Chapter 6 Class Notes Contents of Chapter 6 Class Notes

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What is Consumer Buying Behavior? Stages of Consumer Buying Behavior? Types of Consumer Buying Behavior. Categories That Effect Consumer Buying Behavior.
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Personal Psychological Social

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What is Consumer Buying Behavior? Definition of Buying Behavior: Buying Behavior is the decision processes and acts of people involved in buying and using products. Need to understand:
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why consumers make the purchases that they make? what factors influence consumer purchases? the changing factors in our society.

Consumer Buying Behavior refers to the buying behavior of the ultimate consumer. A firm needs to analyze buying behavior for:
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Buyers reactions to a firms marketing strategy has a great impact on the firms success. The marketing concept stresses that a firm should create a Marketing Mix (MM) that satisfies (gives utility to) customers, therefore need to analyze the what, where, when and how consumers buy. Marketers can better predict how consumers will respond to marketing strategies.


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May decide that you want to eat something spicy. after sales communication etc. Cognitive Dissonance. 6. time lapse between 4 & 5. Actual purchasing is only one stage of the process. the evoked set.E. Hungry. method of purchase etc. Information from different sources may be treated differently. determined by the degree of complexity. includes product.. 4. Deficit in assortment of products. stimulates your recognition that you need a new pair of shoes. Marketer dominated sources.Stages of the Consumer Buying Process Six Stages to the Consumer Buying Decision Process (For complex decisions). Can you think of another restaurant? Look in the yellow pages etc. product availability. comparison shopping. This can be reduced by warranties. Purchase--May differ from decision. store. All consumer decisions do not always include all 6 stages. package.. Not all decision processes lead to a purchase. Rank/weight alternatives or resume search. After eating an indian meal. have you made the right decision. Purchase decision--Choose buying alternative. indian gets highest rank etc. Problem Recognition(awareness of need)--difference between the desired state and the actual condition. want to go out and eat.discussed next.. 5. 2. may think that really you wanted a chinese meal instead. public sources etc. External search if you need more information. A successful information search leaves a buyer with possible alternatives. Friends and relatives (word of mouth). features the buyer wants or does not want. Marketers try to influence by "framing" alternatives. evoked set is o o o o chinese food indian food burger king klondike kates etc 3. Hunger stimulates your need to eat. Information search-o o Internal search. Can be stimulated by the marketer through product information--did not know you were deficient? I. Hunger--Food. If not satisfied with your choice then return to the search phase. . memory. The 6 stages are: 1. Post-Purchase Evaluation--outcome: Satisfaction or Dissatisfaction. see a commercial for a new pair of shoes. Evaluation of Alternatives--need to establish criteria for evaluation.

purchased almost automatically. friends and relatives. Limited Decision Making--buying product occasionally. When you need to obtain information about unfamiliar brand in a familiar product category. but limited decision making for someone else. Examples include cars. Types of risk: y y y Personal risk Social risk Economic risk The four type of consumer buying behavior are: y Routine Response/Programmed Behavior--buying low involvement frequently purchased low cost items. store personnel etc. y y y The purchase of the same product does not always elicit the same Buying Behavior. high priced goods. Return to Contents List Types of Consumer Buying Behavior Types of consumer buying behavior are determined by: y Level of Involvement in purchase decision. Buyers level of involvement determines why he/she is motivated to seek information about a certain products and brands but virtually ignores others.Pillsbury 1-800#s 1-800 #s gives the consumer a way of communicating with the marketer after purchase. Impulse buying.Handout.. High degree of economic/performance/psychological risk. Go through all six stages of the buying process. The reason for the dinner. For example: Going out for dinner for one person may be extensive decision making (for someone that does not go out often at all). Spend alot of time seeking information and deciding. expensive and/or infrequently bought products. Examples include soft drinks. Examples include Clothes--know product class but not the brand. Extensive Decision Making/Complex high involvement. y High involvement purchases--Honda Motorbike. and the higher the risk the higher the involvement. products visible to others. Requires a moderate amount of time for information gathering.. Importance and intensity of interest in a product in a particular situation. Information from the companies MM. . Product can shift from one category to the next. homes. This helps reduce cognitive dissonance when a marketer can answer any concerns of a new consumer. unfamiliar. need very little search and decision effort. milk etc. perhaps. snack foods. no conscious planning. education. computers.

