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Heat Transfer

Theory and Applications

(Class Notes for ME 371)

Michael C. Wendl

Department of Mechanical Engineering

and School of Medicine

Washington University

Saint Louis, U.S.A.

(2005)

Fundamentals of Heat Transfer Theory and Applications

c 1999, 2003, 2005 by Michael C. Wendl

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Wustl–E67–371

Contents

Preface vi

Chapter 1. Introduction 1

1.1. Physical Mechanisms 2

1.2. Concept of Conservation of Energy 3

1.3. The Continuum Assumption 4

1.4. Absolute Versus Relative Temperature 6

Chapter 2. Elementary Heat Conduction 7

2.1. Fourier’s Law 7

2.2. Thermal Properties of Matter 8

2.3. The Conduction Equation 9

2.4. Boundary and Initial Conditions 13

Chapter 3. One–Dimensional Steady Conduction 15

3.1. General Solution 16

3.2. Circuit Analogy 17

3.3. Cylindrical Conﬁgurations 21

3.4. Heat Generation 23

3.5. Fin Analysis 27

3.6. Fin Performance Metrics 34

Chapter 4. Transient Conduction 37

4.1. Generalities 37

4.2. Lumped Capacitance Analysis 37

4.3. Applicability of Lumped Capacitance 39

4.4. Casting the General One–Dimensional Problem 42

4.5. Transient Analysis in One Dimension 45

4.6. The Similarity Technique 48

4.7. Multi–dimensional Transient Conduction 50

Chapter 5. Introduction to Convection 53

5.1. Boundary Layer Introduction 54

5.2. Governing Equations 57

5.3. Dimensionless Parameters 60

5.4. Reynolds–Colburn Analogy 63

Chapter 6. External Convection 66

iii

CONTENTS iv

6.1. Laminar Flow Over A Flat Plate 67

6.2. Karman–Pohlhausen Integral Solution 69

6.3. Empirical Correlations 74

Chapter 7. Internal Convection 77

7.1. Laminar Pipe Flow 77

7.2. The Case of Constant Heat Flux 80

7.3. The Couette Problem 85

7.4. Empirical Correlations 88

Chapter 8. Natural Convection 90

8.1. Wall Bounded Convection on a Vertical Flat Surface 91

8.2. Dimensionless Formulation 93

8.3. Similarity Solution for the Vertical Plate 94

8.4. Empirical Correlations 97

Chapter 9. Heat Exchangers 99

9.1. The Thumbnail Diagram 100

9.2. Overall Heat Transfer Coeﬃcient 102

9.3. LMTD Analysis 104

9.4. Correction Factors for Complex Conﬁgurations 109

9.5. –NTU Analysis 110

Chapter 10. Introduction to Radiation 116

10.1. Solid Angle and Radiative Quantities 117

10.2. Blackbody Radiation 122

10.3. Radiation Characteristics of Real Surfaces 126

10.4. Kirchhoﬀ’s Law and Gray Surfaces 130

Chapter 11. Radiation Exchange 134

11.1. The View Factor 134

11.2. View Factor Algebra 136

11.3. Blackbody Radiation Exchange 141

11.4. Exchange Among Diﬀuse Gray Surfaces 141

11.5. The Graybody Matrix Problem 145

11.6. Additional conﬁgurations 147

Appendix A. Transient Conduction Example: The Homogeneous

Cooling Problem 149

A.1. Separation of Variables Method 149

A.2. Solution Procedure 151

A.3. Determining Mode Coeﬃcients 152

A.4. Example: The Unit Initial Condition 154

Appendix B. Laminar Forced Convection in a Pipe 156

B.1. Volume Flow Rate 156

B.2. Integration of Mean Temperature Equation 156

CONTENTS v

Appendix C. Blackbody Radiation 158

C.1. Wien’s Displacement Law 158

C.2. Radiation Functions 159

Appendix D. Document History 161

About the Author 162

Creative Commons Public License 163

Bibliography 166

Index 170

Preface

Heat transfer is fundamentally important in almost all aspects of en-

gineering, physics, and the life sciences. Issues related to this branch of

thermodynamics arise in such varying circumstances as aerospace, biology,

consumer products, machinery, medical devices, geo–environmental applica-

tions, chemical processes, and nano–technology. There are many excellent

texts that introduce this subject and I do not consider this assembly of

notes to be any sort of replacement. This merely represents a collection of

concepts I consider to be the most valuable in a one–semester introductory

course. The material is therefore intended to amplify and augment that

which appears in your primary course textbook. In large part, we follow

Incropera and Dewitt (2002) in terms of the way material is arranged. A

suﬃcient familiarity with mathematics is presumed, especially calculus and

its theorems (e.g. the Chain Rule), linear diﬀerential equations, linear al-

gebra, and simple combinatorics. Moreover, much of this material depends

upon the understanding of a basic level of ﬂuid mechanics (for example as

covered by an introductory course), especially the concepts of conservation

of mass and momentum. Problems and examples are minimal, since this

volume serves as a collection of notes rather than a complete text. Sup-

plementary margin notes appear at appropriate places suggesting example

problems from Incropera and Dewitt (I & D) that could be discussed in

class.

The style of presentation leans toward the theoretical and mathematical

side of the spectrum rather than the empirical side. My experience is that

instilling good mathematical habits early in an undergraduate career is of

signiﬁcant beneﬁt. Moreover, this allows us not to ask readers to take too

much on faith. For the most part, we shall prove everything from ﬁrst

principles so that the student can derive a truly fundamental understanding

of the material. Where formal proofs are beyond the scope of what might

be presented in an introductory format, we will cite appropriate sources.

Phenomena which cannot be presented according to ﬁrst principles, e.g.

some aspects of convection, turbulence, etc. will be described in terms of

a few empiricisms, but will largely be left for in–class discussion by the

instructor. There is no mention of English units of measurement. Where

units are necessary, we work exclusively in the International System (SI).

Michael C. Wendl

December 2003

vi

CHAPTER 1

Introduction

Heat Transfer can be described as the process of energy transmission due

to a gradient in temperature T, which is a measurable quantity

1.1

. Thus,

determining the temperature distribution for a given problem is the desired

solution since other quantities of interest, such as heat ﬂux can be derived

from it. The subject of heat transfer, which deals with non–equilibrium

processes, is essentially an extension of an introductory course in thermo-

dynamics, which is usually limited to equilibrium states. For example, a

typical problem in thermodynamics might be to determine the ﬁnal equilib-

rium T when an annealed steel machine part is quenched in a vat of water.

The extension of this problem in heat transfer might be to ﬁnd the rate of

cooling of the steel (T as a function of time and location), which is required

to predict the resulting hardness in various regions of the part. What are a

few common examples and associated problems and/or analyses?

• Automotive cooling system: implement a design such that power-

plant and working ﬂuid temperatures remain in a speciﬁed operat-

ing range while increasing overall engine eﬃciency (Taymaz et al.,

2003)

• Solar power generation: design and optimize hardware for maximal

eﬃciency in heating a working ﬂuid (Odeh et al., 2000)

• HVAC

1.2

: size required systems for ultra–high–rise oﬃce towers and

predict resulting temperature distribution in oﬃces and common

spaces (Sinha et al., 1998)

• Biomechanics: analyze body temperature increases as a function of

frictional heating by physical exertion (Bergmann et al., 2001)

• Electronics: increase eﬀectiveness of laptop computer cooling sys-

tems in response to increasing CPU power dissipation (Pastukhov

et al., 2003)

1.1

Temperature is a surprisingly diﬃcult concept to deﬁne in terms of ﬁrst principles.

This is usually deferred to graduate courses in thermodynamics where it arises from con-

siderations of energy and entropy. Here, we will take the simplistic, but typical approach

of understanding temperature merely as a quantity that indicates thermal energy.

1.2

Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning

1

1.1. PHYSICAL MECHANISMS 2

• Medicine: analyze eﬀectiveness of hyperthermia treatments for can-

cer (Alexander, 2003)

• Aerodynamics: design fuselage to limit eﬀects of aerodynamic heat-

ing (Lee et al., 2003)

In summary, it is diﬃcult to ﬁnd a problem totally devoid of heat transfer

considerations.

1.1. Physical Mechanisms

There are basically 3 main modes of heat transfer that we’ll study: con-

duction, convection, and radiation.

• Conduction occurs through microscopic mechanisms, such as lattice

vibrations and electron movement. There is no bulk motion of the

medium — it is strictly a diﬀusion process. Example: the heat felt

when holding one end of a long copper bar in a open ﬁre.

• Convection relies on bulk motion of the medium. Example: cooling

eﬀect realized by standing in front of a fan after sprinting the 400m.

• Radiation occurs by way of electromagnetic phenomena as described

by Maxwell’s equations and does not necessarily depend upon a

medium (energy transfer can occur across a vacuum). Example:

heating sensation felt by bare skin in the noon sun.

In the “real world”, a problem often relies on all three modes. For exam-

ple consider the M–16 riﬂe in automatic ﬁre mode, so that the temperature

in the barrel is approximately constant (Fig. 1.1). Heat from expanding

radiation

convection

conduction

barrel

gas tube

handguard

heat shield

Figure 1.1. M–16 cross section showing barrel, gas tube, heat

shield, and outer handguard.

combustion gas in the bore and friction between the bullet and the bore is

conducted through the barrel to its outer surface. The barrel is cooled by

1.2. CONCEPT OF CONSERVATION OF ENERGY 3

convected air as heat is absorbed, causing a change in density and subse-

quent air movement. This heat is carried away as the air leaves through

holes in the top of the handguard. The barrel is further cooled by radiating

energy to inner cooling surface inside the handguard.

Analyses of such real–world problems are usually quite diﬃcult. For

example, geometry is complicated and, as we shall see, the full governing

equations are non–linear partial diﬀerential equations

1.3

. Thus, we invari-

ably require theoretical, experimental, and computational procedures. How-

ever, for this course we’ll look primarily at idealized “model” systems that

can be solved in closed form.

1.2. Concept of Conservation of Energy

The cornerstone of heat transfer is the law of conservation of energy,

which is described in terms of a speciﬁc volumetric space called the con-

trol volume (CV ) and a bounding surface called the control surface (CS)

that encloses the CV (Fig. 1.2). In later sections, we will also see that

CV

CS

E

E

E

out

E

stored gen

in

Figure 1.2. Control volume and control surface schematic.

the conservation laws for mass and momentum arise in certain situations.

Conservation of energy can be stated symbolically as

(1.1)

dE

stored

dt

=

˙

E

stored

=

˙

E

in

+

˙

E

gen

−

˙

E

out

,

where E represents energy and the dot notation connotes a rate process

1.4

.

In other words, the rate of energy increase in the control volume is equal to

the rate at which it is generated internally

1.5

plus the rate at which it comes

into the control volume minus the rate at which it leaves. This energy can

be of various types — usually we mean thermal energy, but it can also be

mechanical work. The terms

˙

E

in

and

˙

E

out

describe phenomena occurring at

(across) the CS, while

˙

E

gen

is a volumetric term associated with the CV . I&D Ex. 1.3

pp 17

1.3

Recall that these same complexities were present in analyzing ﬂuid mechanics

problems.

1.4

We have not said anything about describing these

˙

E quantities yet.

1.5

Energy can be generated by a variety of means, for example nuclear decay. One

of the most common situations is electrical dissipation via current ﬂowing through a wire

having non–zero electrical resistance.

1.3. THE CONTINUUM ASSUMPTION 4

Note that the equation integrated over any time period ∆t must also hold

true:

(1.2) ∆E

stored

= E

in

+ E

gen

− E

out

.

There will be occasions where the conservation of energy principle will

be required at a surface, for example as a boundary condition at a solid–gas,

liquid–gas, or solid–liquid interface (Fig. 1.3). The thickness of this interface

fluid

solid

energy convected away from surface

energy conducted to surface

t

Figure 1.3. Conservation of energy at an interface. Dotted

lines indicate control surfaces.

t is taken to be vanishingly small, so that the control surface encloses no

mass or volume. The storage and generation terms are therefore irrelevant

and the conservation of mass equation reduces to

(1.3)

˙

E

in

=

˙

E

out

.

Conﬁgurations will typically involve conduction on the solid side and con-

vection on the liquid or gas side, so that Eq. (1.3) reduces to the statement

that conduction heat transfer equals convection heat transfer at a surface.

1.3. The Continuum Assumption

We will be concerned with heat transfer in both solids and ﬂuids. In

ﬂuid mechanics, the so–called continuum assumption played an important

role in how theory was constructed, especially for gases. For liquids and

solids, the continuum assumptions is usually taken for granted. Let us have

a brief review of this concept.

If we were to look at a mass of ﬂuid at the microscopic level, what we

would see are individual molecules interacting with each other. We are not

actually interested in the behavior of individual molecules for our engineer-

ing applications. Rather, we want to understand the overall (or macroscopic)

behavior of the system as a whole. That is, it is the macroscopic proper-

ties such as density, temperature, or pressure drop that are of engineering

interest. What we are doing from the mathematical perspective is taking

averages over small elemental volumes. These volumes must be large enough

such that they contain enough molecules at any instant in time to yield a

statistically signiﬁcant average. Yet they must also be small enough so that

the statistical average does not vary over the volume — it should be a con-

stant. If these conditions are met, the properties will have deﬁnite point

1.3. THE CONTINUUM ASSUMPTION 5

values. In other words, they will be continuous functions of space and time. the continuum

assumption This is the so–called continuum assumption.

To illustrate this concept, consider the density ρ of a ﬂuid. A region

of ﬂuid is shown in Fig. 1.4(a). We desire to ﬁnd the density at a point C

x

y

z

C (x , y , z )

o o o

(a)

V δ

V δ

m δ ρ

defined

here

(b)

Figure 1.4. (a) Deﬁning density as a point function according

to the continuum assumption. Large region has volume V and mass

m, while the point region C has volume δV and mass δm. (b) Value

of density according to size of δV .

located at coordinates (x

0

, y

0

, z

0

), where density is deﬁned simply as mass

per unit volume. For the larger region, the average density within its volume

V would simply be ρ = m/V . Since this is an average, we would expect ρ

to vary within V since V is large. Speciﬁcally, the average ρ would not be

expected to be equal to the density at point C. To determine the density at

C, we compute δm/δV . The question governing the continuum assumption

is how small or large is δV ?

Let us plot δm/δV as a function of δV as in Fig. 1.4(b) starting from

large values of δV . The average density tends to approach an asymptotic

value as the volume is lowered to the point such as to enclose only homoge-

neous ﬂuid in the immediate neighborhood of point C. Below this point, the

volume is small enough such that the number of molecules contained at a

given instant of time is not constant in the average sense. Rather, the num-

ber varies erratically, causing a corresponding variation in mass δm, which

in turn leads to an erratic value for density δm/δV . There is clearly a lower

limit for δV which restricts the continuum assumption. Luckily, this limit

is very small compared to the scales we are interested in for engineering

calculations

1.6

. Therefore, we are permitted mathematically to approximate

δV → 0 relative to the size of our engineering length scales. By this, we

mean that the volume approaches but does not reach 0. Therefore, the con-

tinuum assumption will be valid for our problems of interest. Panton (1984)

contains a more detailed discussion.

1.6

For example, a cubic meter of air at standard temperature and pressure

(15C, 101.3kPa) contains about 2.5×10

25

molecules. Therefore, the number of molecules

in a volume about the size of a grain of sand, about 10

−12

cubic meters, would be 2.5×10

13

,

which is large enough to ensure that the average mass would be constant.

1.4. ABSOLUTE VERSUS RELATIVE TEMPERATURE 6

Since the (x

0

, y

0

, z

0

) location of point C is arbitrary, ρ at any point in

the region could likewise be determined. If ρ were computed simultaneously

for all δV in the ﬂuid, we could formulate an expression as a function of

the location and time of the measurements, i.e. ρ = ρ(x, y, z, t). Thus,

the continuum assumption leads naturally to functional deﬁnitions for the

properties of interest.

1.4. Absolute Versus Relative Temperature

We will strictly use the International System (SI), with the most common

quantities and units being given in Table 1.1. It is important to remember

Table 1.1. Some common SI units

Quantity Unit

length meter (m)

mass kilogram (kg)

time second (s)

temperature kelvin (K)

that temperature can be interpreted in an absolute sense, that is, relative

to absolute zero, or in a relative sense. The unit of kelvin (K) refers to the

absolute scale, while celsius

1.7

(

o

C) is a relative quantity. Their relationship

is given by

(1.4) T

kelvin

= T

celsius

+ 273.15 .

Some problems are intrinsically formulated upon the premise of absolute

temperature, for example the Ideal Gas Law given by

P = ρRT ,

where P is pressure, ρ is ﬂuid density, and R is the ideal gas constant. Sim-

ilarly, we will see the same requirement for radiation problems, where the

absolute temperature raised to the fourth power becomes important. Us-

ing relative temperature is incorrect for these problems! Conversely, other

problems, for example in convection, depend only on temperature diﬀer-

ences, for which it is easy to verify that both relative or absolute units are

appropriate

1.8

.

1.7

This is also referred to as centigrade in some countries.

1.8

For example, we can express an absolute temperature diﬀerence ∆T as

∆T = T

k,2

−T

k,1

= (Tc,2 + 273.15) −(Tc,1 + 273.15) = Tc,2 −Tc,1 ,

which is clearly equivalent to the corresponding relative temperature diﬀerence.

CHAPTER 2

Elementary Heat Conduction

Here we will introduce the basic concepts of conduction heat transfer.

2.1. Fourier’s Law

In chapter 1, we stated that heat conduction is a diﬀusion process

that occurs via molecular mechanisms. The fundamental governing law is

Fourier’s Law of Heat Conduction. In one dimension this is

2.1

(2.1) q

= −k

dT

dx

,

where q

**is heat ﬂux, k is thermal conductivity, and dT/dx is tempera-
**

ture gradient along an independent coordinate x. Thus, temperature is a

function of position, and is written in the 1–D case as T(x). Eq. (2.1) is

a phenomenological law derived from numerous experimental observations

rather than ﬁrst principles. It holds for all the physical conﬁgurations we

shall study here, but additional terms are required for more complicated ma-

terials, for example some animal tissues

2.2

. Heat ﬂux is clearly a directional

quantity. The general three–dimensional form written in vector notation is

(2.2) q

= −k ∇T = −k

ˆ

i

∂T

∂x

+

ˆ

j

∂T

∂y

+

ˆ

k

∂T

∂z

.

Although the negative sign in Eqs. (2.1) and (2.2) looks rather strange,

it is required for consistency of the physics. Heat energy is conducted along

a temperature gradient. That is, energy ﬂows from a high temperature

region to one of lower temperature. For example, in Fig. 2.1 energy ﬂows

in the positive x direction, therefore q

**must be a positive quantity. The
**

temperature gradient is

dT

dx

=

T

2

−T

1

x

2

−x

1

,

which is clearly a negative quantity, since x

2

−x

1

is positive, but T

2

−T

1

is

negative. In fact, T

2

−T

1

must be negative, otherwise the resulting gradient

2.1

We follow the notation of Incropera and Dewitt (2002) where double–prime in-

dicates a ﬂux, whereas lack thereof indicates the quantity has been integrated over an

area.

2.2

This situation is quite analogous to Newtonian versus Non–Newtonian ﬂuids. Re-

call that for a Newtonian ﬂuid, shear stress and rate of strain are linearly related, where

the constant of proportionality is the viscosity. For Non–Newtonian ﬂuids, additional

terms result in much more complicated relationships.

7

2.2. THERMAL PROPERTIES OF MATTER 8

T

x

T

T

1

2

x x

1

2

heat flow

Figure 2.1. Heat is conducted along a negative gradient from

high temperature toward low temperature, shown in the positive

direction here.

would not allow energy to ﬂow as shown. Since k is deﬁned as positive, the

leading negative sign is clearly required for consistency. In this sense, the

temperature gradient is very similar to the pressure gradient in pipe ﬂow:

movement proceeds along a negative gradient.

