This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
1. Introduction. Water and energy are fundamental components of modern civilizations (UNIDO, 2003). It is indispensable to all forms of life and it is needed in almost all human activities (Pacific Institution, 2009). Water can be defined as the common liquid in our planet. The amount of water that covers the Earth’s surface is a staggering 71.1% representing two third the size of Earth with the remaining of 28.9 % attributing to land. The majority of the water is present as salty water in the seas and oceans. Scientific statistics shows that the percentage of the salty water is approximately 97.5%, this effectively means that only 2.5% of the total amount of water on Earth is potable, out of which, 1.6% is in the polar ice caps, and 0.36% present underground which leaves a mere small percent in the lakes and rivers for daily use (Cammerman, 2009). It is clear that fresh water is hardly accessible which deems it as a scarce source of potable water; this is partly because roots from massive continue growth of population and industries. According to the World Health Organization and UNICEF, (2005) almost 50% of the developing countries’ population, which is about 2.5 billion people, lack improved sanitation facilities. Furthermore, over 884 million people still use unsafe drinking water sources. Thousands of children are sickened everyday with diarrheal diseases because of the inadequate access to safe fresh water and sanitation services, and about 5 children die every day from the same reason. However sufficient quality of potable water and basic sanitation can cut this toll dramatically. Thus the important questions arise, how can we tackle this issue? And what are the possible effective solutions? The limited natural water resources in the world pressure the scientist and engineers to develop alternative sources by the use of energy. Despite the abundance of renewable energy, the use of solar thermal and photovoltaic system is still in its technological infancy. Over the last quarter century, these technologies have certainly advanced technically to the point where they should be considered cleanenergy alternatives to fossil fuels. As the environmental concerns arise and these
AHMAD ALKHAYYAT, 04328963
Investigation into the Design and Manufacture of Solar Water Distillation System.
technologies become more advanced, the use of these technologies becomes crucial. At the present time sustainable energy has been recognised as a great source and the use of such energy can grant an answer to these concerns and can be one of the most effective solutions especially for the third world countries. This will assist in reducing the energy usage and carbon emissions. Recently a lot of researches have been done to effectively make use of the solar energy technologies to generate electricity, light, heat, hot water and even cooling for homes. In addition, solar energy can be used to purify sea water by using solar water distillation systems and cook food with solar oven. Desalination technique can be one of the solutions used to solve the matter related to the shortage of drinkable water in poor countries. Al-Karaghouli & Renne, (2009) stated that Desalination is a water treatment process that separates salts from saline water to produce potable water or water that is low in total dissolved solids (TDS). The aim of this project is to establish an applicable solution to satisfy the demand on fresh water by the third world countries while spending less money and energy, by the use of solar energy which is regarded as one of the best accessible renewable at any time and place. In addition, it will help Sun Catchers Charity (SCC) to provide solutions to areas where money and energy powers such as electricity and gas are sparse. This project is designed using raw materials that can be obtained even by poor people. The idea behind this design is the use of a large water bottle as water still because of its sustainable material nature. In addition, the project will outline the design theory of the solar distillation systems, background about solar stills will be discussed briefly in the next section. A 3D design drawing is produced to enhance visualization and modifications. A prototype of the water distillation system will be manufactured in order to analyse the main principles of the design theory as well as testing to investigate the performance and efficiency rate of the design.
AHMAD ALKHAYYAT, 04328963
Investigation into the Design and Manufacture of Solar Water Distillation System.
2. Aims of the Project. The main aim of the project is to investigate the feasibility of solar water distillation to produce potable water; it will also investigate the performance and efficiency of the product. Besides, the project also aims to create a solution that helps SCC to tackle the shortage of fresh water in the third world countries where the solar energy is more accessible than any other form of energy. These aims can be achieved by: • • Analysing the performance and efficiency of existing stills. Investigating into manufacture of localised product that improves the existing product if applicable otherwise new product will be created. • • Manufacture the solar still using raw materials. Testing of solar still.
3. Objectives of the Project. The main objectives of this project can be summarised below: • • • • • • • • • • Literature review will be carried out in order to analyse the problem precisely. Benchmarking of the product with other existing ones available in the market. Performance testing of existing solar stills. Identify the main weaknesses and limitations of an existing solar still Apply Improvements and modifications of an existing water stills if applicable. Identify the design parameters. Creating a 3D Model for better visualization. Designing a new prototype of solar still using raw materials. Manufacture of new still, analysing its performance and efficiency. Technical report, conference/journal paper will be written.
4. Project Methodology. The methodology of this project requires an up to date knowledge of information related to the design of water solar distillation systems. The main aims and
AHMAD ALKHAYYAT, 04328963
• Final Design: A 3D design will be created to visualize the project properly. • Manufacturing Process: this chapter will cover the manufacture part of the design and the materials needed for its manufacture process. In the end. All the AHMAD ALKHAYYAT. The main challenge is how to make use of a solar power to purify water using disposable water bottles. research performed on solar energy will be critically analysed to obtain an optimum results. In order to investigate the feasibility of the distillation system a number of methods will be carried out in which it can be summarized in the following points: • Statement of the Problem: the main problem is the shortage of fresh water in the developing countries. the supervisor will make the decision to manufacture the design. Furthermore. • Conceptual Design: this chapter will cover all the general ideas and solutions of the designing process as well as the materials and processes of each design. Issues indicated in this chapter will be considered later on when designing the solar still. After analysing the optimum solution and optimization technique will be used to tackle its drawbacks. • Literature Review: this chapter discusses the water purifications methods. 04328963 4 . An evaluation technique will be used to evaluate the different designs in order to get hold of the optimum solution. A number of solutions will be generated and analysed.Investigation into the Design and Manufacture of Solar Water Distillation System. In addition to analysing previous documented projects which will help familiarize with the idea of designing the solar distillation system. objectives is to design and manufacture an efficient water solar distillation system using large water bottles. to help reducing the demand on fresh water and to create accessible sources of fresh water in the developing countries. Previous work will also be analysed in order to identify strengths and weaknesses that will help achieving a more effective solution.
This chapter will discuss the different methods of desalination techniques and water purification. Furthermore.1 Background of Desalination Techniques. performance and productivity. The solar still is considered one of the methods used to distil water. A number of experiments will be carried out to obtain the optimum solution in terms of efficiency. Al-Karaghouli & Renne. the main focus will be on the small-scale water solar distillation system which is one of main processes of the desalination technologies. Literature Review. in which they are mainly classified into two types: the first type can be defined as the sun of processes which are based on physical change in the state of water or distillate through evaporation. The desalination is a process where sea water is subjected to treatment to separate the salt and produce potable water. 5. the energy usage varies from method to another. 5. All the experiments will be subjected to comparison to analyse the results clearly and efficiently. These methods will be briefly discussed in the next section. (2009) provides useful discussion about the desalination technique. equipment and materials will be listed in order together before starting to manufacture the prototype. (2009) shows statistically that the leader of these two processes in the market place which is the membrane distillation process of reverse osmosis (RO) with a 44% of total capacity and following closely the thermal process of multi-stage flash (MSF) with 40% of the AHMAD ALKHAYYAT. Al-Karaghouli & Renne. There are many ways to produce potable water. 04328963 5 . however each method require energy to be run. whereas the other type of processes use a membrane that employ the concept of filtration. • Experiment Analysis and Discussion: this chapter will include all the experimental procedures and theoretical analysis.Investigation into the Design and Manufacture of Solar Water Distillation System. • Conclusion: this section will cover the summarized results and main points of the discussion.
This solar still consist of a shallow basin with a transparent glass cover. The main desalination technologies are shown in the graph below. (2006) provides useful information about the technology selection methodology and its main criteria. 04328963 6 . The Main Desalination Processes according to (Al-Karaghouli & Renne. McCracken & J. Figure (1). (1985) states that the basin-type solar still continues to be the most economical when compared to other types.Investigation into the Design and Manufacture of Solar Water Distillation System. Solar distillation mainly uses the sun radiation heat in a simple piece of equipment to purify water which is commonly called a solar still. This project will focus on the solar distillation technique. Although there are many existing design AHMAD ALKHAYYAT. 2009) The main problem lies in the selection of desalination process technology which is considered to be a critical decision where decision maker requires up to date information about the latest desalination technologies in order to make most use of it. Al-Subaie. total capacity. 2009). with an up to date details of these technologies in (Al-Karaghouli & Renne. Moisture rises. The basic principle of the solar still is that the sun’s radiation heat up the water in the basin which causes evaporation. The main sources of the desalination feeding water are sea water with 58% and brackish ground water with 23% according to (Al-Karaghouli & Renne. condenses on the inner surface of the transparent glass (cover) and runs down to the collecting channel where the salt. 2009). minerals and impurities will be left behind.
• Activated Carbon Filter: this process main theory is that it works through absorption of the problematic compounds to removes taste and odour as well as other harmful contaminants. However. This method is one of the effective methods used. only the basin still type will be discussed thoroughly in this project. Water purification in its simple term is defined as the act of cleaning by getting rid of impurities in water to produce water suitable for drinking. spores. 04328963 7 . but also viruses. Ozone is considered a true sterilant and has the ability to kill permanently not only bacteria. There are different techniques used at present to purify water. There are many methods and techniques to produce fresh water. this method is not the safest. it uses the oxidation process to break down dissolved organic materials. it is only used for urgent situation. but the common methods are summarised below: • Ozone Filter: this type of filter uses the ozone O3 which is the most active state of the Oxygen O2. this destroys the micro organisms. variation of solar stills.9992% which is basically ALL other pollutants in the water at the same time”. 2003). where it requires high energy. 5. it is known as water filtration. One of the simplest methods is boiling. The following section will investigate the purification methods performances. It has a highly porous material which attracts the impurities to its large surface area.9992% of all pathogenic germs. According to Family Health News.Investigation into the Design and Manufacture of Solar Water Distillation System. • Ultra Violet Light: this process works by passing water through a chamber which is flooded with Ultra Violet Light. The carbon samples are expensive and less effective when used frequently as explained in (Water Treatment. while oxidizing (destroying) 99. fungi and many other microbes. (2006) “Both the Food and Drug Administration FDA and Environmental Protection Agency EPA certify that ozone destroys 99. On the other hand. The main issue with this method AHMAD ALKHAYYAT.2 Water Purification Methods.
is the maintenance as the pre-filter needs to be cleaned according to UK Water Filter. like natural rain which results in pure water droplets. 04328963 8 . • Ion Exchange Filter: it is a filter which softens water by exchanging sodium ions for "hardness" ions including calcium and magnesium. • Sediment Filter: this type of filter is made of a porous material where it purifies water from visible and large inorganic contaminants. • Redox and KDF Filter: KDF filters employ a matrix of zinc/copper alloy. (1973). This type of filter consists of a reservoir containing small beards of synthetic resin. (2008). This eliminates a wide range of contaminants by utilizing electrochemical oxidationreduction (Redox Principle). This kind of treatment will allow certain minerals like hydrogen sulphide and iron to AHMAD ALKHAYYAT. They are usually used in households because of its simplicity in use and its low cost. brine tank and a valve. There is a need to use a cross flow process which guarantee that the water produced is cleaned from any impurities according to Water Treatment. This process only requires natural sources heat. This type is considered as one of the common tools of water treatment used nowadays. (2009). heavy metals. however not all impurities will be removed. and other contaminants from water”.Investigation into the Design and Manufacture of Solar Water Distillation System. Water Filter Online. steam and gravity. (2009) states that “KDF media can remove more than 95% of chlorine. • Reverse Osmosis (RO): RO process employs a membrane to filter the pressurized water from the contaminants. These beads are treated to absorb either cations (positive) or anions (negative) selectively. iron. • Steam Distilled Water: this method is producing fresh water by a natural process such as simple cooling and heating. hydrogen sulphide. Its main function is to get rid of scale-forming magnesium and calcium from hard water according to Herrman.
3 Water Purification Methods Evaluation. Distillation using Renewable Energy. but it is considerably low compared to the others. Output Capacity It is a time consuming method. one discusses the general information of each method and the second table discusses what contaminants each method can remove. Efficiency Output Quality Very good quality of water produced. Maintenance Required It requires maintenance as the need to clean the basin regularly because of precipitate. in turn. The unit needs to be cleaned several times per year. Good efficiency Ultra Violet Light (UV) Boiling Good efficiency as the use of electricity is very low. comparing each method is really important to set on the best method of purification. Hard particles cannot be destroyed. No waste of water processed. which. become solid. Low cost because use it is only require electricity to run other than the chamber. There are two tables below discussing the evaluation between these methods. AHMAD ALKHAYYAT. The latest research shows that the distillation and RO processes are more effective than the rest of the methods. High quality water produced Change the bulb every year. there is waste in water processed. The criteria of evaluation between the purification methods are water output quality. 04328963 9 . Average quality of water produced. 5. efficiency. Because of evaporation. No maintenance required. and maintenance and contaminants removal. will make them much easier to trap in water sediment filters. After specifying each method working principle. The maximum achievement was an average of two cups a day. however is not as much as RO. Cost It depends on the material of manufacture. Very expensive to buy as the need to buy the unit and a bulb. Low efficiency compared to the others. cost. The main issue is that it is difficult to compare between each one as the information provided are not specific hence some of the comments will be fairly accurate.Investigation into the Design and Manufacture of Solar Water Distillation System.
pretreatment and capital. The cost is low as the cartridge is inexpensive to buy. High operating cost. It is effective at high water temperature. The cost is high where it depends on electricity used. Very good quality. It can run only on cold water. 04328963 10 .6 gallons to produce 1gallon. Fair quality as it does not kill bacteria or viruses. Sediment Filter Fair efficiency. No waste of water processed. Efficiency Ozone Filter Highly efficient as it kills 99. Output Quality High quality water produced although it leaves no disinfectant residual in the water. AHMAD ALKHAYYAT. Waste of a few gallons to produce one gallon of water. It has a good efficiency. The cost is very low due to its cheap cartridge. Regular clean of the filter every month. Redox and Good KDF Filter efficiency on removing heavy metal and chlorine from water. Good efficiency for removing dissolved inorganic. Active Carbon Filter Ion Exchange Filter It depends on the pour material size. Regular changes of the filter. Poor quality of water compared to other methods. About 3. Efficient for aesthetic water treatment.Investigation into the Design and Manufacture of Solar Water Distillation System. Cost The cost is considerably high but it is lower than UV process.9% of the bacteria and germs in water. Maintenance Required It requires cleaning the ozone diffuser from the filter regularly. Output Capacity No waste in water under treatment. Reverse Osmoses It depends on the membrane quality. Little waste of water as it is trapped in the cartridge. Average water quality is very good. Membrane filter needs to be cleaned after a period of time. Table (1). No waste water under treatment. Evaluation Table between Various Water Treatment Methods. Efficiency varies as it depends on high pressurized water. It requires a carful maintenance as bacteria is grown in unused beads. Regular changes of the filter. Low cost due to in expensive cartridges. No waste of water under treatment. No tools required for maintenance. Economic maintenance as the cartridge needs to be changed every a few months depending on the water usage. Pretreatment is required. Fair quality of water produced.
(2003). Efficiency of Water Purification Methods According to Johnson. (/) = Cannot remove. McCracken & J. AHMAD ALKHAYYAT. (• • )= Good. (• • • •) = Excellent. (2007). (?) = no sufficient information provided. 04328963 Sediment Filter / / / 11 Reverse Osmosis Boiling . Table (2). (1985). (• • •) = Very Good. (•) = Poor. (2004) & ELKEN. Ion Exchange Filter Redox & KDF Filter Active Carbon Filter Ozone Filter Ultra Violet UV Distillation Bacteria Viruses Bad odor & taste Heavy metals Chlorine Fluoride Iron Organic Lead Magnesium Sulphur Arsenic Calcium Cadmium Nitrates Sodium •••• •••• •••• / •• •••• / ••• •••• •••• •••• ••• ••• ••• •••• •••• •••• •••• / / / / / / / / / / / / / / •••• •••• / / / / / / / / / / / / / / •••• •••• •••• / ? / •••• •••• ? •••• •••• ? ? ? ? ? •• • •••• •• •••• / / •••• / •••• / / / / / / / / / ? / •••• ? •• ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• / / ••• •• ••• / ••• ? ? / / •• / / / ? •••• •••• •••• ••• •••• •••• ••• •••• ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• •••• / / / •••• / / / / ? / ? ? The number of dotes corresponds to greater efficiency of each method to remove a particular Contaminants. National Honey Board.Investigation into the Design and Manufacture of Solar Water Distillation System. (2005). Water Treatment.