Actions are effected by a set of motives. Personal 2.From choices to checkout. making a purchase decision will be affected by the following three factors: 1.. Demographic Factors. Race. Sex. Who in the family is responsible for the decision making. Social The marketer must be aware of these factors in order to develop an appropriate MM for its target market. or a meal with a couple of friends will also determine the extent of the decision making. If marketers can identify motives then they can better develop a marketing mix. Highlights the differences between male and female shoppers in the supermarket. Handout.. Return to Contents List Categories that Effect the Consumer Buying Decision Process A consumer. Return to Contents List Personal Unique to a particular person. Age etc.. Return to Contents List Psychological factors Psychological factors include: y Motives-- A motive is an internal energizing force that orients a person's activities toward satisfying a need or achieving a goal. Young people purchase things for different reasons than older people.. not just one.whether it is an anniversary celebration. MASLOW hierarchy of needs!! o o o Physiological Safety Love and Belonging . Psychological 3.

Can't be expected to be aware of all these inputs.. organize it and interpret it.. They would purchase Nutrament as a substitute for a meal. Selective Distortion-Changing/twisting current received information.MCI and AT&T.. taste. have to be very careful that consumers do not distort the facts and perceive that the advertisement was for the competitor. Average supermarket shopper is exposed to 17. inconsistent with beliefs.. Upon extensive research it was determined that the product did sell well in inner-city convenience stores. on knowledge that is stored in the memory. Motives often operate at a subconscious level therefore are difficult to measure. intensity of input changes (sharp price drop).do you ever get confused? Selective Retention-Remember inputs that support beliefs. It was therefore targeted at consumers whose needs were for either love and Belonging or esteem. Handout.. Handout. Their motivation to purchase was completely different to the motivation that B-MS had originally thought.. It was determined that the consumers for the product were actually drug addicts who couldn't not digest a regular meal. a product marketed by Bristol-Myers Squibb originally was targeted at consumers that needed to receive additional energy from their drinks after exercise etc. forgets those that don't. and hence its products...500 advertisement per day... and was almost terminated. A current example. organizing and interpreting information inputs to produce meaning. and certainly will not retain many. a fitness drink. Interpreting information is based on what is already familiar. Selective Exposure-select inputs to be exposed to our awareness. satisfies current needs. Nutrament. Problems marketing wine from South Africa. y Perception-- What do you see?? Perception is the process of selecting. Information inputs are the sensations received through sight..o o Esteem Self Actualization Need to determine what level of the hierarchy the consumers are at to determine what motivates their purchases. Exposed to 1. Consumers have strong perceptions of the country. BM-S therefore had to redesign its MM to better meet the needs of this target market.000 products in a shopping visitlasting 30 minutes60% of purchases are unplanned. These consumers were at the Physiological level of the hierarchy.Nutrament Debunked. hearing. . More likely if it is linked to an event. smell and touch.. The product was not selling well.. IE we chose what info we pay attention to.. Advertisers that use comparative advertisements (pitching one product against another).South Africa wine.

.. buyers must process information. Handout. living or non.. Learning. Hondas market returning to hard core. Distort information to make it consistent and selectively retain information that reinforces our attitudes.. When making buying decisions. Knowledge is the familiarity with the product and expertise. There is a difference between attitude and intention to buy (ability to buy). Consumer attitudes toward a firm and its products greatly influence the success or failure of the firm's marketing strategy. due to consumers attitudes toward Oldsmobile (as discovered by class exercise) need to disassociate Aurora from the Oldsmobile name. Non-alcoholic Beer example: consumers chose the most expensive six-pack..... Inexperience buyers often use prices as an indicator of quality more than those who have knowledge of a product. Consumers screen information that conflicts with their credit cards were returned or cut-up after the tragic oil spill... y Personality-- bottle of wine and pour it!! Also educate american consumers about changes in SA.. because they assume that the greater price indicates greater quality.Drive perceptions Individual learns attitudes through experience and interaction with other people.y Ability and Knowledge-- Need to understand individuals capacity to learn. Oldsmobile vs. baby boomers aging. Changing market of the 1990s. South Africa. Exxon Valdez-nearly sample etc. Honda "You meet the nicest people on a Honda". Lexus. Learning is the process through which a relatively permanent change in behavior results from the consequences of past behavior. y Attitudes-- Knowledge and positive and negative feelings about an object or activity-maybe tangible or intangible. changes in a person's behavior caused by information and experience. Need to sell a whole new country. IE brand loyalty. dispel the unsavory image of a motorbike rider. Therefore to change consumers' behavior about your product. late 1950s.. To change this they have a new slogan "Come ride with us". Attitudes and attitude change are influenced by consumers personality and lifestyle. need to give them new information re: product.

