed the patient’s ______________________________. 4. When the ______________________________ stops swinging, the clock stops. 5. The radio warned us of the ______________________________ danger. 6. Our teacher received a ______________________________ for teaching two extra classes. 7. My grandpa wears striped ______________________________. 8. The bus company will ______________________________ service until the strike is over. 9. Baby birds ______________________________ on their parents for food. 10. A boss ______________________________ his workers for their time.
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Athena Double Puzzle
This exercise covers material in d’Aulaires’ Book of Greek Myths, pp. 34-37 Step 1: Unscramble each of the clue words by answering the questions. Step 2: To find out the secret word, copy the letters in the numbered cells into the cells at the bottom with the same number. Step 3: Figure out how the secret word relates to the clue words. Write your answer on the blank lines below the secret word. Question for Clue Word #1: Question for Clue Word #2: Question for Clue Word #3: What were Arachne and Athena weaving? What was the name of the vain girl? What got hurt when Arachne boasted she was better than Athena? 1. TATSERYP

1 2. NACREHA

6 3. REPDI

5

2

3

4

Secret Word

1

2

3

4

5

6

Relationship between Clue Words and Secret Word ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________

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ATHENA

Teacher’s Key Hanging By a Thread
Matching E A C H G J I D F B IN CONTEXT 1. pending 2. pendant 3. appendix 4. pendulum 5. impending 6. stipend 7. suspenders 8. suspend 9. depend 10. compensates

Teacher’s Key Athena Double Puzzle
Clue #1: Clue #2: Clue #3: Secret Word: Connection: tapestry Arachne pride spider Arachne’s pride caused her to create irreverent pictures on the tapestry she was weaving, and so Athena turned her into a spider.

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Musical Mythology Arachne’s Song
(Tune: “The Itsy-Bitsy Spider”)

Arachne and Athena were experts at the loom Pride and irreverence sealed Arachne’s doom Athena decided to make Arachne pay Now Arachne is a spider, weaving night and day.
Here is a Latin version of “The Itsy-Bitsy Spider.”

Pusilla araneola ascendit fistulam Magnopere pluit et abluit eam Deinde sol luxit siccavitque aquam Et pusilla araneola ascendit iterum.
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Derivatives from “The Itsy-Bitsy Spider”
Vocabulary
pusilla – very small araneola – spider ascendit – climb fistulam – water pipe magnopere – greatly pluit - rain abluit – wash away sol – sun luxit – shine siccavit – dry aquam – water iterum – again

Derivative
pusillanimous – cowardly (literally “tiny minded”) araneid – a zoological term for a spider ascend – to climb fistulous – tubular in shape magnify – to enlarge impluvium – (L.) the opening in the roof of the atrium abluent – a substance used for cleaning solar – pertaining to the sun translucent – allowing light to pass through siccative – a substance that helps paint to dry aqueduct – a structure for carrying water reiterate - to say again

To make these derivatives live for your students, be as creative and concrete as you can. Ask the children to bring in objects that are “fistular” in shape, to locate a “translucent” drinking glass or window, to search for information on “solar” eclipses, to decide which derivative belongs in The Wizard of Oz, to find pictures of an “aqueduct” and and “impluvium,” to make a list of “abluents,” to look through a “magnifying” glass, to “ascend” and “descend” the stairs or the piano keys, to look on paint cans for the words “fast-drying,” and to “reiterate” these derivatives as often as possible.

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ATHENA

NAME THAT SPIDER
Imagine that you have discovered a new spider. Write a description of this spider. What does it look like? What does it do? Where did you discover it?

___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________

On a separate piece of paper, sketch a picture of your spider. Give it a Family, Genus, and Species name.

KINGDOM PHYLUM CLASS ORDER FAMILY GENUS SPECIES

Animal Arthropoda Arachnida Aranaea ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________
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ATHENA

Pom-Pom Spiders
Materials needed for each spider a 2-inch pom-pom 4 pipe cleaners 2 googly eyes a 12-inch piece of yarn glue To make the spider Bend the four pipe cleaners around the middle of the pom-pom and secure with a tight twist. Flatten the pipe cleaners into the shape shown below.

Fluff the pom-pom around the indentation made by the pipe cleaners. Bend the pipe cleaners so that the spider can stand up.

Glue on the googly eyes. Attach the string to the stomach of the spider.
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POSEIDON

ATHENA / POSEIDON CROSSWORD PUZZLE
This exercise covers material in d’Aulaires’ Book of Greek Myths, pp. 34-41

Across

Down 2. The creature that Arachne became 4. The first ruler of the sea 5. A mortal girl who could weave well 7. One of Poseidon's nicknames 9. City named for Athena 12. Goddess of childbirth 14. The type of water that Poseidon offered 15. Athena's father 18. The type of tree that Athena offered 19. Island where Leto gave birth 21. Artemis and Apollo’s mother

1. Goddess of prudence 3. Poseidon and Amphitrite’s son 6. Spirit of Victory 8. Poseidon's wife 10. The god who split open Zeus’ head 11. The name of Nereus' 50 daughters 13. The location of Athena’s temple 16. Goddess of war, wisdom, and weaving 17. Brother of Zeus, lord of the sea 20. The creature that Zeus swallowed 22. One item Metis made for Athena inside Zeus’ head 23. Athena's favorite bird 24. Creature that Poseidon created 25. Pointed weapons used by the "twins"
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POSEIDON

ATHENA / POSEIDON CROSSWORD PUZZLE WORD BANK
Acropolis Amphitrite Arachne arrows Athena Athens Delos Earthshaker fly helmet Hephaestus horse Ilithyia Leto Metis Nereids Nereus Nike olive owl Poseidon salt spider Triton Zeus

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POSEIDON

TEACHER’S KEY ATHENA/POSEIDON CROSSWORD PUZZLE

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POSEIDON

Relationships
This difficult exercise covers material in d’Aulaires’ Book of Greek Myths, pp. 32-41 Figure out the number that corresponds to the letter. They are NOT consecutive. One letter’s number has been provided for you. The sentences you create will describe relationships between characters in the stories about Ares, Athena, and Poseidon.

Puzzle #1 A B C D E F G H I J K L M 8 N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ 14 22 21 20 8 17 22 11 ____ ____ ____ ____ ____, 13 11 2 4 20

____ ____ 8 21

____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____’ ____ 1 15 25 20 11 1 21 ____ ____ 8 21

____ ____ ____ 1 11 17

____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ 15 9 8 15 22 11

____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____’ ____ 1 23 14 25 8 15 9 8 15 20 21

____ ____ ____. 21 22 11

Puzzle #2 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S 1 T U V W X Y Z

____ ____ ____ ____ 25 11 7 15 ____ ____ ____ 10 23 6

____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ 3 1 14 14 1 16 15

____ ____ ____ ____, 22 11 25 15

____ ____ ____ ____ 4 7 18 25

____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ 22 9 9 1 21 26 22 4 7 25 15

____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____. 22 6 24 25 4 22

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POSEIDON

Relationships (continued)

Puzzle #3 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 13

____ ____ ____ ____ 10 11 4 22 ____ ____ ____ 16 15 11

____ ____ ____ 13 12 5

____ ____ ____ ____ ____ 7 11 16 18 22 ____ ____ 25 3

____ ____ ____ 13 23 11 ____ ____ ____ 16 15 11

____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ 19 13 23 11 12 16 22 ____ ____ 25 3

____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ 26 25 5 5 11 22 22

____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____. 20 18 22 5 25 7

Puzzle #4 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S 9 T U V W X Y Z

____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ 11 19 11 22 18 3 26

____ ____ 25 9

____ ____ ____ 23 18 26 ____ ____ ____ 11 5 5

____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ 11 3 22 26 9 23 6 19

____ ____ 6 15

____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____. 9 7 25 10 26 19 9

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POSEIDON

ATHENA / POSEIDON WORD SEARCH
This exercise covers material in d’Aulaires’ Book of Greek Myths, pp. 34-41 In this grid, find the words suggested by the clues at the bottom of the page. The words may be backwards, forwards, horizontal, vertical, or diagonal.

CLUES 1. I am the mother of Triton. 2. I provide oil, food, and wood. (2 words) 3. You can’t drink me. (2 words) 4. I am the mother of Apollo and Artemis. 5. I have a trident. 6. I am the island that offered Leto shelter. 7. My daughter popped out of my head. 8. Athena chose me as her favorite bird. 9. I am wise, and I can weave. 10. I am an arachnid. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. I am an animal created in the shape of breaking waves. I whacked Zeus on the head when he had a headache. I am the spirit who always accompanies Athena. I am the insect that Zeus swallowed during a game. I am the flat-topped rock that crowns the city of Athens. After she was bribed, Hera allowed me to visit Leto. I have 49 aunts. I am Poseidon’s father-in-law. I am not wise, but I can weave. I am the mother of Athena.
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POSEIDON

Teacher’s Key Relationships
Puzzle #1: Puzzle #2: Puzzle #3: Puzzle #4: Poseidon is Athena’s uncle, and Triton is Amphitrite’s son. Eris follows Ares, but Nike accompanies Athena. Zeus and Metis are the parents of the goddess of wisdom. Arachne is the ancestor of all spiders.

Teacher’s Key ATHENA / POSEIDON WORD SEARCH

1. Amphitrite 2. olive tree 3. salt water 4. Leto 5. Poseidon 6. Delos 7. Zeus 8. owl 9. Athena 10. spider

11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20.
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horse Hephaestus Nike fly Acropolis Ilithyia Triton Nereus Arachne Metis
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POSEIDON

Who Could I Be? #2
This exercise covers material in d’Aulaires’ Book of Greek Myths, pp. 24-41 A. B. C. D. E. Aphrodite Arachne Ares Argus Athena F. G. H. I. J. Eris Eros Hephaestus Hera Io K. L. M. N. Nike Poseidon Thetis Zeus

Match the character with the description. You will use some answers more than once. __________1. I am the blacksmith of the gods. __________2. Mother Earth gave me an apple tree for my wedding present. __________3. I have a trident. __________4. I am the king of the Olympian gods. __________5. My favorite bird is the owl. __________6. I throw a golden apple to start arguments. __________7. I took care of Hephaestus when he landed on Lemnos. __________8. I turned myself into a cuckoo to win Hera’s love. __________9. I am the goddess of love. __________10. I am the goddess of wisdom. __________11. My eyes were placed on the peacock’s tail. __________12. I am the spirit of victory who is always with Athena. __________13. I am the god of war. __________14. I was born from the head of Zeus. __________15. I am the son of Aphrodite. __________16. I entered into a weaving competition with Athena. __________17. Zeus gave Aphrodite to me for my wife. __________18. I got turned into a cow. __________19. I competed with Athena for the city of Athens. __________20. I am the queen of the Olympian gods.
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POSEIDON

Analogies
An analogy includes two words that are somehow related. You must determine the nature of that relationship and then find another pair of words which reflects a similar relationship. For example, “red and apple” might be the first pair of words. You know that the color of an apple is red. In the second pair of words, you will be looking for a similar relationship. The second pair could be “yellow and banana,” or “grey and elephant,” or “green and leaf.” Special symbols are used in analogies. red : apple :: yellow : banana

Read this analogy as “Red is to apple as yellow is to banana.” Each pair of words listed at the bottom of this page shows a relationship similar to another pair of words listed below. Write the matching pair in the blank. 1. Athena : owl :: ______________________________________________________________________ 2. salt water : Athenians :: _______________________________________________________________ 3. Poseidon : trident :: __________________________________________________________________ 4. Cyclopes : Hephaestus :: ______________________________________________________________ 5. Zeus’ head : Athena :: _______________________________________________________________ 6. arachnid : spider :: ___________________________________________________________________ 7. Athena : Nike :: _____________________________________________________________________ 8. Artemis : Apollo :: ____________________________________________________________________ 9. Cronus : Rhea :: ____________________________________________________________________ 10. eyes : Argus :: _____________________________________________________________________