Figure (2). Solar energy can be defined as the emitted radiation from the sun in the form of electromagnetic waves. There are visible and non-visible light regions. Whereas the white colour reflect them.Investigation into the Design and Manufacture of Solar Water Distillation System. 04328963 12 . 5. According to the colours that appears in the visible region the darker the colour is the more energy is absorbed. Spectral Distribution of Electromagnetic Radiation provided by (Wesley.4 Solar Energy Analysis. The only colour that can absorb all type of wave frequencies is black. The visible region is considered as a tiny fraction of the total amount of possible wavelengths as shown in figure 2. This is similar to the absorption process that takes place in Earth’s atmosphere where sun radiation is being filtered resulting in an increase AHMAD ALKHAYYAT. The spectral distribution of electromagnetic radiation has been classified according to their wavelengths in angstroms. 2002) When these waves collide with an object the energy of these waves can be either absorbed or reflected by the said object. These waves are self-propagating which does not require a medium for its propagation. It is the light that the human eyes are sensitive to.
Figure (3). in turn produces the variation of energy that is seen throughout the earth continents as apparent in figure 3. 04328963 13 .Investigation into the Design and Manufacture of Solar Water Distillation System. in the air temperature. Top Thermal Radiation for the Four Seasons Throughout the continents over the length of 50 years provided by (Van Der Schrier & Severijins. 2005) AHMAD ALKHAYYAT. This.
AHMAD ALKHAYYAT. 5.5 History of Solar Distillation. 04328963 14 . However the first documented references for a device was made by the Italian Nicolo Ghezzi in 1742. 1983). • It is used for recovering potable water from sewage by adding an activated carbon to the filtered water to get rid of the odorous gasses while some of them will evaporate. Cooper. • It is used for irrigation for field agriculture although it is not very promising says (Cooper. • It is used mainly to separate salt from saline water or sea water to produce drinking water as well as recovering the salt. It is unknown whether this device has gone beyond the conceptual stage while the first modern solar still was made by Charles Wilson in Las Salinas. Distillation Process has long been considered a method of separating salt from sea water and purifies it into drinking water. 5. (1985). (1985) Aristotle described a way to evaporate contaminated water and then condense it for drinking use. Chile in 1872.6 The Main Application of Solar Distillation System. It consisted of 64 water basins made of black wood with inclined glass cover. According to McCracken & J. The main application of the solar distillation system is as follows according to McCracken & J. • It may be used to recover distilled water from polluted water bodies. (1983) reports that the first civilization known to use the solar distillation is the Arabian alchemists in the sixteenth century.Investigation into the Design and Manufacture of Solar Water Distillation System.
5. these are concentrating collector stills. Solar Distillation Process by (Dunham. Because of the combination of tilted glazed surface and gravity the water directs itself into the collecting troughs.Investigation into the Design and Manufacture of Solar Water Distillation System. The main process of the distillation system is shown in the graph below. The efficiency of the solar still can be defined as the “energy required for the vaporization of the distillate that is recovered over the energy in the sun’s radiation that falls on the still” by McCracken & J. (1985). The vapour rises and condenses on the inner side of the cover and accumulates as water droplets or sheets of water. AHMAD ALKHAYYAT. yet only four main categories are used. Figure (4). 1987). 04328963 15 . Currently there are many designs of the solar stills. The graph shows the process theory behind the solar distillation where the sun radiation energy passes through the glass cover to heat up the sea water in the basin causing the water to vaporize to a cooler area with almost all the impurities get left behind in the shallow basin. The four main categories will be explained briefly. According to the latest statistics 95% of all functioning stills are of the basin type. tilted wick solar stills and basin stills. multiple tray tilted stills.7 Solar Distillation System Process.8 Solar Distillation System Design Variation. 5.
Figure (5). AHMAD ALKHAYYAT. • Multiple Tray Tilted Still: this type consists of shallow horizontal black trays enclosed in an insulted container covered with a transparent glass. 2008). This however has many drawbacks because of its complicated structure in spite of the fact it can be used in higher latitudes because of its tilted nature which allows the sun rays to strike perpendicular to its glazing surface.Investigation into the Design and Manufacture of Solar Water Distillation System. Then the vapour will be transported to a separate chamber where it condenses. McCracken & J. Concentrated Collector Still in Mexico by (Brignoni. Then it will run down to the collection trough to be stored. According to McCracken & J. (1985) this type has an outstanding performance. The concentrated sunlight provides high level of temperature that is mainly used to evaporate impure water. vapour will rise up and condenses onto the glass cover. However it has many drawbacks which limit its use because of its high building cost and maintenance as well as its fragile nature. 04328963 16 . (1985) instates that the efficiency of this type is 50%. • Concentrating Collector Still: this type consists of parabolic mirrors that focus sunlight onto an enclosed evaporation vessel which principle is similar to the solar cooker. After the sun light heats up the water.
1980). Figure (6). 04328963 17 . AHMAD ALKHAYYAT. (1985) Figure (7). Multiple Trays Tilted Still Sketch by McCracken & J.Investigation into the Design and Manufacture of Solar Water Distillation System. it is efficient but is not widely used because of its high construction cost and maintenance according to McCracken & J. (1985). Tilted Wick Still Sketch by (Mathewson. • Tilted Wick Solar Still: this type of still consists of a vessel containing the sea water which is poured down to a capillary action of fibre to distribute feed water over the entire surface of the wick in a thin layer with sunlight exposed to water.
5. a support structure. • Basin Still: this type is the most common type available at present. Before designing the solar still a few questions arise. AHMAD ALKHAYYAT. what are the main factors that affect the efficiency of the solar still? How to increase the productivity of the still? How to decrease the heat losses at certain areas in the still? These questions require an answer before initiating the design. The designing process is an extremely important part of the project where the prototype needs to be manufactured according to some data provided and justified. a transparent glazing cover and a distillate trough.Investigation into the Design and Manufacture of Solar Water Distillation System. The actual shape and concept has not changed since it was first built in Chile 1872. in order to increase the efficiency insulation must be added under the basin according to McCracken & J. Basically it consists of a basin. 04328963 18 .9 Solar Distillation System Design Factors and Parameters. 2009). The only change is that it involves the use of new building materials which may reduce the overall cost while increasing the efficiency and performance to last longer. Figure (8). Basin Type Still by (Dove Bio Tech. (1985). Before moving forward to the designing process several considerations should be addressed. However.
Adding reflectors can increase the productivity of solar stills if the inclination angle should be set at about 15° from vertical. 2007) proves that by decreasing the depth of the basin by about half of its original size. There are many factors that affect the efficiency. double glazed glass and tempered glass. It is necessary to investigate the effect of all the design parameters before taking the decision of installing the solar stills. the productivity increases by 25%. Another experiment done by (Badran & Abu-Khader. The other factor is the insulation. To investigate these parameters the need to evaluate the technical and theoretical information provided by previous projects is essential. performance and productivity of solar stills. (2007) observed in his results that there is a possibility in increasing the fresh water productivity by lowering the water depth on the basin-absorbing plate. In addition. Many engineers uses polycarbonate plastic. the glazing material properties affect the temperature rate inside the still as the thermal energy depends on the emissivity of the glazing material. single glazed glass. The increase in efficiency leads to an increase of performance and productivity. (1985) showed in his report the importance of having a strong glazing material which can withstand high temperature as well as resisting wind and small movements. an increase of performance and productivity will be observed when the solar stills are insulated in some part of it. AHMAD ALKHAYYAT. First of all. Tarawneh. 04328963 19 . the depth of water in the still can play a huge role in increasing or decreasing the productivity of fresh water.Investigation into the Design and Manufacture of Solar Water Distillation System. McCracken & J.
and to indicate the area of improvements. The idea of analysing existing projects is to counter all the drawbacks of these projects. 04328963 21 . 2009) Determination of Rational Design Parameters of a Multi-Stage Water Desalination Still Using Transient Mathematical Modelling. these projects’ technical information is very important for argument discussion and will be used to compare it with the actual results obtained. whereas the productivity was observed to be 6. 2007) Effect of Water Depth on the Performance Evaluation of Solar Still It was suggested further investigation into water depth as the decrease of water depth would increase the productivity. The productivity was found to be 5 2 Kg/m . Regular maintenance required. Furthermore. Using plastic jacket lower the maintenance efforts. In terms of water production the experiment proves that the tube solar collector-four stage still has a higher efficiency that multistage stills and basin stills. (Tarawneh. Author / Year El-Bahi & Inan. Comments Modifications are needed especially in the lower glass cover because the condensation was observed in the inner surface of it.day. however implementing this method would increase the cost of manufacture. By cooling the glass cover increases water productivity. The efficiency was 70%. Adding a small fan or pump can diffuse the vapor from the evaporator to the condenser. The effect of the wind on the water temperature. This section will provide the critical literature review about solar still according to previously published projects.7 Liter/day.10 Evaluation of Previous Projects. The angle of inclination requires re adjusted. 1999) Article’s Title Analysis of a Parallel Double Glass Solar Still with Separate Condenser Findings The proposed system minimized the formation of water droplets which increases the absorbing of thermal radiation. In addition. The table below will illustrate the main data acquired from published articles. (Shatat & Mahkamov. Having two glass covers decreases the heat losses which results into an increase in the heating plate temperature.Investigation into the Design and Manufacture of Solar Water Distillation System. The efficiency increased from 40% to more than 70%. The geographical location may significantly affect the water productivity. analysing the past works will lead to stand on the best possible design idea to be generated. 5. AHMAD ALKHAYYAT. Area of Improvements The condenser shape can be modified. The water splashing method was very interesting as it increases the productivity. The manufacturing cost is significantly high. There no use of any sustainable energy. Leakages throughout the design was not prevented which causes the lower temperature.
Increasing the wind velocity increases the productivity by 35%. It was suggested to use mirrors as a reflective tool.Investigation into the Design and Manufacture of Solar Water Distillation System. Badran. 04328963 22 . Heating plate material requires more investigation.7 liter/day. O (2007) Experimental Study of the Enhancement Parameters on a Single Slope Solar Still Productivity. the need to model a prototype to validate these data. The productivity as increased by 29% due to the use of asphalt in the basin. Muller-Holst (2008) Water Cone The still is made using only Makrolon Polycarbonate PC type of plastic. however the difficulty is that how to create vacuum with when using solar energy. The data acquired are simplified to perform the calculation. It has an expensive price of € 49 to buy. The need to take into account the heat losses between the gaps and connection holes which locates between the inside and outside the room. The absence of non-condensable air and convection heat loss from the water increases the productivity.5 cm to 2 cm increases the productivity 25. Practical tool was developed using calculation method in order to optimize both dimensions and materials in designing air collector. AHMAD ALKHAYYAT. As the data obtained are theoretical data. No sign of insulation has been used through the experiment. Findings By decreasing the water depth from 3. Area of Improvements Better insulation can be adopted due to the heat losses the system observed. The use of different reflectors may affect the system efficiency. Rodonb & Volpes (1997) Heat Transfer Calculation in a Free Convection Air Solar Collector. Author / Year Badran & AbuKhader (2007) Al-Hussaini & Smith (1995) Article’s Title Evaluating Thermal Performance of a Single Slope Solar Still. This method was considering the unsteadiness phenomena that take place in the collector which influence the performance of it. Different heating material can be used for comparison purposes. Comments The mathematical model constructed was rather complicated. The variation of design dimensions are needed to investigate the influence upon the efficiency of the still. The productivity is proportional to the solar intensity.7%. It was observed that the decrease in water depth will increase the productivity. By adopting splashing method combined with asphalt the productivity increase by another 22%. It produces 1 to 1. The productivity of water has increased by greater than 100%. Theoretically the use of vacuum technology enhancing the water productivity. Enhancing of Solar Still Productivity Using Vacuum Technology.
The use of fins and sponges enhance the productivity increases from 1. The productivity was 4 Liter/m . The production rate of water is promising. Velmurugan et al (2008) Single Basin Solar Still Fin for Enhancing Productivity.4 L/m . Using a concave shape heating plate increases the still efficiency. Kumar & Bai (2008) Performance Study on Solar Still with Enhanced Condensation.day in climate condition. Fath. Area of Improvements If the 5kg/m .88 to 2 2. The manufacturing cost is high. Table (3). Theoretical study of the performance is needed. The need to construct more than one design. The efficiency is significantly high. H (1996) High Performance of a Simple Design.7 2 Kg/m . By increasing the cooling on the wall surface enhancing the condensation process.8 Kg/m . Reflectors can be obtained to increase the incident solar heat. It is essential to further study the parameters that affect the efficiency of the still. Design specification such and width are not specified. Summary of Technical Information Quoted from Previous Works. 04328963 23 . The still efficiency is 30% and the maximum 2 production of water is 1. AHMAD ALKHAYYAT. Two Effects Solar Distillation Unit. No reflectors have been attached.day is obtainable as stated the need to redesign the collection channel as it appears to disable to collect this amount of water every day. Findings The inclined reflectors of 15° from vertical increase the productivity at any still inclination angle. By using two effect basin types the productivity was indicated to be 10. The measured time is quite large (every hour).day. A (2009) Performance of Solar Still with a Concave Wick Evaporation Surface. 2 Comments Different design parameters should looked at other than reflectors. The productivity of the inclined reflector is about 15% to 27% more than one with a vertical reflector when the reflector’s length is half of the still length. 2 Insulation method was only implemented in one part of the still whereas insulating others parts is recommended. There no external container which store the water produced as the collection channel inside the still seems to be small.day. The use of sponges decreases the water surface area in the basin. The use of different glazing material. The evaporation rate was found to be higher when no surface cooling adopted. Kabeel. Author / Year Hiroshi & Yasuhito (2009) Article’s Title Increase in Distillate Productivity by Inclining the Flat Plate External Reflector of a Tilted-Wick Solar Still in Winter. The efficiency of the design is considerably low.Investigation into the Design and Manufacture of Solar Water Distillation System.
The highlighted points can be summarized below: • The fresh water productivity can be affected by a number of factors such as water depth.day in climate condition. glazing material. • The decrease in water depth will increase the distillate productivity. • Design for maximum efficiency (60% as minimum) AHMAD ALKHAYYAT. This was essential to indicate the main technical information. • The highest still efficiency recorded was 70%. • There are many suggestions of adopting water splashing method and vacuum technology as both increases the still efficiency by 30% and 100% respectively. 04328963 24 . • The glazing material reflectivity.7 Kg/m2. • The height from the heating plate to the top on the still has an influence on the increase of the water temperature. reflectors angles. whereas the highest production rate was 10. emissivity and absorptivity are very important to enhance the heating plate temperature. • Simplicity in design. Project Challenges. insulation. However. 6. There are a number of challenges requires investigation when designing and manufacturing the still. According to the table above the works done by different researchers were summarized. and still inclination angles. • Reflectors are quit important tools to focus the incident solar radiation to enhance the temperature of the heating plate. transmissivity. both techniques are challenging when using only solar energy as the only energy source. the weaknesses and the areas that require more investigation which will help obtaining a quality results through this project. obtainable sustainable material.Investigation into the Design and Manufacture of Solar Water Distillation System. localise. The overcome of these challenges leads to successfully designing a quality still. The challenges can be summarized below: • Design using raw.