Consumers buy products that are consistent with their self concept.all the internal traits and behaviors that make a person the results.Here Comes the Sun to Confound Health Savvy Lotion Makers.. Sun tan not considered fashionable in US until 1920's. Examples include: o o o o o o o o o o o o Workaholism Compulsiveness Self confidence Friendliness Adaptability Ambitiousness Dogmatism Authoritarianism Introversion Extroversion Aggressiveness Competitiveness. to access Value and Lifestyles (VALS) Program. uniqueness arrives from a person's heredity and personal experience. Handout. natural lifestyle. This is a survey tool that marketers can .. There is a weak association between personality and Buying Behavior. Lifestyles are the consistent patterns people follow in their lives. Traits effect the way people behave. Marketers try to match the store image to the perceived image of their customers. Now an assault by the American Academy of Dermatology. EXAMPLE healthy foods for a healthy lifestyle. y Lifestyles-- Recent US trends in lifestyles are a shift towards personal independence and individualism and a preference for a healthy. this may be due to unreliable measures. Extra credit assignment from the news group. Nike ads. complete the survey and Email alex@udel..

.Chevy Chase y Roles and Family Influences-- Role.. social class and culture... Husband. motives etc. reference groups.OJ Simpson. are influenced by opinion leaders.) Can be risky. learning.most of BUAD301 newly married.they actually use (pay) spokespeople to market their products... y Opinion leaders-- Spokespeople etc. father. Return to Contents List Social Factors Consumer wants. youngest child under 6 full nest II.. older married couples with dependant children . each stage creates different consumer demands: o o o o o bachelor stage. employer/ee. Family is the most basic group a person belongs to. person's family. Michael Jordon (Nike. McDonalds. Gatorade etc.use to better understand their target market(s)...things you should do based on the expectations of you from your position within a group. Individuals role are continuing to change therefore marketers must continue to update information. People have many roles. young.Michael Jackson.. no full nest I. o o The Family life cycle: families go through stages.. youngest child 6 or over full nest III.. Marketers try to attract opinion leaders.. Marketers must understand: o o o that many family decisions are made by the family unit consumer behavior starts in the family unit family roles and preferences are the model for children's future family (can reject/alter/etc) family buying decisions are a mixture of family interactions and individual decision making family acts an interpreter of social and cultural values for the individual..

o empty nest I. tries to disassociate from the "biker" group. y Reference Groups-- Individual identifies with the group to the extent that he takes on many of the values.Two Income Marriages Are Now the Norm Because 2 income families are becoming more common. Families. y Social Class-- an open group of individuals who have similar social rank. head in labor force empty nest II. sororities. family has less time for children. Any group that has a positive or negative influence on a persons attitude and behavior.3%. aristocratic names. retired Modernized life cycle includes divorced and no children. ethnic groups and possessions. the decision maker within the family unit is changing. o o o o Handout. US is not a classless society. . from current professionals and corporate elite . race.!! Aspiration groups (want to belong to) Disassociate groups (do not want to belong to) Honda. Marketers get the groups to approve the product and communicate that approval to its members. (Children influence about $130 billion of goods in a year) Children also have more money to spend themselves. civic and professional organizations. Social class influences many aspects of our lives. friends. and therefore tends to let them influence purchase decisions in order to alleviate some of the guilt. Membership groups (belong to) Affinity marketing is focused on the desires of consumers that belong to reference groups.. IE upper middle class Americans prefer luxury cars Mercedes. Credit Cards etc. US criteria.2%. The degree to which a reference group will affect a purchase decision depends on an individuals susceptibility to reference group influence and the strength of his/her involvement with the group. older married couples.also. older married couples with no children living with them. Lower-upper class. inherited wealth. in labor force solitary survivor. o o Upper Americans-upper-upper class. income.. newer social elite. occupation. head retired solitary survivor. 1.. education. attitudes or behaviors of the group members.. wealth. no children living at home.