Matching Pairs box : Jack-in-the-Box amphibian : frog Zeus : eagle Ares : Eris Zeus : lightning bolt refrigerator : Eskimos Romulus : Remus Zeus : Hera Iris : Mercury legs : centipede

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POSEIDON

Teacher’s Key Who Could I Be?
1. H 2. I 3. L 4. N 5. E 6. F 7. M 8. N 9. A 10. E 11. D 12. K 13. C 14. E 15. G 16. B 17. H 18. J 19. L 20. I

Teacher’s Key Analogies
1. Zeus : eagle 2. refrigerator : Eskimos The owl is a symbol of Athena; the eagle is a symbol of Zeus. The Athenians had as much use for salt water as Eskimos have for a refrigerator. Poseidon’s gift from the Cyclopes was a trident; Zeus’ gift was lightning. They have similar jobs. Both the Cyclopes and Hephaestus are blacksmiths; both Iris and Mercury are messengers. Athena popped out of Zeus’ head in the same way that a Jack-in-the-Box pops out of his box. The class to which a spider belongs is “arachnid;” the class to which a frog belongs is “amphibian.” Nike is Athena’s constant companion; Eris is Ares’ constant companion. Both pairs are twins. Both pairs are husband and wife. They are also brother and sister. Argus has 100 eyes; a centipede has 100 legs.
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3. Zeus : lightning bolt 4. Iris : Mercury

5. box : Jack-in-the-Box

6. amphibian : frog

7. Ares : Eris 8. Romulus : Remus 9. Zeus : Hera 10. legs : centipede

POSEIDON

Musical Mythology Neptune
(Tune: “Going Over the Sea”)

Neptune was a mighty god. He ruled over the sea. He held a trident in his hand. He ruled over the sea. He commanded waves and water And the storms upon the ocean With a one, a two, and a three. Neptune was the brother of Jove Who ruled over the sky. His other brother was named Pluto Who ruled under the earth. All together they commanded All the realms upon this planet With a one, a two, and a three. Polyphemus was his son A one-eyed giant was he. He ate Odysseus’ men, and then A blinded giant was he. Then great Neptune swore his vengeance Blew up storms that caused the shipwrecks With a one, a two, and a three.
Liz Hubbard, Sagel, ID Susan Hengelsberg, Perry, NY Ann Edwards, Belle, MO 105
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POSEIDON

The Contest for Athens – A Retelling
Poseidon, god of the ocean kingdom, used his mighty powers to rule all the waters of the seas. One day, greedy Poseidon decided that he wished to rule on land as well. He claimed the city-state of Athens for himself. This act greatly enraged the wise goddess Athena who wanted Athens under her protection. Poseidon and Athena knew that they must settle this argument and determine who would rule Athens. Poseidon could easily have beaten Athena in a fight so they decided on a contest as the way to settle the dispute. The people of Athens and their king, Cecrops, were the judges. Each of the gods would present a gift to the people of Athens. They would decide which gift was better, and the one who gave that gift would win the city. The contest was held on the Acropolis, the high hill in the center of Athens. The day of the contest arrived, and Poseidon and Athena took their places. Mighty Poseidon raised his trident high above his head and brought it down upon the rock with great force. Instantly from that spot gushed a stream of salt water. Next, Athena lightly tapped the ground with her spear and brought forth an olive tree, the first ever seen on earth. It took root instantly and developed olives. The citizens and king of Athens voted that the olive tree was the better gift, and Athens came under the protection of grey-eyed Athena.

David Baumbach Pittsburgh, PA

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POSEIDON

Why Was It Better?
• • • • This activity should be completed with a partner or in a small group of no more than four people. In the column labeled Salt Water, list as many uses for salt water as you can think of. In the column labeled Olive Tree, list as many uses for the olive tree as you can think of. When you have all uses listed, examine both lists and determine which gift you think was better. Support your answer with reasons.

Salt Water

Olive Tree

Which Was Better? Why? _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________
David Baumbach Pittsburgh, PA 107
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POSEIDON

Water, Water, Everywhere!
• 70% of the earth’s surface is covered with water
Use 1-inch graph paper and count a 10 x 10 square. Color 7 rows blue to represent the earth’s water and color 3 rows brown to represent earth.

• Of the earth’s water, 97% is ocean water and is too salty for human use.
Color yellow over the blue crayon in 3 of the 70 blocks that represent the ocean.

• Of the 3% that is fresh water, ¾ is frozen in glaciers, on mountains, or at the earth’s poles.
Dividing each of the 3 squares into four equal parts, color one part in each square black, over the previous colors. (You may have students note equivalent fractional parts.) This tiny black part represents all the free fresh water in the world. This activity may also be done using a liter bottle of water and an eye dropper. 30 ml. of water represents the fresh water. The free fresh water would be hardly more than a drop.

Remember:

There is as much water in the world now as there ever has been or ever will be. The drop of water you just drank may have been used by a scribe to clean the stylus with which he wrote thousands of years ago!

Joette McDonald Vermilion, OH

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POSEIDON

Some Facts About Water
Amount of Water on Earth
326 million cubic miles There are 1,000,000,000,000 gallons of water per cubic mile.

Amount of Water Used by People
16,000 gallons (60,600 liters) per person in a lifetime In the United States, each person uses about 100 gallons (380 liters) a day.

Biggest Consumer of Water
More water is used in making paper than in any other way.

Sources of Fresh Water
Rivers and lakes contain one fiftieth of one percent of all the fresh water on earth. One half of one percent of all water is beneath the earth’s surface. The rest is frozen somewhere.

Small towns (under 5000) use underground sources for their water systems. Large cities depend on rivers and lakes to supply the people with water.

Although water cannot be used up, it can be polluted. The supply of cheap, unpolluted water in the United States is shrinking. Cleaning water is expensive.

Joette McDonald Vermilion, OH

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POSEIDON

Oil or Water?
If Poseidon’s spring had been fresh water, the citizens would have been very foolish to choose the olive tree, for fresh water was very precious then as well as now. But the spring was salty and therefore unusable by human beings. There is an important gift, however, that Poseidon gave to people. What is it? • •

The olive tree, Athena’s gift, is an evergreen grown for the production of olives as food and for oil which may be used for a variety of purposes. There is evidence that olives were grown on the island of Crete as early as 3500 BCE. It is probably the world’s oldest cultivated crop. Olive oil was highly prized for anointing the body as early as 3000 BCE. Olive trees flourished in Greece in 900 BCE about the time of Homer and were important in Rome as early as 600 BCE. Olive trees grow slowly, and some are reported to be over 1000 years old. The wood is resistant to decay, and if the top dies, a new trunk will sprout from the roots. These trees grow to be 10 to 40 feet tall. They cannot survive temperatures of less than 10 degrees F. (-12.2 C.), yet they require winter-chilling conditions in order to produce fruit. Athena’s olive tree has always been a very useful tree in the region around the Mediterranean Sea for it can grow on very dry land and it lives for a long, long time. Olive oil is still prized today for cooking and for other purposes.

• • • • •

Find Out Where are olives grown in the United States? Are olives still important in Greece? Which country today produces the most olives? What special building was erected in Athens in honor of Athena?

Joette McDonald Vermilion, OH 110
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POSEIDON

POSEIDON
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POSEIDON

REVIEW #2
This exercise covers material in d’Aulaires’ Book of Greek Myths, pp. 24-41 The answer-blanks with a slash require both Greek and Roman names for the god or goddess. 1. Who kills the monster Echidna? ________________________________ 2. What does Gaea give to Hera for a wedding present? ______________________________ 3. Who are Hephaestus’ three main helpers? _____________________________________ 4. Into what does Zeus turn Io? _________________________ 5. What is Eros’ other name? ______________________________ 6. Who bores Argus to death? _____________________________ 7. Who is the king of the gods? ________________________/_______________________ 8. Who is Artemis and Apollo’s mother? _______________________ 9. What is one animal that Poseidon created? ______________________________ 10. Into what does Athena turn Arachne? _______________________ 11. Who is the god of war? ________________________/_______________________ 12. What creature chases Io to Egypt? _______________________________ 13. Who causes Zeus’ headache by hammering out armor? ________________________ 14. Who is the goddess of the hearth? _____________________/_____________________ 15. Who throws Hephaestus from Mount Olympus? ________________________ 16. Who tends Hephaestus when he falls onto the island of Lemnos? __________________ 17. Who help Hephaestus walk? _________________________________ 18. Who gives the olive tree to Athens? _______________________________ 19. What four creatures follow Ares? ____________________, __________________, ______________________, _____________________ 20. Who makes thrones, weapons, and jewelry for the gods? _________________________ 21. What two natural events does Poseidon cause with his trident? _________________________________ and ________________________________
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POSEIDON

REVIEW #2 (continued)
22. Who is Io’s father? ________________________________ 23. Who are Aphrodite’s attendants? _________________________________________ 24. Which two gods do not have thrones on Mount Olympus? ________________________ and _______________________ 25. What bird bears Argus’ eyes? _______________________________ 26. With whom are “love arrows” associated? _________________________________ 27. To what island does Aphrodite go to renew her beauty? _______________________ 28. Who is the queen of the gods? ______________________/______________________ 29. What are Amphitrite’s 49 sisters called? ______________________________ 30. How many eyes does Argus have? _______________________________ 31. To whom do the other goddesses give an amber necklace as a bribe? _______________ 32. Who is the king of the sea? ________________________/_______________________ 33. In order to convince Hera to marry him, Zeus turns himself into a _________________. 34. With whom does Athena have a weaving contest? _________________________ 35. Who is Aphrodite’s husband? ________________________________ 36. Which two Olympians are the children of Hera and Zeus? ________________________ and _________________________ 37. Who is Ares’ constant companion? __________________________ 38. Which god is cowardly and unable to withstand pain? _____________________ 39. Who is the blacksmith of the gods? ____________________/_____________________ 40. Athena is the goddess of three things that begin with W and two things that begin with O. What are they? _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ 41. Who is Athena’s mother? ______________________________
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________________________ ________________________

POSEIDON

REVIEW #2 (continued)
42. What is the name of the spirit of victory always shown with Athena? _______________ 43. Who is Aphrodite’s son? ________________________ 44. Where do Zeus and Io hide to avoid Hera? _______________________________ 45. Which two gods want the city of Athens for their own. ________________________ and _________________________ 46. Who is the goddess of love? ________________________/_______________________ 47. Who gives salt water to Athens? _____________________________ 48. What does Eris carry? _______________________________________ 49. Who is married to Poseidon? ____________________________________ 50. From where is Aphrodite born? __________________________ 51. Who is the goddess of wisdom? _____________________/_______________________ 52. Over what body of water does Io jump on her way to Egypt? _______________________ 53. Who will not allow the goddess of childbirth, Ilithyia, to go to Leto? _______________ 54. On which island are Artemis and Apollo born? _________________________

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POSEIDON

Teacher’s Key REVIEW #2
1. Argus 2. apple tree 3. Cyclopes 4. cow 5. Cupid 6. Hermes 7. Zeus / Jupiter 8. Leto 9. horse 10. spider 11. Ares / Mars 12. gadfly 13. Metis 14. Hestia / Vesta 15. Zeus 16. Thetis 17. robots 18. Athena 19. pain, panic, famine, oblivion 20. Hephaestus 21. earthquakes, tidal waves 22. Inachos 23. Three Graces 24. Hades, Hestia 25. peacock 26. Eros 27. Cythera 28. Hera / Juno 29. Nereids 30. 100 31. Hera 32. Poseidon / Neptune 33. cuckoo 34. Arachne 35. Hephaestus 36. Ares, Hephaestus 37. Eris 38. Ares 39. Hephaestus / Vulcan 40. wisdom, war, weaving, olives, owl 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. Metis Nike Eros cloud Athena, Poseidon Aphrodite / Venus Poseidon golden apple Amphitrite the sea Athena / Minerva Bosporus (cow ford) Hera Delos

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APOLLO / ARTEMIS

Apollo / Artemis Crossword Puzzle
This exercise covers material in d’Aulaires’ Book of Greek Myths, pp. 42-49

Across 1. The giant who wanted to marry Artemis 3. Creatures that pulled Artemis' chariot 6. What Orion became after his death 11. What Niobe was changed into 12. Mountain where Delphi is located 13. Location of Apollo's oracle 16. Place where the giant brothers put Ares 18. God who killed Python 19. Creatures that Zeus gave to Artemis 20. Goddess who killed Niobe's daughters 22. Creatures that pulled Apollo's chariot 23. Number of children that Leto had 24. Queen of Thebes 25. Original owner of the oracle of Delphi

Down 1. Son of Poseidon who could walk on water 2. The priestess of the oracle 4. Woman whom Python had tried to devour 5. Number of children that Niobe had 7. Creature that killed Orion 8. The giant who wanted to marry Hera 9. Weapon that killed Otus and Ephialtes 10. What Artemis and Orion enjoyed most 14. Dragon who guarded the oracle 15. Grandfather of Niobe 17. Mortal who saw Artemis bathing 21. Creature that Actaeon became

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APOLLO / ARTEMIS

Word Bank for Apollo/Artemis Crossword
Actaeon Apollo Artemis constellation Delphi Ephialtes fourteen Gaea hinds hounds hunting jar javelin Leto Niobe Orion Otus Parnassus Python rock scorpion sibyl stag swans two Zeus

Teacher’s Key Apollo/Artemis Crossword Puzzle

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APOLLO / ARTEMIS

Apollo Word Pieces
This exercise covers material in d’Aulaires’ Book of Greek Myths, p. 42

Cut out the word squares and position them to create a complete sentence about Apollo. Write the sentence on the line below the puzzle.