2.2. Thermal Properties of Matter

We mentioned the thermal conductivity k as a material parameter in

Fourier’s Law. Two other quantities are important to the problems we wish

to study: the volumetric heat capacity, ρc

p

, and the thermal diﬀusivity, α.

Unites for these quantities are list in Table 2.1. Other properties will arise

Table 2.1. Thermal properties

Property Notation Units

thermal conductivity k W/(m K)

volumetric heat capacity ρ c

p

J/(m

3

K)

thermal diﬀusivity α = k/(ρ c

p

) m

2

/s

as well, including many of those associated with ﬂuid mechanics problems

and surface properties for radiation. These will be introduced as needed.

Recalling that the physical basis for conductivity is at the molecular

and atomic levels

2.3

, we would suspect that solids would generally have the

highest conductivities, followed by liquids, and ﬁnally gases. This is in fact

the case and is largely due to diﬀerences in the molecular spacings (Fig. 2.2).

As mentioned, the desire for heat transfer problems is to determine the

temperature distribution for a given problem. The subject of materials

2.3

At the atomic levels, this is primarily associated with the concept of free, or mobile

electrons, especially for metals.

2.3. THE CONDUCTION EQUATION 9

gases

liquids

non−metallic solids

alloys

pure metals

0.01 0.1 1 10 100 1000

thermal conductivity (W / m K)

Figure 2.2. Approximate ranges of thermal conductivity for

various classiﬁcations of matter.

science deals much more comprehensively with such issues. Actual values are

available in many references (e.g. Incropera and Dewitt, 2002, Appendix A).

2.3. The Conduction Equation

It was mentioned in the opening sentences of Chapter 1 that the goal of

heat transfer is to determine the temperature distribution. In the general

case, this will depend on all three spatial dimensions and on time, so that

T = T(x, y, z, t). We introduced Fourier’s Law in Eq. (2.1), but this alone

does not provide a foundation for calculating T. Instead, we must base

our theoretical framework on the conservation law for energy, which was

introduced only at a conceptual level in Chapter 1.

We extend the conceptual treatment using the classic diﬀerential ap-

proach; The resulting equation will be valid for every diﬀerential point in

a problem domain. This is characteristic of diﬀerential formulations: the

conservation law must be satisﬁed simultaneously for all (x, y, z, t). In this

sense, the diﬀerential formulation is exact, however, it typically presents

a more challenging mathematical situation than the integral approach

2.4

.

We deﬁne an inﬁnitely small control volume

2.5

with a properties of inter-

est deﬁned in the center. Any properties depending upon a ﬂux can be

extrapolated to the boundaries using truncated 1–term Taylor series

2.6

.

Deﬁne the diﬀerential element according to the volume δx × δy × δz

(Fig. 2.3). According to the concept of conduction, the material is either a

solid, or a non–moving ﬂuid. We formulate all quantities at a given instant

2.4

The integral approach is not typically as important in heat transfer as in ﬂuid

mechanics, but will be introduced later for certain conﬁgurations.

2.5

Once again, the concept of “inﬁnitely small” remains restricted to the continuum

assumption introduced in Chapter 1. A term more suitable is then perhaps “diﬀerential”,

which connotes, small enough, but not too small.

2.6

Terms of second–order and higher can all be neglected since they involve products

of the diﬀerential quantities, e.g. (δx)

2

, which are exceedingly small.

2.3. THE CONDUCTION EQUATION 10

x

y

z

δ x

δ y

δ z

q

q

q

q

q

t

l

f

r

b

q

n

q, E

st

E

gen

.

.

Figure 2.3. Diﬀerential volume showing energy generation

˙

E

gen

and energy storage

˙

E

st

terms in the center and heat ﬂuxes at

the boundaries.

of time: the energy generation and storage terms,

˙

E

gen

and

˙

E

st

, represented

as volumetric entities in the element, and all heat conduction terms at the

boundaries. Expressing these terms as 1–term Taylor series expansions with

respect to their associated values deﬁned in the center, we ﬁnd

(2.3) q

l

= q

x

−

∂q

x

∂x

δx

2

(2.4) q

r

= q

x

+

∂q

x

∂x

δx

2

(2.5) q

b

= q

y

−

∂q

y

∂y

δy

2

(2.6) q

t

= q

y

+

∂q

y

∂y

δy

2

(2.7) q

f

= q

z

−

∂q

z

∂z

δz

2

(2.8) q

n

= q

z

+

∂q

z

∂z

δz

2

Energy generation is simply

(2.9)

˙

E

gen

= ˙ q δx δy δz ,

2.3. THE CONDUCTION EQUATION 11

where ˙ q is the per unit volume rate of generation

2.7

. Finally, the rate of

change of thermal energy stored in the element can be expressed as

(2.10)

˙

E

st

= ρ c

p

∂T

∂t

δx δy δz .

These terms can be used directly in the conceptual conservation law

in Eq. (1.1) on pp. 3, where the rate of energy entering the element is

˙

E

in

= q

b

+q

f

+q

l

and the rate of energy leaving is

˙

E

out

= q

n

+q

r

+q

t

. This

operation yields

(2.11) ρ c

p

∂T

∂t

δx δy δz = ˙ q δx δy δz + q

b

+ q

f

+ q

l

− (q

n

+ q

r

+ q

t

) ,

which becomes

(2.12) ρc

p

∂T

∂t

δxδy δz = ˙ q δxδy δz +

q

y

−

∂q

y

∂y

δy

2

+

q

z

−

∂q

z

∂z

δz

2

+

q

x

−

∂q

x

∂x

δx

2

−

q

z

+

∂q

z

∂z

δz

2

−

q

x

+

∂q

x

∂x

δx

2

−

q

y

+

∂q

y

∂y

δy

2

,

after substituting Eqs. (2.3) through (2.6) for the heat conduction terms.

We then cancel and combine terms appropriately to get

(2.13) ρ c

p

∂T

∂t

δx δy δz = ˙ q δx δy δz −

∂q

x

∂x

δx +

∂q

y

∂y

δy +

∂q

z

∂z

δz

.

Eq. (2.13) represents the limit in terms of what can be derived strictly

from theory. It cannot be solved, because T and q are both unknowns

2.8

.

However, we have additional relationships between T and q in the form of

Fourier’s Law! In light of Eq. (2.2), we can express the heat terms as

(2.14) q

x

= −k

∂T

∂x

δy δz

(2.15) q

y

= −k

∂T

∂y

δx δz

(2.16) q

z

= −k

∂T

∂z

δx δy

which can be substituted into Eq. (2.13) to obtain

(2.17) ρ c

p

∂T

∂t

δx δy δz = ˙ q δx δy δz −

¸

∂

∂x

−k

∂T

∂x

δy δz

δx

+

∂

∂y

−k

∂T

∂y

δx δz

δy +

∂

∂z

−k

∂T

∂z

δx δy

δz

.

2.7

This is the unfortunate notation used in Incropera and Dewitt (2002), which can

be easily confused with heat conduction q and heat ﬂux q

.

2.8

We assume that heat generation ˙ q would be prescribed, or would be measurable

for a problem.

2.3. THE CONDUCTION EQUATION 12

All volume terms δx×δy×δz cancel and all double–negatives cancel, leaving

(2.18) ρ c

p

∂T

∂t

= ˙ q +

∂

∂x

k

∂T

∂x

+

∂

∂y

k

∂T

∂y

+

∂

∂z

k

∂T

∂z

**as the general three–dimensional time–dependent form of the heat conduc-
**

tion equation. We have explicitly derived this equation in the Cartesian

(rectangular) coordinate system, which will be suﬃcient for many of the

problems we will study. However, in some instances we will require the

cylindrical and spherical forms of the conduction equation. Most reference

texts address these cases (e.g. Incropera and Dewitt, 2002).

Eq. (2.18) expresses conservation of energy in terms of the single de-

pendent variable of temperature T. We can solve this in principle because

there is one equation and exactly one unknown. In mathematical terms,

this is a linear partial diﬀerential equation, since T does not appear in the

form of any products of itself, or its derivatives

2.9

. Thus, these problems

are amenable to theoretical treatments. Non–linear systems (which do exist

in many problems) typically require advanced theory and/or computational

treatment.

You should have a conceptual understanding of what the terms in this

equation mean physically. For example, if we multiply ∂/∂x(k ∂T/∂x) in

Eq. (2.18) by dx and compare to terms in Eq. (2.11), we see

(2.19)

∂

∂x

k

∂T

∂x

dx = q

l

− q

r

is essentially the net heat ﬂux into the control volume in the x direction.

Similar interpretations hold for the corresponding terms in the y and z

directions. Thus, Eq. (2.18) speciﬁes that the net rate of conduction into

the control volume plus the rate of generation is equal to the rate of change

of energy stored at any point in the domain.

Notice that we have not made any assumptions regarding the conduc-

tivity k in Eq. (2.18). However, if k is a constant, it can be moved outside

of the derivatives, so that

(2.20)

1

α

∂T

∂t

=

˙ q

k

+

∂

2

T

∂x

2

+

∂

2

T

∂y

2

+

∂

2

T

∂z

2

,

where ˙ q is again the energy generation rate per unit volume (W/m

3

) and α

is the thermal diﬀusivity. Mathematically, this is more straightforward to

work with than Eq. (2.18). Further simpliﬁcations are possible, for example

2.9

Actually, the assumption of linearity of the overall equation also depends on the

heat generation term ˙ q as being itself linear. However, if ˙ q depended upon T in some

non–linear fashion, e.g. as a power of T, then the equation would no longer be linear.

We shall not discuss such complicated cases here, as the theoretical treatment is quite

diﬃcult.

2.4. BOUNDARY AND INITIAL CONDITIONS 13

if conduction is also steady (stationary), Eq. (2.20) reduces to

(2.21)

˙ q

k

+

∂

2

T

∂x

2

+

∂

2

T

∂y

2

+

∂

2

T

∂z

2

= 0 .

Moreover, if energy generation is absent, we obtain

(2.22)

∂

2

T

∂x

2

+

∂

2

T

∂y

2

+

∂

2

T

∂z

2

= 0 ,

which can also be written ∇

2

T = 0 using the Laplacian operator

(2.23) ∇

2

=

∂

2

∂x

2

+

∂

2

∂y

2

+

∂

2

∂z

2

.

Finally, if temperature varies only in one coordinate direction, we obtain

(2.24)

d

2

T

dx

2

= 0 ,

where the regular derivative d has replaced the partial derivative ∂ since

temperature is a now a function of only a single variable, i.e. T = T(x).

2.4. Boundary and Initial Conditions

The various forms of the conduction equation we have just discussed

govern the physics of how heat is conducted in the interior of some pre–

deﬁned domain. However, this still does not completely deﬁne the problem.

We must also have some speciﬁcation of temperature (or its derivatives)

on the boundaries of the domain — these are called boundary conditions.

Moreover, if the problem is also unsteady, we must also know the initial

condition for the problem. That is, we must have the value of T (or its

derivative) at some speciﬁc time.

As you may remember from diﬀerential equations, there are two required

boundary conditions for each spatial coordinate in the problem since these

terms are in the form of second derivatives. Conversely, there is only one

initial condition needed for any unsteady problem because the temporal

term appears as a ﬁrst derivative. Almost always, the latter takes the form

of prescribing T itself at some instant of time, usually by convention at

t = 0, which can be written in a few diﬀerent ways

(2.25) T(x, t) |

t=0

= T(x, 0) = T

0

(x) ,

where x is one, two, or three spatial coordinates, depending upon the prob-

lem, and T

0

is a function of T that gives the temperature distribution

throughout the domain at the particular instant of time.

Boundary conditions, on the other hand, can take a number of forms,

depending upon the physics of the problem. The most obvious case is similar

to the initial condition, where a speciﬁc value of T is speciﬁed at a coordinate

location. For example we could write

(2.26) T(x, t) |

x=0

= T

s

,

2.4. BOUNDARY AND INITIAL CONDITIONS 14

where T

s

is the temperature at the surface coinciding with the coordinate

location x = 0. Eq. (2.26) is commonly known as a boundary condition of

the ﬁrst kind, or a Dirichlet boundary condition, and is common to heat

transfer problems. For example, if the boundary is in contact with a medium

undergoing a phase change, the constant temperature boundary condition

is a good model.

A boundary condition of the second kind, or Neumann boundary con-

dition, involves the derivative of T. For instance, Fourier’s Law in Eq. (2.1)

on pp. 7 is a ready–made Neumann boundary condition when applied at a

physical boundary, e.g.

(2.27) −k

∂T

∂x

x=0

= q

s

.

In other words, the heat ﬂux q

s

at the x = 0 boundary is related to the

temperature gradient ∂T/∂x at x = 0 as prescribed by this equation

2.10

.

The special case of the adiabatic (perfectly insulated) boundary is given by

(2.28)

∂T

∂x

x=0

= 0 .

Boundary conditions of the third type, also called Robbins boundary

conditions, specify a balance between energy conduction at the boundary

and the rate at which this energy is convected away. This case was described

conceptually in Fig. 1.3 and Eq. (1.3) on pp. 4 in Chapter 1. The form is

something of a combination of the ﬁrst two types of boundary condition in

that it contains both temperature itself and its derivative

(2.29) −k

∂T

∂x

x=0

= h (T

∞

− T |

x=0

) ,

where T

∞

is a temperature characterizing the ﬂuid which convects heat

away and h is a convection coeﬃcient which we discuss at length in later

chapters

2.11

.

2.10

Note that we have replaced the regular derivative d with the partial derivative

∂ to indicate that the temperature may be multi–dimensional, whereas we had not yet

introduced this concept in Eq. (2.1).

2.11

For the moment, we will assume that h is known for problems involving Eq. (2.29).

Later, we will see that convection heat transfer is largely the study of determining h.

CHAPTER 3

One–Dimensional Steady Conduction

Here, we will examine problems where conduction occurs along only one

primary dimension, say the x direction, and where the problem is steady.

Recall, that Eq. (2.24) on pp. 13 governs this situation, i.e.

(3.1)

d

2

T

dx

2

= 0 .

This equation is useful for conceptual understanding of conduction, but is

also a good engineering approximation for cases where there is dominance in

one dimension. For example, consider the two–dimensional domain shown

in Fig. 3.1 and assume that the temperature on the boundaries is given by

the equations

x

y

(0, 0)

1

y

x

1

Figure 3.1. Two–dimensional domain with one dimension

much longer than the other, i.e. x

1

y

1

.

T |

x=0

= T |

y=0

= 0 and T |

x=x

1

= T |

y=y

1

= T

1

.

According to discussions in Chapter 2, particularly Eq. (2.22) on pp. 13,

we could deduce that this problem is governed formally by the conduction

equation

(3.2)

∂

2

T

∂x

2

+

∂

2

T

∂y

2

= 0 .

However, if we look at the relative sizes of temperature gradients using a

simple ﬁnite–diﬀerence approximation,

∂T

∂x

≈

T

1

−0

x

1

−0

and

∂T

∂y

≈

T

1

−0

y

1

−0

,

it is clear that gradients in the x direction will be small compared to those in

the y direction. Thus, such a problem could be satisfactorily approximated

as one–dimensional.

15

3.1. GENERAL SOLUTION 16

3.1. General Solution

The diﬀerential equation for the steady one–dimensional heat conduction

problem is trivial to solve by direct integration. Integrating Eq. (3.1) once

gives

(3.3)

dT

dx

= C

1

and integrating once again yields

(3.4) T = C

1

x + C

2

,

where C

1

and C

2

are constants to be determined using the boundary con-

ditions. An interesting physical observation can be gleaned for all one–

dimensional problems, regardless of their boundary conditions. Speciﬁcally,

Eq. (3.3) shows that the temperature gradient in the domain is a constant,

so that the temperature variation given by Eq. (3.4) is linear. Thus, the

temperature distribution is a line whose endpoints are the boundary temper-

atures and, according to Fourier’s Law, the heat ﬂux is constant throughout

the domain.

Example 3.1:

The heads of the Titanic’s 29 coal–ﬁred steam boilers can be modeled as

simple circular plates having a radius of r = 2.4m. Assuming a b = 0.05m

plate thickness, a thermal conductivity of k = 60W/mK, a hot–side steam

temperature of T

h

= 400K, and a stoker room temperature of T

c

= 310K,

determine the heat transfer through one of the heads.

r = 2.4

400 K 310 K

x

b = 0.05

Figure 3.2. Frontal and planar view of Titanic steam boiler

head.

Gradients in the radial direction will be small compared to gradients

through the head since the dimensions diﬀer by about a factor of ﬁfty, there-

fore, we can treat this problem one–dimensionally. According to the ﬁgure,

the boundary conditions are T(0) = T

h

and T(b) = T

c

. Using the gen-

eral solution in Eq. (3.4), we can solve for the constants as C

2

= T

h

and

3.2. CIRCUIT ANALOGY 17

C

1

= (T

c

−T

h

)/b. This gives a temperature distribution of

T(x) =

T

c

−T

h

b

x + T

h

.

The total heat transfer is simply the heat ﬂux times the area of the boiler

plate. From Fourier’s Law, we obtain

q = −k A

dT

dx

= −kπr

2

C

1

= −60 · π · 2.4

2

310 −400

0.05

= 1.95 MW .

Thus, the heat transfer is almost 2 million Watts. ♦♦♦

3.2. Circuit Analogy

The linear nature of the solution in Eq. (3.4) suggests an analogy between

heat conduction and electrical conduction. Recall that in a linear circuit,

current I ﬂows along gradients in voltage ∆V = V

2

−V

1

through a resistance

R (Fig. 3.3). These entities are related through the simple linear circuit

R

V

1

V

2

I

Figure 3.3. Linear circuit showing current ﬂowing through a

resistor along a voltage gradient.

equation

(3.5) ∆V = I R

Looking more closely at Eqs. (3.3) and (3.4), we see that the linear drop

in temperature gradient coupled with Fourier’s Law allows us to write the

conduction heat transfer in the exact form as

(3.6) q = −k A

dT

dx

= −k A

T

2

−T

1

L

= k A

T

1

−T

2

L

= ∆T

k A

L

,

where the generic problem is deﬁned according to boundary conditions

T(0) = T

1

and T(L) = T

2

. A little algebra shows the equivalent relationship

(3.7) ∆T = q

L

k A

= q R

t

,

whose form is identical to Eq. (3.5) where ∆T is analogous to voltage (driv-

ing potential), q is analogous to current (what “ﬂows” in the circuit), and

R

t

is a thermal resistance. More speciﬁcally, R

t

in Eq. (3.7) is the thermal

resistance of conduction, for which we can use the slightly more descriptive

notation

(3.8) R

t,cond

=

L

k A

.

3.2. CIRCUIT ANALOGY 18

In Eq. (2.29) on pp. 14, we introduced the idea of convection heat trans-

fer as quantiﬁed by a convection coeﬃcient h. This equation is a form of

Newton’s Law of Cooling

(3.9) q = h A (T |

x=0

− T

∞

) ,

which shows that this form of convection is also linear. Again, some simple

algebra allows us to arrange this equation as

(3.10) T |

x=0

− T

∞

= q

1

h A

.

Or, put more directly

(3.11) ∆T = q R

t,conv

,

where

(3.12) R

t,conv

=

1

h A

is the thermal resistance for convection.

Are such analogs useful for practical problem solving? To answer this

question, refer back to the idea at the beginning of this chapter where we

discussed the pure one–dimensional problem versus the multi–dimensional

problem for which the size of the terms allowed us to use a one–dimensional

approximation. The former case is easily analyzed by solving Eq. (3.1) and

applying boundary conditions. But how can we treat the latter situation,

for example with respect to a problem having composite layers all of diﬀer-

ent thermal conductivities as shown in Fig. 3.4? Here, the top and bottom

T

1

T

2

T

1

T

2

y

x

1

2

3

4

L

1

L

2,3

4

L

R

R

3

1

R

2

4

R

Figure 3.4. One–dimensional problem in a composite domain

along with corresponding thermal circuit model.

boundaries are insulated, and temperature variation is only important in the

x direction. So the problem is one–dimensional, but cannot conveniently be

treated using Eq. (3.1). However, it readily yields to the circuit analogy.