• Design for constant minimum water depth. From the drawbacks above. Complexity involved in the designing process. This section of the project will show the main design processes to manufacture the solar water distillation system. as in some of them the efficiency exceeded 50%. 04328963 25 . There are many existing products that have been manufactured and performed efficiently. • Design for heat regeneration to reduce radiation heat loss. The new design of solar still is classified as a new product platform. The main AHMAD ALKHAYYAT. 2003).1 Design Overview. The main downfalls can be summarized in the following points: • • The manufacturing cost is very high. The use of renewable energy is the main focus in this project as it uses the solar power from the sun to purify sea or brackish water into potable water as discussed in previous chapters in this report. 7.Investigation into the Design and Manufacture of Solar Water Distillation System. The process of the product specification development will follow the theory development provided by (Ulrich & Eppinger. The ideas of using large water bottles arise because of its sustainable material nature which makes it an environmental friendly material (More information regarding material properties can be found in Appendix A and B). the drawbacks of these existing products are an issue where the need of design improvements should be made in order to fully counter their drawbacks. Project Planning & Design Procedures. The maintenance process requires more efforts to clean and maintain the still. • Air (vapour) leakage to be effectively reduced. 7. However. • • The materials used are not considered as sustainable. it is clearly analysed that there is a need of a new product which can achieve high efficiency with low cost. • The materials used in making the product are expensive compared to the standard life of the third world countries societies.
Investigation into the Design and Manufacture of Solar Water Distillation System.
focus of this section is the identification of customer needs which is part of the development cycle. A range of concept designs will be generated to satisfy customer needs. 3D design will be modelled to identify and visualise the proposed design properly. This model will be subjected to analysis in order for validation and its suitability for the proposed conditions of operation. The proposed design will be selected and manufactured after materials selection are investigated and it will be subjected to a number of tests hence to calculate the still’s efficiency. 7.2 Mission Statement. The following project mission statements which reflect the necessity of this development process activity. Product Description Key Business Goals - Simplicity, Independency, mobility, safety, efficiency and economy in addition to its sustainability are the main features of solar water still design. - To aid the developing countries by providing a solution to counter fresh water scarcity issue. - To educate the people in these areas of the importance of using the natural resources. - To improve children health by creating sustainable purification methods using solar energy. - To help Sun Catchers Charity (SCC) to aid orphanages, schools and hospitals in developing countries. - For individual family use. - Scalable to agricultural use. - For coastal dwellers. - New product platform. - Renewable energy such as solar is used in operation. - To be used in sunny areas. - Sea and brackish water are to be distilled. - To be designed for constant minimum water depth. - Made from recyclable, reusable and disposable material. - A 5 gallon sized bottle will be used in designing. - The material should be existed everywhere. - Heat regeneration cycle to be adopted.
Table (4). Mission Statement of Solar Water Distillation System.
Primary Market Secondary Markets Assumptions and Constraints
AHMAD ALKHAYYAT, 04328963
Investigation into the Design and Manufacture of Solar Water Distillation System.
7.3 Identification of Customer Needs. The customer needs are identified by interviewing expert people in the renewable energy field, observing existing products that are use by customers in the developing countries and surveying people who are suffering from the shortage of fresh water by contacting charity organizations who are supporting these societies. One of the main non-profit charities that are collaborated to this project is Sun Catchers charity. According to SCC, the customer needs are based on the people who live in the developing countries. The reasons of designing this new product are first, to aid village size orphanages, schools and hospitals to counter the shortage of fresh water. Second, to practice and promote the use of natural renewable energy resources for surviving. Third, to educate the people about the necessity of restoring and protecting the quality of nature through the use of solar power and most importantly to improve the health of children who are diseased because of the contaminated water by providing methods of purification. These are the main aims of the design in which it is part of the customer needs that narrowed the primary market. According to SCC website, the overwhelming poverty and malnourishment conditions of the third world countries societies requires constructing a simple design that can operate efficiently with low maintenance effort. Based on the charity information provided, some customer needs are specified where as others can be easily identified as secondary needs that are based on the primary needs provided by SCC. The general overall customer needs are identified in which the product design criteria can be summarised as follows: • • • • • Ease of use and handle. Ease of manufacture. Ease of maintenance. Ease of assembly. Ease of mobility and transportation.
AHMAD ALKHAYYAT, 04328963
Investigation into the Design and Manufacture of Solar Water Distillation System.
• • • • • • •
Safe and adequate product. To be made from sustainable materials. To be made from obtainable (raw) material. High product durability for wind resistance. High fresh water production rate. Operating in normal climate conditions. Economical product.
7.4 List of Interpreted Customer Needs. This section discusses the interpreted data in terms of primary and secondary customer needs. The interpreted needs are then listed as the secondary needs are included within each interpreted need. The secondary indicated by the number of (*), the more (*) means the more important a need is perceived to be. The methodology of rating the needs was used according to Ulrich & Eppinger, (2003). The interpreted needs are rated in order to enable the development process to maintain the customer need and focus. The still is convenient to use and handle. 1 2 3 4 5 6
* * * * * * * * * * *
The still is easy to maintain.
The still components are easy to assemble. The still height is adjustable. The still is portable and transportable. The still is suitable for all users. The still provides low technology. The still operates in any climate condition.
7 8 9 10 11
* * * * * * * * * *
- The still is cleanable. - The still provides smooth surface. - The still provides easy, ready and smooth access. - The still resists corrosion. - The still does not instill unpleasant taste to the water.
AHMAD ALKHAYYAT, 04328963
The still provides constant water depth. 34 35 * * * * * .The still provides collecting channels for condensing vapor (water). The still provides sunlit area access from all directions. . . .The still provides good condensation surfaces.The still prevent heat losses. AHMAD ALKHAYYAT. 23 24 25 26 * * * * - The still regenerates heat. . .The still provides free space between water feed and condensation surfaces. 30 31 32 33 * * * * * * * The still maintains high feed water temperature.The still provides good absorption surface.The still refills water independently. 27 28 29 * * * * * * The still is easy to store. The still can be stored anywhere.The still top shape is convenient for water collection. . The still stores fresh water externally. . The still size and shape is convenient. . The still operates independently.The still reflects sun radiation to focused area. The still is easy to disassemble.The still provides space for parts attachments internally.Investigation into the Design and Manufacture of Solar Water Distillation System. . . 12 13 14 * * * * *** The still stores the water safely.The still extremely transparent. . The still fits in standard packaging sizes. 15 16 17 * * * * * * The still condenses fast. 18 19 20 21 22 * * * *** * * *** * * * * * . .The still provides easy water access. . The ease of filling the still. The still provides refilling feed water process.The still provides free access to collect water in external container. 04328963 29 . The still stores fresh water internally. .The still provides focused sunlit area in all directions.The still is insulated.The still does not reflect sun radiations.
The still can be used anywhere. A number of concepts were generated below with a brief description about the main components and their process theory. The still is safe. The still provides easy handling. This water level will be evaporated and then condenses AHMAD ALKHAYYAT.1 Concept A. The heating plate will be floating on sea water allowing the water flow to pass through the holes made in the Styrofoam around the heating plate. . The bottom part contains the sea water is insulated using a square box and insulation material. 7.The still resists small natural movements like wind. .The still survives heavy use.The still is convenient to all users. 7. . .The still weight and size are just right.The still is colorful. The top part will act as a cover where the light is exposed. Table (5).5. The floating heating design is challenging as it requires the heating plate to partially submerge to allow constant water level.The still resists high temperature. The still uses environmental friendly material.The still is rigid. The idea of generating many concepts is to stand on the optimum design before manufacturing the design. . 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 * * * * * * * * * * * * - The still does not consume electrical energy. * 48 * * 49 *** * * 50 . . In addition. this will be stacked onto the bottom one. 04328963 30 . The still is well insulated in hot areas. The still provides non-toxic material. the advantages and disadvantages of each design will be highlighted. The idea of this concept A is to divide the 5 gallon bottle horizontally into three sections. The still lasts long.5 Conceptual Designs. * * * * * * * * *** * * The still looks attractive.Investigation into the Design and Manufacture of Solar Water Distillation System. Hierarchical List of Primary and Secondary Customer Needs of Solar Water Distillation System. . .The still provides stability for inner parts. The still does not have sharp corners.
04328963 31 . Its conical top cover shape allows easy water collection after condensation. It lacks maintenance efforts. Ease of assembly and disassembly is the merit of this design. into the top cover where it collects into its bended edges.Investigation into the Design and Manufacture of Solar Water Distillation System. Figure (9). • The ease of emptying the fresh water by turning the top cover up side down using the top tip cap. AHMAD ALKHAYYAT. Sketch of Concept (A) Shows its Main Components. The main advantages: • • • • The design provides easy access to internal parts of the still. Reflectors are attached into the top cover to concentrate more incident radiation into the heating plate as shown below.
04328963 32 .5. Sketch of Concept (B) Shows its Main Components. When the heating plate is being heated the vapour will arise and condense on the top cover surface. Two semi circle piece of plastic are then glued on the inside surface of the top cover to allow collection of water. A mirror is then attached near the tip cap of the bottle top cover.Investigation into the Design and Manufacture of Solar Water Distillation System. The tip cap of the bottom part is sealed whereas the top one is open to allow the water to pour out. 7. The bottom part is filled with sand except a certain area in the middle where the heating plate that contains the sea water is located. The main disadvantages: • There are difficulties into folding the edges of the top cover to make the water collection area. Two sections as shown in figure 10 needs to be split to perform a cover and its basin.2 Concept B. • Air leakage may occur between the top and bottom cover. The light is exposed on the top cover in order to heat up the heating plate in the bottom part. The idea of this design is to have a handled bottle laid horizontally. Figure (10). AHMAD ALKHAYYAT.
the handle is then insulated from the outside to maintain heat. 04328963 33 . The ability to use the bottle for two products and replace the bottom part with a square box.3 Concept C. • The heating plate provides limited water level and there will be a need to refill it every time the sea water evaporates. The right hand side of the bottle as shown in figure 11 is fully reflected using foil sheets on the inner surface of the top cover. 7. AHMAD ALKHAYYAT. Low maintenance required. The top tip is sealed to maintain heat temperature.Investigation into the Design and Manufacture of Solar Water Distillation System. heat loss through the cover surface will be increased. A condenser plate is placed inside the area provided by the handle. • It is difficult to take out the water produced because of its top and bottom part alignment. Ease of assembly and disassembly. • The sand stabilizes the heating plate. • There is air leakage because the improper slacking of the top and bottom parts firmly. This plate is attached to both heating plate and collecting channel for heat regeneration purposes. This concept is generated using a vertically handled bottle. The main advantages: • • • • It provides a wide sunlit area. The bottle is cut two third of its size from the top to allow easy access. The bottom part is filled with sea water with the heating plate floating on it. The main disadvantages: • Because of its wide sunlit area.5.
The main advantages: • • • The design allows a reasonable sunlit area. The use of the whole 5 gallon bottle creates more sea water volume. Figure (11).Investigation into the Design and Manufacture of Solar Water Distillation System. • The distance between the heating plate and the top surface of the bottle is large which decreases its temperature. 04328963 34 . Sketch of Concept (C) Shows its Main Components. Because of the condenser added. AHMAD ALKHAYYAT. The main disadvantages: • It is difficult to attach the condenser inside the middle of the cylindrical shaped handle. the heat regeneration is enabled.
This idea of generating this design came from the steam pan theory of operation. • Water and air leaking in between the top and bottom bottle as taking off the top bottle continuously widens the gap. • It is difficult to attach the collection channel around the inside of the top part. The main disadvantages: • A waste on the water vapour as some of it might condense on the top of the bottom bottle rather than the top bottle. The top bottle holed in the bottom to allow the bottom’s top tip to be inserted inside it at a certain height to perform a water collection area as shown in the figure below. Half of the bottom bottle is insulated at the outside to maintain the heat.5. The bottom bottle is cut into two sections as shown below. plus reflector sheet is attached to the inside. • The design does not guarantee to withstand a high wind velocity as it might collapse. 35 AHMAD ALKHAYYAT. It allows a reasonable sunlit area. The purpose of the top bottle is to allow the water vapour to travel and condense in its inner surface. The other half is fully transparent to allow sun radiation to transmit through to heat up the heating plate. 04328963 .4 Concept D. 7.Investigation into the Design and Manufacture of Solar Water Distillation System. The main advantages: • • • This design provides a wider water collection area. Two plastic tubes are attached to its both sides at the bottom. This design uses two 3 gallon water bottle placed on top of each others. • Its cost is doubled because of the use of two bottles. The distance between the sunlit area surface and the heating plate allows the heat to arise.
This box is for sea water and the bigger box is for insulation purposes.Investigation into the Design and Manufacture of Solar Water Distillation System. This design idea is to cut the bottle diagonally into two sections. 04328963 36 . 7. The section that has the top tip is used in this concept. A condenser is attached to the heating plate from the bottom and the collection channel as shown in the figure below. Figure (12).5 Concept E. The heating plate is placed inside the smaller box. This section will act as a cover to allow wider area for heating plate to be exposed to the sun radiation. AHMAD ALKHAYYAT.5. Sketch of Concept (D) Shows its Main Components.
The design provides reasonable area for water collection. • The inclined surface of the top cover allows easy collection of condenses water. Good sunlit area provided. It provides smaller water surface area in the heating plate which increases the evaporation rate. The main disadvantages: • • It is difficult to control the air leakage. AHMAD ALKHAYYAT. The sea water container is small. Figure (13). Sketch of Concept (E) Shows its Main Components. Two tubes will be attached to both sides of the larger box to extract the water out. 04328963 37 .Investigation into the Design and Manufacture of Solar Water Distillation System. The main advantages: • • • • The bottle can be used for two products.
The main disadvantages: • Similar to concept E. 04328963 . 38 AHMAD ALKHAYYAT. 7. Figure (14). Sketch of Concept (F) Shows its Main Components. however the main difference is the use of the bottom section of the bottle that has been cut diagonally. • A waste of condense water may occur due to the geometrical shape of the top cover. • Water extraction is complicated due to small inclination degree.5. • Similar to concept E.6 Concept F. This concept is quite similar to concept E in operational theory.Investigation into the Design and Manufacture of Solar Water Distillation System. The main advantages: • This design provides a degree level on inclination to collect the condensed water.
Resistance to high temperature. Overall weight of the product. Size of the product.49 3.31.34 19. Ease of maintenance.32 1. List of Metrics for Solar Water Still with the Relative Importance of Each Metric and its Unit.11.16 13.17 22.37 38.30. Smooth surface finish.32 8.41 30. Shock/Weatherproof.19 6.47 4.33.35. Ability to prevent air and water leakage. (• • • •) = Excellent.45 15. Ease of Transport. 04328963 39 . 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 3 2 4 5 5 4 4 4 3 4 4 5 4 4 5 Subj Subj Nm Subj Subj Subj mm2 Subj List List Subj Subj List mm mm Ons Kg List mm2 min £ Subj Sunlit area dimensions Time for assembly/ 1.10.25 7. Benchmarking Parameters Metric Need 3. Protrude features/ edges rounded.4.30.32 disassembly. Ease of access and parts attachment.30. Simplicity in design. Internal space volume. Number of parts.42. Imp = Importance.32.Investigation into the Design and Manufacture of Solar Water Distillation System.46 48 1. Table (6).40.9.5. 10. the more importance the need is. The relative importance for each metric (1-5) the more the score is.184.108.40.206. Reliability of water collection.30.49 15.29 Concepts Units Imp A •••• •••• •••• •••• •••• •••• •• ••• •••• ••• •••• •••• ••• ••• •••• •••• •••• •••• ••• •••• •••• •••• Metric Description B •••• •••• •••• •••• •••• •••• ••• ••• ••• ••• •• ••• •• •••• •• •••• •••• ••• •••• ••• •••• •••• C ••• •• ••• ••• •• •••• •• ••• •••• ••• •••• ••• ••• ••• •••• ••• ••• •••• ••• ••• •••• •••• D •• • •• •• • •• •••• ••• •• ••• ••• •• •• ••• •••• • • • •• •• •• •••• E ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• •••• •••• ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• •• •• •• •• •••• •• ••• •••• F ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• •••• •••• ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• •• •• •• •• •••• •• ••• •••• 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 21 Suitability to all users.23. Unit manufacturing 4 cost. Independency.40.434 4.4. 7.24 21 20. Ease of manufacture.39 4. AHMAD ALKHAYYAT.220.127.116.11 Sustainable design.31. Distance provided from sunlit area to heating plate. Subj = Subjective.47 7.8.31 49 27.12.32 3.6 Product Concept Benchmarking Based on Needs. Note: The number of dotes corresponds to greater perceived satisfaction of the need for each concept (•) = Poor.