Puzzle #1 S U O D O F I S E G

A

P

O

T

H

E

N

L

L

O

T

H

Sentence _______________________________________________________________

Puzzle #2

L L E

N

G O N

P

Y

K

I

L

L O

D

R A

H

E

D

T

A

P O

T

H O

Sentence _______________________________________________________________

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APOLLO / ARTEMIS

Artemis Word Pieces
This exercise covers material in d’Aulaires’ Book of Greek Myths, p. 44

Cut out the word squares and position them to create a complete sentence about Artemis. Write the sentence on the line below the puzzle.

Puzzle #1 G O D M O O S O A R T H E E M I

S

I

S

T

D

E S

H

E

F

T

N

Sentence _______________________________________________________________

Puzzle #2

I

O

T I

S

T

H

R

P D E

E

T

E M

U

L

L H

A R

O

F E

C

A

R

Sentence _______________________________________________________________

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APOLLO / ARTEMIS

True Statements Artemis/Apollo
This difficult exercise covers material in d’Aulaires’ Book of Greek Myths, pp. 40-44 Figure out the number that corresponds to the letter. They are NOT consecutive. One letter’s number has been provided for you. The sentences you create will be true statements about the Artemis and Apollo myths. Puzzle #1 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S 9 T U V W X Y Z

____ ____ ____ ____ 18 5 18 19 ____ ____ 25 9

____ ____ ____ ____ 25 9 9 23

____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ 18 2 18 25 12 26 18 13 ____ ____ ____ ____ 12 6 5 13 ____ 13

____ ____ ____ ____ 2 6 25 9

____ ____ ____ ____ ____ 13 16 25 6 5

____ ____ ____ 17 13 19

____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ 4 5 18 4 6 14 ____ ____ ____ 13 8 14

____ ____ ____ ____ 17 18 25 12

____ ____ ____ ____ 22 9 2 14

____ ____ ____ ____ ____ 13 3 4 6 5

____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ . 8 6 10 23 2 13 10 6 Puzzle #2 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T 4 U V W X Y Z

____ ____ ____ 22 15 13

____ ____ ____ ____ ____ 4 2 6 24 3

____ ____ ____ 7 16 4 ____ ____ 16 22

____ 16

____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ 1 12 2 13 4 22 13 4 4 ____ ____ ____ ________ ____ 25 12 16 21 3 13 ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ 26 25 9 14 22 ____ ____ 25 18

____ ____ ____ 22 15 13 ____ ____ 25 14

____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ 19 13 3 1 15 2

____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ . 1 16 12 14 16 4 4 9 4

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APOLLO / ARTEMIS

True Statements (cont.) Artemis/Apollo

Puzzle #3 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T 16 U V W X Y Z

____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____, 11 18 19 25 25 19 ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ 4 15 19 22 17 8 15 ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ 6 7 25 25 8 10

____ ____ ____ 22 17 8 ____ ____ 19 26

____ ____ ____ ____ 22 20 7 13

____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____, 11 15 22 8 1 7 16 ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ 10 11 15 6 16 19 1 8

____ ____ ____ 22 17 8

____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ 10 15 11 3 19 13

____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____. 18 5 22 17 19 13

Puzzle #4 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P 19 Q R S T U V W X Y Z

____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ 26 21 1 26 14 12 19 ____ ____ ____ 26 19 8 ____ ____ 13 14

____ ____ ____ 17 6 17

____ ____ ____ 19 12 1

____ ____ ____ ____ 13 26 24 14 ____ ____ 2 12

____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ 21 12 23 23 12 19

____ ____ ____ ____ ____ 2 14 19 2 14 ____ ____ 5 8

____ ____ ____ 10 26 2

____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ 3 6 15 15 14 17

____ ____ ____ 13 6 2

____ ____ ____ 12 10 19

____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____. 13 12 16 19 17 2

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APOLLO / ARTEMIS

Teacher’s Key Apollo Word Pieces
Puzzle #1 Puzzle #2 Apollo is the god of the sun. Apollo killed the dragon Python.

Teacher’s Key Artemis Word Pieces
Puzzle #1 Puzzle #2 Artemis is the goddess of the moon. Deer pull the chariot of Artemis.

Teacher’s Key True Statements Apollo/Artemis
1. Iris took Ilithyia to Leto after Hera was bribed with a gold and amber necklace. 2. The sibyl was a priestess at the oracle of Delphi on Mount Parnassus. 3. Apollo, the twin brother of Artemis, killed the darksome dragon Python. 4. Actaeon did not have any common sense so he was killed by his own hounds.

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APOLLO / ARTEMIS

Bingo Game #2
This exercise covers material in d’Aulaires’ Book of Greek Myths, pp. 34-49 Apollo – Artemis – Poseidon – Athena There are two clues for each answer so you can play two completely different games.

OTUS

The giant who wanted to marry Artemis Brother of Ephialtes Hunter who became a constellation after his death A son of Poseidon who could walk on water Queen who had seven sons and seven daughters The crying rock Location of Apollo’s oracle Oracle on Mount Parnassus God who was put into a bronze jar God of bloody warfare Goddess of wars who fought for just causes Goddess whose temple is located on the Acropolis Priestess of the oracle of Delphi Priestess who sat on a tripod Woman whom Python had tried to devour Mother of the twin gods Giant who wanted to marry Hera Brother of Otus Goddess who changed Actaeon into a stag Goddess who befriended Orion God of wisdom, light, and music Killer of the dragon Python
123
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ORION

NIOBE

DELPHI

ARES

ATHENA

SIBYL

LETO

EPHIALTES

ARTEMIS

APOLLO

APOLLO / ARTEMIS

Bingo Game #2 (continued)
ACTAEON Mortal who saw Artemis bathing Man who was killed by his own hunting dogs Dragon who guarded Mother Earth’s oracle at Delphi Dragon killed by Apollo Goddess of prudence Mother of Athena Son of Poseidon and Amphitrite Sea deity with a fishtail and a conch shell Spirit of Victory Constant companion of Athena Father of the Nereids Father-in-law of Poseidon

PYTHON

METIS

TRITON

NIKE

NEREUS

POSEIDON Creator of the horse Owner of the trident ARACHNE Mortal who was in a weaving competition with Athena Girl whose transformation gave the scientific name to spiders City that chose Athena’s olive tree as the best gift City that rejected Poseidon’s gift of a salt water spring Birthplace of Artemis and Apollo Island that gave Leto shelter Athena’s father A god with a horrid headache Goddess of childbirth Goddess who was forbidden to help Leto on the island of Delos God who assisted in the birth of Athena God who hit his father over the head with a hammer
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ATHENS

DELOS

ZEUS

ILITHYIA

HEPHAESTUS

APOLLO / ARTEMIS

Words for Bingo #2
Have the students randomly place the following 24 words on a bingo board. (Use bingo form from previous game)

ACTAEON APOLLO ARACHNE ARES ARTEMIS ATHENA ATHENS DELOS DELPHI EPHIALTES HEPHAESTUS ILITHYIA LETO METIS NEREUS NIKE NIOBE OTUS ORION POSEIDON PYTHON SIBYL TRITON ZEUS They can write LIBER, the Latin word for “free,” in the free space.

125

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APOLLO / ARTEMIS

Musical Mythology Apollo
(Tune: “You Are My Sunshine”)

The god Apollo was born on Delos The son of Leto and mighty Zeus. The god of music and light and reason, He was handsome, smart, and couth. He went to Delphi on Mount Parnassus To conquer Python with silver shafts. The sibyl now heard words of Apollo. When he spoke, the die was cast. Apollo’s brother, the clever Hermes, Stole fifty cows from Apollo’s herd. He played his lyre as a distraction, And a sudden trade occurred. The god Apollo adored the sunshine. His twin Diana adored the moon. Apollo also adored his lyre So he played it night and noon. Apollo mentored the lovely Muses. On Mount Parnassus, they played and danced. They sang of heroes and ancient history. Mankind’s knowledge was enhanced.
126
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APOLLO / ARTEMIS

Musical Mythology Artemis
(Tune: “A-Hunting We Will Go”)

A-hunting we will go A-hunting we will go Diana leads her nymphs and so A-hunting we will go. She has a lovely bow Her arrows cleave the air Her aim is sure, her life is pure Diana, tall and fair.

Liz Hubbard, Sagel, ID Susan Hengelsberg, Perry, NY Ann Edwards, Belle, MO 127
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APOLLO / ARTEMIS

Artemis and Actaeon Write Your Own Ending
Artemis took her revenge on Actaeon for a mistake he made, a mistake which proved to be deadly. What if Actaeon had been friends with one of the other gods or goddesses and had called for them to help him just as Artemis was turning him into a stag? Would the story have come out differently? Would Actaeon have turned into some other animal? Would the god or goddess who was his friend have taken revenge on Artemis? Would Actaeon have become a constellation, or would he have had adventures of his own? In the space below, write an alternate ending for the myth of Artemis and Actaeon. You may want to write the story from Actaeon’s point of view, or perhaps as told by one of his dogs, or in the words of one of the nymphs who was watching. _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________
Joette McDonald Vermilion, OH 128
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APOLLO / ARTEMIS

Make Artemis’ Stag and Quiver
Materials needed for each STAG 3 wooden clothespins 1 small piece of corrugated cardboard small piece of yarn or pipe cleaner for tail glue black marker 2 googly eyes Directions Glue clothespins with one upright (the horns) and two in the opposite direction (the legs). Glue a small pad of the corrugated cardboard between the legs to separate them. Glue on the eyes, and draw the nose with a marker. Glue on the tail. Materials needed for each QUIVER a piece of stiff cardboard, 2-inches by 5-inches 1 large paperclip scissors heavy white twine brown yarn Directions Cut slits ½ inch apart across the top and bottom of the cardboard. Wind the white twine around and around the cardboard, fitted in the slits. Use the paperclip for a shuttle, bending the sharp end so it won’t catch on the twine. Tie a long piece of the brown yarn to the paperclip and weave it, going over one string, under the next, all the way around the cardboard (back and front) until about 1 ½ inch from the top. Cut the twine in the slits at the top, and tie one cut end to the one next to it. Remove the woven piece from the cardboard, turning it inside out. You now have a pouch. You can add a strap for the shoulder. See how inventive you can be about finding objects that will work for arrows. You can decorate the quiver with moons cut from foil or in any other way you would like.
Joette McDonald Vermilion, OH 129
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APOLLO / ARTEMIS

ARTEMIS AND ACTAEON MAZE
Actaeon has lost his way in the forest. Help him avoid Artemis’ cave.