Speciﬁcally, we need only reduce the analogous circuit diagram to the sim-

plest possible arrangement using the standard rules of circuit analysis:

3.2. CIRCUIT ANALOGY 19

• Resistors in series have additive resistance, e.g. for N resistors in

series

R

t,total

= R

t,1

+ R

t,1

+ · · · + R

t,N

• Resistors in parallel are governed by the reciprocal relationship,

e.g. for N resistors in parallel

1

R

t,total

=

1

R

t,1

+

1

R

t,1

+ · · · +

1

R

t,N

These resistances are of the appropriate variety: conductive as given by

Eq. (3.8) or convective, as in Eq. (3.12). Nodes function exactly as in cir-

cuit analysis as well. For example, the temperature at the interface between

two layers can be computed from the corresponding nodal value in the cir-

cuit diagram. Thus, the entire conduction problem can be solved using the

standard tools from circuit analysis. Moreover, the circuit model allows us

to neatly account for other factors, such as the large drop in temperature

across the interface of between two materials. Microscopically, an interface

contains small gas–ﬁlled voids that may present a signiﬁcant thermal “con-

tact resistance” R

t,c

, which we would expect to be able to determine based

on the two materials (Incropera and Dewitt, 2002). Lets look at an example

that combines all of these phenomena.

Example 3.2:

A manufacturer of pre–fabricated components for high–rise buildings is

determining the thermal rating of a new panel design. The system consists

of a header made up of an exterior cladding material having thermal con-

ductivity k

c

, and an inner insulator of conductivity k

i

, window glass with

conductivity k

g

, and a footer of the same construction as the header. It can

be assumed that heat transfer occurs one–dimensionally through the panel.

What would the thermal circuit for this system be assuming that there is

a thermal contact resistance of R

c

between the cladding and insulator com-

ponents?

The panel height and width are w×L and the header, pane, and footer

each have a height of w/3. The total thickness is t, half of which is cladding

and half of which is insulating material. The following factors must be

accounted for

• convection boundary condition that relates the temperature of the

outside air T

∞

to the temperature of the panel’s outer surface T

s,o

through a known convection coeﬃcient h — based on a total surface

area of wL, Eq. (3.12) indicates this resistance would be

R

conv

=

1

w L h

• heat transfer through the header and footer, which is resisted by the

cladding, the insulator, and the contact resistance between them,

which we assume is known to be R

c

— these three resistances are

3.2. CIRCUIT ANALOGY 20

L

t / 2

t / 2

glass

insulation

cladding

w / 3

w / 3

w / 3

heat transfer

Figure 3.5. Pre–fabricated window panel for a high–rise build-

ing.

in series, so they are additive, with the conductive resistances for

cladding and insulators given by Eq. (3.8). The total for each of

the header and footer is

R

h,f

=

t/2

k

c

L w/3

cladding

+ R

c

+

t/2

k

i

L w/3

insulation

• heat transfer through the glass pane, whose resistor is also given

by Eq. (3.8) as

R

g

=

t

k

g

L w/3

cladding

where we note the the full thickness t appears in the numerator

since the glass is twice as thick as the cladding and insulation.

• convection boundary condition that relates the temperature of the

inside oﬃce environment T

office

to the temperature of the panel’s

inner surface T

s,i

through a known convection coeﬃcient h — since

the area and the coeﬃcient are the same as for the external side,

this resistor is given by R

conv

above

We can assemble these into the circuit diagram shown in Fig. 3.6, where the

nodes give the appropriate temperatures. This can easily be reduced to a

single circuit via the rules for resistors in parallel and in series. ♦♦♦

3.3. CYLINDRICAL CONFIGURATIONS 21

R

conv

R

h,f

R

conv

R

g

R

h,f

T

T

oo

s,i

T

T

s,o

office

Figure 3.6. Circuit model for pre–fabricated window panel.

3.3. Cylindrical Conﬁgurations

As with the Cartesian system, the circuit analogy is applicable to other

coordinate systems if a one–dimensional model of conduction is justiﬁed. If

we were to go through the same derivation of the conduction equation in

cylindrical coordinates (r, θ, z) as shown back in Chapter 2, we would ﬁnd

(3.13) ρ c

p

∂T

∂t

= ˙ q +

1

r

∂

∂r

k r

∂T

∂r

+

1

r

2

∂

∂θ

k

∂T

∂θ

+

∂

∂z

k

∂T

∂z

**(see e.g. Incropera and Dewitt, 2002, for derivation). If we assume one–
**

dimensional steady conductivity in the radial direction, a constant thermal

conductivity k, and no heat generation, Eq. (3.13) simpliﬁes to

(3.14)

k

r

d

dr

r

dT

dr

= 0 .

When integrated twice, this yields

(3.15) T(r) = C

1

ln r + C

2

,

where C

1

and C

2

are constants to be determined using the boundary con-

ditions.

Assume we have an annular section where T = T

h

at r = r

h

(an inner

“hot” side) and T = T

c

at r = r

c

(an outer “cool” side) where r

c

> r

h

> 0.

Substituting, we get T

h

= C

1

ln r

h

+ C

2

and T

c

= C

1

ln r

c

+ C

2

. Therefore,

T

h

− T

c

= C

1

(ln r

h

− ln r

c

) = C

1

ln(r

h

/r

c

), which can be solved for the

constant as

(3.16) C

1

=

T

h

−T

c

ln (r

h

/r

c

)

.

Backsubstituting, the value of the other constant is found to be

(3.17) C

2

= T

c

−

T

h

−T

c

ln (r

h

/r

c

)

ln r

c

,

so that the resulting temperature distribution is

(3.18) T(r) =

(T

h

−T

c

) ln (r/r

c

)

ln (r

h

/r

c

)

+ T

c

.

3.3. CYLINDRICAL CONFIGURATIONS 22

Application of the Fourier Law yields

(3.19) q = −k A

dT

dr

= −k × (2 π r L) ×

T

h

−T

c

ln (r

h

/r

c

)

r

c

r

1

r

c

,

where L is the length along the z coordinate direction of the domain. With

a little algebra, this can be simpliﬁed to

(3.20) q =

2 π L k (T

h

−T

c

)

ln (r

c

/r

h

)

,

where we have absorbed the negative sign according to ln (r

c

/r

h

) = −ln (r

h

/r

c

).

Recalling from Eq. (3.7) that the thermal resistance R

t

= ∆T/q, we see that

the thermal circuit representation for conduction in a cylindrical domain is

(3.21) R

t

=

ln (r

c

/r

h

)

2 π L k

.

Recall, we have assumed r

c

> r

h

> 0 thus far, so we could write Eq. (3.21)

in a slightly more generic form as

(3.22) R

t

=

ln (r

o

/r

i

)

2 π L k

,

where subscripts “o” and “i” denote the outer and inner boundaries, respec-

tively.

Let’s go back for a minute to the M–16 cooling problem. The bores of

GI barrels are chrome–plated for increased wear and anti–fouling properties,

however, this adds another “layer” of thermal resistance (Fig. 3.7). Let r

i

r

r

r

convection

i

i

T

T

oo

o

c

T

o

Figure 3.7. Chrome–plated GI M–16 barrel.

be the radius of the bore, r

c

the radius of the chrome plating, and r

o

be

the outer radius of the barrel. We assume that the plating is “perfect”, i.e.

there are no interstitial voids, so there is no thermal contact resistance. Also

let’s assume that conditions in the bore are such that the bore temperature

equals the temperature at the inner surface of the barrel. How can this

system be represented by a thermal circuit? We simply construct a series

circuit representing the thermal resistance of the chrome plating, the barrel

itself, and the convection occurring at the outer surface of the barrel, as

depicted in Fig. 3.8. Applying the circuit analogy, we ﬁnd

3.4. HEAT GENERATION 23

T

i

T

o

T

oo

R

plating

R

barrel

R

convection

Figure 3.8. Circuit for M–16 barrel problem.

(3.23) q =

T

i

−T

∞

R

plating

+R

barrel

+R

convection

,

where

(3.24) R

plating

=

ln (r

c

/r

i

)

2 π L k

chrome

,

(3.25) R

barrel

=

ln(r

o

/r

c

)

2 π L k

barrel

,

(3.26) R

convection

=

1

2 π r

o

L h

.

Here, L is the length of the barrel and h is the convection coeﬃcient at its

outer surface. We notice that for this problem, the thickness of plating is

very thin, therefore r

c

/r

i

is just slightly more than unity . The natural log I&D Ex. 3.4

pp 107 of this is close to zero, therefore, we conclude that chrome–plating the barrel

does not measurably aﬀect the heat transfer situation.

3.4. Heat Generation

We now want to look at the important case of heat generation occurring

in the medium itself, e.g. conversion of electrical energy to heat energy

through the action of Ohmic resistance. Simplifying Eq. (2.21) for one–

dimensional conduction in a Cartesian domain, we obtain

(3.27)

d

2

T

dx

2

+

˙ q

k

= 0 ,

where for example ˙ q = I

2

R

elec

per unit volume for the electric problem.

This equation is straightforward to solve by direct integration, which yields

(3.28) T(x) = −

˙ qx

2

2k

+ C

1

x + C

2

as the general solution. Again, we must use the boundary conditions to

evaluate the constants of integration.

Let us consider an application of Eq. (3.28) to the problem of DNA

fragment separation using Polyacrylimide Gel Electrophoresis

3.1

. This tech-

nique, used to generate the raw data of the Human Genome Project (Lander

et al., 2001), separates fragments by size by exploiting the diﬀerence in net

charge (Fig. 3.9). The axial voltage diﬀerence leads to heat generation within

3.1

Fred Sanger won the 1980 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for inventing the sequencing

reaction that supplies the input for this process.

3.4. HEAT GENERATION 24

migration of DNA fragments

h

i

g

h

v

o

l

t

a

g

e

l

o

w

e

r

v

o

l

t

a

g

e

x = + L

T

s

T

s

x = − L

x

Figure 3.9. Polyacrylimide Gel Electrophoresis.

the gel, which is a signiﬁcant design consideration in sequencing lab instru-

mentation. If there is a suﬃcient temperature rise, DNA will de–nature in

the gel. Let the gel thickness be 2L and the ohmic dissipation per unit

volume be ˙ q = I

2

R

gel

. Also, let the temperature at both surface of the gel

be T

s

. We can solve for the constants as C

1

= 0 and C

2

= 0.5 ˙ q L

2

/k +T

s

,

so that the exact solution is

(3.29) T(x) =

˙ qL

2

2k

1 −

x

2

L

2

+ T

s

.

This is a parabolic proﬁle with a maximum at x = 0 (the center of the gel)

of

(3.30) T

max

=

˙ qL

2

2k

+ T

s

.

Eq. (3.30) describes the inﬂuences that design parameters have on the pro-

cess.

• the surface temperature of the gel T

s

results from the surrounding

temperature in the laboratory environment, which we assume is

not a systematically controlled variable

• heat generation ˙ q results from the voltage gradient and is therefore

a function of the experimental requirements — this is maximized

to the greatest degree possible to achieve reasonable results

• the gel conductivity k is essentially a ﬁxed parameter

• the gel thickness 2L can be directly controlled — gels are therefore

made as thin as possible

Since it appears as a square, L is a strong variable, for example halving it

reduces the temperature rise by a factor of four. I&D Ex. 3.6

pp 117 Solutions are developed in a similar fashion for the cylindrical coordinate

system. The governing equation is

(3.31)

1

r

d

dr

r

dT

dr

+

˙ q

k

= 0 .

3.4. HEAT GENERATION 25

Once again, integrating twice, we get the general solution

(3.32) T(r) = −

˙ q r

2

4 k

+ C

1

ln r + C

2

.

Now let’s look at an interesting combination problem for which the circuit

analogy can be applied for part of the problem, but for the other part having

heat generation it can’t.

Example 3.3:

Find the current–carrying capacity of a wire (Fig. 3.10) assuming the

failure mode is the onset of insulation melting and ﬁnd the temperature

in the wire at this condition. Assume failure occurs at T = 330K. The

following parameters are given, where “w” denotes a wire property and “i”

denotes an insulation property:

• radii: r

w

= 0.002m and r

i

= 0.003m

• conductivities: k

w

= 80W/(mK) and k

i

= 10W/(mK)

• convection parameters: T

∞

= 300K and h

i

= 20W/(m

2

K)

• electrical resistance: ρ

w

= 0.008Ω/m

T

w

T

i

i

n

s

u

l

a

t

i

o

n

w

i

r

e

r

w

r

i

T

oo

Figure 3.10. Electrical power transmission wire.

Current capacity: Intuitively, we know that the maximum insulation

temperature will occur at the wire surface r

w

because if heat is ﬂowing

radially outward, the temperature in the insulation at larger radii must be

lower. Since there’s no energy generation in the insulation, we can use

the thermal circuit analogy to solve for the limiting current I. The circuit

equation is q = (T

w

−T

∞

)/R

total

, where the resistors are added in series as

R

total

= R

insul

+ R

convec

=

ln (r

i

/r

w

)

2 π L k

i

+

1

2 π r

i

L h

i

and L is the length of the wire. This simpliﬁes to

R

total

=

0.00645 + 2.6526

L

K

W

=

2.659

L

K

W

.

3.4. HEAT GENERATION 26

T T T

R R

w i oo

insul convec

Figure 3.11. Circuit representing the wire insulation.

Because the system is steady–state, the heat generated by the dissipation

all goes through the insulation, therefore q is simply the dissipation rate,

which is I

2

R

electric

= 0.008LI

2

W. Therefore, from the circuit equation, we

have

0.008LI

2

2.659

L

= T

w

−T

∞

,

where T

w

−T

∞

= 30K. This results in

I

2

=

30

0.008 · 2.659

,

which yields 37.6 Amps

3.2

.

Max wire temperature: For the wire, no circuit analogy can be used

because of the heat generation. Therefore, we have to refer back to the

general solution in Eq. (3.32) for temperature with heat generation:

T(r) = −

˙ q r

2

4 k

+ C

1

ln r + C

2

.

We see that because the wire is a solid cross–section that C

1

= 0, otherwise

the term would blow up because ln 0 →−∞, so that

T(r) = −

˙ q r

2

4 k

+ C

2

.

We have to know the volumetric heat generation rate, ˙ q, which can be

computed as

˙ q =

˙

E

gen

V ol

=

I

2

R

electric

π r

2

w

L

=

0.008 L 37.6

2

π 0.002

2

L

= 897, 828

W

m

3

.

Now we can evaluate C

2

using the fact that the temperature at the wire—

insulation boundary is known to be 330 K at failure, therefore

C

2

= T(0.002) +

˙ qr

2

4k

= 330 +

897, 828 · 0.002

2

4 · 80

= 330.01 K .

The exact solution is therefore

T(r) = −

˙ q r

2

4 k

+ 330.01 ,

3.2

This is about enough to carry the load of forty 100 W light bulbs. Of course,

with an appropriate safety factor deﬁned by a municipal electrical code, the maximum

prescribed load would be somewhat less.

3.5. FIN ANALYSIS 27

which allows us to determine the temperature at the center of the wire in a

straightforward fashion. Evaluating T(0), we ﬁnd

T(0) = C

2

= 330.01 K .

We see that there’s hardly any diﬀerence in temperature between the center

of the wire and the edge of the wire. It’s essentially at a constant tempera-

ture. ♦♦♦

3.5. Fin Analysis

Extended surfaces, or “ﬁns”, are often used to increase heat transfer, for

example as applied to air conditioner coils, I/C chips, heat exchangers, car

radiators, lawn mower engines, pipes, etc. Why is this the case? If we recall

the concept of Newton’s Law of Cooling introduced in Eq. (3.9) on pp. 18,

we can write a generic form of this convection equation as

(3.33) q = h A

T |

surface

− T

fluid

,

where h is once again the convective heat transfer coeﬃcient. How can the

various components of this equation be modiﬁed to increase q?

• T

fluid

: Usually this cannot be changed much, if at all, for example

if air is the working ﬂuid then the atmospheric air temperature is

essentially a constant.

• T |

surface

: Similar to T

fluid

, the device temperature and thus the

resulting surface temperature is usually constrained to a small op-

erating range.

• h: This can be increased to a degree, however, it is still highly

constrained, for example adding a blower to increase convection

may be possible, but it may be impractical due to weight, size

restrictions, electrical considerations, aerodynamics, etc.

• A: It’s easy to increase this by huge margins using ﬁns!

Of course, to properly analyze such systems, we must ﬁrst have the ap-

propriate equation describing the conservation of energy. Here, we develop

the so–called ﬁn equation, which is a special case of the general conduction

equation that explicitly incorporates a convection boundary condition. In

the usual fashion, we analyze a diﬀerential length dx of a ﬁn as shown in

Fig. 3.12. Here, energy is conducted along the ﬁn in the x direction and dis-

sipated by convection along the entire radial boundary. Conduction in this

problem is actually two–dimensional, both in the radial direction and along

the axis. However, as with the wire problem in the previous example, tem-

perature gradients are small in the radial direction, so that conduction will

be correspondingly small enough to be neglected. We therefore assume the

3.5. FIN ANALYSIS 28

A

c

d x

x

d A

s

q

x

q

x + dx

d q

conv

convection

cooling around a

fin

x

x + dx

Figure 3.12. Diﬀerential ﬁn element.

conduction is strictly one–dimensional along the axial x direction. We will

further assume steady–state conditions, constant conductivity, and constant

convection coeﬃcient. The local cross–sectional area at x is A

c

, however, we

assume this can vary along the axis, so we properly write this as a function

of x, as in A

c

(x). The local boundary area exposed to convection is dA

s

,

which is a constant for any particular element.

Heat is conducted into the element at x at a rate of q

x

and is conducted

out of the element at x +dx at a rate q

x+dx

. Heat is convected away at the

radial boundary at a rate dq

conv

. For energy to be conserved, we write the

equation

(3.34) q

x

= q

x+dx

+ dq

conv

.

(This is clearly a form of Eq. (1.1) on pp. 3:

˙

E

stored

=

˙

E

in

+

˙

E

gen

−

˙

E

out

,

where

˙

E

stored

=

˙

E

gen

= 0.) We immediately recognize q

x

from Fourier’s

Law in Eq. (2.1) on pp. 7, which can be written for this problem as

(3.35) q

x

= −k A

c

(x)

dT

dx

,

where A

c

(x) is again the cross–sectional area of the ﬁn that varies with x.

We can expand q

x+dx

according to a truncated 1–term Taylor series

3.3

to

obtain

(3.36) q

x+dx

= q

x

+

dq

x

dx

dx = −k A

c

(x)

dT

dx

− k

d

dx

A

c

(x)

dT

dx

dx ,

where we have removed k from under the derivative in the second term,

since it is assumed constant. Finally, we write the convection term once

3.3

Recall we did this with the derivation of the conduction equation in Chapter 2 for

ﬂux terms as well.

3.5. FIN ANALYSIS 29

again according to Newton’s Law of Cooling as

(3.37) dq

conv

= h dA

s

(T − T

∞

) ,

where T

∞

is the temperature of the ﬂuid absorbing the heat. We can

now substitute these components back into our original conservation law

in Eq. (3.34) to obtain

(3.38) h dA

s

(T − T

∞

) − k

d

dx

A

c

(x)

dT

dx

dx = 0 .

If we divide by k dx and change sign, we get the canonical form

(3.39)

d

dx

A

c

(x)

dT

dx

−

h

k

dA

s

dx

(T − T

∞

) = 0 .

This equation is the generalized ﬁn equation for one–dimensional conduction.

It is a second–order equation which requires 2 boundary conditions to solve

it.

Notice that a non–trivial aspect of Eq. (3.39) is that we must know the

function A

c

(x) before we can solve the problem. That is, Eq. (3.39) depends

on the geometric attribute of how the cross–section varies along the ﬁn. Let

us examine the most straightforward case: a uniform cross–section. Under

these conditions, the total surface area A

s

is simply the perimeter of the

cross–section P multiplied by the length x

A

s

= P x ,

so that we obtain dA

s

/dx = P by simple diﬀerentiation. Moreover, for

constant cross–section A

c

(x) →A

c

is a constant and can be moved outside

of the diﬀerential term in Eq. (3.39). With these two observations, Eq. (3.39)

simpliﬁes to

(3.40)

d

2

T

dx

2

−

h P

k A

c

(T − T

∞

) = 0 .