AHMAD ALKHAYYAT. 7. Concept sketches found in conceptual designs section can be clearly evaluated after defining the customer needs.7 Concepts Evaluation. After allocating all the concepts against each metric. reliability of water collection and unit manufacturing cost are important parameters. In addition. For example. the technique of Ulrich & Eppinger is a powerful technique which is to convert the customer needs into design specifications. the design is shock/weather proof and the solar still resists wind. according to Hurst. The only difficulty that arises in this method is that in some cases the assigned metrics cannot be measured until the design is fully constructed in spite of the importance of this metric to specific needs. All design concepts were allocated against each metric to identify how well each concept would perform against the metric. independency. resistance to high temperature. (1999) one of the common techniques is the weighting and rating technique. The assigned rating score of these parameters is subjected to judgment and that is why all rating score are approximated values. it was found that the leading design was Concept A. These two metrics can be used to achieve the need of shock/weather proof and suitability for all users as illustrated in the table. this technique is reasonable to the approach of this project because it turns the customer needs into actual design specifications by establishing the metric value for the customer needs. It is possible to fulfill the customer needs using more than one metric for example.Investigation into the Design and Manufacture of Solar Water Distillation System. There are many techniques to evaluate the conceptual design. 04328963 40 . For example if the design has no sharp edges for safety reasons then one metric should be the protruding features/edges rounded is used.
two plastic mixing bowls. heating plate.5 0. aluminum foil and plug. Environmental friendly / less pollution. hacksaw. AHMAD ALKHAYYAT. Unit mm mm Kg mm2 mm Subj Ons Liter Liter Subj List List Overall Weight Sunlit Area Dimension Provided Distance between sunlit area and heating plate Size of the Still Number of Components Bottom Part maximum Capacity Heating Plate maximum Capacity Material of Still Transparency. super glue. piece of metal. insulation material. A piece of cloth for cleaning. Tools Required for Maintenance Tools Required for Manufacture List Time Required to Manufacture the Still min Time for assemble / disassemble maintenance. The final concept specifications were illustrated in the table below.5 Diameter: 220 Depth: 4 Plate and border thickness: 1 1. insulation material and sealer. Transparent. Metric Overall Dimensions Heating Plate Dimensions Value Height: 340 Diameter: 270 Thickness: 3 Height: 5. Evaluating process was very essential in order to find the best possible concept. It takes 30 to 60 min to manufacture the still. 5 gallon water bottle. silicon and super glue get dry. Final Concept Specifications. 04328963 41 .25 Thermoplastic. brush.Investigation into the Design and Manufacture of Solar Water Distillation System.1 It is about 240 Relatively small It consists of five components such as top and bottom parts. reusable and disposable. less than 60 to assemble less than 5 min to disassemble Recyclable. however this is to provide enough time to get the black paint. black paint. 7. min List Table (7).8 Chosen Design’s Specifications. 7. Scissor. Silicon if there is water leakage. silicon.
Investigation into the Design and Manufacture of Solar Water Distillation System. The 3D model is designed using a 3D modelling package (Solid Works). this will allow refinement of the design based on aesthetics. 04328963 42 . These improvements will be performed when manufacturing the prototype and after the material selection of some components AHMAD ALKHAYYAT. In addition. The purpose of generating a 3D model is to visualize the design component properly. 7. functionality and analysis. 3D Model of Solar Water Still. Plug Top Cover Water Collection Channel Heating Plate Styrofoam Top Cover Figure (15). The design components are shown in the figure below. process. it is quite difficult to prevent air leakage through the edges of the top and bottom parts which add to the improvements that are needed for the manufacturing are decided. Some certain areas of the still need to be improved as it is quite complicated to be manufactured such as the water collecting channel and the floating heating plate.9 3D Modelling of Chosen Design.
. Material Selection for Each Component. 04328963 43 . The table below will illustrate the main requirements needed for each component. Component Bottle Requirements Rigid. Material selection is one of the important parameters required to manufacture the prototype. Aluminum. High trasmissivity and emissivity. obtainable and costless material is necessary in order to aid the third world countries and educate them on how to build a solar still using these materials. the need to select sustainable. Copper. functional requirements and design specifications are needed to decide each components material. Material properties.10 Material Selection. the materials chosen must meet international safety standards and performance requirements. Does not emit vapor or instill an unpleasant taste to the water under high temperature.High thermal conductivity.Maintain high temperature for a long period of time. AHMAD ALKHAYYAT. . Iron. . An effective technique called Ashby’s Material Selection Method can be applied in this project which provides the ability to compare the suitability of materials for a given application to quantifiable performance metrics based on material properties. Recently there are numerous techniques using special software to apply this method to these involve optimization of some aspects of the method. Resist high temperature. First of all.PET Plastic. In addition. Resist high temperature. Does not emit gases when heated. Recommended Materials. Table (8).High absorbance. Ashby’s technique uses material selection charts which show the main properties of the materials (Material properties are provided in Appendix B).PVC Plastic. 7. Anti corrosion. .PC Plastic. Water Collection Channel Heating plate . . Steel.Investigation into the Design and Manufacture of Solar Water Distillation System. Non-Toxic. Low thermal conductivity.
Equipments and Tools Required for Manufacturing Solar Water Still. Figure (16). In building the prototype. a number of experiments will be run to show whether the prototype is operated effectively or not. After studying the heating plate material properties.Investigation into the Design and Manufacture of Solar Water Distillation System. 04328963 44 . it was recommended to test each material and set on the best one. The first step was to measure the main dimensions of the bottle then to identify the dimensions and sizes of the internal components such as heating plate and condenser. 8. The main equipments and tools required to build the still are shown in the figure below. In the following section a full discussion that involves comparison tables and graphs will be presented to observe the best material for each component. Manufacturing Processes of Solar Still. AHMAD ALKHAYYAT. PC plastic was chosen because its high maximum service temperature value of 124 ºC compared to 73.58% Transmittance (The graph obtained is found in Appendix C).4 ºC that PET has in spite of PET’s high trasmissivity and emissivity. PC plastic was analysed using UV-Visible Spectrophotometer CE 6602 to obtain the transmissivity percentage. It was found to be 82. it was suggested to build more than one design for each component as to stand on the best material. This section investigates the theory behind the design. The cost aspect is the main factor that affects the decision of the bottle material.
The top section acts as the cover whereas the bottom section acts as the container of the sea water. When trying to place the top cover on top of the bottom part air leakage occurs. Figure (17). the top part’s edges was exposed to heat source to soften the plastic. another bowl was used but this time it is glued on the bottom part using silicon. The top cover is stacked onto the bottom part which provides a well air leakage proof as shown in the figure below. The top cover and the bowl are then glued together using silicon. The bowl is cut at a height of 0. The most challenging part was the water collection channel as explained previously. To prevent that.05 m bigger than the bottle diameter which allows the top cover to perfectly be placed on top of it. This bowl flange diameter was 0.8 m from its top to make a hollowed inward drafted cylinder as shown in the figure below. however this method did not succeed as the plastic was quite thick and require more heat to fold the edges.Investigation into the Design and Manufacture of Solar Water Distillation System. 04328963 45 . The 5 gallon bottle was divided into 3 sections using a hand saw. AHMAD ALKHAYYAT. Manufacturing of Solar Water Still Top Cover. Plastic food mixing bowl with almost the same bottle diameter was a solution for this problem.
Black paint was used to paint the heating plates. 04328963 46 . 6 holes were made and distributed evenly in the Styrofoam to allow water to pass through to refill heating plate continuously after applying some load on top of the heating plate (Full installation instruction is available in Appendix D). Different Heating Plate Materials. AHMAD ALKHAYYAT. The next step was to make four heating plate using three different materials as shown in the figure below. All the heating plates are surrounded by plastic and Styrofoam for insulation. Figure (18).Investigation into the Design and Manufacture of Solar Water Distillation System. Steel Copper Small Aluminium Large Aluminium Figure (19). Manufacturing of Solar Water Still Bottom Cover.
After successfully manufacturing the solar still. • Experiment 2: Investigate the water depth and its impact on the different materials. becomes crucial to verify the main impact of applying heat regeneration. These are the initial experiments that are performed to establish the best material and design of the component. Black paint. 9.1 Manufacturing of Heating Plate. • • Experiment 3: Investigate the cooling speed of different materials. • Experiment 1: Investigate the maximum temperature of using different heating plate material. 9. To run the experiments certain tools and apparatuses are needed and illustrated below: • • • • • 500W lamp with adjustable height stand. evaporation time and speed. Serial cable and a computer. Manufacturing and Experimental Procedures and Discussion of Results. Heating plate will be subjected to a number of experiments to identify the best material in terms of determination of maximum temperature. 04328963 47 . Experiment 4: Investigate the amount of energy that is falling on the heating plate. Conductive tape (aluminium or carbon).Investigation into the Design and Manufacture of Solar Water Distillation System. AHMAD ALKHAYYAT. Many experiments are performed to analyse solar water still’s efficiency. cooling speed and its efficiency when used inside the still. Thermocouples and data logger. constant water level and reflectors on the solar water still’s efficiency.
04328963 48 . Relative Humidity. This type is the most common type of thermocouples. These are aluminium. The experiment was run for an hour to allow sufficient time for the temperature to rise. This type allows measuring temperature within a range of -250° C to 1375° with an error percentage of 0. Thermocouples type K were used and attached in the centre of the top surface of each plate.1.5 48. it is consists of two wires nickel chromium and nickelaluminium. Relative Humidity Measurements. The lamp light was exposed to each one of them individually with a fixed lamp height.1 Experiment 1: Investigate the Maximum Temperature of Using Different Heating Plate Materials. 9.9 Unit ° C ° C % Table (9). This experiment will identify the maximum temperature that the heating plate can absorb. Another one was left free to measure the room temperature.Investigation into the Design and Manufacture of Solar Water Distillation System. Wet Bulb Temperature.5 23. The assumption of neglecting C the thickness of the paint layer was made for ease of calculation. Before running the experiment the humidity of the room was calculated using psychometer and recorded in the table below. Dry Bulb Temperature. It is necessary to determine the relative humidity percentage as it affects the evaporation rate significantly. Conductive aluminium tape was sticking in the centre of the heating plate to allow using thermocouples type K. There are three different materials that were chosen to design the four heating plates. stainless steel and copper. The heating plates were painted black to absorb maximum radiation. AHMAD ALKHAYYAT. 16.4%.
Investigation into the Design and Manufacture of Solar Water Distillation System. The room temperature was stable as expected.72° The steel plate came in second C. plates was increasing dramatically until the 20th minute and from 21st minute until the 60th min the increase was gradual.Aluminium) 60 70 Time (min) TC-1 (Copper Plate) TC-3 (Small. 9. The Increase in Temperature for Different Heating Plates Materials. 140 120 100 Temperature °C 80 60 40 20 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 TC-2 (Steel Plate) TC-4 (Large. As observed in the graph above. Experiment 1 procedures were repeated in experiment 2 while adding a 50ml of water in each plate.32° whereas C C the copper came on behind with 100. with a 116.44° and then the large aluminium plate with a 111. AHMAD ALKHAYYAT.43° The temperature in all of the C.2 Experiment 2: Investigate the Water Depth and its Impact on the Different Materials. The purpose of this experiment is to investigate the time needed to evaporate the added amount of water as well as the effect of the water depth on the evaporation speed.Aluminium ) TC-5 (Room Temperature) Figure (20). the small aluminium plate was in the lead with a maximum temperature of 120.1. 04328963 49 .
The Evaporation Time for Different Heating Plates Materials. 04328963 50 . The reason why the small aluminium plate was not evaporating the water fast is that the depth of water is critically affecting the evaporation speed. The rapid change in temperature indicates that water has evaporated.Aluminium) 60 70 Tim (min) TC-1 (Copper Plate) TC-3 (S.Aluminium) TC-5 (Room Temperature) Figure (21). 100 90 80 70 Temperature °C 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 TC-2 (Steel Plate) TC-4 (L. Large aluminium heating plate was leading in which it took 53 min to evaporate all the water whereas the stainless steel came in second with a 56 min. as the water depth in the small aluminium plate was higher than the other plates. The surface area of the heated water is proportional to the evaporation speed.Investigation into the Design and Manufacture of Solar Water Distillation System. It was noticed that if the water is shallow the evaporation speed will increase. AHMAD ALKHAYYAT. surprisingly the small aluminium came in third in spite of its dramatic increase of temperature without water in experiment 1. The graph shows the evaporation time of each plate. The time needed for copper and small aluminium plate to evaporate all the water was 85 and 97 min respectively.
S. it is hard to determine the actual value of emissivity as the darker the colour is the more the emissivity value is. it is stated that the rate of conductive heat transfer is proportional to the transfer coefficient and the temperature gradient of the material. In addition. This criterion is important for the project.72 116. Aluminum.1Kg except the copper plate was 0. L. 9.3 Experiment 3: Investigate the cooling speed of different materials. AHMAD ALKHAYYAT.32 120.1. After performing experiment 1 and 2 it became obvious that the two most effective materials were large aluminium and steel. ºC 100. Unit Material Copper. large and small aluminium plates were having similar mass value of approximately 0. Evaluation Table of Different Heating Plate Materials.24Kg. According to Fourier Law.44 Evaporation Time. As all the plates were painted in black. min 97 56 85 53 Cooling Time min 48 21 Table (10). The only parameters that allows the comparison to be done if the thermal conductivity of the material. After a period of 60 min. 04328963 51 . Aluminum Steel.43 111. This experiment was done to investigate which material is best at maintaining temperature after removing the heat source. The reason for choosing these two is because they provide high heating plate temperature and evaporate water with less time. the aluminium plate reaches the 33 ° in about 48 min where as the steel C reaches the same temperature in 21min.Investigation into the Design and Manufacture of Solar Water Distillation System. the steel. Max Temperature. The main difficulty in this experiment is that it is quite hard to identify which one cools fast as the cooling process depends on many parameters as emissivity. In other word copper has the best conduction coefficient among the others. mass and thermal conductivity of the material. The table below will illustrate the data obtained from this experiment and previous experiments.
9. The experiment was run for an hour to allow sufficient time for the temperature to increase. A block of aluminium with a certain mass and heat capacity is used.00392 900 Unit m Kg m2 J/Kg. Four thermocouples were distributed on each side of the bottom block to measure its temperature.K Figure (22). 04328963 52 .4 Experiment 4: Investigate the Amount of Energy that is Falling on the Heating Plate. In order to perform the theoretical analysis successfully. The block was placed inside the still and the lamp was placed at different distances from the still’s top cover. The table below shows the main specification of the aluminium block. it is crucial to determine the amount of energy that is falling on to the heating plate. Dimensions Mass Area Heat Capacity 0. Main Specifications of Aluminium Block. The block was insulated in all areas except the top using Styrofoam. The purpose of that is to check whether each side of the block is absorbing the same amount of energy. Thermocouples Positions on the Block.1.7 x 0.045 0.Investigation into the Design and Manufacture of Solar Water Distillation System. AHMAD ALKHAYYAT. Table (11).161 0.