130

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APOLLO / ARTEMIS

ARTEMIS AND ACTAEON
131
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APOLLO / ARTEMIS

Daphne and Apollo A Retelling
Long ago in a green and peaceful wood there lived a nymph named Daphne. Nymphs are the spirits of water and trees. Daphne was the daughter of the river god, Peneus, and she was as happy and free as the wind that blew through the forest where she lived. She loved her freedom more than life itself and spent the long summer days hunting with her bow and arrows, or gathering nuts and berries, or simply watching the pattern of the leaves against a clear blue sky. This carefree existence filled her with joy, and she wanted only to spend her time in this way. “Please, Father, “ she begged the river god. “You must promise me that you will never make me marry. Please let me live all my life just as I am today.” Her father was not really happy about this because he wanted grandchildren. Besides, he thought that any proper girl should one day become a wife. But she pleaded with him so often and so pitifully that he promised, at last. Perhaps she would have spent her whole existence just like this if Apollo and Cupid had not been having another of their arguments. Cupid had been using Apollo’s python-killing bow, and Apollo was angry. “You’re not strong enough to use my weapon,” he raged. “Oh, Apollo, how wrong you are! Your weapon may be great, but my arrows are more deadly!” And in the end, Apollo was wounded by a silver arrow from Cupid’s quiver just as the maiden Daphne passed by. Apollo fell in love at once. Cupid loosed another arrow at the girl, this one tipped in lead. She turned to see the handsome Apollo approaching, and her heart was filled with fear and loathing. “Good morning, you beautiful thing, you,” Apollo called to the nymph. Daphne was a pretty young lady, but she wasn’t very neat. Her hair hung loose about her shoulders, and she wore a short ragged dress. She was surprised that he would call her beautiful, but she was also frightened. She turned and started to run. “Wait, don’t go! I won’t hurt you,” Apollo called, but Daphne only ran faster. “Perhaps you don’t recognize me,” Apollo shouted as he started to run after her. “I am the god, Apollo, and I love you! Wait!” Still Daphne ran. Although she was used to racing through the woods after animals, she was no match for the god. With his powerful stride, he soon was gaining on her. She put everything she had into a burst of speed that made her breath come like sharp daggers in her side, and her heart beat like a drum. “Lovely maiden, please stop!” Apollo pleaded.

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APOLLO / ARTEMIS

Daphne and Apollo: A Retelling (continued)
Looking back, she could see him close at her heels. She was out of breath, and her knees felt weak and rubbery from fear. She saw the river ahead, and she began to shout. “Father! Father! Please save me!” At once she felt a strange thing happening. Her feet and legs became stiff, and she felt a tingling sensation in her fingers. With a last backward look at her pursuer, she paused, and rootlets from her feet dug into the ground, and a crown of silvery leaves suddenly grew from her head and arms. Daphne, fleeing the god Apollo, had changed into a tree. Apollo stopped short. Where the maiden had stood but a moment ago now stood a laurel tree. He felt pain in his heart, for he really loved her. “Oh, Daphne,” he cried. “I am so sorry. But you will always be my tree. Your leaves will make a crown for me, and I will protect you always.” The slender tree bowed in the breeze and seemed to forgive the god who had thoughtlessly caused an end to her carefree life. Since that time, the leaves from the laurel tree have always been used as a symbol of victory or to crown a young hero.

Joette McDonald Vermilion, OH 133
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APOLLO / ARTEMIS

Musical Mythology Apollo and Daphne
(Tune: You Are My Sunshine)

“You are my girlfriend, my only girlfriend,” He said to Daphne, one sunny day. “Oh well, Apollo, you lovely fellow, I’m inclined to run away.” “Oh lovely Daphne, my darling Daphne, Don’t run so quickly, don’t run so far.” “Oh well, Apollo, you lovely fellow, I can’t bear to be where you are.” Ad so poor Daphne, with all her running Became exhausted, and couldn’t flee. “Oh father River, will you please save me?” And he made her a laurel tree.

Liz Hubbard, Sagel, ID Susan Hengelsberg, Perry, NY Ann Edwards, Belle, MO 134
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APOLLO / ARTEMIS

APOLLO PUPPET
Instructions: Color and cut out. Glue to stiff paper. Cut out again. Attach arms and legs with paper fasteners.

Janeene Blank Birmingham, MI 135
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APOLLO / ARTEMIS

DAPHNE PUPPET
Instructions: Color and cut out. Glue to stiff paper. Cut out again. Attach arms and legs with paper fasteners.

Janeene Blank Birmingham, MI 136
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HERMES

Word Search – Hermes
This exercise covers material in d’Aulaires’ Book of Greek Myths, pp. 50-54 In this grid, find the words suggested by the clues at the bottom of the page. The words may be backwards, forwards, horizontal, vertical, or diagonal.

1. Mother of Hermes 2. Location of the cave where Maia and Hermes lived (two words) 3. God of merchants, thieves, travelers, and shepherds 4. Color of the cows in Apollo's herd 5. Number of cows that Hermes stole from Apollo 6. What Hermes tied to the cows' tails to erase their tracks 7. The way that Hermes drove the cows out of the pasture to confuse Apollo 8. Number of cows that Hermes sacrificed to the Olympian gods 9. Number of strings on Hermes' musical instrument 10. The musical instrument that Hermes invented 11. The type of shell used for Hermes' musical instrument 12. The source of Apollo's knowledge about who had stolen his herd 13. Father of both Hermes and Apollo 14. The magic item that Apollo traded for Hermes' musical instrument 15. Distinguishing feature of Hermes’ hat and sandals 16. Another word for messenger 17. Goddess who was angry with Hermes over the death of her servant 18. The item with which the gods cast their votes in Hermes' trial 19. Monster whom Hermes had bored to death 20. God to whom Hermes led the souls of the dead 137

21. Another name for a pile of stones that guides travelers
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HERMES

Teacher’s Key Word Search – Hermes

1. Maia 2. Mount Cyllene 3. Hermes 4. white 5. fifty 6. brooms 7. backward 8. two 9. seven 10. lyre 11. tortoise 12. oracle 13. Zeus 14. wand 15. wings 16. herald 17. Hera 18. pebble 19. Argus 20. Hades 21. cairn
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HERMES

Hermes Crossword
This exercise covers material in d’Aulaires’ Book of Greek Myths, pp. 50-54

Across 3. Mother of Hermes 5. How Apollo felt when he saw the tracks going into the field but not out 6. Hermes' Roman name 8. One gift with wings that Zeus gave to Hermes 11. The musical instrument that Apollo received in exchange for cows and a magic wand 12. Father of Hermes Down 1. The animals that Hermes stole from Apollo 2. The messenger of the gods 4. The monster bored to death by Hermes 7. Another gift with wings that Zeus gave to Hermes 9. The god of music 10. What the gods threw toward Hermes if they thought he was innocent of a crime Word Bank Apollo Argus confused cows hat Hermes lyre Maia
139

Mercury pebbles sandals Zeus
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HERMES

Teacher’s Key Hermes Crossword

140

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HERMES

Hermes Double Puzzle
This exercise covers material in d’Aulaires’ Book of Greek Myths, pp. 50-54 Step 1: Unscramble each of the clue words by answering the questions. Step 2: To discover the secret phrase that applies to both Hermes and Apollo, copy the letters in the numbered squares into the squares with the same number at the bottom of the page. Question for Clue Word #1: Question for Clue Word #2: Question for Clue Word #3: Question for Clue Words #4: Question for Clue Word # 5: What did Hermes steal from Apollo? Who was Hermes’ mother? Who was Hermes’ father? What two “winged” items did Hermes wear? How did Hera feel when she learned that Hermes had bored Argus to death? Clue Word #1: SOWC

2

7

Clue Word #2: MAAI

4 Clue Word #3: SZUE

6

5

Clue Words #4: DSTHANNASALAD

8

1 Clue Word #5: RAGNY

9

3

10

SECRET PHRASE

1

2

3

1

2

4

5

6

7
141

8

6

9

9

9

10

3

6

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HERMES

Mythological Names Rebus
Figure out the verbal rebus to find out what mythological character is named.

1. Two of the three articles plus a slang way to say “no” __________ + __________ + ____________ = _______________ 2. A 3rd person object feminine pronoun plus the hypothetical plural of a 1st person object pronoun __________ + __________ = _______________ 3. What grows on your head plus a cheer __________ + __________ = _______________ 4. The musician Garfunkel’s first name plus Dorothy’s aunt plus the singular of are __________ + __________ + ____________ = _______________ 5. An article plus the musician Simon’s first name plus an expression of surprise __________ + __________ + ____________ = _______________ 6. A river in Italy plus what the past tense of “sigh” plus the opposite of “off” __________ + __________ + ____________ = _______________ 7. What you breathe plus the plural of “e” __________ + __________ = _______________ 8. A hair-style plus the opposite of “live” plus a drink __________ + __________ + ____________ = _______________ 9. An article plus an instrument of torture plus a part of your leg __________ + __________ + ____________ = _______________ 10. Neckwear plus 2000 pounds __________ + __________ = _______________

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HERMES

Teacher’s Key Hermes Double Puzzle
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. cows Maia Zeus hat and sandals angry

Secret Phrase: tortoise shell lyre

Teacher’s Key Mythological Names Rebus
1. a + the + na = Athena 2. her + mes = Hermes 3. hair + rah = Hera 4. Art + Em + is = Artemis 5. a + Paul + oh = Apollo 6. Po + sighed + on = Poseidon 7. air + e’s = Ares 8. afro + die + tea = Aphrodite 9. a + rack + knee = Arachne 10. tie + ton = Titan

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HERMES

Musical Mythology Mercury
(Tune: “Billy Boy”)

Can you fly very fast, Mercury, Mercury? Can you fly very fast, darling Hermes? Oh yes, I’m very fleet. I’ve got wings upon my feet. I’m a swift boy and no one could be faster. Can you sing very well, Mercury, Mercury? Can you sing very well, darling Hermes? On the lyre I can play. I make music every day. I’m a swift boy and no one could be faster. Can you tell where the cows of Apollo have gone? Can you tell where they’ve gone, darling Hermes? I could tell, but you see, Then the blame would fall on me. I’m a swift boy And no one could be faster.

Liz Hubbard, Sagel, ID Susan Hengelsberg, Perry, NY Ann Edwards, Belle, MO 144
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HERMES

The Caduceus
Pronunciation: ka – dū – sē – us or ka – dū – shus

The caduceus, the “magic wand” which Apollo traded for Hermes’ lyre, is depicted as a winged staff with two snakes wrapped around it. Since it belonged to Hermes, the messenger of the gods, it was a symbol of commerce and travel. He carried it whenever he carried messages from Mount Olympus to earth, and with it he conducted the dead into the underworld.

The Latin word caduceus is equivalent to the Greek word karykeion which means “herald’s staff.” Originally, this staff had two white ribbons attached to it. It is believed that these ribbons eventually became the snakes on the familiar modern symbol. Another form of the karykeion included a horn formation at the top of the staff made from snake heads. This version of the caduceus is reminiscent of the symbol for the planet Mercury. The connection of the caduceus with medicine began in the seventh century when alchemists consulted the position of the planets in order to advise their patients.

There is another mythological story which involves a staff with snakes. Asclepius, a son of Apollo who was mentored by Chiron, was a celebrated physician. (See d’Aulaires’ Book of Greek Myths, pp. 98-99) His symbol, the staff of Asclepius, consisted of a single serpent encircling a staff. Asclepius received much of his information about curing disease from snakes. Patients of Asclepius slept in special temples called Asclepieia because they believed that they would be cured by doing so. Aesculapian snakes lived in the temples; these harmless European snakes are brown with a yellow belly and are particularly adept at climbing trees. After his death, Asclepius became a constellation called Ophiuchus or Sepentarius, the “serpent-bearer.”