Culture can be divided into subcultures: o o geographic regions human characteristics such as age and ethnic background. In american culture time scarcity is a growing problem. 38%. reside and travel.Will British warm up to iced tea? No..5%. not on welfare Lower-lower class. different cultural values. Handout.. hot with milk.but that is my opinion!!. 9%. Culture effects what people buy. the types. y Culture and Sub-culture-- Culture refers to the set of values. Lower class people tend to stay close to home when shopping. education.. IE West Coast. 12. reference groups and social classes are all social influences on consumer behavior. how they buy and when they buy.Tea is a part of the British culture.. . Culture determines what people wear. Stores project definite class images. 32%. We must assume that the company has adopted the Marketing Concept and are consumer oriented. Big impact on international marketing. Family. working. on welfare o o o Social class determines to some extent. eat. Different society. teenage and Asian American. 7%. and attitudes that are accepted by a homogenous group of people and transmitted to the next generation. average pay white collar workers and blue collar friends Working class. Cultural values in the US are good health. college graduates. Understanding Consumer Buying Behavior offers consumers greater satisfaction (Utility). quality. average pay blue collar workers Lower Americans-lower class. do not engage in much prepurchase information gathering. different levels of needs. All operate within a larger culture. ideas.. quantity of products that a person buys or uses. individualism and freedom. IE change in meals. managers and professionals Middle Americans-middle class. Culture also determines what is acceptable with product advertising..o o Upper-middle class.

and finally they are bombarded with more communications from more channels than ever before (the 4th P . retailers. "BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION" or just "MANAGEMENT" today. but they are not "DIRECTLY" involved in the activities mentioned above. 3. It's crucial from both the points of view as given below : 1. Controlling these two attributes to have the desired benefits are the most difficult part of the management. because none of these two are within the direct control of the marketers. From the customers' point of view : Customers today are in a tough spot. Similarly. they have a wide range of cost and payment choices (the 2nd P . diversity among consumers. it is . However. 2. in the highly developed & technologically advanced society. This is the basic principle of requirement for the marketers in earlier days where aggressive selling was the aim. How can they possibly decide where to spend their time and money. both profit & nonprofit. Today. & (2) "WORKS" in the close proximity with the public or persons outside the organisation. They have the products of an extreme range of attributes (the 1st P . 1. they can order them to be supplied to their door step or anywhere else (the 3rd P . more demanding. more discerning. advertising media. the customers have a great deal of choices & options (and often very close & competing) to decide on. Now it can't be achieved by force. despite prevailing diversity. From the marketers' point of view : "The purpose of marketing is to sell more stuff to more people more often for more money in order to make more profit". and the firm is always on the move to make them buy so as to earn revenue. producers. aggression or plain alluring. marketers. and where they should give their loyalty ? 1. For the customers are today more informed. the "Consumers" or the "Customers" play a very critical role as these are the people who finally BUY the goods & services of the organisation.Price). This is because this functional area of management (1) "EARNS" the revenue.Place). And above all there is no dearth of marketers to buy from. This doesn't mean that the other functional areas are not useful. and customs and of course the individual or psychological behaviour. The study of consumer behaviour (CB) is very important to the marketers because it enables them to understand and predict buying behaviour of consumers in the marketplace. cultures. The global marketplace is a study in diversity. there also are many similarities. The marketers have to earn them or win them over. 4. "MARKETING MANAGEMENT" function plays a very critical role.Product).Promotion). 2. more knowledgeable. within the study of Marketing Management.Why Study Consumer Behaviour ? In the highly specialised study of "BUSINESS MANAGEMENT". The object of the study of consumer behaviour is to provide conceptual and technical tools to enable the marketer to apply them to marketing practice.

