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POSEIDON

ATHENA / POSEIDON
CROSSWORD PUZZLE
This exercise covers material in d’Aulaires’ Book of Greek Myths, pp. 34-41

Across Down

1. Goddess of prudence 2. The creature that Arachne became


3. Poseidon and Amphitrite’s son 4. The first ruler of the sea
6. Spirit of Victory 5. A mortal girl who could weave well
8. Poseidon's wife 7. One of Poseidon's nicknames
10. The god who split open Zeus’ head 9. City named for Athena
11. The name of Nereus' 50 daughters 12. Goddess of childbirth
13. The location of Athena’s temple 14. The type of water that Poseidon offered
16. Goddess of war, wisdom, and weaving 15. Athena's father
17. Brother of Zeus, lord of the sea 18. The type of tree that Athena offered
20. The creature that Zeus swallowed 19. Island where Leto gave birth
22. One item Metis made for Athena inside Zeus’ head 21. Artemis and Apollo’s mother
23. Athena's favorite bird
24. Creature that Poseidon created
25. Pointed weapons used by the "twins"
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POSEIDON

ATHENA / POSEIDON CROSSWORD PUZZLE

WORD BANK
Acropolis Ilithyia
Amphitrite Leto
Arachne Metis
arrows Nereids
Athena Nereus
Athens Nike
Delos olive
Earthshaker owl
fly Poseidon
helmet salt
Hephaestus spider
horse Triton
Zeus

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POSEIDON

TEACHER’S KEY
ATHENA/POSEIDON CROSSWORD PUZZLE

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POSEIDON

Relationships
This difficult exercise covers material in d’Aulaires’ Book of Greek Myths, pp. 32-41

Figure out the number that corresponds to the letter. They are NOT consecutive.
One letter’s number has been provided for you.
The sentences you create will describe relationships between characters
in the stories about Ares, Athena, and Poseidon.

Puzzle #1

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
8

____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____’ ____
14 22 21 20 8 17 22 11 8 21 1 15 25 20 11 1 21

____ ____ ____ ____ ____, ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____
13 11 2 4 20 1 11 17 15 9 8 15 22 11 8 21

____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____’ ____ ____ ____ ____.
1 23 14 25 8 15 9 8 15 20 21 21 22 11

Puzzle #2

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
1

____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____,
25 11 7 15 3 1 14 14 1 16 15 22 11 25 15

____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____
10 23 6 4 7 18 25 22 9 9 1 21 26 22 4 7 25 15

____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____.


22 6 24 25 4 22

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POSEIDON

Relationships (continued)

Puzzle #3

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
13

____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____
10 11 4 22 13 12 5 7 11 16 18 22 13 23 11

____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____
16 15 11 19 13 23 11 12 16 22 25 3 16 15 11

____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____.
26 25 5 5 11 22 22 25 3 20 18 22 5 25 7

Puzzle #4

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
9

____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____
11 19 11 22 18 3 26 25 9 23 18 26

____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____
11 3 22 26 9 23 6 19 6 15 11 5 5

____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____.


9 7 25 10 26 19 9

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POSEIDON

ATHENA / POSEIDON
WORD SEARCH
This exercise covers material in d’Aulaires’ Book of Greek Myths, pp. 34-41

In this grid, find the words suggested by the clues at the bottom of the page.
The words may be backwards, forwards, horizontal, vertical, or diagonal.

CLUES

1. I am the mother of Triton. 11. I am an animal created in the shape of breaking waves.
2. I provide oil, food, and wood. (2 words) 12. I whacked Zeus on the head when he had a headache.
3. You can’t drink me. (2 words) 13. I am the spirit who always accompanies Athena.
4. I am the mother of Apollo and Artemis. 14. I am the insect that Zeus swallowed during a game.
5. I have a trident. 15. I am the flat-topped rock that crowns the city of Athens.
6. I am the island that offered Leto shelter. 16. After she was bribed, Hera allowed me to visit Leto.
7. My daughter popped out of my head. 17. I have 49 aunts.
8. Athena chose me as her favorite bird. 18. I am Poseidon’s father-in-law.
9. I am wise, and I can weave. 19. I am not wise, but I can weave.
10. I am an arachnid. 20. I am the mother of Athena.