Both Hermes’ caduceus and the staff of Asclepius were used to advertise pharmacies in the 17th and 18th centuries. In the 19th and 20th centuries, both symbols came to represent medicine and healing. In 1902, the caduceus became the official insignia for the Medical Department of the United States Army.

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HERMES

Activities for Hermes and Apollo
1. Research ancient musical instruments and draw or make replicas.

2. Invent musical instruments using “found” objects. Hermes used what he had: an empty shell.

3. Find out more about the relationship of the caduceus to medicine.

4. Find the myth about the origin of the constellation, Lyra. If possible, have a star watch to see it in the sky. If that is not possible, make a model of Lyra by punching holes in the bottom of a tin can and shine a light through the holes in a darkened classroom.

5. Make a listing of all the things associated with Hermes and another listing of all things associated with Apollo.

6. Write songs Apollo might have sung when he played the lyre. Remember that the ancient songs didn’t always rhyme and that they probably praised the beauty of nature.

7. Find out as much as you can about Hermes’ Roman name, Mercury. Why was the liquid in a thermometer named for him? Does the nickname “quicksilver” seem appropriate?

8. Research the planet Mercury. Does the name seem appropriate? Why or why not?

9. Research the Apollo missions of NASA. Why were they named for the god associated with the sun?

Joette McDonald Vermilion, OH 146
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HERMES

APOLLO AND HERMES
147
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HADES / DEMETER

The Underworld Double Puzzle
This exercise covers material in d’Aulaires’ Book of Greek Myths, pp. 56-62 Step 1: Unscramble each of the clue words by answering the questions. Step 2: To discover two important inhabitants of the underworld, copy the letters in the numbered squares into the squares with the same number at the bottom of the page. Question for Clue Word #1: Question for Clue Word #2: Question for Clue Word #3: Question for Clue Word #4: Question for Clue Word # 5: Who ferried souls across the Styx? Who ruled the Underworld? What did the swineherd lose when the earth opened up? What did the flowers do when mother and daughter were together again? Which god sent Hermes down to Hades to get Demeter’s daughter? Clue Word #1: HANCOR

12

6

10

3

7

8

Clue Word #2: HSEDA

9

4

Clue Word #3: SGPI

1 Clue Word #4: LOODBME

13

5 Clue Word #5: SEZU

11

2

14

15

TWO IMPORTANT INHABITANTS OF THE UNDERWORLD

1

2

3

4

5

1

6

7

8

9

10
148

8

11

12

5

3

13

2

3

14 15

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HADES / DEMETER

Who Could I Be? #3
This exercise covers material in d’Aulaires’ Book of Greek Myths, pp. 38-62 A. B. C. D. E. Actaeon Apollo Ares Artemis Cerberus F. G. H. I. J. Charon Demeter Hades Hermes Leto K. Maia L. Niobe M. Orion O. Otus P. Persephone

Match the character with the statement he/she is making. You will use some answers more than once. __________ 1. Otus and Ephialtes crammed me into a jar. __________ 2. I stole Apollo’s cattle. __________ 3. I am the three-headed dog who guards the Underworld. __________ 4. Hades stole me to be his bride. __________ 5. I killed Python to get the oracle of Delphi. __________ 6. I was turned into an unfeeling rock after I bragged about my 14 children. __________ 7. I am Persephone’s mother. __________ 8. I had to give my lyre to my brother. __________ 9. I am the goddess of the moon and the hunt. __________ 10. Hermes is my son. __________ 11. I am the king of the underworld. __________ 12. I was tricked into thinking that Artemis loved me. __________ 13. I guide dead souls to the underworld. __________ 14. I am Leto’s son. __________ 15. I ferry dead souls across the river Styx. __________ 16. I am the goddess of the harvest. __________ 17. I was attacked by my own hounds after I saw Artemis bathing. __________ 18. Artemis and I were great friends because we both loved hunting. __________ 19. I gave birth to my twins on the island of Delos. __________ 20. I am the god of light and music.
149
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HADES / DEMETER

Teacher’s Key The Underworld Double Puzzle
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Charon Hades pigs bloomed Zeus

Important inhabitants: Persephone and Cerberus

Teacher’s Key Who Could I Be?
1. C 2. I 3. E 4. P 5. B 6. L 7. G 8. I 9. D 10. K 11. H 12. O 13. I 14. B 15. F 16. G 17. A 18. M 19. J 20. B
150
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HADES / DEMETER

Demeter / Hades Crossword
This exercise covers material in d’Aulaires’ Book of Greek Myths, pp. 56-62

Across 3. The only type of tree that bears fruit in the underworld 5. Number of heads that Cerberus has 7. The man whose brother hears screams on the day of the kidnapping 9. River in the underworld 10. The seasons that occur when Demeter is happy (three words) 12. The watchdog of the underworld 13. The ferryman 14. Goddess of the harvest 15. The fare for a ferry ride 17. The identity of the "rich one" or the "hospitable one" 18. Place in the underworld where heroes go (two words) 19. Judge of the dead who hands out punishments 20. God who guides souls to the underworld Down 1. Animals who fall into the crevice during the kidnapping 2. God who refuses to let the world perish while Demeter is sad 4. The seasons that occur when Demeter is sad (three words) 6. Women who whip evil-doers in the underworld 8. The queen of the underworld 11. What is in the chariot that Demeter gives to Triptolemus 16. The spring of forgetfulness 151

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HADES / DEMETER

Teacher’s Key Hades / Demeter Crossword

Word Bank autumn and winter Cerberus Charon coin Demeter Elysian Fields Erinyes grain Hades Hermes
152

Lethe Persephone pigs pomegranate Rhadamanthus spring and summer Styx three Triptolemus Zeus
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HADES / DEMETER

Hermes / Hades / Demeter Cloze Exercise
This exercise covers material in d’Aulaires’ Book of Greek Myths, pp. 50-62 Use the words from the Word Bank to complete this story. You will have to use a few words more than once. Hermes’ mother, ______________________________, lived in a cave on ________________________ ________________________. She discovered that her son was very __________________________, a word that indicates he was truly gifted. Hermes showed his gifts by crawling out of his basket and going to a pasture to steal Apollo’s _______________________. He hid these animals in a ______________________________. He sacrificed to the twelve Olympians, and after his sacrifice, he took the entrails of the animals and a tortoise shell and invented the _______________________. An ______________________________ had told Apollo where to find his herd so he went to the cave and accused Hermes of theft. To settle the dispute, Apollo and Hermes went before their father, ___________________________. As part of the settlement, Hermes had to return the herd to Apollo, but then he got them back. The rest of the settlement involved Hermes giving his

______________________________ to Apollo and Apollo giving his ______________________ _______________________ to Hermes. Maia and Hermes moved up to _________________________ ______________________________. Zeus gave Hermes the title of ___________________________, a word that means messenger. Zeus also gave Hermes a ______________________________ hat and sandals. Everyone seemed to love Hermes, and the only time he fell out of favor was when he bored Hera’s servant, ______________________________, to death. Even then, he wasn’t convicted of a crime because the gods and goddesses all threw their voting

______________________________ at Hermes’ feet. Today, Hermes is remembered by travelers trying to find their way by means of piles of stones called ______________________________. The other travelers that Hermes guided were the ______________________________ as they made their journey to the underworld.
153
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HADES / DEMETER

Hermes/Hades/Demeter Cloze Exercise (continued)
The king and queen of the underworld were ________________ and _____________________. The king was also called the ________________________ One and the _________________________ One. Around the underworld flowed a river called the ___________________, and in order to cross this river, a dead soul had to pay one ________________ to ______________________________, the ferryman. The three-headed dog, ______________________________, made sure that no souls left the underworld. Once in the underworld, the souls drank from the spring of ____________________ to ensure that they would forget their former lives. One of the judges of the underworld was named ______________________________, and if souls had been wicked on earth, he sent the ______________________________ to whip them. If the judge met the soul of a hero, he sent him to the ___________________________________ ______________________________.

______________________________’s daughter became the queen of the underworld when Hades _____________________________ her. She did not like it in the underworld, and so when the goddess of the harvest went to ________________________ to strike a bargain to let her return to earth, she was very happy. Unfortunately, she had eaten some ______________________________ seeds, and having eaten the food of the dead, she was forced to return to the underworld for part of the year. The goddess of the harvest, however, no longer punished the earth with

__________________________ by showing the swineherd’s brother, __________________________, how to sow grain in the fall and reap it in the spring.

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Hermes / Hades / Demeter Cloze Exercise
Word Bank
Argus cairns cattle Cerberus Charon coin dead Demeter Elysian Fields Erinyes grove Hades herald hospitable kidnapped Lethe lyre magic wand Maia Mount Cyllene Mount Olympus oracle pebbles Persephone pomegranate precocious Rhadamanthus rich starvation Styx Triptolemus winged Zeus

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Teacher’s Key Hermes / Hades / Demeter Cloze Exercise
Hermes’ mother, ___________MAIA_______________, lived in a cave on _________MOUNT________________ ________CYLLENE_______________. Maia discovered that her son was very _________PRECOCIOUS___________, a word that indicates he was truly gifted. Hermes showed his gifts by crawling out of his basket and going to a pasture to steal Apollo’s ______CATTLE___________. He hid these animals in a ________GROVE_________________. He sacrificed to the twelve Olympians, and after his sacrifice, he took the entrails of the animals and a tortoise shell and invented the _________LYRE______________. An _______ORACLE____________ had told Apollo where to find his herd so he went to the cave and accused Hermes of theft. To settle the dispute, Apollo and Hermes went before their father, _______ZEUS________________. As part of the settlement, Hermes had to return the herd to Apollo, but then he got them back. The rest of the settlement involved Hermes giving his _______LYRE___________________ to Apollo and Apollo giving his __________MAGIC_______________ __________WAND_______________ to Hermes. Maia and Hermes moved up to ______MOUNT____________ ______OLYMPUS_________. Zeus gave Hermes the title of ________HERALD________________, a word that means messenger. Zeus also gave Hermes a ______WINGED__________________ hat and sandals. Everyone seemed to love Hermes, and the only time he fell out of favor was when he bored Hera’s servant, ________ARGUS____________, to death. Even then, he wasn’t convicted of a crime because the gods and goddesses all threw their voting _________PEBBLES______________ at Hermes’ feet. Today, Hermes is remembered by travelers trying to find their way by piles of stones called __________CAIRNS___________. The other travelers that Hermes guided were the ________DEAD__________________ as they made their journey to the underworld.

The king and queen of the underworld were _____HADES_____________ and _______PERSEPHONE_____________. The king was also called the ________RICH______________ One and the _____HOSPITABLE__________ One. Around the underworld flowed a river called the ______STYX_________, and in order to cross this river, a dead soul had to pay one ____COIN_____ to ________CHARON________________, the ferryman. The three-headed dog, ____CERBERUS___, made sure that no souls left the underworld. Once in the underworld, the souls drank from the spring of ________LETHE_________________ to ensure that they would forget their former lives. One of the judges of the underworld was named ______RHADAMANTHUS___________, and if souls had been wicked on earth, he sent the _______ERINYES________________ to whip them. If the judge met the soul of a hero, he sent him to the _______ELYSIAN______ ______FIELDS_____.

__________DEMETER_____________’s daughter became the queen of the underworld when Hades _____KIDNAPPED_______________ her. She did not like it in the underworld, and so when the goddess of the harvest went to _____ZEUS_______________ to strike a bargain to let her return to earth, she was very happy. Unfortunately, she had eaten some _____POMEGRANATE_________ seeds, and having eaten the food of the dead, she was forced to return to the underworld for part of the year. The goddess of the harvest, however, no longer punished the earth with ______STARVATION________ by showing the swineherd’s brother, _____TRIPTOLEMUS________, how to sow grain in the fall and reap it in the spring.