The belief that ethics and social responsibility should also be integral components of every marketing decision is embodied in a revised marketing . The study of consumer behaviour helps management understand consumers' needs so as to recognise the potential for the trend of development of change in consumer requirements and new technology. (See the article on "HOLISTIC MARKETING " written by the author). In other words. and economics. because the purpose of a business is to create and keep customers. "Marketing Admissions" has become an accepted term to mean marketing to potential students. This suggests that the knowledge & information about consumers is critical for developing successful marketing strategies because it challenges the marketers to think about and analyse the relationship between the consumers & marketers. which can be done by the above two methods. during the purchase. used in different ways. Consumer behaviour has become an integral part of strategic market planning. have different emotional attachments towards the things and so on. such as a hospital. when and where and how they buy it. and also how they consume it & dispose it. it takes place at every phase of the consumption process: before the purchase. It is also the basis of the approach to the concept of Holistic Marketing. consumer behaviour researchers with their skills for the naturalistic settings of the market are trying to make a major contribution to our understanding of human thinking in general. The following are a few examples of the benefits of the study of consumer behaviour derived by the different categories of people : 1. A marketing manager would like to know how consumer behaviour will help him to design better marketing plans to get those plans accepted within the company. Research shows that two different buyers buying the same product may have done it for different reasons. the success of a business is to achieve organisational objectives. Universities & Colleges now recognise that they need to know about consumer behaviour to aid in recruiting students. And also to articulate the new thing in terms of the consumers' needs so that it will be accepted in the market well. that is. The main objective of the study of consumer behaviour is to provide marketers with the knowledge and skills. it is based on concepts and theories about people that have been developed by scientists. Thus. an individual in the marketing department would like to know the patients' needs and how best to serve those needs. Consumer behaviour is interdisciplinary. serving. 3. paid different prices. And the quality of marketing strategies depends on knowing. the study of Consumer Behaviour is one of the most important in business education. According to Professor Theodore Levitt of the Harvard Business School. and the consumer behaviour & the marketing strategy. philosophers & researchers in such diverse disciplines as psychology. 2. and influencing consumers. but also with why they buy it. Consumer research is the methodology used to study consumer behaviour. Customers are created and maintained through marketing strategies. social psychology.concerned not only with what consumers buy. In a non-profit service organisation. sociology. and after the purchase. that are necessary to carry out detailed consumer analyses which could be used for understanding markets and developing marketing strategies. cultural anthropology. and how often they buy it.

3. Introduction to Consumer Behaviour The study of Consumer Behaviour is quite complex. 3. Imagine three concentric circles. one in the middle & one at the inner most. The inner most circle denotes the consumer decision making process regarding products & services. 7. Evaluation of Application. 5. Family. Information Search. Personality & Self-concept. political. one at the outer most. 2. 8. and Inter-Personal Influences. Learning & Memory.the societal marketing concept . These are the human mind and its attributes. and they represent the following : 1. Purchase Decision. 1. 9. 6. Attitudes. whose major steps are : . 10.concept . 1.). like geographical. Other Influences (which are not categorised by any of the above six. 1. religious environment. Culture. 4. Social Class. These variables are divided into three major sections that have been identified as the most important general influences on Consumer Behaviour. Individual Determinants of Behaviour : Major individual determinants of Consumer Behaviour are portrayed in the middle ring. 3. Post-Purchase Behaviour. These variables are personal in nature and they are influenced by the above set of external factors and in turn influence the way consumers proceed thro' a decision making process regarding products & services. The Consumer Decision Making Process : The buying decision comes as a product of the complex interaction of the external factors and the personal attributes.which calls on marketers to fulfil the needs of their target markets in ways that improve society as a whole. Perception & Information Processing. and Sub-culture. Motivation & Involvement. External Environmental Variables Influencing Behaviour : These are the factors controlled by external environments like the following form the basis of external influences over the mind of a customer (outer circle) : 2. 4. They are : 2. and Social Group. Problem Recognition. economical. because of many variables involved and their tendency to interact with & influence each other. 2. etc.