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POSEIDON

Teacher’s Key
Relationships
Puzzle #1: Poseidon is Athena’s uncle, and Triton is Amphitrite’s son.
Puzzle #2: Eris follows Ares, but Nike accompanies Athena.
Puzzle #3: Zeus and Metis are the parents of the goddess of wisdom.
Puzzle #4: Arachne is the ancestor of all spiders.

Teacher’s Key
ATHENA / POSEIDON
WORD SEARCH

1. Amphitrite 11. horse


2. olive tree 12. Hephaestus
3. salt water 13. Nike
4. Leto 14. fly
5. Poseidon 15. Acropolis
6. Delos 16. Ilithyia
7. Zeus 17. Triton
8. owl 18. Nereus
9. Athena 19. Arachne
10. spider 20. Metis

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POSEIDON

Who Could I Be? #2


This exercise covers material in d’Aulaires’ Book of Greek Myths, pp. 24-41

A. Aphrodite F. Eris K. Nike


B. Arachne G. Eros L. Poseidon
C. Ares H. Hephaestus M. Thetis
D. Argus I. Hera N. Zeus
E. Athena J. Io

Match the character with the description. You will use some answers more than once.

__________1. I am the blacksmith of the gods.

__________2. Mother Earth gave me an apple tree for my wedding present.

__________3. I have a trident.

__________4. I am the king of the Olympian gods.

__________5. My favorite bird is the owl.

__________6. I throw a golden apple to start arguments.

__________7. I took care of Hephaestus when he landed on Lemnos.

__________8. I turned myself into a cuckoo to win Hera’s love.

__________9. I am the goddess of love.

__________10. I am the goddess of wisdom.

__________11. My eyes were placed on the peacock’s tail.

__________12. I am the spirit of victory who is always with Athena.

__________13. I am the god of war.

__________14. I was born from the head of Zeus.

__________15. I am the son of Aphrodite.

__________16. I entered into a weaving competition with Athena.

__________17. Zeus gave Aphrodite to me for my wife.

__________18. I got turned into a cow.

__________19. I competed with Athena for the city of Athens.

__________20. I am the queen of the Olympian gods.

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POSEIDON

Analogies
An analogy includes two words that are somehow related. You must determine the nature of that
relationship and then find another pair of words which reflects a similar relationship.

For example, “red and apple” might be the first pair of words. You know that the color of an apple is
red. In the second pair of words, you will be looking for a similar relationship. The second pair could be
“yellow and banana,” or “grey and elephant,” or “green and leaf.”

Special symbols are used in analogies. red : apple :: yellow : banana

Read this analogy as “Red is to apple as yellow is to banana.”

Each pair of words listed at the bottom of this page shows a relationship similar to another pair of
words listed below. Write the matching pair in the blank.

1. Athena : owl :: ______________________________________________________________________

2. salt water : Athenians :: _______________________________________________________________

3. Poseidon : trident :: __________________________________________________________________

4. Cyclopes : Hephaestus :: ______________________________________________________________

5. Zeus’ head : Athena :: _______________________________________________________________

6. arachnid : spider :: ___________________________________________________________________

7. Athena : Nike :: _____________________________________________________________________

8. Artemis : Apollo :: ____________________________________________________________________

9. Cronus : Rhea :: ____________________________________________________________________

10. eyes : Argus :: _____________________________________________________________________

Matching Pairs

box : Jack-in-the-Box refrigerator : Eskimos

amphibian : frog Romulus : Remus

Zeus : eagle Zeus : Hera

Ares : Eris Iris : Mercury

Zeus : lightning bolt legs : centipede

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POSEIDON

Teacher’s Key
Who Could I Be?
1. H
2. I
3. L
4. N
5. E
6. F
7. M
8. N
9. A
10. E
11. D
12. K
13. C
14. E
15. G
16. B
17. H
18. J
19. L
20. I

Teacher’s Key
Analogies
1. Zeus : eagle The owl is a symbol of Athena; the eagle is a symbol of Zeus.