This is a second–order linear non–homogeneous equation, however, it’s not

as easily integrated as the standard conduction equation because it contains

both the second derivative of T and T itself. We recall from diﬀerential

equations that the typical method of handling this type of equation is (1)

solve the homogeneous form then (2) solve to get the particular solution,

then (3) sum to get the general solution. However, in this case we are lucky

that a change of variables

3.4

can be made to reduce the problem to a simple

second–order homogeneous equation: θ(x) = T(x) −T

∞

. The result is

(3.41)

d

2

θ

dx

2

− m

2

θ = 0 ,

3.4

Since T∞ is a constant, derivatives of T can be recast directly in terms of θ, for

example

dT

dx

=

d(θ +T∞)

dx

=

dθ

dx

+

dT∞

dx

=

dθ

dx

.

Further derivatives clearly show the same behavior.

3.5. FIN ANALYSIS 30

where

(3.42) m

2

=

h P

k A

c

is a composite parameter made up of the physical and geometric attributes

of the problem. The general solution for Eq. (3.41) can be written in the

form of exponentials as

(3.43) θ(x) = C

1

e

mx

+ C

2

e

−mx

.

Likewise, it could also be written in terms of the hyperbolic trigonometric

functions according to the identities

(3.44) cosh β =

e

β

+ e

−β

2

and

(3.45) sinhβ =

e

β

− e

−β

2

.

Of course, now we are back in the old position of having to use boundary

conditions for an actual problem to determine the constants of integration.

We once again need 2 boundary conditions, one at the base of the ﬁn x = 0,

and one at the end of the ﬁn at x = L (Fig. 3.13). The ﬁrst boundary

x

x = 0

x = L

Figure 3.13. Boundary locations for ﬁns.

condition is rather straightforward: at the base of the ﬁn we will assume

that the temperature is known, i.e. T(0) = T

0

. In our derived variable, this

translates to θ(0) = T(0) − T

∞

= T

0

− T

∞

= θ

0

. If we substitute this into

Eq. (3.43), we ﬁnd that one of our boundary equations will always be

(3.46) θ(0) = θ

0

= C

1

+ C

2

.

At the end of the ﬁn, there are 4 cases that are of interest here. Listed in

order of mathematical diﬃculty, they are:

3.5. FIN ANALYSIS 31

• Fin is very long: Fins convect heat to the surrounding ﬂuid along

their length. If we assume that the ﬁn tip is very long, i.e. L →

∞, eventually all of the heat will be convected away, so that the

temperature at the very end must be equal to T

∞

. That is, there is

no longer any temperature gradient because there is no more heat

to be transferred. According to our original substitution θ(x) =

T(x) − T

∞

, this means that θ(∞) → 0. If we substitute this into

Eq. (3.43), it is clear that the ﬁrst term would be unbounded, so

we must conclude that C

1

= 0. We can then use the boundary

condition at the base to ﬁnd C

2

= θ

0

, so that the solution is

(3.47) θ(x) = θ

0

e

−mx

.

• Negligible ﬁn tip convection: In this case, we assume the end of the

ﬁn is insulated, so that q = 0 at x = L. Writing this in terms of

Fourier’s Law, we obtain a boundary condition of

dθ

dx

x=L

= 0 .

We can take the derivative of Eq. (3.43)

dθ

dx

= C

1

me

mx

− C

2

me

−mx

and substitute this into the boundary condition to obtain the equa-

tion

C

1

e

mL

− C

2

e

−mL

= 0 .

This equation, along with the boundary condition from x = 0 in

Eq. (3.46) allows us to solve for the constants. For example, we

have C

1

= θ

0

− C

2

from Eq. (3.46), which can be substituted into

the above equation

0 = (θ

0

−C

2

) e

mL

− C

2

e

−mL

= θ

0

e

mL

− C

2

e

mL

+e

−mL

so that C

2

can be solved as

C

2

= θ

0

e

mL

e

mL

+e

−mL

.

We can substitute this right back into Eq. (3.46) to solve for C

1

as

C

1

= θ

0

− θ

0

e

mL

e

mL

+e

−mL

= θ

0

1 −

e

mL

e

mL

+e

−mL

**which, with a little algebra, simpliﬁes to
**

C

1

= θ

0

e

−mL

e

mL

+e

−mL

.

3.5. FIN ANALYSIS 32

Finally, we can substitute C

1

and C

2

into Eq. (3.43) to obtain the

exact solution

θ(x) = θ

0

e

−mL

e

mL

+e

−mL

e

mx

+ θ

0

e

mL

e

mL

+e

−mL

e

−mx

= θ

0

e

−mL

e

mx

+ e

mL

e

−mx

e

mL

+e

−mL

= θ

0

e

m(L−x)

+ e

−m(L−x)

e

mL

+e

−mL

.

According to the identity for cosh in Eq. (3.44), we can write this

result in the more simple form

(3.48) θ(x) = θ

0

cosh m(L −x)

cosh mL

,

which is the exact solution.

• Fin tip temperature is known: That is, we have a standard Dirichlet

boundary condition at x = L, similar to that at the base x = 0

θ(L) = θ

L

.

The procedure to evaluate C

1

and C

2

for this case is identical to

what we have seen so far, although the algebra is somewhat more

involved. The ﬁnal solution turns out to be

(3.49) θ(x) =

θ

L

sinhmx + θ

0

sinhm(L −x)

sinhmL

.

• Convection from ﬁn tip: Rate of energy transfered to the ﬂuid by

convection at the tip of the ﬁn equals the rate at which energy

arrives at the tip via conduction. We write the standard equation

h A

c

T(L) −T

∞

= −k A

c

dT

dx

x=L

,

which can be simpliﬁed using our change of variables to

h θ(L) = −k

dθ

dx

x=L

.

This case is the most tedious to solve. We ﬁnd

(3.50) θ(x) = θ

0

cosh m(L −x) + λ sinhm(L −x)

cosh mL + λ sinhmL

,

where λ = h/(mk) is a constant that depends upon the character-

istics of the boundary condition, speciﬁcally h and k.

In each of these four cases, we now know the exact temperature distri-

bution for the entire ﬁn in terms of our modiﬁed variable θ(x). In principle,

it should now be possible to calculate the total amount of heat transfered

by the ﬁn to its surroundings q

f

. This is the quantity of primary interest

3.5. FIN ANALYSIS 33

for many real–world problems. But how do we do this? As is often the case,

there is an easy way, and a hard way.

Refer to Fig. 3.14. One of our original assumptions was that the problem

x

convection

convection

q

f

fin

temperature

Figure 3.14. Schematic and qualitative temperature distribu-

tion in a constant cross–section ﬁn. Magnitude of temperature

gradient decreases with increasing x as a consequence of the reduc-

tion in q with increasing x due to continuous convection loss from

the ﬁn surface.

is steady state, so that the energy entering the ﬁn via conduction at x = 0

must be equal to the energy convected by the ﬁn to its surroundings over its

total area, i.e. over 0 ≤ x ≤ L. The two possibilities may already be clear

at this point.

The hard way is to integrate Newton’s Law of Cooling about the entire

surface area of the ﬁn

q

f

=

As

h (T(x) −T

∞

) dA

s

=

As

h θ(x) dA

s

.

By deﬁnition, this gives us the entire energy transferred to the surround-

ings. While this task is somewhat straightforward for the inﬁnite ﬁn using

Eq. (3.47), the other cases are rather more diﬃcult, especially since the ﬁn

tip convection must be considered

3.5

. Conversely, the easy way is to sim-

ply evaluate the total heat transferred into the ﬁn by way of Fourier’s Law

applied at the base of the ﬁn x = 0

(3.51) q

f

= −k A

c

dθ

dx

x=0

.

Since we know the exact temperature distribution, this is a simple matter

of taking a ﬁrst derivative. For example, in the case of the inﬁnite ﬁn, we

ﬁnd

dθ

dx

= −θ

0

me

−mx

,

3.5

The exception is of course the case of the insulated ﬁn tip.

3.6. FIN PERFORMANCE METRICS 34

which can be evaluated at x = 0 and substituted into Eq. (3.51) to yield

q

f

= −k A

c

(−θ

0

m) = θ

0

k A

c

m.

Recalling the original deﬁnition of parameter m from Eq.(3.42), we can write

the result in the more intuitive form

(3.52) q

f

= θ

0

h P k A

c

.

This equation indicates that the temperature diﬀerence at the base is the

strongest parameter of the problem. In particular, doubling the temperature

diﬀerence will double the heat transfer. Conversely, the other four variables

are not as signiﬁcant, since they appear as square roots. For example,

to double the heat transfer, the convection coeﬃcient would have to be

increased by a factor of 4, and so forth.

Total heat transfer for the other three cases can be worked out in a

similar fashion. If we write the shorthand quantity in Eq. (3.52) as ξ =

θ

0

√

h P k A

c

, we ﬁnd for the adiabatic (insulated) ﬁn tip

(3.53) q

f

= ξ tanh mL ,

for the prescribed ﬁn tip temperature boundary condition I&D Ex. 3.8

pp 133

(3.54) q

f

= ξ

cosh mL − θ

L

/θ

0

sinhmL

,

and for the convective ﬁn tip boundary condition

(3.55) q

f

= ξ

sinhmL + λ cosh mL

cosh mL + λ sinhmL

,

where again λ = h/(mk).

3.6. Fin Performance Metrics

The fact that heat must be conducted along the ﬁn means that the ﬁn

itself represents a thermal resistor in the context of the circuit analogy. In

other words, a conductor has been added to an original un–ﬁnned surface

and this represents another resistance. So how do we know that a ﬁn actually

helps increase the heat transfer? We can evaluate this by using a measure

of ﬁn eﬀectiveness, i.e. the ratio of the ﬁnned heat transfer rate, q

f

, to the

heat transfer that would occur without the ﬁn, h A

c

θ

0

(3.56) ε

f

=

q

f

h A

c

θ

0

,

where A

c

is cross–sectional area of the virtual ﬁn and θ

0

represents the

temperature diﬀerence at that location. Generally, the use of ﬁns can be

justiﬁed if there would be at least a 100 % increase in heat transfer, i.e.

ε

f

≥ 2 (Incropera and Dewitt, 2002).

If we make what might be a big assumption in some cases, i.e. the

coeﬃcient of convection h stays the same whether the ﬁn is present or not, we

3.6. FIN PERFORMANCE METRICS 35

can compute ε

f

for a variety of cases. For example, we can insert Eq. (3.52)

for the inﬁnite ﬁn into Eq. (3.56) to ﬁnd

(3.57) ε

f

=

θ

0

√

h P k A

c

h A

c

θ

0

=

k P

h A

c

.

What does this say generally about ﬁns?

• Fin performance is enhanced by using a high conductivity material.

Of course, this is almost obvious.

• An eﬀective ﬁn has a high P/A

c

ratio, that is the perimeter is large

compared to the cross–sectional area. For example, assume the

ﬁn has a square cross–section of side length b, then P = 4b and

A

c

= b

2

, therefore P/A

c

= 4/b, which means the ratio, thus the

eﬀectiveness improves as b becomes smaller. Therefore, lots of thin,

closely–spaced ﬁns promote heat transfer, with the provision that

the space between them is still enough to maintain good convection.

• The use of ﬁns is justiﬁed for conditions when h itself is small,

because the increase in heat transfer can be many fold.

Typically h for gases is much lower than h for liquids (e.g. Incropera and

Dewitt, 2002, Table 1.1, pp. 8). In particular, unforced convection for a gas

is quite low. That’s why for cases like the small lawn mower engine, which

does not have an active cooling system, there are always ﬁns to augment

heat removal. Heat exchanger design also follows such logic. Automotive

radiators have lots of ﬁns on the air side (low h), but no ﬁns on the anti–

freeze coolant side (high h).

Another metric is ﬁn eﬃciency, i.e. the ratio of the actual heat transfer,

q

f

, to the maximum possible heat transfer, hA

f

θ

0

, which would take place if

the entire ﬁn was at the base temperature, so that convection was maximized

all along the ﬁn length

3.6

. The form is

(3.58) η

f

=

q

f

h A

f

θ

0

.

Eqs. (3.52) through (3.55) can be used to compute the eﬃciency for constant–

area ﬁns using the various types of boundary conditions we have discussed.

Eﬃciencies for more complicated ﬁns, for example those having variable

cross–sectional areas, have been worked out and tabulated in references (e.g.

¨

Ozi¸sik, 1985; Mills, 1999; Incropera and Dewitt, 2002).

Perhaps more useful is the concept of overall ﬁn eﬃciency for an array of

ﬁns. The deﬁnition is similar to Eq. (3.58) for a single ﬁn, except quantities

are summed for all ﬁns, i.e.

(3.59) η

0

=

q

total

h A

total

θ

0

.

3.6

Recall from Fig. 3.14 that the gradient along a real ﬁn lessens the heat transfer.

3.6. FIN PERFORMANCE METRICS 36

We can derive a relationship between η

f

for a single ﬁn and the overall

eﬃciency for N ﬁns as follows. First, the total area A

total

is simply the sum

of the areas of all the ﬁns plus the remaining overall area of the unﬁnned

base A

b

. For N ﬁns this is

(3.60) A

total

= NA

f

+ A

b

.

According to Eq. (3.58), the heat transfer from one ﬁn is η

f

hA

f

θ

0

, so that

the heat transfer from N ﬁns is Nη

f

hA

f

θ

0

. We include the heat transfer

from the remaining unﬁnned base hA

b

θ

0

, so that the total heat transfer is

(3.61) q

total

= Nη

f

hA

f

θ

0

+ hA

b

θ

0

.

Now, assuming that h is taken as a single constant value for both the ﬁnned

surface and the remaining area of the base, we can substitute Eqs. (3.60)

and (3.61) into Eq. (3.59) to ﬁnd

(3.62) η

0

=

Nη

f

hA

f

θ

0

+ hA

b

θ

0

h(NA

f

+ A

b

) θ

0

=

Nη

f

A

f

+ A

b

NA

f

+ A

b

·

This equation is sometimes given in a slightly diﬀerent form that can be

derived by adding and subtracting 1 from η

f

as

η

0

=

N (η

f

+ 1 −1) A

f

+ A

b

NA

f

+ A

b

=

[NA

f

+ A

b

] + (η

f

−1) NA

f

NA

f

+ A

b

,

which simpliﬁes to I&D Ex. 3.9

pp 144

(3.63) η

0

=

A

total

− (1 −η

f

) NA

f

A

total

= 1 −

NA

f

A

total

(1 −η

f

) .

Eq. (3.63) can be used to calculate the total heat transfer for a ﬁn array.

CHAPTER 4

Transient Conduction

4.1. Generalities

There are of course numerous engineering situations where unsteady ef-

fects are important. For example, the annealed steel quenching problem

that we alluded to in Chapter 1. Consider also solar systems whose input is

a function of the sun’s position, which changes as a function of time, or the

start–up and shut–down of any generic thermal system, for instance inter-

nal combustion engines. Mathematically, these represent fairly complicated

conduction problems, i.e. whereas steady 1–D conduction problems can be

reduced to an ordinary diﬀerential equation, transient problems (in general)

result in a partial diﬀerential equation, which is typically much more diﬃcult

to solve. Speciﬁcally, if we simplify the general equation of heat conduction,

Eq. (2.18) on pp. 12, to model a 1–D transient problem, we get

(4.1)

∂T

∂t

= α

∂

2

T

∂x

2

,

where α is the thermal diﬀusivity. This equation is quite a bit more diﬃcult

to solve than what we’ve seen up to now.

4.2. Lumped Capacitance Analysis

That said, we’ll now reverse ourselves and look at a special case where

the problem can still be described by a fairly simple ordinary diﬀerential

equation. Consider the conceptual case where spatial gradients in a material

vanish, i.e. the temperature in the material is spatially uniform at any

instant in time

4.1

. By Fourier’s Law, it is implied that heat transfer with no

gradient can only take place if conductivity approaches inﬁnity, a physical

situation that is not realistic within our current framework. Speciﬁcally

q

= −k

dT

dx

= 0

if dT/dx → 0, but k → ∞. So although this situation is not actually pos-

sible, it may be closely approximated if the resistance to conduction within

the material is low compared to the resistance of energy transfer from the

boundary of the material to its surroundings. In other words, the approxima-

tion may be valid if the convection at the boundary is the “rate–determining

4.1

For example, recall that the temperature in the electrical wire problem back in

Chapter 3 was very nearly constant.

37

4.2. LUMPED CAPACITANCE ANALYSIS 38

step”. The method we derive to treat this conﬁguration is lumped capac-

itance analysis. Let us assume, for the moment, that temperature in a

conducting body is approximately constant. Gradients do not arise, so the

conventional conduction equation is not relevant. Instead, we can write

an overall energy balance, akin to Eq. (1.1) on pp. 3, except that we need

only account for the energy transfer that takes place at the boundary of the

conductor by the mechanism of convection. That is

˙

E

stored

= −

˙

E

out

,

where

˙

E

out

is the rate at which convection removes heat energy. This is once

again quantiﬁed by Newton’s law of Cooling as

˙

E

out

= hA

surf

(T −T

∞

). The

rate at which heat energy stored decreases is E

stored

= ρV cdT/dt. This gives

ρV c

dT

dt

= −hA

surf

(T −T

∞

) .

Or, making the standard change of variables as introduced in Chapter 3,

θ(t) = T(t) −T

∞

, this becomes

(4.2)

dθ

dt

= −

hA

surf

ρV c

θ .

Eq. (4.2) is a so–called separable diﬀerential equation, which can be con-

veniently solved as follows. First, re–arrange Eq. (4.2) so the variables are

“separated” as

dθ

θ

= −

hA

surf

ρV c

dt

then integrate over a ﬁnite time

θ

θ

0

dθ

θ

= −

hA

surf

ρV c

t

0

dt

,

where t

and θ

**are variables of integration. Note that on the left hand side,
**

we are explicitly using limits that correspond to the initial condition (at

t = 0) and to the condition at the time t of interest, i.e.

θ|

t

=0

= θ

0

and θ|

t

=t

= θ(t) = θ .

Carrying out the integration, we ﬁnd

ln θ

θ

θ

0

= −

hA

surf

ρV c

t

t

0

,

which evaluates to

(ln θ − ln θ

0

) = −

hA

surf

ρV c

t .

Using the logarithm identity (ln a − ln b) = ln(a/b), we can write this ex-

pression more conveniently as

ln

θ

θ

0

= −

hA

surf

ρV c

t .

4.3. APPLICABILITY OF LUMPED CAPACITANCE 39

Finally, we can exponentiate both sides to obtain the more useful form

(4.3) θ = θ

0

exp

−

hA

surf

ρV c

t

.

Substituting back the actual temperatures, we can also write the alternative,

but equivalent form

(4.4)

T(t) −T

∞

T(0) −T

∞

= exp

−

hA

surf

ρV c

t

,

where T(0) is the initial temperature of the conductor.

According to Eq. (4.4), temperature response is a simple exponential

when spatial gradients are small enough to be neglected. We can write this

equation as

(4.5)

T(t) −T

∞

T(0) −T

∞

= e

−t/τ

,

where

(4.6) τ =

ρV c

hA

surf

=

1

hA

surf

(ρV c)

is a “time constant”. Notice that the ﬁrst term is the standard form for

the convective resistance we examined back in Chapter 3. Increasing this

resistance, i.e. decreasing either h, A

surf

, or both, increases the response

time of the system. The second term, ρV c, is the lumped thermal capacitance

of the conductor. Likewise, any increase of this term increases response time.

In engineering systems, we would be interested not only in T(t), but also

in how much heat was transferred over a particular time period. Determining

the total energy transferred over some period of time is simply a matter of

integrating Newton’s Law of Cooling over a particular time range

Q =

t

0

q dt

= hA

surf

t

0

θ dt

,

which gives

(4.7) Q = ρV c θ

0

1 −e

−t/τ

.