but also provides us with a language to talk about them. it can be so complex that we can't understand well enough to apply it to our practical problems. which we call consumer behaviour. The theory of consumer behaviour draws heavily upon the famous psychologist Sigmund Freud. so that their decision making process can be predicted to a reasonable extent. But the consumer behaviour theory. 2. But slowly as the theory develops. the hidden pattern emerges. as explained earlier. lack of this language has been one of the greatest drawback of the modern marketers. A theory which does both : explains how consumers buy & predicts what consumers will buy. describing the order we suddenly see.Marketers are frequently uncertain about the variables that are at play influencing & affecting consumers. . In these circumstances. 3. but more than that. psychological. after very close and careful thought. internal. If not. mental. It not only helps us to think about consumers. It helps us to make better marketing decisions for profit & non-profit organisations. the understanding of the buying behaviour of the consumers becomes a continuous activity of application of various theories & concepts by the marketers. Researchers G Zaltman and M Wallendorf have came out with the most important attributes of a good & sound theory. Sometimes some variables are not directly observable. Now. It unifies previously unrelated areas of knowledge. particularly with respect to the emotional. are discussed above. These are the following : 1. It is testable so that we can verify whether the theory is valid and therefore dependable. because to be effective in an organisation . like all human behaviour is very complex. Other times variables are known to the marketers but their exact nature & relative strength of influence is not apparent. grew out of the concept of "SALES" in the early fifties. and explaining why the behaviour pattern takes has to persuade others to accept his ideas. The more simplified picture of consumers provided by the theory helps us enormously to understand the consumers. environmental. On the surface. it is useful to understand the above mentioned concepts and how the consumers behave. And in fact. for example. The theory represents the hidden order in this very complex activity. The human mind being as complex as it is. The Consumer Behaviour Theory An understanding of how the theory of consumer behaviour and its application tools evolved over the years will enable us to appreciate the validity of the theory and give us a guidance in its practical application. it relates to information that consumers get from advertising so as to decide what brands they buy.for profit or non-profit . Consumer behaviour. The details of all external. Thus we can examine the characteristics of a theory that enables us to do so. Market Research or Marketing Research (MR) has been developing since "MARKETING" which brings together all customer elements. this highly complex & varied display of behaviour by consumers seems essentially unexplained. The theory is simple. It's not just a theory. This language is very useful. like all theories is a simplified & abstract representation of reality. 4. economical etc. what is the magic stuff called consumer behaviour theory that does all these wonderful things. Sometimes this occurs because they don't clearly understand the extent of variables that might be having an influence. subjective or non-utilitarian aspects of buying decision or behaviour of a consumer.

to lay the theory up against data describing how consumers buy in the market and thereby determine if the facts confirm the theory. 10. purchasing. using. The study of consumer behaviour involves search. 11. consumption and disposition of products. It is plausible. Definitions : Consumer Behaviour (or Buyer Behaviour) is broadly defined by various scholars & researchers as : 1. 4. using. If it is not. It's the behaviour displayed by the consumers during the acquisition. purchasing. evaluation. meaning that it poses new questions for us that had not been previously asked. While trying to answer these questions. The behaviour that the consumers display in searching for. And if all the above ten points are in order. Key Words : Users Customers Internal Factors Consumer Research Buyers Consumers External Factors Problem Recognition Culture Social Class Holistic Marketing Social Responsibility Memory . they will not likely to accept the theory and so it won't be useful. and disposing of products and services so as to satisfy their needs and desires. 3. The theory is general. 9. which means that it can be applied to a wide range of products & services. The activities directly involved in obtaining. 6. purchase. new knowledge is created and that becomes the part of the theory. it is supported by the facts. It has heuristic value.5. 2. services. The American Marketing Association (AMA) defines consumer behaviour as "The dynamic interaction of cognition. it can't be seen by others as making any sense. and hence. Implied in the previous characteristic. It is original. and disposing of products and services. Lack of this quality will make the theory a dangerous tool. It is internally consistent. This means that the theory is internally free from logical incongruencies or else the prediction will be doubtful & flawed. selecting. It is the body of knowledge which studies various aspects of purchase and consumption of products and services by individuals with various social and psychological variables at play. then either the theory should be modified till the facts do verify it or abandon the theory. evaluating and disposing of products and services that they expect will satisfy their needs. This means. 5. 8. consuming. it adds little to the existing knowledge. consumption and post purchase behaviour of the consumers and includes the disposal of purchased products keeping environment and personal characteristics in mind. 7. time and ideas by decision making units. If they don't. then it won't be very useful. 6. then it can be applied to designing marketing strategy and marketing plans. The process and activities people engage in when searching for. If not. behaviour & environmental events by which human beings conduct the exchange aspect of their lives. evaluating. including the decision processes that precede and follow these actions. If not.

Involvement Purchase Decision Marketing Admission Attitude Sub-Culture Societal Marketing Consumer Behaviour Learning Social Group Information Search Environmental Influence Motivation Self-Concept Marketing Strategy Evaluation of Application Perception Marketing Plan Personal Attributes Post-purchase Behaviour .

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