2. refrigerator : Eskimos The Athenians had as much use for salt water as Eskimos have for a
refrigerator.

3. Zeus : lightning bolt Poseidon’s gift from the Cyclopes was a trident; Zeus’ gift was lightning.

4. Iris : Mercury They have similar jobs. Both the Cyclopes and Hephaestus are blacksmiths;
both Iris and Mercury are messengers.

5. box : Jack-in-the-Box Athena popped out of Zeus’ head in the same way that a Jack-in-the-Box
pops out of his box.

6. amphibian : frog The class to which a spider belongs is “arachnid;” the class to which a frog
belongs is “amphibian.”

7. Ares : Eris Nike is Athena’s constant companion; Eris is Ares’ constant companion.

8. Romulus : Remus Both pairs are twins.

9. Zeus : Hera Both pairs are husband and wife. They are also brother and sister.

10. legs : centipede Argus has 100 eyes; a centipede has 100 legs.
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POSEIDON

Musical Mythology
Neptune
(Tune: “Going Over the Sea”)

Neptune was a mighty god.


He ruled over the sea.
He held a trident in his hand.
He ruled over the sea.
He commanded waves and water
And the storms upon the ocean
With a one, a two, and a three.

Neptune was the brother of Jove


Who ruled over the sky.
His other brother was named Pluto
Who ruled under the earth.
All together they commanded
All the realms upon this planet
With a one, a two, and a three.

Polyphemus was his son


A one-eyed giant was he.
He ate Odysseus’ men, and then
A blinded giant was he.
Then great Neptune swore his vengeance
Blew up storms that caused the shipwrecks
With a one, a two, and a three.
Liz Hubbard, Sagel, ID
Susan Hengelsberg, Perry, NY
Ann Edwards, Belle, MO
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POSEIDON

The Contest for Athens – A Retelling


Poseidon, god of the ocean kingdom, used his mighty powers to rule all the waters of the seas.
One day, greedy Poseidon decided that he wished to rule on land as well. He claimed the city-state of
Athens for himself. This act greatly enraged the wise goddess Athena who wanted Athens under her
protection. Poseidon and Athena knew that they must settle this argument and determine who would rule
Athens. Poseidon could easily have beaten Athena in a fight so they decided on a contest as the way to
settle the dispute. The people of Athens and their king, Cecrops, were the judges. Each of the gods would
present a gift to the people of Athens. They would decide which gift was better, and the one who gave that
gift would win the city. The contest was held on the Acropolis, the high hill in the center of Athens. The
day of the contest arrived, and Poseidon and Athena took their places. Mighty Poseidon raised his trident
high above his head and brought it down upon the rock with great force. Instantly from that spot gushed a
stream of salt water. Next, Athena lightly tapped the ground with her spear and brought forth an olive tree,
the first ever seen on earth. It took root instantly and developed olives.
The citizens and king of Athens voted that the olive tree was the better gift, and Athens came under
the protection of grey-eyed Athena.

David Baumbach
Pittsburgh, PA

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POSEIDON

Why Was It Better?


• This activity should be completed with a partner or in a small group of no more than four people.
• In the column labeled Salt Water, list as many uses for salt water as you can think of.
• In the column labeled Olive Tree, list as many uses for the olive tree as you can think of.
• When you have all uses listed, examine both lists and determine which gift you think was better.
Support your answer with reasons.

Salt Water Olive Tree

Which Was Better? Why?

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

David Baumbach
Pittsburgh, PA
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POSEIDON

Water, Water, Everywhere!

• 70% of the earth’s surface is covered with water


Use 1-inch graph paper and count a 10 x 10 square. Color 7 rows blue to represent the
earth’s water and color 3 rows brown to represent earth.