4.3. Applicability of Lumped Capacitance

The lumped capacitance method provides a very convenient analysis of

problems where gradients are negligible, with solutions for temperature and

total heat transfer given respectively by Eqs. (4.3) and (4.7). Aside from

the qualitative constraint about gradients, how do we actually determine

whether such analysis is applicable? Recall, we know conceptually that this

method is valid if the tendency for energy transfer via conduction within the

material is much greater than the tendency for energy transfer via convection

at the boundary. In other words, the resistance to conduction within the

material must be low compared to the resistance of energy transfer from the

boundary of the material to its surroundings. We can quantify this using a

4.3. APPLICABILITY OF LUMPED CAPACITANCE 40

T

s2

T

s2

T

s2

low Biot (<<1)

moderate Biot (~1)

high Biot (>>1)

s1

T

T

oo

conduction convection

x = 0

x = L

Figure 4.1. Diagram of relative magnitudes of temperature

gradients for various Biot numbers.

simple conduction–convection energy equation written at a boundary, e.g.

at x = L in Fig. 4.1. Assuming no heat generation, we use a straight–line

gradient to represent dT/dx in Fourier’s Law, so that we write

kA(T

s1

−T

s2

)

L

= hA(T

s2

−T

∞

) .

Re–arranging terms, we ﬁnd

(4.8)

T

s1

−T

s2

T

s2

−T

∞

=

hL

k

= Bi ,

where Bi is called the Biot number. We emphasize that k is the thermal

conductivity of the conductor, not the surrounding ﬂuid

4.2

. The Biot Num-

ber is a dimensionless parameter that describes the ratio of the temperature

drop (gradient) in the solid relative to the temperature drop (gradient) from

the surface to the ﬂuid. Recalling our assumption of small temperature gra-

dient in the material, we would expect lumped capacitance analysis to be

valid when the Biot Number is very small, i.e. Bi 1. Notice further

Eq. (4.8) provides a straightforward way to evaluate Bi based on measur-

able parameters of the problem without even having to know what these

gradients are in advance. Mathematically, we can restate the simpliﬁcation

as T(x, t) →T(t) for Bi 1. It follows that the very ﬁrst thing one should

do when confronted with a transient temperature problem is check the Biot

Number! Convention has it that lumped capacitance can be used when

4.2

We will ﬁnd a dimensionless expression similar to Eq. (4.8) called the Nusselt num-

ber arises in convection, except where k in that case is the conductivity of the surrounding

ﬂuid.

4.3. APPLICABILITY OF LUMPED CAPACITANCE 41

Bi < 0.1 (Incropera and Dewitt, 2002). Error in neglecting gradients is

then less than 5 % (

¨

Ozi¸sik, 1985).

The values for k and h are clear, as is the value of L if the geometry is

simple, e.g. as in Fig. 4.1. However, what is the length scale L if the geome-

try is more complicated? Often, we resort to using a so–called characteristic

length scale L

c

which can be deﬁned as, for example, the ratio of the volume

to the surface area in the direction of heat transfer of the conductor

L

c

=

V

A

surf

.

For example, this convention can be applied to some of the most common

geometries, e.g. as shown in Fig. 4.2.

H

slab: width 2L

cylinder: radius R

sphere: radius R

R

2L

x

R

Figure 4.2. Common geometries for which characteristic

length scales can be determined.

• Slab: V = 2L × H × D, where D denotes depth. Area is both

sides in the direction of heat transfer: A

surf

= 2(H × D), so that

L

c

= L.

• Cylinder: V = πR

2

H and area is the surface area in the (radial)

direction of heat transfer 2πRH, so that L

c

= R/2.

• Sphere: V = 4πR

3

/3 and A = 4πR

2

giving L

c

= R/3.

Speciﬁc problems may observe other conventions, for instance the length

scale might be chosen to correspond to the dimension where the maximum

∆T occurs. This may be more conservative. I&D Ex. 5.1

pp 245

4.4. CASTING THE GENERAL ONE–DIMENSIONAL PROBLEM 42

4.4. Casting the General One–Dimensional Problem

The condition Bi 1 clearly excludes many cases of interest. For

conﬁgurations where Lumped Capacitance analysis is not valid, we must go

back to the governing equation of conduction, Eq. (4.1), which we recall is

∂T

∂t

= α

∂

2

T

∂x

2

,

where α is the thermal diﬀusivity. This is a partial diﬀerential equation

rather than an ordinary diﬀerential equation, and is therefore more diﬃcult

to solve. In general, we obtain the solution T(x, t) according to the following

procedure.

• Obtain the general solution via advanced calculus techniques, in-

cluding separation of variables and integral transforms (

¨

Ozi¸sik,

1980).

• Specify 1 initial condition. This will be used to evaluate the con-

stant of integration resulting from the ﬁrst–order temporal term.

We recall the basic form from Lumped Capacitance analysis, al-

though, now instead of simply being constant, the initial tempera-

ture may be some function of the spatial variable

T(x, 0) = T

0

(x) .

• Specify 2 boundary conditions. These will be used to evaluate the

2 constants of integration resulting from the second–order spatial

term. We recall this from steady 1–D conduction analysis, for ex-

ample an insulated surface at the left and a convective boundary

condition for the surface on the right:

dT

dx

x=0

= 0

and

h[T(L, t) −T

∞

] = −k

dT

dx

x=L

.

Therefore, the problem is a multivariate function

(4.9) T = T(x, t, T

0

, T

∞

, L, k, α, h) .

The physical manifestation of this problem is shown in Fig. 4.3. The “insu-

lated” boundary condition is equivalent to a “symmetry” condition at x = 0.

That is, no heat is conducted across the x = 0 boundary, so the temperature

proﬁle is symmetric about this point.

Before delving into this problem, it is worthwhile to mention the stan-

dard practice of non–dimensionalizing the system, which was probably cov-

ered in ﬂuid mechanics

4.3

. One of the primary advantages of this process

is to reduce the number of relevant variables in the problem. For example,

4.3

Panton (1984) has an extensive discussion of dimensional analysis, including proofs

of the relevant theorems.

4.4. CASTING THE GENERAL ONE–DIMENSIONAL PROBLEM 43

x*

convection

Figure 4.3. Diagram of transient problem.

recall how 3 separate variables in a standard ﬂow problem: characteristic

velocity and length, u

0

and L

0

, and kinematic viscosity, ν, can be combined

into a single group, the Reynolds number, Re. In a typical study of drag,

D, for an aerodynamic body, instead of plotting families of curves for u

0

,

L

0

, and ν versus D, we simply plot Re versus D. So what are the relevant

non–dimensional groups in our 1–D conduction problem? Going through

the non–dimensionalization process using the Buckingham–Π Theorem, we

ﬁnd a number of relevant “groups”:

• Dimensionless temperature: According to our now–standard vari-

able substitution θ = T − T

∞

, we can write a dimensionless tem-

perature as

θ

∗

=

T −T

∞

T

0

−T

∞

=

θ

θ

0

,

which clearly implies the limits 0 ≤ θ

∗

≤ 1.

• Dimensionless spatial coordinate: Using the characteristic length

dimension, we obtain

x

∗

=

x

L

.

• Dimensionless time coordinate: Time may be non–dimensionalized

using the characteristic length dimension and the thermal diﬀusiv-

ity, as in

t

∗

=

αt

L

2

= Fo ,

4.4. CASTING THE GENERAL ONE–DIMENSIONAL PROBLEM 44

where Fo is commonly called the Fourier Number

4.4

.

To apply the same dimensionless treatment to the governing equation,

Eq. (4.1), we ﬁrst determine how derivatives behave in the dimensionless

realm using the Chain Rule of Calculus, as in

∂

∂t

=

∂

∂t

∗

∂t

∗

∂t

=

α

L

2

∂

∂t

∗

and

∂

∂x

=

∂

∂x

∗

∂x

∗

∂x

=

1

L

∂

∂x

∗

.

The latter expression leads us to the required second derivative in x, as in

∂

2

∂

2

x

=

∂

∂x

∂

∂x

=

∂

∂x

1

L

∂

∂x

∗

=

1

L

∂

∂x

∗

∂x

∗

∂x

∂

∂x

∗

=

1

L

2

∂

2

∂

2

x

∗

.

Using these expressions, Eq. (4.1) can be written in the dimensionless form

(4.10)

∂θ

∗

∂t

∗

=

∂

2

θ

∗

∂x

∗ 2

Likewise, the initial condition becomes

(4.11) θ

∗

(x

∗

, 0) = 1

and boundary conditions become

(4.12)

dθ

∗

dx

∗

x

∗

=0

= 0

and

(4.13) −Bi · θ

∗

(1, t

∗

) =

dθ

∗

dx

∗

x

∗

=1

.

The number of relevant variables has been dramatically reduced as compared

to the dimensional form of the problem stated in Eq. (4.9). That is, the

problem is now

(4.14) θ

∗

= θ

∗

(x

∗

, t

∗

, Bi) ,

where the single parameter, the Biot number, arises in the boundary condi-

tions.

4.4

This is the unfortunate nomenclature used in most texts. The Fourier number is

not a dimensionless “number” in the same sense as, for example the Reynolds number in

ﬂuid mechanics. It is a function of time, although it does not have any units. Therefore,

it would be more appropriately referred to as a dimensionless coordinate. However, as

a ﬁrst approximation, it does also connote the relative eﬀectiveness with which a body

conducts and stores energy (e.g. Incropera and Dewitt, 2002, pp. 256). In that sense, it

could also be loosely interpreted as a “dimensionless number”.

4.5. TRANSIENT ANALYSIS IN ONE DIMENSION 45

4.5. Transient Analysis in One Dimension

Eqs. (4.10) through (4.13) represent a linear partial diﬀerential system.

As mentioned, the solution process involves advanced techniques, including

separation of variables or integral transforms (

¨

Ozi¸sik, 1980). At this point,

rather than examining details of the actual solution process for this system,

let us use the well–established solution directly. The solution takes the form

of an inﬁnite series

(4.15) θ

∗

=

∞

¸

n=1

C

n

e

−ζ

2

n

t

∗

cos ζ

n

x

∗

,

where the mode coeﬃcients are

(4.16) C

n

=

4 sin ζ

n

2ζ

n

+ sin (2ζ

n

)

and ζ

n

are eigenvalues given by the roots of the transcendental equation

(4.17) ζ

n

tan ζ

n

= Bi .

Several roots for various values of Bi have been tabulated (e.g. Incropera

and Dewitt, 2002, Appendix B.3, pp. 936).

This solution is quite a bit more complex than what we have dealt with so

far, especially since the eigenvalues are not given by an explicit relationship.

However, except for small values of the Fourier Number (t

∗

< 0.2), the series

can be approximated by the ﬁrst term only. Thus, for t

∗

= Fo > 0.2, the

solution can be taken to be

(4.18) θ

∗

= C

1

e

−ζ

2

1

t

∗

cos ζ

1

x

∗

,

where

(4.19) C

1

=

4 sin ζ

1

2ζ

1

+ sin (2ζ

1

)

.

We can express the solution equivalently as

(4.20) θ

∗

= θ

∗

0

cos ζ

1

x

∗

,

where θ

∗

0

is the time–dependent temperature at the mid–plane x = 0

(4.21) θ

∗

0

= C

1

e

−ζ

2

1

t

∗

.

A condensed summary of coeﬃcients C

1

and the eigenvalues ζ

1

is provided

in Table 4.1. Extensive tabulations are available in reference texts (e.g.

Incropera and Dewitt, 2002, pp. 258).

To calculate the total amount of heat transferred over some interval, we

again resort to our basic conservation equation

∆E

stored

= E

in

− E

out

,

where Q = E

out

, E

in

= 0, and ∆E

stored

= E(t) − E(0). Substituting these

quantities, we can integrate the expression over the domain to obtain the

4.5. TRANSIENT ANALYSIS IN ONE DIMENSION 46

Table 4.1. Coeﬃcients and eigenvalues for the one–term

approximate solution of transient heat conduction in the rect-

angular coordinate system.

Bi ζ

1

C

1

Bi ζ

1

C

1

Bi ζ

1

C

1

0.01 0.0998 1.0017 0.2 0.4328 1.0311 2.0 1.0769 1.1795

0.02 0.1410 1.0033 0.25 0.4801 1.0382 3.0 1.1925 1.2102

0.03 0.1732 1.0049 0.3 0.5218 1.0450 4.0 1.2646 1.2287

0.04 0.1987 1.0066 0.4 0.5932 1.0580 5.0 1.3138 1.2402

0.05 0.2217 1.0082 0.5 0.6533 1.0701 6.0 1.3496 1.2479

0.06 0.2425 1.0098 0.6 0.7051 1.0814 7.0 1.3766 1.2532

0.07 0.2615 1.0114 0.7 0.7506 1.0919 8.0 1.3978 1.2570

0.08 0.2791 1.0130 0.8 0.7910 1.1016 9.0 1.4149 1.2598

0.09 0.2956 1.0145 0.9 0.8274 1.1107 10.0 1.4289 1.2620

0.10 0.3111 1.0160 1.0 0.8603 1.1191 20.0 1.4961 1.2699

∞ 1.5707 1.2733

total heat transfer, as in

Q = −[E(t) −E(0)] = −

vol

ρ c [T(t) −T

0

] dV .

Let us introduce a (non–obvious) factor Q

0

to non–dimensionalize this equa-

tion based on the initial temperature diﬀerence, i.e. the temperature diﬀer-

ence at t = 0

Q

0

= ρ c V [T

0

−T

∞

] .

The expression Q

0

is not only the initial energy present, it is also the max-

imum amount of energy which could be transferred as t → ∞. The ratio

Q/Q

0

is therefore the fraction of total energy transferred over an interval

0 →t. We ﬁnd

Q

Q

0

=

vol

−ρ c [T(t) −T

0

]

ρ c [T

0

−T

∞

]

dV

V

=

vol

−[T(t) −T

0

]

[T

0

−T

∞

]

dV

V

,

which can be manipulated further by adding and subtracting T

∞

in the

numerator to obtain

Q

Q

0

= −

vol

T(t) −T

∞

T

0

−T

∞

−

T

0

−T

∞

T

0

−T

∞

dV

V

.

Using our deﬁnition of θ

∗

, this simpliﬁes to

Q

Q

0

=

1

V

vol

(1 −θ

∗

) dV .

Integration can be carried out by substituting the one–term approximate

solution, preferably Eq. (4.20), into this expression. Recall, the length of

our dimensionless domain varies as 0 ≤ x

∗

≤ 1 from the mid–plane to the

4.5. TRANSIENT ANALYSIS IN ONE DIMENSION 47

edge. If we take w

∗

and l

∗

to be dimensionless width and depth of our

domain, we have dV = w

∗

l

∗

dx

∗

and V = w

∗

l

∗

· 1 = w

∗

l

∗

. We thus ﬁnd

Q

Q

0

=

1

w

∗

l

∗

1

0

(1 −θ

∗

0

cos ζ

1

x

∗

) w

∗

l

∗

dx

∗

=

1

0

(1 −θ

∗

0

cos ζ

1

x

∗

) dx

∗

.

Again, recall that θ

∗

0

only describes the time–dependent temperature behav-

ior at the mid–plane, so it is not a function of dx

∗

. Also, the eigenvalue ζ

1

is a constant. We therefore have a simple “cosine” integration, which yields

Q

Q

0

=

¸

x

∗

−

θ

∗

0

ζ

1

sin ζ

1

x

∗

1

0

,

which evaluates to

(4.22)

Q

Q

0

= 1 −

θ

∗

0

ζ

1

sin ζ

1

.

These results can, of course, also be applied to a slab of thickness L with

an insulated boundary on the left at x

∗

= 0, since the mathematical problem,

speciﬁcally the boundary conditions, are exactly the same as the problem

we have just examined. Also, our result can also be applied to problems

where there is a step change of the surface temperature on free boundary at

x

∗

= 1 to a new value T

s

. Conceptually, we would realize the same result if

we allowed a step change in ﬂuid temperature T

∞

→ T

s

and prescribed an

inﬁnite Biot number

4.5

, so that the change in ﬂuid temperature would also

be immediately transmitted to the surface at x

∗

= 1. Thus, step change

problems of this sort are handled by allowing Bi →∞. I&D Ex. 5.4

pp 262 For other systems, e.g. the inﬁnitely long cylinder and the sphere, similar

approaches can be taken to determine exact solutions. These are even more

complicated than slab problems because of the additional considerations that

non–rectangular coordinate systems place on the problem. For example, the

solution for radial one–dimensional transient conduction is

θ

∗

=

∞

¸

n=1

2

ζ

n

J

1

(ζ

n

)

J

2

0

(ζ

n

) + J

2

1

(ζ

n

)

e

−ζ

2

n

t

∗

J

0

(ζ

n

r

∗

) ,

where t

∗

= αt/r

2

0

and J

0

and J

1

are Bessel functions of the ﬁrst kind. Here,

eigenvalues are the roots of

ζ

n

J

1

(ζ

n

)

J

0

(ζ

n

)

= Bi .

So, we ﬁnd that the problems are more diﬃcult, but their solutions appear

to be more diﬃcult to evaluate, as well. Luckily, we ﬁnd that the one–term

approximation is again valid for t

∗

= Fo > 0.2, so that tabulated values

(e.g. Incropera and Dewitt, 2002, pp. 258) can be used directly.

4.5

Recall from Eq. (4.8) the form of the Biot number is Bi = hL/k, so that an inﬁnite

Biot number is equivalent to prescribing an inﬁnite convection coeﬃcient h.

4.6. THE SIMILARITY TECHNIQUE 48

4.6. The Similarity Technique

Another geometry which can be studied analytically is that of a semi–

inﬁnite solid, which serves as a useful idealization for many problems, e.g.

any body which is very “thick” Fig. 4.4. This sort of problem is described

x

Figure 4.4. Diagram of semi–inﬁnite domain.

by the same equation and initial conditions as the other problems, however,

boundary conditions are special. We still require 2 boundary conditions

because of the second–order spatial derivative, but there is clearly only 1

surface to specify a boundary condition at, i.e. x = 0. There is no boundary

at x →∞. However, we can use the conceptual boundary condition of

T(x →∞, t) = T

0

,

which says simply that for some value x that is large enough, the temper-

ature will always be the initial temperature. Physically, this makes sense

because if truly x → ∞, then we can always pick x large enough such that

it is so far away from the boundary at x = 0 that temperature variations

cannot be perceived. For the surface, we can specify any of the 3 standard

types of boundary conditions we’ve studied.

The mathematical signiﬁcance of this problem is that there is a very

clever trick to simplify the partial diﬀerential equation, Eq. (4.1), to an

ordinary diﬀerential equation. This trick is known as a similarity transform

and eﬀectively converts the problem of two independent variables, x and t,

into a problem of just one independent variable, the similarity transform

variable η. Such a transform is often seen in ﬂuid mechanics and may be

possible for any problem that doesn’t have naturally–identiﬁable scales, for

example problems where there’s no clear length scale because of inﬁnite

dimensions. Determining what the similarity transform variable is for a

4.6. THE SIMILARITY TECHNIQUE 49

speciﬁc problem is not trivial! In this case, the correct variable is

η =

x

√

4 α t

·

Let us apply this to Eq. (4.1).

First, we use the Chain Rule to determine what the derivatives are with

respect to the new (transformed) variable η, speciﬁcally

∂T

∂t

=

dT

dη

∂η

∂t

= −

2 x α

(4 α t)

3/2

4 α t

4 α t

dT

dη

= −

x

2 t

√

4 α t

dT

dη

and

∂T

∂x

=

dT

dη

∂η

∂x

=

1

√

4 α t

dT

dη

·

Another derivative in x yields

∂

2

T

∂x

2

=

d

dη

∂T

∂x

∂η

∂x

=

d

dη

1

√

4 α t

dT

dη

1

√

4 α t

=

1

4 α t

d

2

T

dη

2

·

Substituting these into Eq. (4.1), we ﬁnd

−

x

2 t

√

4 α t

dT

dη

= α

1

4 α t

d

2

T

dη

2

,

which can be simpliﬁed to

d

2

T

dη

2

= −

4 x t

2 t

√

4 α t

dT

dη

,

and ﬁnally

(4.23)

d

2

T

dη

2

= −2 η

dT

dη

.