5 Incident Energy W/m2 185. The Increase in Temperature of Aluminium Block at Different Distances.∆ .7 146 111. AHMAD ALKHAYYAT.Investigation into the Design and Manufacture of Solar Water Distillation System.2 Table (12). 80 70 60 Temperature (°C) 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 10 TC-1 Outer Surface TC-3 Heating Plate at 40mm TC-5 Room Temperature 20 30 40 Time (min) 50 60 70 TC-2 Heating Plate at 30mm TC-4 Heating Plate at 50mm Figure (23). The Increase in Temperature at Different Lamp Distances in an Aluminium Block. The experiment was run for an hour as shown in the figure above. 04328963 53 . The (Full temperature increase between these two points was used as ∆ calculations can be found in Appendix E).3 0. Distance from Still m 0. The table below shows the amount of energy absorbed at different distances. The reasonable moment to measure the amount of energy is when the trends is in steady state condition with no significant fluctuation by taking 30th and 50th min temperature reading of each trend and apply the incident energy formula . .4 0. Each distance trend has increased gradually.
Stage 2: Investigating the efficiency of solar still by adding reflectors. Heating plates were experimented separately.Investigation into the Design and Manufacture of Solar Water Distillation System. The bottom part of the still was filled with sea water at a depth of 0. Stage 3: Investigating the efficiency of solar still by adding condenser for heat regeneration. heating plate.1 Stage 1: Investigate the Efficiency of Solar Still of using Floating Heating Plate. Thermocouples were used to measure the temperature at certain areas in the still such as the inner and outer surface of the still. The initial experiment was run for two hours to determine how many ml of water the still can produce and to test the effect of using floating heating plate that provide constant minimum water level. 04328963 54 . 9.6 m.2 Solar Water Still Experimentations. These initial tests were performed without using reflectors and heat regeneration (condensers) to stand on the still’s efficiency. The top cover is then stacked on top of the bottom part. 9. sea water temperature and room temperature. A load of about a quarter of kilogram is added on top of the heating plate to allow the plate to submerge in sea water at a certain level where the water is allowed to pass through the holes. one with using restricted water level of 100 ml and two by using a constant minimum water level.2. AHMAD ALKHAYYAT. Lamp light was exposed at a distance of 0. The experiments of this section will be carried out in stages to determine the effect of each change applied in each stage.3m as shown in the figure below. The heating plates were then floated on top of it carrying about 125 ml of water. This experiment was repeated twice. This section will investigate the efficiency and productivity of the solar water still as a whole unit after deciding all the material and components. The stages are: • • • Stage 1: Investigating the efficiency of solar still.
Figure (24). each notation is mentioned in the graph’s bottom legend. Color Notation TC-1 TC-2 TC-3 TC-4 TC-5 TC-6 TC-7 TC-8 Position Outer Surface Inner Surface Heating Plate Sea Water Inside Still Bottom Condenser Top Condenser Room Temperature Note: not all the notations are the same in all the experiment. AHMAD ALKHAYYAT.Investigation into the Design and Manufacture of Solar Water Distillation System. Thermocouples’ Positions on the Solar Still. 04328963 55 . Figure (25). Experiment Setup.
72 ºC. On the other hand. the AHMAD ALKHAYYAT. The trend did not show any significant increase. There are many reasons for this change in temperature between the two heating plates. 80 70 40 35 Temperature (°C) 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 25 20 15 10 5 0 Time (min) TC-1 (Outter Surface) TC-3 (Heating Plate Fixed) TC-4 (Sea Water) TC-6 (Room Temperature) Water Produced (Constant) TC-2 (Inner Surface) TC-3 (Heating Plate Constant) TC-5 (Inside Still) Water Produced (Fixed) Figure (26). According to the figure. the trends of the heating plate’s temperature increase rapidly in the first 30 minutes and arises slowly until it reaches its maximum of 52. The amount of water being produced was 38 ml within 160 minutes of operation. The temperature difference between the sea water and the heating plate is large. 04328963 56 Water Produced 60 30 . that is why when the refilling process occurred.02 ºC when using restricted water level whereas the maximum temperature recorded for the heating plate using constant amount of water was 47. The heating plate will be subjected to improvement. The temperature of the heating plate had decreased. The Temperature Increase and the Amount of Water Produced for Two Different Heating Plate Operation Conditions.Investigation into the Design and Manufacture of Solar Water Distillation System. first is because the heating plates were not insulated properly as they were losing heat through conduction and convection with sea water which has affected the heated water.
There was no sign of deforming in any of the surfaces as well as the Styrofoam that insulated the heating plate.2. 04328963 57 . Stage 1 procedures were repeated to stand for the efficiency of the still. Top View of the Wasted Radiation Area and Isometric View of Added Reflectors. In the second stage. another experiment was done yet modification was applied by adding reflectors. It was necessary to add reflectors above this location to reflect as much radiation as possible as shown below. This indicates that the experiment was performed successfully. It was indicated that some radiations were wasted when exposing the light on the heating plate as some of them were more focused on the sea water rather than the heating plate because the heating plate diameter is smaller than the bottom part. 9. After adding the reflectors in the area indicated in the figure above the experiment was run. A graph was plotted to indicate whether there are any improvements achieved.Investigation into the Design and Manufacture of Solar Water Distillation System.2 Stage 2: Investigating the Efficiency of Solar Still by Adding Reflectors. Top View Isometric View Figure (27). amount of water being produced when using constant level of water was 30 ml. AHMAD ALKHAYYAT.
16% of the increase was indicated when the reflectors were added as the fixed level and constant level of water was 36 and 44 ml respectively. This means that the efficiency of the solar still has increased by adding the reflectors. The indicated maximum temperature for the constant level of water was 51. It was noticed that the outer and inner surface of the still was recording similar results to its previous experiments. According to the figure above the change in temperature occurs by adding the reflectors as the temperature of both heating plates was increased by approximately 3°C.64°C.Investigation into the Design and Manufacture of Solar Water Distillation System. the results was copied into this graph. the heating plate will be subjected to improvements to AHMAD ALKHAYYAT. As the aim of the project was to design the still for minimum constant level of water. The Temperature Increase and the Amount of Water Produced for Two Different Heating Plate Operation Conditions with Reflectors. 04328963 Water Produced 58 60 .61°C whereas the heating plate with fixed level of water maximum temperature was 55. 80 70 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 Temperature (°C) 50 40 30 20 10 0 Time (min) TC-1 (Outter Surface) TC-3 (Heating Plate Fixed) TC-4 (Sea Water) TC-6 (Room Temperature) Water Produced (Constant) TC-2 (Inner Surface) TC-3 (Heating Plate Constant) TC-5 (Inside Still) Water Produced (Fixed) Figure (28).
AHMAD ALKHAYYAT.3 Stage 3: Investigating the Efficiency of Solar Still by Adding Condenser for Heat Regeneration. 04328963 59 . The result of this experiment is shown below. The idea behind it is to have heat cycle inside the still where it is supposed to reduce the heat losses through the condensing cover.2. Figure (29). It is insulated in the middle using Styrofoam as shown in the figure below. It is designed to be hanged on the water collection channel wall and attached to the heating plate from its bottom. Position of the Condenser. A piece of aluminium was added to help removing heat from the condensing cover as well as regenerating heat. The thermocouples were used and attached to the same positions in the first stage adding to it the top and bottom part of the condenser to measure the temperature differences between them and to analyse if the heat regeneration is occurring. An experiment was run to distinguish the effect of using this idea and its impact on the still’s efficiency.Investigation into the Design and Manufacture of Solar Water Distillation System. achieve minimum constant level of water with higher performance in improvements section. 9. this can be achieved when the heat giving off in condensation travels by conduction to the heating plate.
Surprisingly. It was noticed that the change in temperature in TC-3 and TC-5 was steady compared to the sharp increase in the previous experiment. 04328963 60 . 80 70 60 Temperature (°C) 50 40 45 40 Water Produced (ml) 35 30 25 20 30 20 10 0 0 50 TC-1 (Outer Surface) TC-3 (Heating Plate) TC-5 (Inside Still) TC-7 (Top Condencer) Water Produced 100 Time (min) 150 200 15 10 5 0 TC-2 (Inner Surface) TC-4 (Sea Water) TC-6 (Bottom Condencer) TC-8 (Room Temperature) Figure (30).98 °C whereas the bottom part’s maximum temperature was 54.5 °C border in most of the experiment. the temperature of the top part was higher than the bottom part. The temperature difference between the top and bottom part of the condenser did not exceed the 2.Investigation into the Design and Manufacture of Solar Water Distillation System.56 °C. The top part’s maximum temperature was 56. The graph above shows an increase in the heating plate by approximately 1 °C to reach 52. this is mainly because the light was exposed on the area where the top condenser was hanged. This is mainly because the condenser preventing the heating plate from submerging properly into the sea water. The Temperature Increase and the Amount of Water Produced by Adding Reflectors and Condenser.30 °C. The trend stabilizes after the 90th min showing no significant changes. AHMAD ALKHAYYAT.
the condenser flexibility was a problem which prevents the heating plate to be balance on sea water. This will be subjected to improvements. In addition to that. After analysing the experiments on the solar still. it was found that some components need to be modified to achieve quality results. The heating plate lower part was insulated with two layers of Styrofoam with a plastic stripe of 0. In addition to the insulation issue in the heating plate. The heating plate that losses some of its heat by conducting with sea water. AHMAD ALKHAYYAT. reflector sheets were stuck on the plastic strips to focus more light on the heating plate.Investigation into the Design and Manufacture of Solar Water Distillation System.1 Heating Plate Modifications. it was noticed that the heating plate is imbalanced when hanging the condenser to the water collection area. the productivity has increased by 15 %. These issues were tackled successfully. This is because the condenser is not flexible enough to let the heating plate floats freely on the sea water. Improvements and Modifications of Solar Still. 04328963 61 . 10. When running the experiment. the investigation of the heating plate refilling process shows that it is better to refill the heating plate from the bottom by drilling a hole in the middle rather than from the sides. 10.06 m surround it to prevent the water from reaching the plate from the sides. Furthermore. Finally. Applying the heat regeneration method increases the heating plate’s temperature and decreases the temperature of the inner surface of the top cover by approximately 2 °C compared to previous experiment. These issues are tackled and discussed briefly below.
Heating Plate After and Before Modifications. A conductive aluminium tape was used to make the condenser more flexible as it was attached its top and bottom parts. After attaching the conductive tape the piece of aluminium was insulated with two layers of Styrofoam as shown in the figure below. The piece of aluminium was shortened to a third of its original length. Before Modifications After Modifications Figure (31). 04328963 62 . 10.Investigation into the Design and Manufacture of Solar Water Distillation System. The condenser flexibility was the main issue as it prevents the heating plate to move freely as well as imbalance problems. Condenser After and Before Modifications.2 Condenser’s Modifications. AHMAD ALKHAYYAT. Before Modifications After Modifications Figure (32).
3 Final Test. as to provide more time for temperature to arise. Final Experiment’s Result. AHMAD ALKHAYYAT. 10. 04328963 63 . 80 70 60 Temperature (°C) 50 40 20 30 20 10 0 0 20 40 60 80 Time (min) 100 120 140 15 10 5 0 45 40 Water Produced (ml) 35 30 25 TC-1 (Outer Surface) TC-3 (Heating Plate) TC-5 (Inside Still) TC-7 (Top Condencer) Water Produced TC-2 (Inner Surface) TC-4 (Sea Water) TC-6 (Bottom Condencer) TC-8 (Room Temperature) Figure (34). Figure (33). This experiment was run for about 180 min. Condenser Hanged on the Inner Area of Water Collection. the solar still was experimented to stand on its efficiency and water productivity as well as analysing the impact on applying these modifications.Investigation into the Design and Manufacture of Solar Water Distillation System. After applying the modifications on the above components.
70 60 50 Temperature (°C) 40 30 20 10 0 0 20 40 Time (min) TC-3 (Heating Plate) TC-6 (Bottom Condencer) Water Produced Figure (35).5 °C as the maximum recorded temperature for the top part and the bottom part were 64.61 ° This is mainly because the bottom of C. the heating plate was insulated completely with two layers of Styrofoam. In addition to that. 04328963 64 . The modified condenser provides good flexibility which gives proper balance to let the heating plate float freely. it was necessary to verify whether the heat regeneration method is operated effectively and to check whether the still has the ability to produce water with no heat source.Investigation into the Design and Manufacture of Solar Water Distillation System. The graph below shows the trend of heating plate’s temperature. The graph shows the effect of the improvements that were done to its main components.86 °C and 61. A drop in temperature was noticed in the inner surface of the top cover. Cooling from Normal Operation. After analysing the experiment. The overall satisfaction of this experiment was high as the productivity increases by 14 % to reach 42 ml in 120 min.88 °C respectively. The increase in temperature in the heating plate was obvious as its maximum temperature reaches 59. The temperature difference between the top and bottom part of the condenser reaches the 3. the plastic stripes surrounds the heating plate prevents the sea water from passing through. TC-4 (Sea Water) TC-7 (Top Condencer) TC-5 (Inside Still) TC-8 (Room Temperature) 60 80 100 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Water Produced (ml) AHMAD ALKHAYYAT.
The energy decreases when the distance between the lamp and the still increases.7 °C. First of all. the closer the heat source is more energy is being absorbed by the heating plate. AHMAD ALKHAYYAT. The evaporation rate is proportional to the area that is the main reason for the productivity increase occurring in the second experiment between the large and small heating plate. The recorded amount was 14 ml of water within 90 min. The recorded temperature of the heating plate after 90 min was 35. as the heat source was removed the outer surface of the top cover cools down allowing water vapour to condense. Further Discussion and Comparison of Experimental Results. That is exactly what happened in the experiment when the distance of the same lamp power varied within arrange of 10 cm starting from 30 to 50 cm from the still as shown in table 28. The still was left for about 6 hours and the recorded heating plate’s temperature was 30. The increase in the heating plate area with minimizing the depth of heated water results in an increase in the evaporation rate therefore productivity rate increases. adding reflectors. adopting heat regeneration method and applying improvements on some components of the still. In addition to that. After analysing the experiments above. the water depth plays an important role in increasing the temperature of the heating plate as well as the productivity as explained in experiment 2. This temperature did not reach the room temperature as a result the still efficiency is high and it can be used after sunset using the its stored energy. it is easy to compare between each experiment to establish the impact of water depth.89 °C. 04328963 65 .Investigation into the Design and Manufacture of Solar Water Distillation System. The heating plate trend falls dramatically in the first 30 min while it decreases slowly later similar to all trends. the investigation of the amount of energy is falling on the heating plate was calculated as a result the more energy is directed to the still equals to an increase of the energy being absorbed by the heating plate therefore the productivity increases. In the following experiment. According to the graph. 11.
72 °C that means the rate of evaporation considerably small. The results show that when the heating plate and the condenser insulated properly. the temperature increases more when adopting heat regeneration to reach 52. the difference in temperature is obviously high as the maximum temperature of the heating plate without adding reflectors and heat regeneration was 47. Furthermore. however when adding reflectors the temperature increases to 51.Investigation into the Design and Manufacture of Solar Water Distillation System. However. In addition.61 °C recording a difference of approximately an increase of 4 °C. The graph below shows the heating plate Temperature trend in the experiments done previously in this project. Heating Plate’s Temperature Trends in Different Experiments. 04328963 66 . The purpose of the initial experiments was to choose the best material among a variety of materials that can be used in this project. 70 60 Temperature (°C) 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 50 Stage 1: Heating Plate Stage 3: Heating Plate 100 Time (min) 150 Stage 2: Heating Plate Final Stage Heating Plate 200 Figure (36). in the third stage the experiment was terminated due to the improper balance of the heating plate because of the condenser plate stiffness as a result it partially sinks the heating plate into the sea water as it decreases its temperature. the experimentations were carried out in different stages to investigate the impact of each modification on the solar water still.56 °C. AHMAD ALKHAYYAT. In addition. the water production increase.