• Of the earth’s water, 97% is ocean water and is too salty for human use.
Color yellow over the blue crayon in 3 of the 70 blocks that represent the ocean.

• Of the 3% that is fresh water, ¾ is frozen in glaciers, on mountains,


or at the earth’s poles.
Dividing each of the 3 squares into four equal parts, color one part in each square black,
over the previous colors. (You may have students note equivalent fractional parts.) This
tiny black part represents all the free fresh water in the world.

This activity may also be done using a liter bottle of water and an eye dropper.
30 ml. of water represents the fresh water.
The free fresh water would be hardly more than a drop.

Remember: There is as much water in the world now as there ever has been or ever will be. The
drop of water you just drank may have been used by a scribe to clean the stylus with
which he wrote thousands of years ago!

Joette McDonald
Vermilion, OH

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POSEIDON

Some Facts About Water

Amount of Water on Earth

326 million cubic miles


There are 1,000,000,000,000 gallons of water
per cubic mile.

Amount of Water Used by People

16,000 gallons (60,600 liters) per person


in a lifetime
In the United States, each person uses about 100
gallons (380 liters) a day.

Biggest Consumer of Water

More water is used in making paper than in any other way.

Sources of Fresh Water

Rivers and lakes contain one fiftieth of one percent of all the fresh water on earth.
One half of one percent of all water is beneath the earth’s surface.
The rest is frozen somewhere.

Small towns (under 5000) use underground sources for their water systems.
Large cities depend on rivers and lakes to supply the people with water.

Although water cannot be used up, it can be polluted.


The supply of cheap, unpolluted water in the United States is shrinking.
Cleaning water is expensive.

Joette McDonald
Vermilion, OH

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POSEIDON

Oil or Water?
If Poseidon’s spring had been fresh water, the citizens would have been very foolish to choose the
olive tree, for fresh water was very precious then as well as now. But the spring was salty and therefore
unusable by human beings. There is an important gift, however, that Poseidon gave to people. What is it?

• The olive tree, Athena’s gift, is an evergreen grown for the production of olives as food and for oil
which may be used for a variety of purposes.

• There is evidence that olives were grown on the island of Crete


as early as 3500 BCE. It is probably the world’s oldest
cultivated crop.

• Olive oil was highly prized for anointing the body as early as
3000 BCE.

• Olive trees flourished in Greece in 900 BCE about the time of


Homer and were important in Rome as early as 600 BCE.

• Olive trees grow slowly, and some are reported to be over 1000 years old. The wood is resistant to
decay, and if the top dies, a new trunk will sprout from the roots.

• These trees grow to be 10 to 40 feet tall. They cannot survive temperatures of less than 10
degrees F. (-12.2 C.), yet they require winter-chilling conditions in order to produce fruit.

• Athena’s olive tree has always been a very useful tree in the region around the Mediterranean Sea
for it can grow on very dry land and it lives for a long, long time. Olive oil is still prized today for
cooking and for other purposes.

Find Out

Where are olives grown in the United States?


Are olives still important in Greece?
Which country today produces the most olives?
What special building was erected in Athens in honor of Athena?

Joette McDonald
Vermilion, OH

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POSEIDON

POSEIDON
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POSEIDON

REVIEW #2
This exercise covers material in d’Aulaires’ Book of Greek Myths, pp. 24-41

The answer-blanks with a slash require both Greek and Roman names for the god or goddess.