Note that Eq. (4.23) is now an ordinary diﬀerential equation (second–order),

having the single independent variable η.

The most straightforward method to solve this equation is to make the

variable substitution

ξ =

dT

dη

,

so that Eq. (4.23) is written as

d

dη

dT

dη

= −2 η

dT

dη

and recast according to the new variable as

(4.24)

dξ

dη

= −2 η ξ .

Eq. (4.24) is separable, so that it can be written as

dξ

ξ

= −2 η dη

4.7. MULTI–DIMENSIONAL TRANSIENT CONDUCTION 50

and then integrated once to obtain lnξ = −η

2

+ C

0

, where C

0

in an inte-

gration constant. We can write an equivalent equation in exponential form

as

ξ = e

−η

2

+C

0

= C

1

e

−η

2

,

where C

1

replaces the equivalent constant exp(C

0

). Recalling our variable

substitution, we can now write this equation in the form

(4.25)

dT

dη

= C

1

e

−η

2

.

Eq. (4.25) is the result of doing one integration on our second–order Eq. (4.23).

While this equation appears to be in good shape to perform the second in-

tegration, i.e.

(4.26) T = C

1

e

−η

2

dη + C

2

,

the process is actually not trivial. If, for example, we prescribe boundary

conditions of the ﬁrst–kind, e.g. T = T

s

at x = 0, we obtain the solution

(4.27)

T −T

s

T

0

−T

s

= erf η ,

where erf is the Gaussian Error Function. This function is tabulated in

reference texts (e.g. Incropera and Dewitt, 2002, Appendix B.2, pp. 935).

The surface heat ﬂux can be obtained by applying Fourier’s Law, from which

one obtains

(4.28) q

s

= k

T

s

−T

0

√

π α t

·

Although somewhat more involved, solutions for boundary conditions of the

second and third kind can be obtained as well (Incropera and Dewitt, 2002).

4.7. Multi–dimensional Transient Conduction

Transient problems that depend upon more than 1 dimension are often

encountered in practice. If there is no energy generation, it is possible to

combine 1–D solutions that we have looked at to construct, for example, 2–D

solutions for transient problems. In particular, we can show that if the one–

term approximation is valid, then multi–dimensional solutions are merely the

simple products of corresponding one–dimensional solutions. This approach

is called the method of product solution, and is applicable only if the solution

of the general problem can be shown to be equivalent to the product of 2

one–dimensional transient heat conduction problems. What is the theory

behind this?

Consider a rectangular region of dimension 2L

1

×2L

2

, where −L

1

≤ x ≤

L

1

and −L

2

≤ y ≤ L

2

and where the initial temperature is T

0

(Fig. 4.5). The

4.7. MULTI–DIMENSIONAL TRANSIENT CONDUCTION 51

x

=

−

L

1

x

=

L

1

x

y

2

y = L

y = − L

2

Figure 4.5. Two–dimensional heat conduction domain.

problem is driven by convection on all 4 faces at an ambient temperature of

T

∞

. The dimensionless temperature is deﬁned as

θ(x, y, t) =

T(x, y, t) −T

∞

T

0

−T

∞

,

where θ(x, y, t) is governed by the multi–dimensional equation

(4.29)

∂θ

∂t

=

∂

2

θ

∂x

2

+

∂

2

θ

∂y

2

.

Eq. (4.29) is obtained via standard non–dimensionless techniques

4.6

shown

in § 4.4. We will examine the product solution technique for the governing

equation in 4.29 with the realization that boundary conditions are treated

in a similar fashion.

Let us now assume that we can represent θ(x, y, t) in the form of the

product θ(x, y, t) = θ

1

(x, t)·θ

2

(y, t). The components θ

1

(x, t) and θ

2

(y, t) are

one–dimensional solutions in the x and y coordinate directions, respectively,

and are further assumed to be given by the one–dimensional approximation.

That is, we assume these functions satisfy

(4.30)

∂θ

1

∂t

=

∂

2

θ

1

∂x

2

and

(4.31)

∂θ

2

∂t

=

∂

2

θ

2

∂y

2

in the x and y directions

4.7

. Now, substitute θ(x, y, t) = θ

1

(x, t)· θ

2

(y, t) into

Eq. (4.29). For various components we obtain

∂θ

∂t

=

∂θ

1

· θ

2

∂t

= θ

2

∂θ

1

∂t

+ θ

1

∂θ

2

∂t

4.6

We have omitted the star notation indicating dimensionless variables as shown in

§ 4.4 for brevity. Independent variables in Eq. (4.29) are taken to be dimensionless.

4.7

Compare these equations to Eq. (4.10).

4.7. MULTI–DIMENSIONAL TRANSIENT CONDUCTION 52

and

∂

2

θ

∂x

2

=

∂

2

θ

1

· θ

2

∂x

2

=

∂

∂x

θ

2

∂θ

1

∂x

+ θ

1

∂θ

2

∂x

,

so that

∂

2

θ

∂x

2

=

∂θ

2

∂x

∂θ

1

∂x

+ θ

2

∂

2

θ

1

∂x

2

+

∂θ

1

∂x

∂θ

2

∂x

+ θ

1

∂

2

θ

2

∂x

2

.

However, recalling that ∂θ

2

/∂x = 0 since θ

2

is not a function of the x

coordinate, this term simpliﬁes to

∂

2

θ

∂x

2

= θ

2

∂

2

θ

1

∂x

2

.

According to a similar procedure, we see that

∂

2

θ

∂y

2

= θ

1

∂

2

θ

2

∂y

2

.

Substituting these terms into Eq. (4.29) and moving everything to the left

hand side, we get

(4.32) θ

2

∂θ

1

∂t

−

∂

2

θ

1

∂x

2

+ θ

1

∂θ

2

∂t

−

∂

2

θ

2

∂y

2

= 0 .

Eq. (4.32) is the original governing equation written in terms of our product

solution hypothesis. If it is valid, then either θ

1

and θ

2

must both vanish, or

the terms within the brackets must both vanish. Now, θ

1

and θ

2

do not gen-

erally vanish, otherwise the problem is trivial. Examining this equation more

closely we see that the terms in brackets are nothing more than Eqs. (4.30)

and (4.31). Thus, the terms in brackets do in fact vanish, and the original

hypothesis of the product solution is valid. As mentioned above, boundary

conditions can be treated similarly. Note how the presence of a heat gener-

ation term would prevent us from drawing our ﬁnal conclusion since neither

of the equations for θ

1

and θ

2

would necessarily be zero. Of course, from

our one–dimensional work, we know various solutions corresponding to θ

1

and θ

2

and the rules under which they (and their simpliﬁcations) can be

applied. So, once again, we’ve managed to ﬁnd a signiﬁcant simpliﬁcation I&D Ex. 5.7

pp 277 for a special case, i.e. two–dimensional problem with no heat generation.

Once it is determined that the product solution is valid, solving a prob-

lem proceeds by treating the one–dimensional problems individually. In

particular

• calculate individual Biot numbers for each coordinate direction us-

ing the appropriate length scale for each coordinate

• likewise, calculate individual Fourier numbers (dimensionless times)

for each coordinate direction

• compute individual one–dimensional solutions, e.g. θ

1

and θ

2

, for

the required conditions of the two–dimensional problem

• take the product of the one–dimensional expressions as the ﬁnal

solution of the problem

CHAPTER 5

Introduction to Convection

So far we have only considered convection to the extent that it supplies a

boundary condition for conduction problems. However, in many cases, con-

vection, driven by bulk motion of the participating medium, is the dominant

mode of heat transfer, even though there remains some level of conduction.

In this chapter, we focus on the underlying physics before actually develop-

ing calculation methods for quantifying the heat transfer.

Consider a ﬂuid moving over a ﬂat plate at free–stream velocity u

∞

and

free–stream temperature T

∞

, where the surface of the plate is at temperature

T

s

(Fig. 5.1). If T

s

= T

∞

then we can write the heat transfer for a diﬀerential

oo oo

x

y

δ

dx

u T

T

s

Figure 5.1. Flat–plate conﬁguration showing boundary layer.

surface area using the usual Newton’s Law of Cooling

dq = h (T

s

−T

∞

) dA

s

,

where h is formally deﬁned as the local coeﬃcient of heat transfer or the

local convection coeﬃcient. Whereas before we assume that h is a constant,

we know that, in reality, h will vary from point to point on the surface

because the ﬂow conditions will vary. Clearly, the total heat transfer can be

obtained by integrating over the surface, as in

q =

As

h (T

s

−T

∞

) dA

s

.

One of our basic assumptions will be that both T

∞

and T

s

are constant, so

that their diﬀerence, T

s

−T

∞

, is also constant. The integration can then be

53

5.1. BOUNDARY LAYER INTRODUCTION 54

simpliﬁed as

q = (T

s

−T

∞

)

As

h dA

s

.

Let us separately deﬁne an average heat transfer coeﬃcient by again apply-

ing Newton’s Law of Cooling

q =

¯

h (T

s

−T

∞

) A

s

.

From these two equations, it is clear that we can write the average convection

coeﬃcient in terms of its local value as

(5.1)

¯

h =

1

A

s

As

h dA

s

.

So we see that what we were really talking about all along in conduction

was an averaged value of the convection coeﬃcient. Now the task becomes

actually ﬁguring out what this is for speciﬁc problems.

For the special case of the ﬂat plate in Fig. 5.1, the average convection

coeﬃcient can be simpliﬁed. If we take the length of the plate as L and the

width as W, then A

s

= W × L and dA

s

= W × dx. Integrating over the

length of the plate from the leading edge 0 →L, we ﬁnd

(5.2)

¯

h =

1

L

L

0

h dx .

Determining convection coeﬃcients is viewed as the “convection prob-

lem”. However, the problem is not trivial, since now we have the additional

complexity of ﬂuid motion. So, not only is geometry, speciﬁc heat, conduc-

tivity, etc. important, we must now also worry about ﬂow conditions, ﬂuid

density, viscosity, etc.. Much of this depends upon the concept of boundary I&D Ex. 6.1

pp 329 layer theory, which can be used to describe ﬂow regions in the neighborhood

of a solid surface.

5.1. Boundary Layer Introduction

Recall the concept of the boundary layer from ﬂuid mechanics. The drag

imposed by the ﬁxed no–slip surface acts through the mechanism of shear

stress, τ, which gradually decreases as distance y from the plate increases.

At a distance deﬁned as y = δ the drag eﬀect becomes negligible. Therefore,

the velocity along the surface, u, gradually increases from zero at the surface

(no–slip boundary conditions) to a value of u

∞

, the free–stream velocity.

The convention used to deﬁne the boundary layer is δ = y at which u =

0.99u

∞

. Thus the ﬂow problem is deﬁned by two distinct regions:

• The boundary layer in which velocity gradients and shear stresses

are signiﬁcant.

• The region outside the boundary layer in which gradients and shear

stresses are negligible.

5.1. BOUNDARY LAYER INTRODUCTION 55

These observations refer to the ﬂuid problem, so this boundary layer is

termed the velocity boundary layer. The primary factor, τ, is deﬁned for a

Newtonian ﬂuid according to Newton’s Law of Viscosity

τ = µ

∂u

∂y

y=0

at the plate’s surface, where µ is the material property known as the dynamic

viscosity.

Just as the velocity boundary layer develops for the ﬂuid problem, a

thermal boundary layer develops if the ﬂuid free stream and the surface

temperatures diﬀer (Fig. 5.2). Speciﬁcally, assume T

s

> T

∞

. The incoming

T

s

oo

T

oo

T

x

y

δ

t

Figure 5.2. Thermal boundary layer on a ﬂat plate.

ﬂow has a uniform temperature distribution T

∞

, however, particles at the

plate surface attain thermal equilibrium at the plate’s higher surface tem-

perature T

s

. In turn, these particles exchange energy with those near them,

etc., which is the same basic dynamic process familiar from the action of

viscosity. Therefore, a temperature proﬁle develops, in which temperature

gradients within the thermal boundary layer, δ

t

, are signiﬁcant, and outside

they are negligible. The layer itself is deﬁned as y at which

T

s

−T

T

s

−T

∞

= 0.99 .

Note the correspondence with the factor of 0.99 for the velocity boundary

layer. The behavior of the thermal boundary layer is qualitatively similar

to the velocity boundary layer in that the thickness grows as x increases.

At the plate’s surface, the no–slip condition indicates there is no ﬂuid

motion. It follows that heat transfer between the plate and the ﬂuid imme-

diately adjacent to it must result solely from conduction. That is, we can

write heat transfer directly from Fourier’s Law of Conduction as

q

= −k

f

∂T

∂y

y=0

,

5.1. BOUNDARY LAYER INTRODUCTION 56

where k

f

is the thermal conductivity of the ﬂuid. By combining this with

a local heat ﬂux derived from Newton’s Law of Cooling, q

= h(T

s

−T

∞

),

we see

(5.3) h = −

k

f

T

s

−T

∞

∂T

∂y

y=0

.

From this, we make the following interesting observation: T

s

− T

∞

and k

f

are constants, therefore variation in h depends upon ∂T/∂y. Because δ

t

increases with x, the gradient decreases with x, therefore h and q

decrease

with x. The integrals in Eqs. (5.1) and (5.2) are expected to be non–trivial

since the local value of h in the integrand is not constant.

From ﬂuid mechanics, we should recall that the physical structure of

the boundary layer depends upon whether it is laminar or turbulent. The

laminar regime is characterized by orderly ﬂow in which streamlines can be

easily identiﬁed, while turbulent ﬂow is chaotic and irregular. Chaotic mix-

ing in turbulent boundary layers increases momentum and energy transfer,

so that convection and shear stress near the plate are generally higher than

in the laminar case. The turbulent velocity proﬁle is thus sharper than its

laminar counterpart (Fig. 5.3). The relevant parameter for boundary layers

laminar

turbulent

F L O W

Figure 5.3. Qualitative characterization of velocity proﬁles in

laminar and turbulent boundary layers.

is the Reynolds number, deﬁned as

(5.4) Re

x

=

u

∞

x

ν

,

where x is distance traveled as measured from the leading edge, ν is the ﬂuid

kinematic viscosity, and u

∞

is the free–stream velocity of the ﬂow. Transi-

tion from a laminar to a turbulent boundary layer occurs at approximately

Re

x

∼ 5 ×10

5

.

5.2. GOVERNING EQUATIONS 57

5.2. Governing Equations

From ﬂuid mechanics, we recall further that the ﬂow physics are governed

by the Navier–Stokes Equations, which describe conservation of mass and

conservation of momentum. If we assume steady ﬂow over the ﬂat plate in

the (x, y) domain as shown in Figs 5.1 and 5.2, we can write these equations

as

(5.5)

∂u

∂x

+

∂v

∂y

= 0 ,

(5.6) u

∂u

∂x

+ v

∂u

∂y

= −

1

ρ

∂P

∂x

+ ν

∂

2

u

∂x

2

+

∂

2

u

∂y

2

,

and

(5.7) u

∂v

∂x

+ v

∂v

∂y

= −

1

ρ

∂P

∂y

+ ν

∂

2

v

∂x

2

+

∂

2

v

∂y

2

,

where (u, v) are the velocity components in the (x, y) coordinate directions,

respectively. Eq. (5.5) represents the conservation of mass, while Eqs. (5.6)

and (5.7) are conservation of momentum in the (x, y) coordinate directions,

respectively.

These equations are typically derived using a diﬀerential approach much

like that introduced in Chapter 2 for the conduction equation

5.1

. Expanding

this approach for thermal energy to include not only conduction, but also

convection and the mechanisms which degrade mechanical energy into heat,

we can derive the following equation for the conservation of energy

(5.8) u

∂T

∂x

+ v

∂T

∂y

= α

∂

2

T

∂x

2

+

∂

2

T

∂y

2

+

ν

c

p

Φ ,

where

Φ = 2

¸

∂u

∂x

2

+

∂v

∂y

2

¸

+

∂v

∂x

+

∂u

∂y

2

is the viscous energy dissipation function. The left hand side of Eq. (5.8)

represents the net outﬂow of energy from the control volume due to convec-

tion

5.2

, while the term in brackets is the net rate at which energy is con-

ducted into the control volume

5.3

. The last term, Φ, denotes thermal energy

that arises via the action of viscous (frictional) forces degrading mechanical

energy.

This system of equations is, in fact, more comprehensive than what is

actually necessary to model ﬂow over the ﬂat plate because certain gradients

in the streamwise direction are very small compared to those in the normal

direction. We can invoke the so–called boundary layer approximation to

5.1

Recall that Eqs. (5.6) and (5.7) arise from applying Newton’s Second Law.

5.2

That is, the energy convected into the control volume minus the energy convected

out.

5.3

Recall this interpretation from Eq. (2.19) on pp. 12.

5.2. GOVERNING EQUATIONS 58

derive a simpliﬁed system. The simpliﬁcation process proceeds by examining

the order of magnitude of each of the terms (Schlichting, 1979).

• Assume in continuity Eq. (5.5) that ∂u/∂x is of order unity, which

we write as ∂u/∂x ∼ [1]. Since there are no parameters in this

equation and we know that the ﬂow must develop along the axis, i.e.

∂/∂x = 0, the term ∂v/∂y must be the same order of magnitude.

That is ∂v/∂y ∼ [1].

• The free–stream ﬂow is of order unity, i.e. u ∼ [1].

• The ﬂow remains predominantly oriented along the plate so that

the vertical velocity component is much smaller than the horizontal

component, v u. Therefore, we write v ∼ [], where 1. That

is, is a small number.

• Since changes in the vertical direction happen over a very short

distance, i.e. the boundary layer thickness, then gradients in the

vertical direction must be much larger than gradients along the

plate, i.e. ∂/∂x ∂/∂y. Since u ∼ [1] and ∂u/∂x ∼ [1], we can say

that ∂/∂x ∼ [1]. Since ∂/∂x ∂/∂y, we can write ∂/∂y ∼ [1/].

Note that we could also infer this from the fact that ∂v/∂y ∼ [1],

but that v ∼ []. Thus, we see ∂

2

u/∂

2

x ∼ [1], ∂v/∂x ∼ [] and

∂

2

v/∂

2

x ∼ []. Moreover, ∂u/∂y ∼ [1/], ∂

2

u/∂

2

y ∼ [1/

2

], and

∂

2

v/∂

2

y ∼ [1/].

• In the boundary layer, inertial and viscous eﬀects must be of the

same overall order of magnitude. If we were to rewrite the Eqs. (5.5)

through (5.7) in dimensionless form, i.e. using the Reynolds num-

ber as deﬁned in Eq. (5.4), we would see that Re ∼ [1/

2

] for this

to be the case.

Following the last point, let us rewrite Eqs. (5.5) through (5.7) in dimen-

sionless form along with the orders of magnitude for each term we have

deduced above. Showing the orders of magnitude in square brackets beside

each term, we ﬁnd

(5.9) u

∂u

∂x

[1] · [1] +v

∂u

∂y

[] · [

−1

] = −

∂P

∂x

+

1

Re

[

2

]

∂

2

u

∂x

2

[1] +

∂

2

u

∂y

2

[

−2

]

and

(5.10) u

∂v

∂x

[1] · [] + v

∂v

∂y

[] · [1] = −

∂P

∂y

+

1

Re

[

2

]

∂

2

v

∂x

2

[] +

∂

2

v

∂y

2

[

−1

]

**for the momentum equations. As we said above, the entire continuity equa-
**

tion is of order unity, i.e.

(5.11)

∂u

∂x

[1] +

∂v

∂y

[1] = 0 .