The productivity of each experiment varies as by adding a reflector the productivity percentage increased by 15% whereas by adding reflector and adopting heat regeneration the productivity increases by 31 % about doubled that ensures the heat regeneration method is working successfully. Heat regeneration was effective as its main principle is to regenerate the heat lost back to the plate. this huge increase is because the modifications that were applied previously in this project. The graph below shows the water productivity trends.Investigation into the Design and Manufacture of Solar Water Distillation System. 45 40 Water Produced (ml) 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 20 40 60 80 Time (min) 100 120 140 160 Stage 2: Water Produced Final Stage Water Produced Stage 3: Water Produced Stage 1: Water Produced Figure (37). This means that insulating the heating plate’s bottom was very effective as well as the method that allows the water to travel from the centre of the plate instead of the sides. The amount of water produced depends on the surface area of the heating plate and the amount of heated water. this allows the still to regenerate heat without using heat source for a AHMAD ALKHAYYAT. In the final stage the experiment was subjected to modifications to some of its components. The productivity arises by 65 % from stage 1 to the final stage and 34 % from stage 3 to the final stage. As noticed in the above graph that the water productivity increases when added reflectors and applying heat regeneration methods with proper insulation for both heating plate and condenser. 04328963 67 . Amount of Water Produced Trends in Different Experiments.
Investigation into the Design and Manufacture of Solar Water Distillation System.
limited period of time. The table below illustrate the main results of all experiments. These experiments were run for about 360 min, however the results shows that the amount of water produced in every 120 min is contributing as 32% of the 360 min that means the actual data was multiplied by 3 (All data and spreadsheets of Experiments can be found in Appendix I). Incident Energy Maximum Temperature Mass Flow Rate Water Produced Water Produced Water Produced Water Produced Percentage Increase Stage 1 185.7 47.72 3.61x10-3 78 0.624 0.104 1.25 100.0 Stage 2 185.7 51.61 4.17x10-3 90 0.720 0.120 1.44 114.5 Stage 3 185.7 52.56 4.72x10-3 102 0.816 0.136 1.63 131.1 Final Stage 185.7 59.61 5.83x10-3 126 1.008 0.168 2.02 165.0 Unit W/m2 °C Kg/s ml Litre/m2 Litre/m2.hour Litre/m2.day %
Table (13). Comparison between Each different Stage’s Experiments.
In the final stage of the project the still can produce up to 2.02 Litre/m2.day. The amount of water human needs may vary depending on age, gender, human activity, health statue and climate. Children by five years old need 1.5 litres of water whereas children by 10 years need 1.75 litres of water (Coughlan, 2002). On the other hand, it is important for adults to have up to 2.5 litre of water daily (Mail Online, 2007). From these figures, it is obvious that this design satisfies children and adults daily demand of water 12. Theoretical Analysis. This section covers all the theoretical analysis of this project. It is quite important to obtain the energy balance equation of the solar still as to make sure all the values obtained are scientifically realistic. The steady state equation the energy goes in must come to balance the equation. The energy balance of the solar still involving the absorber, sea water and plastic can be written as the energy received by the heating plate is equal to the summation of the energy gained by the heating plate, energy gained due heat regeneration, energy of sea water and water produced,
AHMAD ALKHAYYAT, 04328963
Investigation into the Design and Manufacture of Solar Water Distillation System.
energy lost by convective heat transfer between heating plate and water and Radiation losses.
QLoss Due Air
QWater Evap QWater
QLoss Due Conduction and Convection
Figure (38). Solar Still System Analysis.
It is quite difficult to calculate the losses due conduction and convection because of the uncertainty of heat transfer and loss coefficient value. The energy balance equation can be written as:
Energy Gained by Heating Plate
Energy to Heat Water
Energy of Heat Regeneration Energy to Evaporate Water
Energy to Heat the Plate
The amount of energy going in must be equal to the amount of energy going out of the system. However, the results obtained for these variables show that this is not the case. The calculation was performed in two scenarios (Full calculation can be found in Appendix F): Scenario 1: System efficiency without heat regeneration. Scenario 2: System efficiency with heat regeneration.
AHMAD ALKHAYYAT, 04328963
Investigation into the Design and Manufacture of Solar Water Distillation System.
The table below show all the comparison of the two scenarios. Without Heat Regeneration 5.09 x 10-6 6.32 x10-3 64 With Heat Regeneration 5.83 x 10-6 7.24 x10-3 71 Unit Kg/s Litre/day.m2.W %
Mass Flow Rate Water Produced System’s Efficiency
Table (14). Comparison between the Two Scenarios.
In the first scenario the losses percentage was huge, that is the reason why the efficiency was low. The only reason for this is that is that a big fraction of the exposed radiation is being reflected from the heating plate from inside to outside environment. Furthermore, the emissivity of wavelength, transmissivty of the aluminium and plastic cannot defined as the aluminium material was painted in black paint, it is known that the black objects are absorbing more energy with emissivity almost equals to one. Therefore, it is quite difficult to obtain the reflected incident radiation value from the heating plate to outside. As a result this causes huge radiation losses which it is approximately 36%. When adopting the heat regeneration method the efficiency increases by 7% to reach 71%. That means it is possible to use the heat regeneration to increase the efficiency of the solar still, thus the productivity increases. In the second scenario the mass flow rate increases from 5.08 x10-6 to 5.83 x10-6, the losses were reduced as the heat was transferred back into the heating plate because the condenser as it is acting as a heat exchanger to regenerate heat. The productivity increases from 6.32x10-3 to 7.24 x10-3 litre/m2.day.W. What if the heating plate temperature increases by 10 ° C? How much water the system can produce using same operational condition? If it is possible to increase the heating temperature to reach 70 ° the amount of water produced is equal to C 0.195 litres, 9.05 x10-6 Kg/s and 11.2 x10-3 Litre/m2.day.W. This means the amount of water being produced will be increased by 155 %. This is an impressive percentage for a simple design. The table below compares the actual values with the projected values (Full Calculation of this case can be found in Appendix G). AHMAD ALKHAYYAT, 04328963
24 x10-3 100 System Projected Values 70 9. 13.02 1 1.Investigation into the Design and Manufacture of Solar Water Distillation System. The comparisons are in terms of the amount of water produced in litre/m2/day within a specific energy level and system efficiency. 2009) This Project Study by (Bouchekima. System Actual Values Heat Plate Temperature Mass Flow Rate Water Produced Percentage Increase 59. if the heating plate could be increased the water produced will be increased dramatically.57 x10-3 220 87. There many factors that make it difficult to compare between this project and other projects because this project uses heat regeneration technique as well as different size. It is clear that this project has the ability to produce a reasonable amount of water with less energy although this design was experimented in the lab whereas other projects designs were tested in an environmental condition in which they were AHMAD ALKHAYYAT. Comparison of Existing Products. Water Produced Litre/m2.5 350 50 600 30 Author and Research Topic Study by (Alani.4 Water Energy Efficiency Produced Level Litre/m2.05 x 10-6 11.61 5.2 x10-3 155 Unit ° C Kg/s Litre/day.hr.W % Table (15).W W/m2 % 22. 2008) Table (14).24 x10-3 186 71.83 x 10-6 7. Water Productivity Comparison between Previous Different Projects. 2002) Study by (Kumar & Bai. However it is obvious that this simple design can compete with others. 04328963 71 . Comparison between the Actual and Imaginary Values.5 7. shape and operation conditions.96 2. The table below compares the results of this project results against other researches in ascending order.day 3. this can be done by eliminating the losses due radiation and increasing the reflectors area to focus more radiation on the heating plate. It is quite important to compare the obtained data from this project to these from previous researches carried out using different methodologies. As for future work.m2.
the actual design cost less than £3.52 ASDA Poundland Poundland Poundland Poundland ASDA B&Q Poundland Table (15).Investigation into the Design and Manufacture of Solar Water Distillation System. the amount of solar energy is being exposed to other projects in the table is considerably high.0 Total Cost Total Cost £ 3.0 to build.0 1.94 1. this would increase the temperature of the condensing area as well as evaporated he water produced if it was not insulated properly.59 1. AHMAD ALKHAYYAT.0 4. when designing the still not all the tools were bought as some of them were available in the university workshop.5 350 x 350 x 5 270 Multi purposes 500 ml small Source List Forward Metals Quantity Ons 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Cost per Item £ 3. Furthermore. The table below show the estimated value needed t build one unit.75 1.94 1. The total cost to build one solar still unit is approximately £16.0 1. Cost of Manufacture. In addition. It was assumed that the 5 gallon water bottles are supplied for free.0 1.0 0.61 4. The costing is crucial chapter in this project as it is identify the main cost to build this design as this design meant for overwhelming poverty and malnourishment conditions of the third world countries societies.0 1. exposed to a various weather conditions such as wind. Another point to consider is that there it is not necessary to buy all the equipment as some of them are available and obtainable with any household. The Cost to Manufacture One Unit of Solar Still.0 1. Tools List Aluminium sheet Styrofoam sheet Plastic mixing bowl Hacksaw Adhesive Silicon Silicon gun Foil Metal black paint Paint brush set Dimension mm 500 x 250 x 0.18 1.0 1.75 1.0 16.5 without taking into account the payment for the person who is going to build it. The need to identify the resources including tools used to build this project. By other meaning.0 0. 14.0 1. 04328963 72 .0 1.
0 1. In addition.0 2. Manufacture the still and the condenser.0 3.005 6 m length 270 Multi purposes 40 m Length 500 ml small Source List Forward Metals Quantity Ons 100 7 200 3 10 33 2 1 2 1 Cost per Item £ 3. the job requirement does not require skilled people. Furthermore.0 10. Tools List Aluminium sheet Styrofoam sheet Plastic mixing bowl Hacksaw Adhesive Silicon Silicon gun Foil Metal black paint Paint brush set Dimension mm 500 x 250 x 0.0 1.0 33. The amount of wage paid for each worker is estimated to be a normal part-time job wage.0 3. The cost required to manufacture 100 units of this design is approximately £1445. 60 60 Table (16).98 0.0 1. 04328963 73 .86 Total Cost £ 420 420 840 1443.0.59 1.75 6.12 9.94 1.5 0.0 Tools Total Cost Wage £/hr 7.Investigation into the Design and Manufacture of Solar Water Distillation System.0 Wages Total Cost Total Cost Total Cost £ 375 48.0 7.86 B&Q ASDA Poundland Poundland Poundland Poundland Poundland B&Q Poundland No.0 603. The Cost to Manufacture One Hundred Unit of Solar Still. if it is considered the design to be built in any third world country the cost will drop dramatically as the cost to buy the tools vary from region to region.12 4. The table below show the required price to build 100 solar still units. It is possible to decrease the tools total cost by 30% if the equipments and tools were bought in packages.86 118 3.6 x 0.88 1. AHMAD ALKHAYYAT. Hours hr Worker 1 Worker 2 Manufacture the heating plate.
• The solar energy used is non-consumptive as it does not need any destructive process to extract its energy. Until recently. • The material used in building the solar still are recyclable. • The energy required to run the still is a non polluted energy in which it does not produce any emissions. This project depends on solar energy. anti-corrosion and does not distil unpleasant smell in which they are considered environmentally friendly when operated under normal conditions. 04328963 74 . The potential of emerging solar energy technologies that directly harness the limitless energy of the sun is increasingly desirable and economically feasible. The solar still was made using sustainable materials to satisfy the current situation of environmental issues that affecting the whole earth.Investigation into the Design and Manufacture of Solar Water Distillation System. The points below describe the solar still sustainability: 15. • Harmful chemicals that leave negative impact on environment are not used in building the solar still. • Manufacturing the solar still is inexpensive which does not require buying special tools and equipments to be able to build the solar still as the materials used were available everywhere. reusable and disposable as they are considered as polluted free materials which they are non-toxic. • The solar energy used in cost effective as it does not requires any fees to run the solar still using the energy from the sun. the environmental awareness and rising oil prices pushing societies limit.2 Economical Aspect. 15. AHMAD ALKHAYYAT. Sustainability in Design. it can be collected freely from its limitless resource the sun. 15. The solar energy has been used for a long time.1 Environmental Aspect.
04328963 75 . The major results of the present work can be summarised in the following points: • The use of greenhouse solar stills was found to be an attractive method for obtaining potable water for a small-scale demand. it offers greater efficiency compared to other energies resources.Investigation into the Design and Manufacture of Solar Water Distillation System. This technique provides greater efficiency and water productivity. minimum constant water level. In addition to that. This project confirms the possibility to manufacture effective solar water still using sustainable material with minimising cost. The design was constructed using a 5 gallon water bottle. Lowering the water depth leads to an increase in the evaporation rate. The technical and economical advantages of this method such as simple and costless technology provide a sufficient solution for the scarce of fresh water. • It was necessary to investigate all the operational parameters before starting to manufacture the product such as the effect of water depth. A solar water distillation system was designed and manufactured and its performance was studied in the university laboratory. there are no sharp or dangerous equipments or tools needed to construct the still other than a scissor. Conclusion. 16. By adopting heat regeneration technique. AHMAD ALKHAYYAT. it is possible to use the solar still for a period of time even with unavailable heat source. • Constant minimum water depth was achieved. • The possibility to increase the water productivity can be achieved when lowering the water depth as investigated in the second experiment. adding reflectors and applying heat regeneration technique. This product can be used as a method for water purification and heating water which makes a suitable product for third world countries. • The use of solar energy will save societies finances permanently. The simplicity in design makes it very elegant for all users.
04328963 76 . 17. as a result the efficiency increases by 7% in the final stage. it leads to identify if this surface has the ability to exchange radiation. therefore the productivity increases. AHMAD ALKHAYYAT.24 x10-3 Litre/m2. • Proper insulation of heating plate can increase the temperature differences between the sea water and the plate’s temperature.83 x10-6 Kg/s and 7. • The geometrical orientation of any surface will greatly influence the rate of heat transfer. Recommendation for Further Studies. • The limitation of water collection area as it withstand a maximum capacity of 0. This can be encountered by attaching small tape on the top cover. The water solar still has the ability to produce 2.02 litre/m2. The study of radiation shape factor is quite complicated however. 5.Investigation into the Design and Manufacture of Solar Water Distillation System. • • The efficiency of the still was 64% as approximately 36% radiation losses.45 Litre of water. • The system can produce up to 14ml of potable water in 90 min when removing the heat source. a number of recommendations are suggested for further study are summarised below: • To increase the evaporation rate. this may impede the collection of the water. • Heat regeneration technique provides an extra energy to reheat the water internally. • It is quite obvious that when adding reflectors to the system.day. Other consideration may be carried out such as the use of different improvments techiques to increase the productivity and performing expeiments on different still materials. it increases the temperature of the heating plate thus the evaporation rate and the efficiency was increased by 16%.day. Due to time limitations only two prototypes were constructed and tested.W. the projected area of the heating plate could be increased by extending the reflectors area to concentrate more energy as some of the radiations are wasted.
the top part of the heat regeneration plate must be shaded. thus the productivity increase.Investigation into the Design and Manufacture of Solar Water Distillation System. This study will provide evidences to prove that most of the heat losses are due to radiation. • Heat regeneration plate can be subjected to further implementation by using different insulation technique to increase the temperature difference along the plate. AHMAD ALKHAYYAT. • Thermal efficiency could be investigated accurately by using CFD software’s packages. In addition. 04328963 77 . • When performing the testing. using CFD provide sufficient information in which improvement may carried out to maximize efficiency.