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Musical Mythology Ceres
(Tune: “Frosty the Snowman”) Ceres, the goddess, Was the deity of food She could make grain grow, People loved her so, For they thought that she was good. One day her daughter Named Persephone was gone She looked here and there She looked everywhere But the girl could not be found. At last her mother found that she Was down in Pluto’s place Pluto had run off with her He loved her pretty face. Ceres was mournful, And she made a mother’s plea. “Give my daughter back,” So a deal was struck, Part of each year she’d be free. That’s how the seasons Of the year go ‘round and ‘round It is summer when Persephone’s here, Winter when she’s underground.
Liz Hubbard, Sagel, ID Susan Hengelsberg, Perry, NY Ann Edwards, Belle, MO 157
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HADES / DEMETER

Musical Mythology Hades and Persephone
(Tune: “Did You Ever See a Lassie?”)

Hades rules the underworld with sweet Persephone Hades has her half the year, half she is free To be with Demeter Her mother who needs her Ceres makes the grain grow when happy is she.

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Home Sweet Home
This exercise covers material in d’Aulaires’ Book of Greek Myths, p. 58-62 Using words from the story of Demeter and Persephone, fill in the blanks and discover a famous home spelled by the vertical shaded squares. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___

CLUES
1. 2. 3. 4. Demeter’s relationship to Persephone The kind of fruit eaten by Persephone in the underworld Powerful brother of Hades A season on earth when Persephone is in the underworld 5. A symbol for the goddess of the harvest 6. The man who told Demeter where her daughter had been taken 7. Place where Hades rules 8. How Hades felt without Persephone 9. Goddess of the harvest 10. Girl kidnapped by Hades 11. How people felt when there was no food 12. The god of the underworld.

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Teacher’s Key Home Sweet Home
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. _M_ _O_ _T_ _H_ _E_ _R_ _P_ _O_ _M_ _E_ _G_ _R_ _A_ _N_ _A_ _T_ _E_ _Z_ _E_ _U_ _S_ _W_ _I_ _N_ _T_ _E_ _R_ _W_ _H_ _E_ _A_ _T_ _T_ _R_ _I_ _P_ _T_ _O_ _L_ _E_ _M_ _U_ _S_

7. _U_ _N_ _D_ _E_ _R_ _W_ _O_ _R_ _L_ _D_ 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. _L_ _O_ _N_ _E_ _L_ _Y_

_D_ _E_ _M_ _E_ _T_ _E_ _R_ _P_ _E_ _R_ _S_ _E_ _P_ _H_ _O_ _N_ _E_ _H_ _U_ _N_ _G_ _R_ _Y_ _H_ _A_ _D_ _E_ _S_

Famous Home: Mount Olympus

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Write About Cerberus
Would you like a pet like Cerberus? All three of his heads are vicious and fierce, and I don’t think he was ever a cuddly puppy. He seems to be hungry all the time, and his favorite food is honey cakes. What kind of problems would it create if you had a three headed dog? Would you have to buy three collars? Do you think the mail carrier or delivery person would like to visit your home? What about your friends? Would they treat you with respect when you had your pet along? Imagine that someone left Cerberus at your door and that you are expected to take him in and care for him. Write a story below. Be sure to use lots of action words. Describe the reaction of your family and friends when they see you with him. Does he obey you, or do you have to wear special armor when you feed him? _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________
Joette McDonald Vermilion, OH 161
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HADES / DEMETER

Constellations
Long ago when the ancient Greeks tended their flocks on the hills, they looked at the sky and saw pictures among the stars. Perhaps the stars seemed brighter and nearer then, for there was no pollution in the air from automobiles or factories and there were no electric lights to make the night less dark. They looked at the patterns the stars made and imagined lines connecting the stars, rather like a dot-to-dot picture. They gave names to these sky pictures, and there were stories about each one. On a clear night, you can see some of these constellations yourself, and imagine, as they did long ago, that there are pictures in the sky.

The Constellation Lyra
The sad story of Orpheus and Eurydice ends when Orpheus is killed and his body is thrown into the river. Orpheus goes to the Elysian Fields to live with his beloved Eurydice, but his wonderful lyre is transported into the sky and is the constellation, Lyra. (The story of Orpheus and Eurydice is in d’Aulaires’ Book of Greek Myths, pp. 102-104) This lyre looks like a small harp with two strings. In the constellation is one very bright star called Vega which is bluish white. It is the third brightest star in the northern sky. Connect the stars to create the constellation, Lyra.

Joette McDonald Vermilion, OH 162
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HADES / DEMETER

Teacher’s Key Constellations

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HADES / DEMETER

Demeter Activities
1. If at all possible, find a pomegranate to share with your class. One pomegranate will provide a taste for about 30 students. Be aware that the fruit is usually juicy and that the red color stains so paper towels or napkins are a must. As these fruits are seasonal, keep your eyes open for a time to buy them. It is possible to let the children taste the fruit before or after the story has been used in your class. They won’t forget, and they will always associate the fruit and the story. 2. Make a listing of different kinds of grain that can be stored and used for pasta or bread. Tell your students that the word “corn” in the ancient world meant “wheat.” The grain that we call corn was known as “maize” and still is in many parts of the world. Introduce Demeter’s Roman name, Ceres, and let the children discover its connection with the word “cereal.” 3. Research Triptolemus. Some sources have him as a swineherd who witnessed the capture of Persephone and told Demeter what had happened to her daughter, thereby earning her undying gratitude. Others say that Triptolemus was a prince of Eleusis, a place Demeter visited while she was searching for Persephone. Demeter’s visit to Eleusis is a whole story in itself. 4. Have a student research the planet, Pluto, and explain why this planet was named for the god of the underworld. 5. Devise writing activities about spring and winter or the other seasons. Haiku poetry works well for this, or acrostics using Demeter’s and Persephone’s names. 6. Write a class diamante poem starting with Pluto as the first word and ending with Ceres as the last. Diamantes are 7-line poems. The first line is one word long and is a noun. The second line is two words long, both adjectives. The third line is three words long, verbs ending in –ing. The fourth line is four words long with the first two words relating to the noun in the first line and the last two relating to the noun with which you will end. Then the order is reversed: three –ing verbs, two adjectives, and one noun which should be in contrast to the beginning noun. Example:

Joy bright, happy laughing, bubbling, playing sunshiny, springlike, cold, wintry blowing, snowing, shivering dark, lonely Sorrow
Joette McDonald Vermilion, OH 164
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HADES / DEMETER

DEMETER AND TRIPTOLEMUS
165
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REVIEW #3
This exercise covers material in d’Aulaires’ Book of Greek Myths, pp. 42-62 The answer-blanks with a slash require both Greek and Roman names for the god or goddess. 1. Whom does Zeus send into the Underworld to retrieve Persephone? _________________ 2. Who sees Artemis bathing? ___________________________ 3. Who kills the dragon Python? __________________________ 4. Who guides Orion when he is blinded? ____________________________________ 5. On what mountain is the oracle at Delphi? _________________________________ 6. With what do the gods vote in Hermes’ murder trial? __________________________ 7. Who causes a famine on earth when her daughter is kidnapped? __________________ 8. What is another name for a priestess at an oracle? _________________________ 9. What animals pull the chariot of Artemis? ______________________________ 10. Who whips the wicked people in the underworld? ___________________________ 11. On what can Orion walk? _______________________ 12. Who is the god of light and music? ___________________/______________________ 13. Into what does Artemis change Actaeon? ____________________ 14. Which god lives by his wits? ______________________________ 15. How many children does Niobe have? ______________ 16. What musical instrument does Hermes invent? _________________________ 17. What does Orion become after he dies? ________________________________ 18. What does Hermes wear on his feet? _______________________________________ 19. Into what is Niobe transformed? __________________________________________ 20. Who are the two giant sons of Poseidon that Gaea hoped would overthrow Zeus? ________________________ and _________________________ 21. What is Rhadamanthus’ job in the underworld? _________________________
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REVIEW #3 (continued)
22. Who kills Otus? _________________________________ 23. What does Persephone eat in the underworld? ______________________________ 24. Who is Orion’s father? _____________________________ 25. What does the story of Persephone explain? _____________________________ 26. Who kills Ephialtes? _____________________________ 27. What is put under the tongues of dead people? ___________________________ 28. What heals Orion’s eyes? ___________________________ 29. Who is the god of the underworld? ____________________/_____________________ 30. Whose cattle does Hermes steal? _________________________ 31. Who is Hades’ queen? ______________________________ 32. Who is jealous of the attention that Artemis gives to Orion? ______________________ 33. Who is Persephone’s mother? _____________________________ 34. Who kills Niobe’s seven sons? ___________________________ 35. What creature does Apollo send to attack Orion? ___________________________ 36. Who is the original owner of the oracle at Delphi? ____________________________ 37. Who is Hermes’ mother? ___________________________ 38. Who tells Demeter about disappearing pigs and a screaming girl? ______________________________________ 39. What is the name of the river in the Underworld? ________________________ 40. Who is the goddess of the moon and the hunt? ________________________/_________________________ 41. What does Hermes wear on his head? _____________________________________ 42. What animals kill Actaeon? ________________________________ 43. What island does Orion rid of wild animals? __________________________________ 44. Who leads souls to the underworld? ____________________________
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REVIEW #3 (continued)
45. Who kills Niobe’s seven daughters? ____________________________ 46. Who is the ferryman in the underworld? ___________________________ 47. Which goddesses do Otus and Ephialtes want to marry? ________________________ and _________________________ 48. Who guards the entrance to the underworld? _____________________________ 49. Who kidnaps Persephone? _____________________________ 50. How many children does Leto have? ___________ 51. Who is the goddess of the harvest and growing things? ________________________/_______________________ 52. The water in the spring of __________________________ helps people forget life on earth. 53. Into what is Ares put during the fight between Otus, Ephialtes, and the Olympians? ____________________________________ 54. Where do heroes go in the underworld? _________________________________ 55. Who wins the oracle at Delphi after a fight with the dragon Python? ________________ 56. Who decrees that Hades must let Persephone visit her mother? ____________________ 57. What does Apollo give Hermes in exchange for the lyre? __________________________ and _________________________________ 58. What gift does Demeter give to mankind through Triptolemus? ___________________ 59. What does Artemis have in common with Orion? ______________________________ 60. Who is the herald (messenger) of the gods? ______________________/_______________________

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Teacher’s Key REVIEW #3
1. Hermes 48. 2. Actaeon 49. 3. Apollo 50. 4. Cyclops boy 51. 5. Parnassus 52. 6. pebbles 53. 7. Demeter 54. 8. sibyl 55. 9. hinds (deer, stags) 56. 10. Erinyes 57. 11. water 58. 12. Apollo / Apollo 59. 13. deer 60. 14. Hermes 15. fourteen 16. lyre 17. constellation 18. winged sandals 19. crying rock 20. Otus and Ephialtes 21. judge 22. Ephialtes (his brother) 23. pomegranate 24. Poseidon 25. seasons 26. Otus (his brother) 27. coin 28. the sun 29. Hades / Pluto 30. Apollo’s 31. Persephone 32. Apollo 33. Demeter 34. Apollo 35. scorpion 36. Mother Earth 37. Maia 38. swineherd’s brother, Triptolemus 39. Styx 40. Artemis / Diana 41. winged hat 42. his own dogs 43. Chios 44. Hermes 45. Artemis 46. Charon 47. Artemis and Hera
169

Cerberus Hades two Demeter / Ceres Lethe bronze jar Elysian Fields Apollo Zeus cows and a magic wand how to plant, sow, reap and store grain hunting Hermes / Mercury

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GENERAL MYTHOLOGY

Mythology Rap
Yo! My name is ___________________, and I’m here to say Mythology is cool, in a major way. You see, Zeus is the ruler, the king of the mountain. To be immortal he drinks from the nectar fountain. And then there’s Hera, she’s second in command. She and all the other gods rule the land. Hermes is the messenger. He’s quick as a flash. Zeus tells him all the info, and he picks up the stash. Hephaestus, he’s sure one ugly dude. But he married Aphrodite, so don’t be rude! There’s also Apollo, the god of light. He drives a flaming chariot with all his might. The monster Medusa turns people to stone. Man, I mean you better just leave her alone.