1. Who kills the monster Echidna? ________________________________

2. What does Gaea give to Hera for a wedding present? ______________________________

3. Who are Hephaestus’ three main helpers? _____________________________________

4. Into what does Zeus turn Io? _________________________

5. What is Eros’ other name? ______________________________

6. Who bores Argus to death? _____________________________

7. Who is the king of the gods? ________________________/_______________________

8. Who is Artemis and Apollo’s mother? _______________________

9. What is one animal that Poseidon created? ______________________________

10. Into what does Athena turn Arachne? _______________________

11. Who is the god of war? ________________________/_______________________

12. What creature chases Io to Egypt? _______________________________

13. Who causes Zeus’ headache by hammering out armor? ________________________

14. Who is the goddess of the hearth? _____________________/_____________________

15. Who throws Hephaestus from Mount Olympus? ________________________

16. Who tends Hephaestus when he falls onto the island of Lemnos? __________________

17. Who help Hephaestus walk? _________________________________

18. Who gives the olive tree to Athens? _______________________________

19. What four creatures follow Ares? ____________________, __________________,

______________________, _____________________

20. Who makes thrones, weapons, and jewelry for the gods? _________________________

21. What two natural events does Poseidon cause with his trident?

_________________________________ and ________________________________

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REVIEW #2 (continued)
22. Who is Io’s father? ________________________________

23. Who are Aphrodite’s attendants? _________________________________________

24. Which two gods do not have thrones on Mount Olympus?

________________________ and _______________________

25. What bird bears Argus’ eyes? _______________________________

26. With whom are “love arrows” associated? _________________________________

27. To what island does Aphrodite go to renew her beauty? _______________________

28. Who is the queen of the gods? ______________________/______________________

29. What are Amphitrite’s 49 sisters called? ______________________________

30. How many eyes does Argus have? _______________________________

31. To whom do the other goddesses give an amber necklace as a bribe? _______________

32. Who is the king of the sea? ________________________/_______________________

33. In order to convince Hera to marry him, Zeus turns himself into a _________________.

34. With whom does Athena have a weaving contest? _________________________

35. Who is Aphrodite’s husband? ________________________________

36. Which two Olympians are the children of Hera and Zeus?

________________________ and _________________________

37. Who is Ares’ constant companion? __________________________

38. Which god is cowardly and unable to withstand pain? _____________________

39. Who is the blacksmith of the gods? ____________________/_____________________

40. Athena is the goddess of three things that begin with W and two things that begin with O.
What are they?

_________________________ ________________________

_________________________ ________________________

_________________________

41. Who is Athena’s mother? ______________________________

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POSEIDON

REVIEW #2 (continued)

42. What is the name of the spirit of victory always shown with Athena? _______________

43. Who is Aphrodite’s son? ________________________

44. Where do Zeus and Io hide to avoid Hera? _______________________________

45. Which two gods want the city of Athens for their own.

________________________ and _________________________

46. Who is the goddess of love? ________________________/_______________________

47. Who gives salt water to Athens? _____________________________

48. What does Eris carry? _______________________________________

49. Who is married to Poseidon? ____________________________________

50. From where is Aphrodite born? __________________________

51. Who is the goddess of wisdom? _____________________/_______________________

52. Over what body of water does Io jump on her way to Egypt? _______________________

53. Who will not allow the goddess of childbirth, Ilithyia, to go to Leto? _______________

54. On which island are Artemis and Apollo born? _________________________

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POSEIDON

Teacher’s Key
REVIEW #2

1. Argus 41. Metis


2. apple tree 42. Nike
3. Cyclopes 43. Eros
4. cow 44. cloud
5. Cupid 45. Athena, Poseidon
6. Hermes 46. Aphrodite / Venus
7. Zeus / Jupiter 47. Poseidon
8. Leto 48. golden apple
9. horse 49. Amphitrite
10. spider 50. the sea
11. Ares / Mars 51. Athena / Minerva
12. gadfly 52. Bosporus (cow ford)
13. Metis 53. Hera
14. Hestia / Vesta 54. Delos
15. Zeus
16. Thetis
17. robots
18. Athena
19. pain, panic, famine, oblivion
20. Hephaestus
21. earthquakes, tidal waves
22. Inachos
23. Three Graces
24. Hades, Hestia
25. peacock
26. Eros
27. Cythera
28. Hera / Juno
29. Nereids
30. 100
31. Hera
32. Poseidon / Neptune
33. cuckoo
34. Arachne
35. Hephaestus
36. Ares, Hephaestus
37. Eris
38. Ares
39. Hephaestus / Vulcan
40. wisdom, war, weaving, olives, owl

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