(2007) 'Evaluating Thermal Performance of a Single Slope Solar Still'. (2002) 'A Solar Desalination Plant for Domestic Water Needs in Arid Areas of South Algeria'. 13. in Material Selection in Mechanical Design. M. Newcastle: Northumbria University. (2006) 'Precise Way to Select a Desalination Technology'. Cambridge.10.alibaba. 153. 2397-2407. Al-Karaghouli. & Smith. Desalination. K. & Abu-Khader. pp. O. Alani. 12. 7.org/education/programs/attachments/ncammerman/view ?searchterm=integrated%20water%20management%20problems%20australia (Accessed: 01. (2009) Investigating the Use of Solar Energy to Produce Distilled/Drinking Water. (2009) 'Simulation of Solar Still to Investigate Water Depth and Glass Angle'.. 8. References.2008). Al-Hussaini. Desalination and Water Treatment. 6.dcenvironmentalfilmfest. Available at: http://www. 3. Ashby. Badran. 1. I. H. Energy. pp. (2008) Hotspot Solar Oven Revolution. Badran. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. K. [Online]. 35-40. Cammerman. 206. D. Cooper. pp. V. N.org/films. 30-311. 985-995. (2009) Integrated Water Resource Management and the Water. 36 (11). 5. H. M. pp. H. Brignoni. 14.’ Energy Conversion and Management. pp. Available at: http://www. Oxford: Pergamon Press. 10471051. 11. Ashby. 65-69. pp. pp. 43. 04328963 78 . Desalination.watercentre. (1995) 'Enhancing of Solar Still Productivity Using Vacuum Technology. pp.Australia: University of Queensland [Online]. (2007) 'Experimental Study of the Enhancement Parameters on a Single Slope Solar Still Productivity'. 209. Heat Mass Transfer. 4. Available at: http://www. 7. & Assefi. A. Dove Bio tech (2009) CSD Continuous Solar Water Distillation Equipment. 136-143. 2.php?FilmID=188 (Accessed: 29. Al-Subaie. B.Investigation into the Design and Manufacture of Solar Water Distillation System. O. 18. [Online]. Desalination. 29-35. L (2009) 'Solar and Wind Opportunities for Water Desalination in Arab Regions'. Aybar. A. (1983) 'Solar Distillation-State of the Art and Future Prospects'. Bouchekima. & Renne.com/product/th105977237-237999918- AHMAD ALKHAYYAT. 9. 10. (2005) How to Write a Paper? Sixth edn. Climate Change Nexus .11.2009). (1992) 'Chapter 1: Introduction'. M. P. 13.
(2008) 'Performance Study on Solar Still with Enhanced Condensation. [Online]. Hiroshi.co. 04328963 79 . 107. Virginia: VITA.html (Accessed: 28.2009). A. (2009) 'Performance of Solar Still with a Concave Wick Evaporation Surface. 1504-1509.org/biofuel_library/ethanol_manual/manual15. 19. & J. H. [Online]. (2009) 'Increase in Distillate Productivity by Inclining the Flat Plate External Reflector of a Tilted-Wick Solar Still in Winter'. N. 51-61. Essex: Longman Scientific & Technical 17.com/3730349. A. Available at: http://www.’ Renewable Energy.11.uk/debate/columnists/article-412219/Just-water-drinkday.html#ixzz0cyHjTCEL (Accessed: 01. 20. 24.Investigation into the Design and Manufacture of Solar Water Distillation System. Available at: http://www.familyhealthnews. pp.09. Available at: http://www.2009). 18. Family Health News (2006) Ozone Marches on Medical Applications Update.freepatentsonline. 25. 223-233. & Bai.dailymail.2009). 785-789. R. H.2009). & Yasuhito. pp. 09. (1999) 'Analysis of a Parallel Double Glass Solar Still with Separate Condenser.html (Accessed: 29. W. G. Kabeel. Herrman.elken.’ Energy. 230. 34. 509-512.11. AHMAD ALKHAYYAT. Mathewson. T. (1993) Applied Thermodynamics for Engineering Technologists. (2005) Drinking Water Treatment Methods. Daily Mail. H. (1978) Fresh Water from the Sun Washington. 29. S.11. 17. Johnson.html (Accessed: 01.com/index. ELKEN (2007) Water Treatment Analysis.cyber-nook. Fifth edn.pdf (Accessed: 24. (2008) Water cone.12.2009). Fath. & McConkey. [Online]. Available at: http://journeytoforever.html (Accessed: 22. Kumar.11.02. Available at: http://www.2009). pp.11. Desalination. K. [Online]. 21. Mail Online (2007) 'Just How Much Water Should you Drink a Day?'. Muller-Holst. (1996) 'High Performance of A simple Design. (1985) Understanding Solar Still.11.2009). 0/CSD_CONTINUOUS_SOLAR_WATER_DISTILLATION_equipment. (1980) The Manual for the Home and Farm Production of Alcohol Fuel. 28.com/articles-ozone-marcheson.2009). 26. McCracken. Available at: http://www. D.'. 23. El-Bahi. 22. Two Effect Solar Distillation Unit. 83. [Online]. (1973) United State Patent. 27.2007 [Online]. Eastop. T. Available at: http://www.’ Desalination.php (Accessed: 28. [Online]. R. 15. & Inan. A. D. pp. Dunham. 16.com/ (Accessed: 28. pp. Solar Energy.com/water/Solutions.magewatermanagement.
2009).’ Energy Conversion and Management. Water Filter Online (2009) Redox Effect . (2009) 'Determination of Rational Design Parameters of a Multi-Stage Water Desalination Still Using Transient Mathematical Modelling'. pp. Raghu. 36.11.unesco. 2602-2608. R. Available at: http://www. Renewable Energy. 35.11.pdf (Accessed: 21. 33.2009).pdf (Accessed: 02. 04328963 80 .2009). pp.org/water/wwap/wwdr/wwdr1/pdf/chap10. G. United Nations Industrial Development Organization : Collaborating agencies: WHO (World Health Organization)/UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme)/Regional Commissions/World Bank 37. UNIDO (2003) Development Energy to Meet Development Needs. 40. Available at: http://www.uk/ultra_violet_water_filters. V. C. R.2009). Available at: http://www.2009). 41. Available at: http://www.watertreatment. (2007) 'Effect of Water Depth on the Performance Evaluation of Solar Still'.uk-water-filters. K. & Mahkamov. & Srithar.11.knmi. Velmurugan. k. 38.com/downloads/filtration. Energy and Buildings 27.12.11.html (Accessed: 28.pacinst.html (Accessed: 28. 32. M. Rodonb. 34.co. [Online]. National Honey Board (2004) Brief Review of Filtration Methods [Online].2009).pdf (Accessed: 01.. Available at: http://www.nl/onderzk/CKO/doc/EMIC/ReferenceRun/ttr.Investigation into the Design and Manufacture of Solar Water Distillation System. AHMAD ALKHAYYAT. Available at: http://www.honey. G. (2005) Top Thermal Radiation in ECBILT/CLIO Reference Run. 21-27. [Online]. Jordan Journal of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering.html (Accessed: 02. (1997) 'Heat Transfer Calculation in a Free Convection Air Solar Collector'.waterfiltersonline.10.High Chlorine Removal. Gopalakrishnan.10. & Severijns. 23-29. CERES and Pacific Institution [Online]. 35. M. Pacific Institution (2009) Water Scarcity & Climate Change: Growing Risk for Businesses and Investors. & Volpes. [Online]. 31. Water Treatment (2003) Water Filters. Tarawneh. 49.asp (Accessed: 21. 52-61. 30. pp.. [Online]. 39.KDF Water Filters .2009).org/reports/business_water_climate/full_report. Van Der Schrier. Shatat. Available at: http://www. 1 (1). M. UK Water Filters (2008) Ultra Violet Sterilising Systems [Online]. pp.org.com/kdf. (2008) 'Single Basin Solar Still Fin for Enhancing Productivity.uk/water_filters.
Available at: http://cse. Water Treatment (2009) Reverse Osmosis [Online]. Available at: http://www. (2002) Light.unicef.berkeley.water-treatment.uk/reverse_osmosis. [Online].11.ssl. Wesley.org.html (Accessed: 22.2009). 04328963 81 . 44.edu/bmendez/ay10/2002/notes/lec8.uk/publications/pub_detail.Investigation into the Design and Manufacture of Solar Water Distillation System.asp?pub_id=172 (Accessed: 01. A. Available at: http://www. AHMAD ALKHAYYAT. World Health Organisation and UNICEF (2005) Water for Life Presentation.2009).2009).11.html (Accessed: 26. 43. [Online].10. 42.org.
19.Investigation into the Design and Manufacture of Solar Water Distillation System. 04328963 82 . Bibliography. AHMAD ALKHAYYAT.
Investigation into the Design and Manufacture of Solar Water Distillation System. Appendices AHMAD ALKHAYYAT. 04328963 83 .
and Si and weight ratio.It has the ability to self protect with very .Easy to shape.it is easy to recycle .2% of carbon. .Compared to other polymers it is potentially easier to separate and recycle.PET has good strength and stiffness. Investigation into the Design and Manufacture of Solar Water Distillation System.Its strength depends on the alloyed material. . effective thin oxide layer to resist requires 1% of the energy .It has low strength and high ductility corrosion.It is used to make water bottles. .It is quite expensive metal. Copper 84 .It is quite easy to shape.It has low fracture toughness.Because of its low weight nature. 04328963 . 1.It is quite expensive compared to other polymers. .Because of it contained Chromium and Nickel its ability to resist corrosion are excellent and its strength and toughness are high.Design Issue Environmental Issue Others Polycarbonate .Poor electrical and thermal conductivity. .Its toughness improved by cold working. Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) . Appendix A. (PC) . . .It is easily recycled which . weld and recycle.It has an excellent transmissivity. Stainless Steel .I t is recyclable.It can be reheated and reshaped.It is quite easy to recycle. . Cu.It is more expensive steels containing 25% of Chromium and Nickel.It is very cheap compared to other metals.It has high electrical and thermal conductivity. . alloyed with Si.It rusts easily and needs to be weight ratio. painting and other coatings. protected by galvanizing. .It has high strength and stiffness to .It has high strength with good toughness. when it is raw. . .It is cheap and strong which they are mainly used for construction and transportation. weld and recycle. .Poor electrical and thermal conductivity.It has the ability to be reheated used for high strength and toughness and reshaped. High electrical and thermal it has low emissions metal.It has a good strength.It has good corrosion resistance. high toughness and good UV resistance. increases. ZN. . . however when it is . . needed to produce the metal. Mild Steel or Plain Carbon Steel .PC plastic is easy to shape and join and . however most stainless steels are not magnetic which it is hard to be sorted from mixed waste. low density.It does not emit fumes when burnt. .It contains 0. .It has high strength and stiffness to .Its stiffness if high. .It is reasonably cheap metal.It is quite difficult to arc weld.Easy to shape.It easy to recycle and shape. Aluminium Alloys .Good strength with high toughness. heat treatment its strength conductivity. . reusable and disposable. applications. thick-walled bottle can be reused whereas thin-walled can be recycled. . . . . . AHMAD ALKHAYYAT. Materials Information.1 – 0. . . transparent.Maximum and minimum working temperature is 130 ºC and -130 ºC. .
35 e 3 1.126 1.45 46.73 e 3 75 28 67.4 110 149 174 124 -98 0.5 22.06 3 2.335 Kg/m GBP/Kg 3 Unit 2.29 323 464 232 248 61.399 65 66.5 130 64 138 0.2 1.81 3 8.4 24.5 483 12.83 3.9 0.5 1410 785 -271.15 5 165 238.4 60.58 Opaque Opaque Opaque Opaque - - AHMAD ALKHAYYAT.5 18 490 16.5 3.7 e 3 7.24 5. Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) Mild Steel or Plain Carbon Steel Note: The material properties data were extracted and averaged from CES EduPack 2009.4 92 90 -98 0.08 0.7 3 0.34 265 304 265 89. 2. Materials Properties.345 265 325 265 130 60 26.5 74 77 -98 0.5 1031 265 -273 275 380 17.4 65.K J/Kg.Investigation into the Design and Manufacture of Solar Water Distillation System.45 e 117 3 1.8 0.22 0.45 1.5 0.3 28.3 200 79 142.5 576 165 -273 155.5 Unit Optical Quality 1.5 36.5 0.m % 1/2 Unit ºC ºC ºC ºC W/m.9 2. Polycarbonate (PC) Polystyrene (Styrofoam) Aluminium Alloys Stainless Steel General Properties Density Price Mechanical Properties Young’s Modulus Shear Modulus Bulk Modulus Poisons Ratio Yield Strength Tensile Strength Compressive Strength Fatigue Strength at 107 Cycles Fracture Toughness Elongation Thermal Properties Melting Point Glass Temperature Maximum service Temperature Minimum Service Temperature Thermal Conductivity Specific Heat Capacity Thermal Expansion Coefficient Optical Properties Transparency Refractive Index Copper Unit 1.7 0.93 e 3 1.76 3 1.85 e 4.27 585 1360 585 464 105 37.K µstrain/ºC 121.57 Excellent 1.7 18. Appendix B.468 2.5 0. 04328963 85 .393 42.2 46.135 0.6 e 129 3 3.389 59.04 e 1.18 e 2.5 900 22.145 1.85 e 3 7.5 208 82 166.125 1.57 Optical Quality 1.2 51.5 1505 375 -53.5 GPa GPa GPa MPa MPa MPa MPa MPa.2 78 26.
37 Non 19.77 Non 35.9 1.38 31 2.3 1.6 2. Recycling CO2 Footprint .979 23.15 1.3 3.46 Non MJ/Kg Kg/Kg MJ/Kg Kg/Kg - AHMAD ALKHAYYAT.2 0.07 Non 8. 04328963 86 .4 2.96 0.43 Non 18. Recycling Heat of Combustion (net) Combustion CO2 Toxicity Rate Copper Unit or or or or or or 46.7 Non 12. Polycarbonate (PC) Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) Mild Steel or Plain Carbon Steel Polystyrene (Styrofoam) Aluminium Alloys Stainless Steel Material Recycling Recycle Down cycle Combust for Energy Recovery Landfill Biodegrade Renewable source Embodied Energy.7 1.2 41.Investigation into the Design and Manufacture of Solar Water Distillation System.29 Non 38.
58 75. Appendix C. 04328963 87 .58 75.36 Unit %T %T %T nm nm nm 82.0 0.7 628.7 628.0 2. 3. PC Plastic Test Using UV-Visible Spectrophotometer CE 6602.0 800.5 652.0 5.36 75.51 %T %T %T AHMAD ALKHAYYAT.67 Unit %T nm nm nm nm/s %T Peaks by Height 453.5 652.Investigation into the Design and Manufacture of Solar Water Distillation System.51 75.5 Peaks by W/Length 453. Instrument Parameters Range Start λ Finish λ Bandwidth Scan Speed Threshold Data 100 370.5 Unit nm nm nm Data 82.
Cut a circle shape 20 cm in diameter from the aluminium sheet using a scissor. The top and bottom parts will be used to build the still.Scissor and ruler. cut the bottle into 3 sections as shown in the figure.1 x 5 gallon water bottle. 0. Make sure all the equipments and tools are available before starting to build up the solar still. Cut the remaining plastic into stripes for later use Super Glue Step 4. Use the super glue to stick the stripes onto the aluminium circle edge to form a border. Then cut the remaining aluminium into long stripes 3 cm wide. .Rubber plug. then cut the top section very gently using a scissor to prevent cracking the plastic. The necessary tools and equipments are: . 04328963 88 .Investigation into the Design and Manufacture of Solar Water Distillation System. Drill a small hole in the centre of the plate for water refilling. .2 x plastic mixing bowl.Silicone and silicone gun. and then paint the whole design with black paint using a brush.Aluminium sheet 35 x 35 x . Step 3. Step 2.Aluminium foil. .05 cm. Cut a 2 x circles from the Styrofoam sheet. Turn the bowls upside down and mark 7cm high from its base as indicated in the figure. Use the bowls to make the water collection channel.Hack Saw . AHMAD ALKHAYYAT. The middle part will be used for maintenance purposes. . . . Use the silicone gun fill in the edges of the bowl and then place the top cover onto the cut bowl. Installation Instructions of Solar Still. . The aluminium circle will act as the base of the heating plate. Appendix D.Styrofoam sheet. Step 1. .Super glue. While giving plenty of time for the paint to dry.Black paint and brush. leave it until it gets dry. 4. First place the top cover with the cut bowl to make sure that it is perfectly fit. Wait for 2 minutes to let the glue get dry.