We did not write down the orders of magnitude for the pressure terms in

Eqs. (5.9) and (5.10). We can infer that the pressure gradient in Eq. (5.10)

should be the same order of magnitude as the equation itself. In other

5.2. GOVERNING EQUATIONS 59

words, changes in pressure across the boundary layer should be of compa-

rable size to the other terms in the equation. Speciﬁcally, ∂P/∂y ∼ [],

since Eq. (5.10) is of overall order []. This leads us to conclude P ∼ [

2

]

across the boundary layer (in the vertical direction), since ∂P/∂y ∼ [] and

∂/∂y ∼ [1/]. Therefore, P is approximately only a function of x, so that

we assume the pressure term in Eq. (5.9) is of the same overall magnitude

as the equation itself, i.e. order [1].

We can now make some simplifying observations. First, ∂

2

u/∂x

2

in

Eq. (5.9) is very small compared to the other terms in that equation, so it

can be dropped. Also, the entire Eq. (5.10) is small compared Eq. (5.9),

so that it may be neglected. These deductions show that Eq. (5.9) through

(5.11) can be simpliﬁed to

(5.12) u

∂u

∂x

+ v

∂u

∂y

= −

1

ρ

∂P

∂x

+ ν

∂

2

u

∂y

2

and

(5.13)

∂u

∂x

+

∂v

∂y

= 0 .

We can also apply the same order of magnitude analysis for energy in

Eq. (5.8). We assume

• temperature is of order unity, T ∼ [1]

• similar to the momentum equations, we see that the convective

terms will be of order unity, so that the viscous terms should also be

of overall order unity — since the largest viscous term is ∂

2

T/∂

2

y ∼

[1/

2

] (similar again to the momentum equations), we must have

α ∼ [

2

] for the overall viscous order to be unity.

• the dissipation term Φ should also be of overall order of magnitude

unity — the largest term

5.4

here is (∂u/∂y)

2

∼ [1/

2

], so that we

see ν/c

p

∼ [

2

]

We can then write the energy equation as

(5.14) u

∂T

∂x

[1]·[1]+v

∂T

∂y

[]·[

−1

] = α[

2

]

∂

2

T

∂x

2

[1] +

∂

2

T

∂y

2

[

−2

]

+

ν

c

p

[

2

]Φ,

where

Φ = 2

¸

∂u

∂x

2

[1] +

∂v

∂y

2

[1]

¸

+

∂v

∂x

[] +

∂u

∂y

[

−1

]

2

.

Dropping terms of order [] and higher, this simpliﬁes to

(5.15) u

∂T

∂x

+ v

∂T

∂y

= α

∂

2

T

∂y

2

+

ν

c

p

∂u

∂y

2

.

Eqs. (5.12), (5.13), and (5.15) are the so–called boundary layer equations.

5.4

The basic term ∂u/∂y is clearly of order [1/], but squaring this term raises it to

[1/

2

].

5.3. DIMENSIONLESS PARAMETERS 60

Reiterating some of the interesting characteristics of these equations:

• The pressure does not vary in the y direction.

• Since the pressure is constant in the y direction across the boundary

layer, its value is equivalent to the value in the free–stream.

• Thus P = P(x) and ∂P/∂x → dP/dx, which further implies that

P(x) can be determined from free–stream conditions so that dP/dx

is a known quantity.

• No terms drop out of the continuity equation.

5.3. Dimensionless Parameters

Unfortunately, we are still faced with the fact that this system of equa-

tions is non–linear and cannot be solved with the mathematical techniques

that we have utilized so far. There are advanced techniques that can be

employed (e.g. similarity approaches that we outlined earlier), but usually

a full–blown numerical approach is used. So why do we bother to study this

problem here? Aside from developing an appreciation for the physical pro-

cesses, our primary goal is to identify relevant non–dimensional parameters

for the problem (much like we did for conduction) and to develop some im-

portant analogies between momentum and heat transfer. For the moment,

we will neglect the viscous dissipation term.

As usual, let us deﬁne characteristic length, L, velocity, u

∞

, and tem-

perature, T

∞

, scales for the problem at hand to non–dimensionalize the

variables as

x

∗

=

x

L

, y

∗

=

y

L

,

u

∗

=

u

u

∞

, v

∗

=

v

u

∞

,

and

T

∗

=

T −T

s

T

∞

−T

s

·

Performing the non–dimensionalization on the equations according to the

results we developed in §4.4 on pp. 42, we ﬁnd

∂u

∗

∂x

∗

+

∂v

∗

∂y

∗

= 0 ,

u

∗

∂u

∗

∂x

∗

+ v

∗

∂u

∗

∂y

∗

= −

dP

∗

dx

∗

+

ν

u

∞

L

∂

2

u

∗

∂y

∗2

,

and

u

∗

∂T

∗

∂x

∗

+ v

∗

∂T

∗

∂y

∗

=

α

u

∞

L

∂

2

T

∗

∂y

∗2

.

From these equations, we can identify two non–dimensional parameters

• Reynolds number: deﬁned as Re = u

∞

L/ν

• Prandtl number: deﬁned as Pr = ν/α

5.3. DIMENSIONLESS PARAMETERS 61

The Prandtl number is clear in light of the following from the energy equa-

tion

u

∞

L

α

=

u

∞

L

α

ν

ν

=

u

∞

L

ν

ν

α

= Re · Pr .

Thus, the ﬁnal non–dimensionalized form of the equations can be written

(5.16)

∂u

∗

∂x

∗

+

∂v

∗

∂y

∗

= 0 ,

(5.17) u

∗

∂u

∗

∂x

∗

+ v

∗

∂u

∗

∂y

∗

= −

dP

∗

dx

∗

+

1

Re

∂

2

u

∗

∂y

∗2

,

and

(5.18) u

∗

∂T

∗

∂x

∗

+ v

∗

∂T

∗

∂y

∗

=

1

Re · Pr

∂

2

T

∗

∂y

∗2

.

The Reynolds number is familiar from ﬂuid mechanics. It can be interpreted

as the ratio of inertial forces to viscous forces, so it serves as a direct metric

of how well frictional dissipation is able to dampen perturbations in a ﬂow.

This of course bears directly on whether a particular ﬂow is laminar or

turbulent.

Conversely, the Prandtl number is new — it appears only in the energy

equation. Taking a closer look, we see that Pr is a direct property of the

ﬂuid itself. It does not contain any non–ﬂuid properties, as for example the

velocity and length scales in the Reynolds number. We can therefore speak

of “the Prandtl number of a ﬂuid”. How do we interpret this parameter

physically? The Prandtl number is the ratio of kinematic viscosity ν to

thermal diﬀusivity α, the former of which indicates the rate of momentum

diﬀusion (from the viscous terms in the momentum equations) and the latter

of which is the rate of thermal diﬀusion

Pr =

ν

α

=

momentum diﬀusion

thermal diﬀusion

·

We can say equivalently that Pr represents the ratio of the eﬀectiveness

of diﬀusional energy transport in the velocity boundary layer versus the

thermal boundary layer. In laminar ﬂows, we can thus infer

Pr ∼

δ

δ

t

,

that is, Pr gives some approximate indication of the thickness of the velocity

boundary layer versus the thermal boundary layer

5.5

(Table 5.1).

Of course, we still have not lost anything in terms of non–linearity of

the system in Eqs. (5.16) through (5.18), however, just as previously, the

5.5

This is not the case in turbulent ﬂows where transport is a function of turbulent

mixing, as well as diﬀusion.

5.3. DIMENSIONLESS PARAMETERS 62

Table 5.1. Approximate boundary layer relationships for

various ﬂuid types

Fluid Pr relationship

gases ∼ 1 δ ≈ δ

t

liquid metals 1 δ δ

t

oils 1 δ δ

t

number of relevant variables to any problem has been reduced. For example,

the velocity distribution should be of the form

(5.19) u

∗

= u

∗

x

∗

, y

∗

, Re,

dP

∗

dx

∗

,

where dP

∗

/dx

∗

is considered to be determined by the geometry of the prob-

lem and the free–stream conditions and is considered a known parameter as

mentioned previously.

What other dimensionless parameters arise for such conﬁgurations? Let

us consider frictional drag on the body surface that arises because of viscous

shear stress. Recall from ﬂuid mechanics that the stress is deﬁned as

τ = µ

∂u

∂y

y=0

=

µ u

∞

L

∂u

∗

∂y

∗

y

∗

=0

.

This expressions allows us to derive the following form of the skin friction

factor, deﬁned by C

f

= τ/(ρu

2

∞

/2), as

C

f

=

2

Re

∂u

∗

∂y

∗

y

∗

=0

.

Eq. (5.19) indicates that ∂u

∗

/∂y

∗

evaluated at y

∗

= 0 is only a function of

(x

∗

, Re, dP

∗

/dx

∗

). Therefore, we arrive at the signiﬁcant conclusion that

the skin friction factor, an important engineering quantity, is only governed

by three “universal” parameters according to the functional form

(5.20) C

f

= C

f

x

∗

, Re,

dP

∗

dx

∗

.

Likewise, we see that T

∗

is essentially a function of the form

(5.21) T

∗

= T

∗

x

∗

, y

∗

, Re, Pr,

dP

∗

dx

∗

,

so that it has the same dependencies of u

∗

, except with the addition of the

Prandtl number as another parameter. Recall that we cast the convection

coeﬃcient in Eq. (5.3) on pp. 56 as

h = −

k

f

T

s

−T

∞

∂T

∂y

y=0

,

5.4. REYNOLDS–COLBURN ANALOGY 63

which, we can recast with dimensionless variables as

h = −

k

f

L

T

∞

−T

s

T

s

−T

∞

∂T

∗

∂y

∗

y

∗

=0

=

k

f

L

∂T

∗

∂y

∗

y

∗

=0

.

This expression leads directly to the deﬁnition of the Nusselt number

Nu =

∂T

∗

∂y

∗

y

∗

=0

=

hL

k

f

,

which is essentially the non–dimensional temperature gradient at the wall.

As with the skin friction factor, y

∗

does not come into play at the wall, i.e.

at y

∗

= 0, so that the Nusselt number depends only upon variables as

(5.22) Nu = Nu

x

∗

, Re, Pr,

dP

∗

dx

∗

.

The Nusselt number, as we have written it here, depends on the local con-

vection coeﬃcient h, so that we refer to this form as the “local Nusselt

number”. We can also write an average Nusselt number by simply substi- I&D Ex. 6.5

pp 351 tuting the average convection coeﬃcient

¯

h. Note that, while the form of

the Nusselt number and the Biot number appear the same, k is that of the

ﬂuid for the Nusselt number (convection) and that of the solid for the Biot

number (conduction).

5.4. Reynolds–Colburn Analogy

Now that we have introduced C

f

, Nu, Re, and Pr as important dimen-

sionless parameters in convection, we will develop an analogy among these

parameters, so that we can get the answer to a convection problem by solv-

ing a ﬂuid mechanics problem

5.6

. Here, we will derive the Reynolds–Colburn

analogy for laminar ﬂow along a ﬂat plate, which has the functional form

Nu = Nu (C

f

, Re, Pr) .

We will be able to calculate the Nusselt number from the Prandtl and

Reynolds numbers and the skin friction factor. This is particularly use-

ful, since measuring Re and C

f

for the ﬂuid mechanics problem is more

straightforward than measuring Nu directly.

The rigorous development of this result relies on the exact solution of

the boundary layer problem, as posed by Eqs. (5.16) through (5.18), where

the the pressure gradient along the plate is assumed to vanish. We are not

in a mathematical position to derive this solution, but we will rather use

the approximate solution as a surrogate, so that the main concept can at

least be illustrated

5.7

. Assume, according to Figs. 5.1 and 5.2, that u

∞

is

5.6

Recall in Chapter 3 where the circuit analogy allowed us to get the answer to a

heat conduction problem by solving an electrical circuit problem.

5.7

Most textbooks write down the exact solution directly in the form of the required

dimensionless parameters (using the “please believe this” approach), so that the analogy

is trivially obvious. We start with the approximate solution for velocity and temperature

distribution. This is only a “please believe this temporarily” approach, as we will actually

5.4. REYNOLDS–COLBURN ANALOGY 64

free–stream velocity, y is the coordinate normal to the plate, δ is the velocity

boundary layer thickness, and δ

t

is the thermal boundary layer thickness.

We start with an approximate solution for the boundary layer problem

(5.23) u

∗

=

u

u

∞

=

3

2

y

δ

−

1

2

y

δ

3

where δ =

280

13

νx

u

∞

≈

4.64 x

Re

x

,

and

(5.24) T

∗

=

T −T

s

T

∞

−T

s

=

3

2

y

δ

t

−

1

2

y

δ

t

3

where δ

t

=

4.52 x

Re

1/2

x

Pr

1/3

·

Deriving the analogy is matter of manipulating the solutions appro-

priately. Writing the skin friction factor in the usual fashion as C

f

=

τ/

0.5ρu

2

∞

**, and substituting τ = µ ∂u/∂y = ν ρ ∂u/∂y at y = 0 from
**

Newton’s Law of Viscosity, we can write

C

f

=

2 ν

u

2

∞

∂u

∂y

y=0

.

From the solution for the velocity proﬁle in Eq. (5.23), we can solve for the

velocity gradient at the wall as

∂u

∂y

y=0

=

3 u

∞

2 δ

,

so that a substitution yields C

f

as

C

f

=

2 ν

u

2

∞

3 u

∞

2 δ

=

3 ν

u

∞

δ

=

3 ν

u

∞

13

280

u

∞

ν x

=

117

280

ν

u

∞

x

=

0.646

Re

1/2

x

·

Again, the constant 0.646 represents the approximate solution and is very

close to the value for the exact solution of 0.664, which we will now use. We

therefore write C

f

= 0.664/Re

1/2

x

, or, in a more useful form

(5.25)

C

f

2

=

0.332

Re

1/2

x

·

This is one–half of what is needed to complete the analogy.

Referring back to Eq. (5.3) on pp. 56, we insert the dimensionless tem-

perature into the gradient to obtain

h = −

k

f

T

s

−T

∞

∂T

∂y

y=0

= k

f

∂T

∗

∂y

y=0

,

From the solution of the temperature proﬁle in Eq. (5.24), we can solve for

the temperature gradient at the wall as

∂T

∗

∂y

y=0

=

3

2 δ

t

,

derive this solution in the following chapter. The only non–rigorous component of the

process is where we substitute a certain constant derived from the exact solution for its

counterpart from the approximate solution. This will be pointed out.

5.4. REYNOLDS–COLBURN ANALOGY 65

so that substitution yields h as

h =

3 k

f

2 δ

t

·

Plugging in δ

t

, we ﬁnd

h ≈

0.332 k

f

Re

1/2

x

Pr

1/3

x

,

from which we can manipulate to write in terms of the Nusselt number as

(5.26) Nu =

h x

k

f

= 0.332 Re

1/2

x

Pr

1/3

.

Combining Eqs. (5.25) and (5.26), we can write

(5.27) Nu =

C

f

Re Pr

1/3

2

,

which is the Reynolds–Colburn analogy. This equation is applicable for lam-

inar ﬂat plate ﬂow in the range of approximately 0.6 < Pr < 60 (Incropera

and Dewitt, 2002).

CHAPTER 6

External Convection

Now we would like to focus on convection problems of external ﬂow

more closely. This includes cases such as ﬂow over a ﬂat plate, airfoil,

etc. We will concentrate on forced convection, meaning that a pressure

gradient or some other externally–applied force powers the ﬂow (as opposed

to buoyancy eﬀects). Once again, the primary objective is to determine the

convection coeﬃcient, which may be found via the Nusselt number Nu

x

=

Nu

x

(x

∗

, Re

x

, Pr). Of course, there are a number of approaches for doing

this

• theoretical: apply analytical techniques to solve governing equa-

tions (this is the approach we exploited for all of our conduction

problems)

• empirical: perform experimental measurements under controlled

conditions and correlate data in terms of relevant dimensionless

parameters

• numerical: approximate governing equations with discrete expres-

sions and use computers to solve iteratively

As we have discussed in Chapter 5, convection problems are usually

non–linear, so the success of theoretical approaches will be limited to a few

speciﬁc cases. Conversely, empirical techniques lend themselves well to these

sorts of problems. We have already determined the relevant dimensionless

groups for the typical convection problem. Given suﬃcient measurement

data, results can be cast in the form of correlations, for example, equations

of the form

Nu

x

= C Re

m

L

Pr

n

,

where Nu

x

is the averaged Nusselt number, and C, m, and n are problem–

speciﬁc constants that must be determined.

However, this sort of approach presents an immediate and obvious prob-

lem. It is well–known that ﬂuid properties, for example viscosity and con-

ductivity, vary according to temperature. How do we properly account for

such variations in a correlation equation? One method is to evaluate prop-

erties at the so–called ﬁlm temperature

(6.1) T

f

=

T

s

+T

∞

2

,

66

6.1. LAMINAR FLOW OVER A FLAT PLATE 67

which is simply the average of the temperature extremes. Another possibility

is the incorporation of additional correlation terms, for example of the form

(µ

∞

/µ

s

)

r

, to account for such variations.

6.1. Laminar Flow Over A Flat Plate

Before delving further into correlations, we will discuss cases that can

be treated purely via theory. Flow over a ﬂat plate is one such conﬁguration

(Figs. 5.1 and 5.2). Assuming no pressure gradient along the plate and

no viscous dissipation, the boundary layer form of the equations given by

Eqs. (5.12), (5.13), and (5.15) on pp. 59 can be written as

(6.2) u

∂u

∂x

+ v

∂u

∂y

= ν

∂

2

u

∂y

2

,

(6.3)

∂u

∂x

+

∂v

∂y

= 0 ,

and

(6.4) u

∂T

∂x

+ v

∂T

∂y

= α

∂

2

T

∂y

2

·

In Chapter 5, we derived the Reynolds–Colburn analogy using analytical

solutions, both approximate and exact, to this problem. Where do these

solutions come from? The exact solution is not trivial, in fact it is beyond

the mathematical capabilities we have developed thus far. Again, this is a

result of the non–linearity of the system in Eqs. (5.16) through (5.18) on

pp. 61. We can cast the solution procedure, but will be unable to follow it

to completion.

The similarity technique introduced in §4.6 can be used to reduce the

partial diﬀerential system to an ordinary diﬀerential equation. As we men-

tioned previously, one should suspect that a similarity approach may work

when no inherent scales can be identiﬁed in the problem. In this case, the

transformation variables

η = y

u

∞

ν x

and

f (η) =

ψ

u

∞

ν x

u

∞

are appropriate, where ψ = ψ(x, y) is the stream function, which is deﬁned

as

(6.5) u =

∂ψ

∂y

and v = −

∂ψ

∂x

·

Transforming the momentum equation appropriately, we ﬁnd it becomes

2f

+ ff

= 0 ,

6.1. LAMINAR FLOW OVER A FLAT PLATE 68

where the prime symbol indicates the regular derivative of a uni–variate

function. Unfortunately, unlike the conduction problem in §4.6, this ordi-

nary diﬀerential equation is still non–linear. This equation can be solved in

a number of ways

6.1

to yield the solution given in Table 6.1. The resulting

Table 6.1. Boundary layer solution

η f f

= u

∗

f

0 0 0 0.332

0.4 0.027 0.133 0.331

0.8 0.106 0.265 0.327

1.2 0.238 0.394 0.317

1.6 0.420 0.517 0.297

2.0 0.650 0.630 0.267

2.4 0.922 0.729 0.228

2.8 1.231 0.812 0.184

3.2 1.569 0.876 0.139

3.6 1.930 0.923 0.098

4.0 2.306 0.956 0.064

4.4 2.692 0.976 0.039

4.8 3.085 0.988 0.022

5.2 3.482 0.994 0.011

5.6 3.880 0.997 0.005

6.0 4.280 0.999 0.002

6.4 4.679 1.000 0.001

6.8 5.079 1.000 0.000

boundary layer thickness is

(6.6) δ =

5 x

√

Re

x

and the resulting skin friction coeﬃcient is

(6.7) C

f

=

0.664

√

Re

x

·

Conversely, if we take a closer look at the energy equation in Eq. (5.18)

on pp. 61, we will see that it is linear, because the velocity components are

known. Using the similarity variables, we can transform this equation into

T

∗

+

Pr

2

f T

∗

= 0 ,

where T

∗

= T

∗

(η) and the prime symbol again denotes the regular derivative

of a uni–variate function. This can be solved, for example by numerical

6.1

Numerically, this equation is fairly straightforward to solve, e.g. with the so–called

“shooting method”. Conversely, a series expansion technique can also be used to solve to

any desired degree of precision.