Hercules, he’s the strongest dude in town. He beats up monsters and throws ‘em around. Hades, he’s the ruler of the dead. He’s got a dog with, count ‘em, 1 – 2 – 3 heads! There’s a monster called Hydra, and he’s one mean snake. He’s got nine heads, and he’s got more to make.

Then there’s Poseidon, ruler of the sea. He makes big waves, if you’re asking me. And finally, there’s Dionysus, the god of wine. He makes it every day and drinks it all the time. And so ends my rap about mythology. ‘Cause this ain’t zoology, archaeology, or biology. It ain’t psychology, man

MYTHOLOGY THOLOGY! THIS IS MYTHOLOGY
Gene Fontaine, Grade 6 Haverhill, MA 170
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GENERAL MYTHOLOGY

Mythology Project
Teacher Information
These assignments have been designed as a long-term project for the study of mythology. With the assignments due at one or two week intervals (depending upon their complexity), this project will last about two months. The culminating activities are the National Mythology Exam and a Mythology Banquet. An overview of the assignments is listed below for the teacher.

Assignment #1:

Selection of character Identification

Assignment #2:

Family Tree

Assignment #3:

Five summaries with citations

Assignment #4:

Venn Diagram or chart highlighting conflicting information in different versions of one myth

Assignment #5:

Paragraph/Poster on Comparative Mythology

Assignment #6:

Appropriate Costume Design and Description for Mythology Banquet

The National Mythology Exam will be administered on ________________________.

The Mythology Banquet will take place on __________________________________.

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GENERAL MYTHOLOGY

Mythology Project
Student Information
As we study mythology, be thinking about which mythological character fascinates you the most. Look at mythology books in the school library or your local public library, access internet sites, and then select your favorite character. Make sure that there is enough information about the character you have selected so that you can complete all five activities listed on the next pages. On the due date, turn in this sheet of paper with your choice indicated and the identification completed. Make sure you have at least THREE reasons why your character is important.

I have selected ____________________________for my focus of study.

He/She is important because ______________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________

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Mythology Project – Activity #1
Due Date: ____________________ Make a family tree for your character showing important relationships. Include grandparents, parents, siblings, spouse(s), and children. You must include a minimum of three generations. If you use your computer to generate a family tree, make sure the design is original. Do not download a family tree and modify it.

Mythology Project – Activity #2
Due Date: ____________________ Find five different myths in which your character appears. WRITE a short summary of each myth. You will have a total of five summaries. Submit each summary on a separate piece of paper. At the end of each summary, CITE the source of the myth in the following format: A Book d’Aulaire, Ingri and Edgar. Book of Greek Myths. A Website http://homepage.mac.com/cparada/GML/Philemon.html

Mythology Project – Activity #3
Due Date: ____________________ Find another version of one of the myths you read in Activity #2. Read carefully to discover conflicting information in the two versions. You may create a Venn Diagram or make a chart that highlights the differences and similarities.

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Mythology Project – Activity #4
Due Date: ____________________ Do research into the mythology of another culture in order to find a character who would be the equivalent of the Greek character you have chosen. Write a paper or make a poster that conveys what you have learned. Whichever format you choose, make sure that you (1) identify the culture (2) write a short summary of a myth in which your comparative character appears (3) list the similarities (4) include pictures of both characters

Mythology Project – Activity #5
Due Date: ____________________ Design a costume that you will wear to the Mythology Banquet. This costume must accurately represent your character. You must submit (1) a sketch of your costume (2) a list of materials that you plan to use (3) a written description of your character and the costume for your partner to read as you model your costume at the Mythology Banquet. This description must last no less than 30 seconds and no more than a minute when read aloud. You will model your costume in a “fashion show” format before the banquet is served.

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GENERAL MYTHOLOGY

Student Checklist for Mythology Due Dates
Due on ________________________________ _____ Selection of character _____ Identification

Due on ________________________________ _____ Family Tree

Due on ________________________________ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ Summary #1 with citation Summary #2 with citation Summary #3 with citation Summary #4 with citation Summary #5 with citation

Due on ________________________________ _____ Venn Diagram or Chart with conflicting information

Due on ________________________________ _____ Paragraph/Poster on Comparative Mythology

Due on ________________________________ _____ Appropriate Costume Design and Description for Banquet

The National Mythology Exam will be administered on _________________________. The Mythology Banquet will take place on ___________________________________.

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GENERAL MYTHOLOGY

SPECIAL SECTION ON COOPERATIVE WORK
Divide your class into groups of five, and provide each group with a copy of d’Aulaires’ Book of Greek Myths and a set of questions from the following seven pages. Assign each student in the group a role. 1. Reader: 2. Finder: This student will read the question aloud from the paper. Using the index in the back of the book, the student will look for the name or word mentioned in the question. He will find the reference and read the answer to the Recorder.

3. Recorder: This student will write down the answer to the question. 4. Checker: This student will check to be certain the question is answered properly.

5. Reporter: This student will report the answer when the teacher brings the class back together for the final session. Groups who know additional information about the mythical character or who can add details to the question will be given extra points. Groups will also be given points for correct responses, for working well cooperatively, and for staying on task. When all the groups have answered the questions assigned, the teacher will assemble the entire class to discuss the questions and to determine that everyone has the correct information. Students may be encouraged to look in other sources to see if they find corresponding information. If other books are available, they may check the index to see if the character they are investigating is mentioned there. Cerberus says, “Three heads are better than one!”

Joette McDonald Vermilion, OH 176
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GENERAL MYTHOLOGY

Cooperative Search #1
Match the following words with the correct definitions.

_____ 1. Hestia _____ 2. Cronus _____ 3. Titans _____ 4. Phaethon

A. God of wine and agriculture B. Old man of the sea, father of Amphitrite, father-in-law of Poseidon C. Mother Earth D. God who overthrew his father, Uranus, and became father of six of the Olympians E. The elder gods F. Goddess of home and hearth; she tended the fire on Mount Olympus G. Boy who tried to drive the chariot of the sun H. Husband of Gaea, father of the Titans I. Winged horse who sprang from Medusa’s blood J. Wife of Cronus; she was the mother of six of the Olympians K. Son of Poseidon who was hated by Apollo; he became a constellation

_____ 5. Uranus _____ 6. Dionysus _____ 7. Gaea _____ 8. Nereus _____ 9. Rhea _____ 10. Orion _____ 11. Pegasus

Sally Dagnall Tallmadge, OH 177
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GENERAL MYTHOLOGY

Cooperative Search #2
Match the following words with the correct definitions.

_____ 1. Cyclopes _____ 2. Aphrodite _____ 3. Hermes _____ 4. Hephaestus _____ 5. Mount Olympus _____ 6. Zeus _____ 7. Ares _____ 8. Apollo _____ 9. Artemis _____ 10. The Fates _____ 11. Poseidon

A. Messenger of the gods B. God of war; he was followed by pain, panic, and famine C. Goddess of the hunt; she was the twin of Apollo D. King of the gods E. God of the sea and earthquakes F. One-eyed monsters G. This was in the veins of the Olympians and made them immortal H. God of the lower world who wore a cap of invisibility I. Home of the Olympians J. Goddess of wisdom, warfare, arts and crafts K. God of sun, light, and music; he was the twin of Artemis and had an oracle at Delphi L. Goddess of love and beauty; she was the mother of Eros M. God of the forge and blacksmiths; he made robots N. Goddess of the harvest and the earth; she was the mother of Persephone O. Goddesses who determined the life span of a person

_____ 12. Demeter _____ 13. Hades _____ 14. Athena _____ 15. ichor

Sally Dagnall Tallmadge, OH 178
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GENERAL MYTHOLOGY

Cooperative Search #3
Match the following gods and goddesses with one of their symbols.

_____ 1. Zeus _____ 2. Poseidon _____ 3. Hades _____ 4. Demeter _____ 5. Hestia _____ 6. Hephaestus _____ 7. Ares _____ 8. Apollo _____ 9. Artemis _____ 10. Athena _____ 11. Aphrodite _____ 12. Hermes _____ 13. Dionysus _____ 14. Hera

A. Cap of invisibility B. Olives C. Sheaf of wheat D. Lyre E. Thunderbolt F. Crescent moon G. Anvil H. Grapevine I. Horse J. Winged sandals K. Dove L. Hearth M. Peacock N. War chariot

Sally Dagnall Tallmadge, OH 179
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GENERAL MYTHOLOGY

Cooperative Search #4
Match the character with the description Cronus Cyclopes Heracles Prometheus Rhea Uranus

1. I was once a leader of the gods. I overthrew my father to gain my position. I swallowed my children when they were born because I was afraid that they would overthrow me. Eventually they did, and I lost my position as leader of the gods. Who am I? ________________________________________

2. I was the wife of Cronus. I plotted with Mother Earth, and she helped me and my other children overthrow their father. I was tired of him swallowing all my children. Who am I? ________________________________________

3. I was the father of Cronus. I warned my son that one day a child of his would overthrow him just like he overthrew me. Who am I? ________________________________________

4. I was a famous Titan. I fought on the side of Zeus because I knew that he would win. I am credited with creating man and giving him fire to help him survive. Zeus did not like this at all, and he punished me. I really owe Heracles a favor because he rescued me from that very unpleasant situation. Who am I? ________________________________________

5. We were the characters that have only one eye. We also helped Hephaestus work at his forge making beautiful and sometimes magical things for the gods and goddesses. Who am I? ________________________________________

6. I was the son of Zeus and lived a very busy life. I not only saved Prometheus from a very unpleasant situation, but I killed a snake when I was a very small baby and completed twelve mighty labors. Who am I? ________________________________________

Sally Dagnall Tallmadge, OH 180
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GENERAL MYTHOLOGY

Cooperative Search #5
Match the character with the description. Apollo Artemis Ares Hephaestus Hestia Jason Perseus

1. I am a youth who made a boast which led me on a great quest. I had a special boat built, gathered many heroes, and had many adventures on the quest which took me to many places in Europe and Asia. I succeeded in my quest and eventually returned home to rule. Who am I? ________________________________________ 2. I am the youth who, with the help of winged sandals, a helmet of invisibility, and a special bag, conquered Medusa. On my return with my prize in the bag, I saw a beautiful maiden chained to the rocks and fell in love with her. I rescued her and later married her. Who am I? ________________________________________ 3. I am very quiet. There are very few stories told about me, but everyone loves me. People consider me to be the sweetest, gentlest, and most generous of all the Olympians. I quietly tend the fire on the hearth. Who am I? ________________________________________ 4. I am the son of Zeus and Hera, but I am not perfect and beautiful like my siblings. Once I stepped between my quarreling parents, and Zeus threw me off Mount Olympus. Who am I? ________________________________________ 5. I am not a very easy person to get along with. My mother and father don’t even like me. I like violence, battles, and war. I cause trouble wherever I go. My traveling companions are Eris, pain, famine, oblivion, and panic. I like to kill and hurt people, but when it comes to me getting hurt, I don’t like it at all. Who am I? ________________________________________ 6. It has been said that I am the most loved god on Mount Olympus. I am considered very handsome. I also have extraordinary talents in music, poetry, mathematics, and medicine. I love to play my lyre that was given to me by Hermes. Who am I? ________________________________________ 7. I am the twin sister of Apollo although I have dark hair. Zeus is our father. When I was born, my father asked me what I would like to have. I gave him a really long list of things I wanted, and he gave me everything I asked for. Best of all, he allows me to run and hunt over the mountains and in the woods for eternity. He also gave me maidens who serve my every need. Who am I? ________________________________________
Sally Dagnall Tallmadge, OH 181
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GENERAL MYTHOLOGY

Cooperative Search #6
Match the character with the description.