Glue these stripes into the areas indicated in the graph. Step 7. The aluminium foil is used for reflecting the sun arrays inside the bottom part where it helps to focus the radiations on the heating plates. Step 5. AHMAD ALKHAYYAT. Glue the remaining bowl plastic to form a plastic frame that surrounds the heating plate to prevent water from pass through the sides of the plate when it is submerged. Make sure the heating plate paint is dry. Put super glue on top of the bottom part to stick the cut bowl onto it.Investigation into the Design and Manufacture of Solar Water Distillation System. this to prevent the water from travelling into the layers of Styrofoam and make the insulation more effective. Take the 2 Styrofoam circles that were cut in step 2. Provide some time for silicone to dry. Wait for about 1 minute to let the glue dry. this is to prevent the water leakage. Use the silicone to cover any gaps inside and outside the bottom part to prevent air leakage. Place some weight on top of the bowl make sure no gaps between the bottom part edge and the base of the cut bowl. 04328963 89 . Then glue them at the back of the heating plate. Take the aluminium foil and cut it into stripes. Use the silicone to stick hollowed small cylindrical aluminium in the hole to cover the Styrofoam. Glue the two circles together using normal adhesive. and then use the silicone to cover the gaps inside and outside the border. Step 6.
Forth.Investigation into the Design and Manufacture of Solar Water Distillation System. this will provide flexibility to the condenser. To take out the fresh water. use a rubber sealer to block the top tip cap. Second. Use the Styrofoam stripes that were cut before to insulate the one piece of aluminium. only turn the top cover upside down and pour it from the top tip cap into a glass. Assemble all the parts together. Bend the other piece to hang on the water collection border. with taking into account the aluminium tape is stuck before. fill in the bottom part with sea or brackish water at the indicated level (10 cm deep). Glue the Styrofoam to both sides of the aluminum piece. and then attach the condenser into the edge of the water collection area. Carry the still to sunny areas and wait until the end of the day to collect the fresh water. Conductive Aluminium Tape Step 8.3 Kg of weight on top of the floating heating plate to let it submerge. Third. First. Use the conductive aluminium tape to connect the two piece of aluminium. Stack the top cover on the bottom part. 04328963 90 . AHMAD ALKHAYYAT. add 0. Styrofoam Aluminium Sheet Take one stripe of aluminum and cut it into two parts 6 cm long and 5 cm wide. Step 9. place heating plate on the sea water.
18 23.56 63.15 27.06 21.68 38.56 66.57 23.42 56.29 23.35 63.85 31.37 27.9 22.66 46.29 TC-5 Room Temperature ° C 22.03 61.89 26.01 31.65 28.01 23.77 25. TC-1 Outer Surface ° C 37.78 33.88 29.65 64.62 65.36 30.83 66.41 23.06 66.26 37.47 27.69 35 35.81 22.1 64.23 26.59 TC-4 Heating Plate at 50mm ° C 20.39 23.37 31.48 27.54 30.57 28.52 38.56 35.31 31.56 33.6 23.82 30.25 TC-3 Heating Plate at 40mm ° C 22.57 36.15 66.02 39.26 29.52 39.13 33.25 65.1 28.49 37.78 24.25 28.6 63.84 32.62 30.04 23.19 33.67 53.16 31. Full Calculation of determining the amount of energy that falling onto the aluminium block.49 23.15 25.45 49.17 22.39 28.09 21.16 TC-2 Heating Plate at 30mm ° C 22.43 23.97 36.93 41.06 25.45 58.74 65.97 41.35 63.52 57.51 25.78 22.02 37.15 30.45 25.96 62.88 35.92 37.59 22.01 60.05 38.64 23.57 61.07 23.3 40.14 23.23 22.63 31.42 37.88 23.7 24.08 36.32 38.07 30.6 22.59 63.52 29. 5.81 22.75 34.78 28.18 59.32 32.3 22.98 23. 04328963 .08 37.82 55.28 23.98 29.84 27.71 26.61 25.36 62.28 35.26 22.5 29.85 22.96 23.52 35.86 36.04 38.46 39.34 36.9 65.43 21.52 23.01 34.39 23.64 22.56 23.95 40.3 23.7 28.38 34.95 22.28 30.41 24.73 36.98 23.66 34.2 26.69 21.59 40.51 23.36 23.49 91 Time Minutes 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 AHMAD ALKHAYYAT.Investigation into the Design and Manufacture of Solar Water Distillation System.54 26.02 61.04 30.32 34.39 51.01 65.01 27.74 31.03 24. Appendix E.34 23.94 32.03 65.
52 48.88 68.54 39.51 66.69 23.17 35.76 42.84 23.49 23.81 39.76 23.57 40.57 23.35 35.73 34.18 43.56 44. 1993). .Investigation into the Design and Manufacture of Solar Water Distillation System.59 42.78 39.99 40.33 46.56 66.27 68.11 45.19 42.95 66.51 43.82 The table above show the temperature readings for the aluminium block at different distances.51 69.81 23.34 33.6 23.11 43.21 47.01 35.88 35. Time Minutes 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 TC-1 Outer Surface ° C 66.79 41.98 42.28 48.22 34.64 23.75 23.55 31.62 33.03 48.9 68.98 43.44 42.86 41.93 32.71 47.59 66.71 23.59 23.49 35.52 41.95 34.56 32.39 43.55 23.07 34.69 46.18 32.66 23.62 48.79 33.28 TC-2 Heating Plate at 30mm ° C 41. Using the equation .72 66.46 47.86 42.31 41.57 23.96 49.81 45.23 69.87 42. 04328963 92 .78 67.5 68.∆ obtained from (Eastop & McConkey.87 35.77 23.54 23.05 TC-5 Room Temperature ° C 23.59 23.62 43.06 46.13 42.01 39.48 45.29 66.73 23.72 23.37 40.47 23.99 69.74 67 67.12 40.24 43.75 69.29 39.22 44.99 70. This equation is used to calculate the incident energy at 0. AHMAD ALKHAYYAT.7 23.72 43.09 70.73 32.88 33.3 m lamp distance as the same methodology will be repeated for the other distances.59 23.32 45.79 31.67 23.51 43.46 34.32 32.52 23.74 68.52 41.12 70.23 67.01 32.63 23.42 42.32 TC-3 Heating Plate at 40mm ° C 38.67 23.99 36.78 TC-4 Heating Plate at 50mm ° C 31.11 33.09 68.73 35.03 47.01 41.89 44.1 69.89 69.46 66.
728 185.33 Temp Difference ∆T ⁰C 6.03 Time Difference ∆ sec The incident energy can be found by substituting the data above into the equation obtained ∆ ∆ 0.728 0.7 146 111. The calculation below shows the how much energy is falling on the plate within 6 hours.K 900 Lamp Power Lp W/m2 500 Lamp Distance Ld m 0.00392 873.00392 .7 0. Distance from Still m 0. 04328963 93 .161 900 6.∆ .4 0.21 AHMAD ALKHAYYAT. .75 /0.5 Incident Energy W/m2 185.3 Temp @ 30 min T30 ⁰C 40.7 x 0.Investigation into the Design and Manufacture of Solar Water Distillation System.125 23.045 Mass m Kg 0.75 20 60 0.7 / 873. 185. Unit m Dimensions L x W 0.161 Block Area AB m2 0.2 This approach was essential to find the amount of energy falling onto the heating plate.125 Heat Capacity CpAL J/Kg. Energy levels for different lamp distances are then calculated.03 0.30 Temp @ 50 min T50 ⁰C 46.3 0.00392 Heat Plate Area AP m2 0.
K KJ/Kg.187 1.126 32 57. Specific Heat of Water Specific Heat of Water Vapor Enthalpy of vaporization Amount of Water Produced without Condenser Amount of Water Produced with Condenser Temperature of Sea Water Temperature of Heating Plate without Condenser Temperature of Heating Plate with Condenser Thermal Conductivity of Aluminium Temperature of top Condenser Temperature of Bottom Condenser Change in Temperature Area Right Angle to Direction of Heat Flow Change in Length Unit KJ/Kg.K KJ/Kg.2.0000265 0. 04328963 94 .996 2257 0.98 0.17 AHMAD ALKHAYYAT.Investigation into the Design and Manufacture of Solar Water Distillation System.K ⁰C ⁰C ⁰C m2 m CPW CPEvap Hfg TW TP1 TP2 K TTOP TBOT ∆T AR ∆x 4. Appendix F.61 235 64.110 0. Theoretical Analysis.23 59. 6. The energy balance can be written as: Energy Gained by Heating Plate Energy to Heat Water Energy of Heat Regeneration + + = Energy to Heat Water to Plate Temperature Energy to Evaporate Water + + Losses The calculation will be carried twice one with heat regeneration and one without heat regeneration calculation for comparison to ensure the effect of heat regeneration.86 61.88 .K Litre Litre J/Kg.K ⁰C ⁰C W/m.
With Heat Regeneration. The energy to heat water equation can be written as: .23 32 23.2 W.Investigation into the Design and Manufacture of Solar Water Distillation System.09 10 6.187 10 57.7 W/m2 and 23.53 The system efficiency without heat regeneration: 19. 4. 5.7 W/m2 and 23.187 10 .54 18. .09 10 2257 10 . The energy gained by heating plate was calculated to be 185.2 W. 4.1 0.5 19. The energy gained by heating plate was calculated to be 185.5 / The energy to heat the water to plate temperature’s equation can be written as: . . 5.09 10 18.53 / The balance equation can be written as: . The energy to heat water equation can be written as: . 04328963 95 . Without Heat Regeneration.09 10 0.54 / The energy to evaporate the water equation can be written as: . 57.1 29.7 64 % Scenario 2.187 10 / 32 273 5.2 29. AHMAD ALKHAYYAT.7 6.09 10 4.23 273 5. Scenario 1. . 5.
76 71. 59.833 10 0.833 x 10-6 71 Mass Flow Rate System’s Efficiency Without Heat Regeneration 5.76 7.833 10 7.08 x 10-6 64 Unit Kg/s % AHMAD ALKHAYYAT.2 30.833 10 21.45 / Energy of Heat Regeneration can be written as conduction equation: . 4.3 / The balance equation can be written as: . 4. 5.187 10 .61 32 . 0. . 04328963 96 . ∆ ∆ .11 / The energy to heat the water to plate temperature’s equation can be written as: . .3 The system efficiency with heat regeneration: 22 30.187 10 / 32 273 5.45 22 0. 235 0.833 10 4. 5.187 10 59.67 / The energy to evaporate the water equation can be written as: . 5.Investigation into the Design and Manufacture of Solar Water Distillation System.4 % With Heat Regeneration 5.67 21.833 10 2257 10 .11 0.0000265 23.61 273 5.
Case 1.98 0.31 23.277 10 1.31 1. 04328963 97 . 4.187 10 1. .31 3.187 10 159.852 10 9. system is going to produce using the same operational condition? The energy gained by heating plate was calculated to be 185.7 W/m2 and 23.11 1. 7.106 10 3. ∆ ∆ 0. If the temperature of the heating plate increases by 10 ° how much water the C.187 10 1. 4.2 1. .Investigation into the Design and Manufacture of Solar Water Distillation System. Appendix G.852 10 1.0000265 2.17 The energy to evaporate the water equation can be written as: . The Increase in Heating Plate Temperature.277 10 AHMAD ALKHAYYAT. 273 2257 10 / 2257 10 The balance equation can be written as: 23.277 10 159.2 W. The energy to heat water equation can be written as: .11 / The energy to heat the water to plate temperature’s equation can be written as: .106 10 70 / 32 .436 10 70 .106 10 0.277 10 23. 4. .436 10 159. 235 0.05 10 / 2257 10 1.277 10 / 32 273 Energy of Heat Regeneration can be written as conduction equation: .436 10 2257 10 23.
Appendix H.1 It is about 240 Top Part: 0. super glue. 04328963 98 . brush. 5. however this is to provide enough time to get the black paint.02 Unit mm mm2 mm Kg mm2 mm m3 Subj Ons Overall Weight Sunlit Area Dimension Provided Distance between sunlit area and heating plate Internal Space Volume Size of the Still Number of Components Water Collection Area Maximum Capacity Bottom Part maximum Capacity Heating Plate maximum Capacity Material of Still Transparency. hacksaw.0 Area: 0. Environmental friendly / less pollution. black paint. 8. piece of metal.035 Relatively small It consists of five components such as top and bottom parts. Tools Required for Maintenance Tools Required for Manufacture Liter Liter Liter Subj List List list Time Required to Manufacture the Still min Time for assemble / disassemble maintenance. Scissor. insulation material. heating plate.029 Bottom Part: 0. reusable and disposable.25 Thermoplastic.Investigation into the Design and Manufacture of Solar Water Distillation System. Metric Overall Dimensions Heating Plate Dimensions Value Height: 340 Diameter: 270 Thickness: 3. less than 60 to assemble less than 5 min to disassemble Recyclable.0 Without water: 1.day AHMAD ALKHAYYAT. Transparent.0 Plate and border thickness: 1 With water: 9. insulation material and sealer. two plastic mixing bowls. 5 gallon water bottle. silicon and super glue get dry.5 7.83 x 10-6 2. Mass flow rate Water Produced min Subj Kg/s Litre/m2.5 0. Silicon if there is water leakage. aluminum foil and plug. It takes 30 to 60 min to manufacture the still.54 Height: 5. 0. Product Specifications and Features. silicon.5 Diameter: 220 Depth: 6. A piece of cloth for cleaning.
CD of all data and spreadsheets of experimentations.Investigation into the Design and Manufacture of Solar Water Distillation System. AHMAD ALKHAYYAT. 04328963 99 . 9. Appendix I.
Investigation into the Design and Manufacture of Solar Water Distillation System. 10. Appendix J. 04328963 100 . Project Planning: Gantt Chart AHMAD ALKHAYYAT.
It was not expected to cost this fortune.99 48.75 1.94 1.0 511.0 249.0 1. however the benefit of testing this design provides an effective solution of purifying water using limitless and priceless energy.0 1. 11.47 Total Cost £ 420 12000 12420 12931. Tools List Dimension mm 500 x 250 x 0.0 1. Appendix K.75 1.0 0. .Investigation into the Design and Manufacture of Solar Water Distillation System. The table below shows the estimated costing for the whole projects including the tools and equipments prices and wages for project personnel.0 249 180 Tools Total Cost Wage £/hr 35 20 Wages Total Cost Total Cost Total Cost £ 3. Project Costing.0 1.0 17.0 1.0 180.94 1.47 Aluminium sheet Styrofoam sheet Plastic mixing bowl Hacksaw Adhesive Silicon Silicon gun Foil Metal black paint Paint brush set Double Tripod Light Source Thermocouples Data Logger Computer ASDA Poundland Poundland Poundland Poundland ASDA B&Q Poundland ScrewFix Pico Tech Pico Tech PC World Supervisor Author - No.18 1.0 1. AHMAD ALKHAYYAT.0 4.0 1.5 350 x 350 x 5 270 Multi purposes 500 ml small 500 W Type K Source List Forward Metals Quantity Ons 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 8 1 1 Cost per Item £ 3. The table above does not include the electricity bill in which it will increase the cost.0 1. Hours hr 12 600 The final cost of the project is £12391.61 4. 04328963 101 .99 6.0 0.59 1.0 17.
AHMAD ALKHAYYAT. 04328963 102 .Investigation into the Design and Manufacture of Solar Water Distillation System. 12. Project Specifications Form. Appendix L.
Investigation into the Design and Manufacture of Solar Water Distillation System. Project Risk Assessment Form. AHMAD ALKHAYYAT. 04328963 103 . 13. Appendix M.
04328963 104 . AHMAD ALKHAYYAT. Project’s TOR Review and Ethics Form.Investigation into the Design and Manufacture of Solar Water Distillation System. Appendix N. 14.
Investigation into the Design and Manufacture of Solar Water Distillation System. AHMAD ALKHAYYAT. 04328963 105 . 15. Project’s Agenda. Appendix O.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.