Aphrodite

Athena

Dionysus

Gaea

Hermes

Medusa

Pandora

Persephone

1. I had a very unusual birth. I was born from my father’s head fully grown and wearing armor. I have several talents and am very smart. There are many things I have given to mankind such as the ship, the plow, the trumpet, and the bridle to cite a few. I am best known for creating the olive tree. I won the city of Athens when I did that. I do not like to have people claim that they can do things better than I can. Arachne learned that the hard way. Who am I? ________________________________________ 2. I am also known for having an unusual birth. Some say that I was born from the foamy sea. I do know that the sea has been good to me and helps me to remain forever young and beautiful. I have little respect for other women; they are not nearly as beautiful as I am. I am the wife of Hephaestus. He really doesn’t interest me, but Zeus made me marry him. I am the mother of Eros. Who am I? ________________________________________ 3. I am very clever and lots of fun. When I was a baby, I stole Apollo’s herd of cows. Eventually I was caught, and even though I pleaded innocence, it didn’t work. Apollo didn’t stay mad at me for very long because I gave him a lyre that I made. I also invented the alphabet, written music, boxing, astronomy, and the scale. I get around a lot and deliver many messages. Who am I? ________________________________________ 4. I was the last god to arrive on Mount Olympus. My father was Zeus, but my mother, Semele, was a human. She died before I was born, and I was raised by the nymphs of Nysa. I, along with Demeter, am considered mankind’s best friend. We even share the festival at harvest time. Who am I? ________________________________________ 5. I was one of the first. I fell in love with my husband when I spent all my time gazing at him. We had several children called the Titans. People sometimes refer to me as Mother Earth. Who am I? ________________________________________ 6. I was created by the gods. Many of them gave me special gifts. I am very curious. As a result of my curiosity, the people suffered many things such as jealousy, sadness, and envy. My husband is Epimetheus, brother of Prometheus. I still have hope that all things will work out. Who am I? ____________________________________ 7. I am the daughter of Demeter. One day I was out playing with my friends when a strange man came up through a crack in the earth and kidnapped me. Ultimately I became his wife, but I still live with my mother for part of the year. Who am I? ________________________________________ 8. I am a creature that man is hesitant to approach. Whenever anyone looks at me, he turns to stone. Who am I? ________________________________________ Sally Dagnall Tallmadge, OH 182
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GENERAL MYTHOLOGY

Cooperative Search #7
Match the character with the description. Cerberus Charon Demeter Hades Hera Phaethon Poseidon Zeus

1. I was a very silly child and bragged that I could do something unreasonable just to prove that I was the son of Helios. I tried to drive the sun across the sky and didn’t do as my father told me. I helped create the deserts and the ice caps at the poles. I also lost my life. Who am I? ________________________________________ 2. I have three heads and guard the entrance to Hades. I let people into Hades, but I do not let anyone out unless instructed to do so by my master, the god of the underworld, Hades. Who am I? ________________________________________ 3. I ferry people across the River Styx to Hades. I am rather greedy and allow passage only to those who can pay my fee. Who am I? ________________________________________ 4. I was raised by the nymphs because my mother was afraid that my father would eat me. When I grew up, my mother and I plotted to fool my father, and with the help of my siblings and some of the Titans, we overthrew my father. I am known as a ladies’ man and have had many children. Who am I? ________________________________________ 5. I love the sea and enjoy living there. I married Amphitrite, daughter of Nereus. I moved into his castle under the sea. I created the horse and gave it to man along with several of my mistakes like the camel and the zebra. I tend to be quite moody and cause great storms. Who am I? ________________________________________ 6. I am very gloomy and seldom leave my realm. However, I never have a shortage of people coming to my kingdom to stay. I kidnapped my wife. She tends to be somewhat unhappy and goes back to live with her mother for part of the year. I am very wealthy. Who am I? ________________________________________ 7. I am a very jealous wife and cause all sorts of problems for the women that my husband favors. I did a great deal to help Jason on his quest for the Golden Fleece. My favorite bird is a peacock. Who am I? ________________________________________ 8. I am well liked by people because I cause the grain to grow. I have a beautiful married daughter who lives with me part of each year. When she is not with me, I am very unhappy and do not do my job. Who am I? ________________________________________
Sally Dagnall Tallmadge, OH 183
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GENERAL MYTHOLOGY

Teacher’s Key COOPERATIVE SEARCHES
Search #1 1. F 2. D 3. E 4. G 5. H 6. A 7. C 8. B 9. J 10. K 11. I Search #2 1. F 2. L 3. A 4. M 5. I 6. D 7. B 8. K 9. C 10. O 11. E 12. N 13. H 14. J 15. G Search #3 1. E 2. I 3. A 4. C 5. L 6. G 7. N 8. D 9. F 10. B 11. K 12. J 13. H 14. M

Search #4 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Cronus Rhea Uranus Prometheus Cyclopes Heracles

Search #6 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Athena Aphrodite Hermes Dionysus Gaea Pandora Persephone Medusa

Search #5 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Jason Perseus Hestia Hephaestus Ares Apollo Artemis

Search #7 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Phaethon Cerberus Charon Zeus Poseidon Hades Hera Demeter

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WHY DO WE SAY THAT?
1. Why are so many theaters called by the name Apollo? _______________________________________________________________________________ 2. Why do we say that something very difficult to do is a Herculean Task? _______________________________________________________________________________ 3. Why do we call the tendon at the back of our leg, just above the foot, our Achilles’ tendon? _______________________________________________________________________________ 4. Why would anyone name a cleanser Ajax? _______________________________________________________________________________ 5. Why would a very large ship be called the Titanic? _______________________________________________________________________________ 6. Where does the very light gas with which we fill balloons get its name, helium? _______________________________________________________________________________ 7. Why would you name a camera Argus? _______________________________________________________________________________ 8. Why do we call a sound which is bounced back to us an echo? _______________________________________________________________________________ 9. Why do we say that something deadly is lethal? _______________________________________________________________________________ 10. Why do we call a person who helps us and gives us wise advice a mentor? _______________________________________________________________________________ 11. Why would a very powerful sleep-inducing drug be called morphine? _______________________________________________________________________________ 12. Why do we call a loud, warning noise a siren? _______________________________________________________________________________
What other words can you find that have their roots in mythology? Joette McDonald Vermilion, OH 185
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GENERAL MYTHOLOGY

Teacher’s Key WHY DO WE SAY THAT?
1. Apollo is the god of music. He is associated with the Nine Muses who are inspiration for comedy, tragedy, music, and dance. 2. Hercules had to perform twelve very difficult labors for King Eurystheus. 3. Achilles’ only vulnerable place was the back of the heel by which Thetis held him when she dipped him into the Styx to render him invulnerable. 4. Ajax was a strong Greek warrior who fought in the Trojan War. 5. Titans were giant sons of Gaea and Uranus. 6. Helios, the sun, resided in the upper air. 7. The lens is reminiscent of the eyes of Argus – the lens never sleeps. 8. Echo could only repeat words that she heard. 9. The spring of Lethe causes forgetfulness, and death wipes out memories. 10. Mentor was Odysseus’ trusted friend and the teacher of Telemachus. 11. Morpheus is the god of dreams. 12. The song of the Sirens lured sailors toward the dangerous rocks, but their voices should have been a warning.

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Words from the Gods: A Dictionary and Research Skills Activity
Using the list on the next page, match the word with the meaning. Use a dictionary and reference books on mythology. Be able to tell the mythological character or place from which each word is derived.

______________________________ 1. arranged in the order in which events happened ______________________________ 2. warlike ______________________________ 3. a breakfast food ______________________________ 4. an irrational, excessive and persistent fear ______________________________ 5. a place or scene of wild disorder, noise, and confusion ______________________________ 6. a narrow tube used to give injections ______________________________ 7. causing death; fatal, deadly ______________________________ 8. a general term for fabrics ______________________________ 9. in a completely confused, disordered condition ______________________________ 10. causing sleep ______________________________ 11. quick-witted, changeable, fickle ______________________________ 12. an intricate network of winding passages; a maze ______________________________ 13. a book of maps ______________________________ 14. a study of the surface of the earth, its continents and countries ______________________________ 15. a wasting away; failure to grow ______________________________ 16. spiders (scientific name) ______________________________ 17. a sudden fear ______________________________ 18. #92 in the table of elements ______________________________ 19. a long journey ______________________________ 20. difficult to do; calling for great strength and courage ______________________________ 21. of the moon
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GENERAL MYTHOLOGY

Words from the Gods: A Dictionary and Research Skills Activity
Word List
arachnids atlas atrophy cereal chaotic chronological cloth geography Herculean hypnotic labyrinth lethal lunar martial mercurial odyssey panic pandemonium phobia syringe uranium

Carol A. LaPalme Wynantskill, NY 188
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GENERAL MYTHOLOGY

Teacher’s Key Words from the Gods: A Dictionary and Research Skills Activity
1. chronological 2. martial 3. cereal 4. phobia 5. pandemonium 6. syringe 7. lethal 8. cloth 9. chaotic 10. hypnotic 11. mercurial 12. labyrinth from the name of Cronus, the father of Zeus from Mars, the Roman god of war from Ceres, the Roman goddess of the harvest from Phobos, the god of fear named for Pan, the god of the fields and woods named for the beloved of Pan, the nymph Syrinx, who was turned into a hollow reed from the River Lethe, the river of forgetfulness in Hades from the name of Clotho, one of the Fates from Chaos, the first state of the universe according to the early Greeks from Hypnos, the Greek god of sleep from the Roman name for the messenger of the gods, Mercury from the intricate maze constructed for King Minos by Daedalus to contain the minotaur (later killed by Theseus) 13. atlas named for the mythical character whose punishment it was to hold up the heavens (later, the world) 14. geography 15. atrophy 16. arachnids 17. panic 18. uranium 19. odyssey named for Gaea, Mother Earth from Atropos, another of the Fates named for Arachne who challenged Athena to a weaving contest named for Pan, who sometimes caused groundless fears among mortals named for Uranus, god of the sky, father of the Cyclopes named for Odysseus, the hero of the Trojan War, who wandered for many years while trying to find his way home 20. Herculean 21. lunar named for Hercules, a Greek hero who had to accomplish twelve difficult labors from the Roman goddess of the moon, Luna

Note: A helpful reference is Asimov’s Words from the Myths.

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GENERAL BIBLIOGRAPHY FOR CLASSICAL MYTHOLOGY
The following books, listed only by author and title, are of general interest to teachers of mythology and classics. Retellings of The Iliad, The Odyssey, and The Aeneid Claybourne, Anna Connolly, Peter Evslin, Bernard Frenkel, Emily Gates, Doris Khanduri, Kamini Lister, Robin Lively, Penelope McCarty, Nick Sutcliff, Rosemary Williams, Marcia Myths Amery, Heather Bulfinch, Thomas Connolly, Peter Coolidge, Olivia d’Aulaire, Ingri and Edgar Evslin, Bernard Gates, Doris Greek Myths for Young Children Bulfinch’s Mythology Greek Legends: The Stories, The Evidence Greek Myths Book of Greek Myths The Greek Gods Heroes and Monsters of Greek Myths Two Queens of Heaven: Aphrodite and Artemis The Golden God: Apollo Heracles, Mightiest of Mortals Lord of the Sky: Zeus The Warrior Goddess: Athena Gods, Men, and Monsters Mythology One-Minute Greek Myths MacMillan Book of Greek Gods and Heroes Greek Gods and Goddesses Greek Myths Roman Myths Classical Mythology Favorite Greek Myths Demeter and Persephone, the Seasons of Time Prometheus and the Story of Fire Classic Myths to Read Aloud Greek Myths Wings Dictionary of Classical Mythology Start Exploring Bulfinch’s Mythology: A Fact Filled Coloring Book
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Usborne Library of Myths and Legends: The Adventures of Ulysses The Legend of Odysseus The Trojan War The Adventures of Ulysses Aeneas A Fair Wind for Troy Usborne Library of Myths and Legends: Tales of the Trojan War The Odyssey In Search of a Homeland: The Story of the Aeneid The Iliad Black Ships from Troy The Iliad and The Odyssey

Gibson, Michael Hamilton, Edith Lewis, Shari Low, Alice McCaughrean, Geraldine

Morford and Lenardon Osborne, Mary Richardson, I.M. Russell, William Williams, Marcia Yolen, Ruth Zimmerman, J.E. Zorn, Steven

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