6.2. KARMAN–POHLHAUSEN INTEGRAL SOLUTION 69

integration for a speciﬁc Prandtl number, to yield T

∗

. The dimensionless

results can be cast as

(6.8) Nu

x

=

h

x

x

k

f

= 0.332 Re

1/2

x

Pr

1/3

for Pr ≥ 0.6 .

A number of additional results are shown in Incropera and Dewitt (2002),

in particular the local Nusselt number Nu

x

in Eq. (6.8) can be integrated

to obtain an averaged value of

(6.9) Nu

x

= 2 Nu

x

.

6.2. Karman–Pohlhausen Integral Solution

The fact that the exact solution in the previous section is diﬃcult from

a mathematical standpoint suggests that an approximate solution might be

useful. T. von Karman (1921) and K. Pohlhausen (1921) derived just such

a solution in the form of an integral method that can be solved to various

degrees of accuracy. In fact, we have already used this solution in the form

of Eqs. (5.23) and (5.24) on pp. 64 for the Reynolds–Colburn analogy. First,

we start with the continuity equation

(6.10)

∂u

∂x

+

∂v

∂y

= 0

and integrate it across the boundary layer:

(6.11)

δ

0

∂u

∂x

dy +

δ

0

∂v

∂y

dy = 0 .

Now note that v = 0 at y = 0 (as part of the no–slip boundary condition)

and that the second part of the equation is simply dv because of the chain

rule. This gives:

(6.12) v |

y=δ

= −

δ

0

∂u

∂x

dy .

Now, we also integrate the boundary layer form of the momentum equa-

tion (6.2) over the boundary layer

(6.13)

δ

0

u

∂u

∂x

dy +

δ

0

v

∂u

∂y

dy = ν

δ

0

∂

2

u

∂y

2

dy ,

which gives, after integrating the second term on the left hand side by

parts

6.2

and recognizing the right hand side can be integrated directly,

(6.14)

δ

0

u

∂u

∂x

dy + uv |

y=δ

y=0

−

δ

0

u

∂v

∂y

dy = ν

∂u

∂y

y=δ

y=0

.

6.2

If integrating by parts, we can consider

∂u

∂y

dy as simply du by the Chain Rule, which

means we are evaluating

R

vdu. Applying integration by parts, we see

R

vdu = uv−

R

udv.

However,

∂v

∂y

dy = dv, again by the Chain Rule. This gives the second and third terms

on the left hand side of Eq. (6.14).

6.2. KARMAN–POHLHAUSEN INTEGRAL SOLUTION 70

The ﬁrst term remains the same, however, to further develop Eq. (6.14), we

make the following observations. The second term can be evaluated using

Eq. (6.12) for v and observing that u = 0 at y = 0 and u = u

0

at y = δ.

In the third term, we utilize the original continuity equation (6.10) to swap

∂v/∂y = −∂u/∂x. The fourth term is evaluated using the fact that ∂u/∂y

is zero at y = δ. These modiﬁcations give

(6.15)

δ

0

u

∂u

∂x

dy − u

0

δ

0

∂u

∂x

dy +

δ

0

u

∂u

∂x

dy = −ν

∂u

∂y

y=0

,

which can be simpliﬁed to

(6.16) u

0

δ

0

∂u

∂x

dy −

δ

0

2u

∂u

∂x

dy = ν

∂u

∂y

y=0

.

The u

0

can be taken directly under the integral and the u can be “integrated”

in

6.3

, which yields:

(6.17)

δ

0

∂

∂x

(u

0

· u −u · u) dy = ν

∂u

∂y

y=0

.

Now, the right hand side is basically a term that is evaluated, and the

diﬀerential on the left hand side can be taken outside the integral (since the

term is an integral w.r.t. y) and done later, therefore ∂/∂x → d/dx, which

yields:

(6.18)

d

dx

δ

0

(u

0

−u) · u dy = ν

∂u

∂y

y=0

.

Eq. (6.18) is an integral form of the boundary layer equations. If we examine

this equation carefully, we see that the right hand side is basically the shear

stress at the surface of the plate. That is,

(6.19)

d

dx

δ

0

(u

0

−u) · u dy = τ

w

.

This quantity is unknown because we do not know the velocity proﬁle u.

Similarly, the left hand side also cannot be evaluated because it contains

u. We apparently have an implicit equation in u that cannot be solved in

closed form.

However, we can apply reasonable approximations for u. For example,

let us assume that u is described by a polynomial

6.4

. We know that the ﬂow

is developing, therefore it is a function of both x and y, i.e. u = u(x, y).

However, we would like to use a polynomial that is a function of just a single

6.3

i.e. 2u

∂u

∂x

=

∂u

2

∂x

6.4

Here is where the idea of various degrees of accuracy enters into the problem.

Speciﬁcally, lower–order polynomials will, in general, yield less accurate results as com-

pared to higher–order polynomials. The order is limited by how many boundary conditions

we can identify because these must be used to evaluate the polynomial coeﬃcients.

6.2. KARMAN–POHLHAUSEN INTEGRAL SOLUTION 71

variable. Let us then assume the following: choose a third–order polynomial

having 4 constants

6.5

(6.20)

u

u

0

= a

1

+ a

2

y

δ

+ a

3

y

δ

2

+ a

4

y

δ

3

.

Eq. (6.20) appears to depend only upon y, however, since the boundary

layer thickness depends upon x, i.e. δ = δ(x) as shown in Eq. (6.6), our

solution for u/u

0

is a function of both x and y. Let us describe the boundary

conditions that we will use to evaluate the coeﬃcients in Eq. (6.20):

• No–slip boundary conditions at the wall give

(6.21) u |

y=0

= 0 .

• The gradient of velocity vanishes at the edge of the boundary layer.

In other words, the rate of change of u with respect to y goes to

zero at y ≥ δ. This gives

(6.22)

∂u

∂y

y=δ

= 0 .

• The velocity at the edge of the boundary layer is known to be u

0

,

which gives

(6.23) u |

y=δ

= u

0

.

• While these 3 boundary conditions are fairly obvious, a fourth can

be deduced with a little eﬀort. Looking back to the boundary layer

momentum equation (6.2) we see that this can be evaluated at

y = 0 using, once again, the concept that there is no–slip at the

plate surface. Therefore, plugging in u = v = 0 at y = 0, we ﬁnd

(6.24)

∂

2

u

∂y

2

y=0

= 0 .

Now, we have four unknowns: a

1

. . . a

4

, and four equations with which to

evaluate them: (6.21) through (6.24). Carrying this out, we ﬁnd a

1

= a

3

=

0, a

2

= 1.5, and a

4

= −0.5, which gives

(6.25)

u

u

0

=

3

2

y

δ

−

1

2

y

δ

3

.

Note that this equation is the ﬁrst part of the solution shown back in

Eq. (5.23). We now know the form of u/u

0

, but since we do not know

how δ varies, we still do not know the explicit solution for u/u

0

! This is

where we will now apply the integral form of the boundary layer equations

we derived: i.e. Eq. (6.18).

We use Eq. (6.25) to now evaluate the terms in Eq. (6.18). Let us show

this explicitly:

6.5

There are three boundary conditions that can be easily identiﬁed, and a fourth

that can be deduced without too much diﬃculty, as we shall see shortly.

6.2. KARMAN–POHLHAUSEN INTEGRAL SOLUTION 72

• From Eq. (6.25), we write u as

u = u

0

1.5

δ

y −

0.5

δ

3

y

3

**• Starting inside the integral on the left hand side we can then write
**

u

0

−u = u

0

1 −

1.5

δ

y +

0.5

δ

3

y

3

so that

(u

0

−u) · u = u

2

0

1 −

1.5

δ

y +

0.5

δ

3

y

3

1.5

δ

y −

0.5

δ

3

y

3

**• We can then evaluate the integral on the left hand side of Eq. (6.18)
**

as

δ

0

(u

0

−u) · u dy =

δ

0

u

2

0

1.5

δ

y −

2.25

δ

2

y

2

−

0.5

δ

3

y

3

+

1.5

δ

4

y

4

−

0.25

δ

6

y

6

dy

which is

u

2

0

3

4δ

y

2

−

3

4δ

2

y

3

−

1

8δ

3

y

4

+

3

10δ

4

y

5

−

1

28δ

6

y

7

δ

y=0

which simpliﬁes to

39

280

u

2

0

δ

• The right hand side of Eq. (6.18) is easily evaluated as

3

2

νu

0

δ

• Eq. (6.18) can then be written as

d

dx

39

280

u

2

0

δ

=

3

2

νu

0

δ

• We note that δ is the only term on the left hand side that is a func-

tion of x. Everything else is constant with respect to x, therefore

we can write the equation as

39

280

u

2

0

dδ

dx

=

3

2

νu

0

δ

which is a simple separable diﬀerential equation that can be written

as

δ dδ =

140

13

ν

u

0

dx

• This equation can be integrated along the ﬂow direction, that is,

in x as

δ dδ =

140

13

ν

u

0

dx

6.2. KARMAN–POHLHAUSEN INTEGRAL SOLUTION 73

from which we ﬁnd

δ

2

2

=

140

13

ν x

u

0

+ C

0

where C

0

is a constant.

• Recalling the fact that the boundary layer thickness is zero at the

leading edge of the plate, that is δ(0) = 0, we ﬁnd C

0

= 0 so that

δ

2

2

=

140

13

ν x

u

0

which can be written as

(6.26) δ =

280

13

ν x

u

0

=

280

13

ν x

u

0

x

2

x

2

= 4.640955

ν

u

0

x

x

Note that this equation is the second and concluding part of the solution

shown back in Eq. (5.23). We see that the second part of Eq. (6.26) is simply

the inverse of the square root of the Reynolds number based on x. We can

therefore write the boundary layer solution as

(6.27) δ ≈

4.64 x

Re

1/2

We have now solved the problem, since Eq. (6.27), along with Eq. (6.25) de-

scribe the complete velocity proﬁle. Note that the constant 4.64 is remark-

ably close to the value of 5.0 that was obtained from the full non–linear (and

much more diﬃcult) exact solution! Using Eq. (6.19), we can also evaluate

the shear stress and the wall skin friction coeﬃcient C

f

, for example

(6.28) C

f

=

τ

w

ρ u

2

0

/2

=

0.646

√

Re

x

,

which is, once again, quite comparable to the exact solution in Eq. (6.7).

We assumed a third–order polynomial for the velocity proﬁle in Eq. (6.20).

Of course, other forms could have been assumed as well. Table 6.2 compares

the exact solution to several approximate ones, including the cubic polyno-

mial we have used here. The procedure to solve Eq. (6.4) for temperature is

Table 6.2. Laminar boundary layer solutions

solution δ

√

Re

x

/x C

f

√

Re

x

exact 5.0 0.664

linear 3.46 0.578

parabolic 5.48 0.730

cubic 4.64 0.646

sinusoidal 4.79 0.655

somewhat similar, but more tedious and leads to Eq. (5.24). Development

of this result is shown in a number of reference texts (e.g. Burmeister, 1983,

§8.3).

6.3. EMPIRICAL CORRELATIONS 74

6.3. Empirical Correlations

Now that we have comprehensively studied laminar ﬂow over a ﬂat plate,

we are compelled to admit our inability to examine more complicated con-

ﬁgurations from a purely theoretical perspective. However, we have charac-

terized boundary layer–type problems in terms of the relevant dimensionless

parameters and this provides a basis for correlating experimental measure-

ments for various conﬁgurations. We do not delve into the details of making

such measurements. Rather, we simply catalog some of the notable for-

mulae for basic problems. Various texts have more extensive listings (e.g

¨

Ozi¸sik, 1985; Incropera and Dewitt, 2002). These texts also list the original

references for the correlations presented below.

It is important to understand the limitations of these formulae. They

are not general solutions! They are simply relationships that have been

found to be reasonably accurate in some limited range of the parameters

6.6

.

Therefore, when solving problems, it is always important to make sure its

parameters correspond to the correlation that is chosen. Unless otherwise

noted, these results are based on evaluating ﬂuid properties at the ﬁlm

temperature.

6.3.1. Flat Plate. Theoretical results for the laminar ﬂat plate were

restricted to Pr > 0.6, however, recall from Table 5.1 that liquid metals

can have substantially lower Prandtl numbers. In this case, the thermal

boundary layer develops very rapidly, so that δ

t

δ. We can assume then

that u = u

∞

over the whole thermal boundary layer and rework the thermal

boundary layer solution. This yields

(6.29) Nu

x

= 0.565 Pe

1/2

x

Pr ≤ 0.05 and Pe

x

≥ 100 ,

where Pe

x

= Re

x

Pr is the Peclet number. A correlation valid for laminar

ﬂow and all Pr is given by

(6.30) Nu

x

=

0.3387 Re

1/2

x

Pr

1/3

1 + [0.0468/Pr]

2/3

1/4

Pe

x

≥ 100 .

For turbulent ﬂow, the correlation

(6.31) Nu

x

= 0.0296 Re

4/5

x

Pr

1/3

0.6 ≤ Pr ≤ 60 and Re

x

≤ 10

7

is reasonably accurate.

Eqs. (6.29) through (6.31) are valid for the local Nusselt number. Corre-

lations for the averaged Nusselt number are somewhat more diﬃcult because

they have to account for the fact that a boundary layer initially has a lam-

inar behavior, undergoes transition, and then becomes turbulent

6.7

. One

6.6

Accuracy may be on the order of about 20 %.

6.7

Of course, if the area of interest is strictly laminar or turbulent, the appropriate

averaged Nusselt number can be obtained by direct integration according to Eq. (5.2) on

pp. 54.

6.3. EMPIRICAL CORRELATIONS 75

way to handle this is to assume that transition occurs at a speciﬁc critical

location along the plate x

c

, which divides the plate into laminar and tur-

bulent regions. According to Eq. (5.2) on pp. 54, we could then model the

overall convection coeﬃcient as

(6.32)

¯

h =

1

L

xc

0

h

lam

dx +

L

xc

h

turb

dx

.

Using h

lam

based on Eq. (6.8) and h

turb

based on Eq. (6.31), we ﬁnd I&D Ex. 7.1

pp 400

(6.33) Nu

L

=

0.037 Re

4/5

L

− 871

Pr

1/3

,

where the limits are 0.6 ≤ Pr ≤ 60 and the end of the plate at x = L is

assumed to lie in the turbulent zone, i.e. 5 × 10

5

≤ Re ≤ 10

8

. (We assume

that transition occurs at Re = 5 ×10

5

.)

6.3.2. Cylinders in Cross–Flow. Engineering applications frequently

involve cross–ﬂow over one or more cylinders (Fig. 6.1). As you might recall

laminar boundary layer turbulent boundary layer

large wake small wake

Figure 6.1. Laminar and turbulent boundary layer formation

for cross–ﬂow over a cylinder.

from ﬂuid mechanics, ﬂow separation occurs at some point where the bound-

ary layer detaches from the surface, forming a low–pressure wake. The ﬂow

is characterized by the Reynolds number

Re

D

=

u

∞

D

ν

,

where u

∞

is the velocity upstream of the cylinder and D is the diameter,

and by the coeﬃcient of drag

C

D

=

F

D

A

f

ρ u

2

∞

/2

,

where F

D

is the measured drag force and A

f

is the projected frontal area

normal to the ﬂow. The character of the boundary layer (laminar or turbu-

lent) strongly inﬂuences where separation occurs, and thus the magnitude of

C

D

(Fig. 6.2). There is a signiﬁcant decrease as transition and turbulent ﬂow

become important at Reynolds numbers above 200,000 to 500,000. These

6.3. EMPIRICAL CORRELATIONS 76

0.01

0.1

1

10

100

1000

d

r

a

g

c

o

e

f

f

i

c

i

e

n

t

1 10 100 1000 10^4 10^5 10^6 0.1

Reynolds number

Figure 6.2. Coeﬃcient of drag for cross–ﬂow over a circular

cylinder.

features strongly inﬂuence the convection characteristics (e.g. Incropera and

Dewitt, 2002, Fig. 7.9, pp. 410).

An overall Nusselt number, valid over all Reynolds numbers Re

D

for

which data are available, has been proposed as

(6.34) Nu

D

= 0.3 +

0.62 Re

1/2

D

Pr

1/3

1 + [0.4/Pr]

2/3

1/4

¸

1 +

Re

D

282, 000

5/8

¸

4/5

·

The restriction on the Prandtl number is roughly Re

D

Pr > 0.2. Again,

ﬂuid properties are evaluated at the ﬁlm temperature. Incropera and Dewitt

(2002) list several additional correlation equations that are appropriate for

groups of more than a single cylinder.

6.3.3. Spheres. Boundary layer eﬀects for ﬂow over spheres are sim-

ilar to those described for cylinders. The primary correlation for averaged

Nusselt number is

(6.35) Nu

D

= 2 +

0.4 Re

1/2

D

+ 0.06 Re

2/3

D

Pr

0.4

µ

µ

s

1/4

,

where all properties are evaluated at T

∞

, except µ

s

, which is evaluated at the

sphere surface temperature The restrictions on Eq. (6.35) are approximately I&D Ex. 7.5

pp 415 0.71 < Pr < 380 and 3.5 < Re

D

< 7.6 ×10

4

(Incropera and Dewitt, 2002).

CHAPTER 7

Internal Convection

In Chapter 6, we examined convection in external ﬂows, where the

growth of the boundary layer is not constrained. Here, we shall study con-

ﬁgurations of internal ﬂow in which the boundary layer is not permitted to

grow without limitation, e.g. pipes, ducts, etc. Now, in addition to the

consideration of laminar versus turbulent ﬂow, we must be concerned with

whether the ﬂow is developing or fully developed

7.1

. We will ﬁnd that, unlike

for external ﬂows, certain internal ﬂow conﬁgurations can be solved exactly

in closed form since non–linear terms in the momentum equations may dis-

appear. These cases, as you probably remember from ﬂuid mechanics, are

always those in which the ﬂow is fully developed and thus the velocity vector

is only a function of the streamwise velocity component. For conﬁgurations

where the ﬂow remains in a developing state, solution procedures will be

somewhat limited and we shall be compelled to rely more on empirical data

and correlations.

7.1. Laminar Pipe Flow

Let us start with the example of fully developed laminar ﬂow in a circular

pipe (Fig. 7.1). As ﬂuid enters the pipe, a boundary layer begins to form

x

fully developed flow developing flow (hydrodynamic entrance region)

inviscid core

boundary layer

boundary layer

Figure 7.1. Flow in a pipe with developing and fully developed

regions.

and grow inward from the periphery, eventually merging so as to encompass

the entire cross–sectional area of the pipe. The distance x

fd

at which this

7.1

Recall from ﬂuid mechanics that ﬂow along the x coordinate direction is developing

if ∂/∂x = 0, whereas it is fully developed if ∂/∂x = 0 (with the exception of the pressure

gradient, which need not vanish).

77

7.1. LAMINAR PIPE FLOW 78

occurs is the hydrodynamic entry length. For x ≥ x

fd

, the ﬂow is fully

developed, meaning quantities

7.2

no longer change as a function of x, and

viscous eﬀects are non–negligible throughout the entire cross–section of the

pipe.

The Reynolds number characterizing pipe ﬂows is based on the pipe

diameter D and the average, or mean velocity over the cross–section ¯ u

Re

D

=

¯ u D

ν

·

Transition from laminar to turbulent ﬂow is usually in the neighborhood of

Re

D

≈ 2300. For laminar ﬂow, x

fd

is on the order

x

fd

≈ 0.05 Re

D

D ,

while for turbulent ﬂow it is in the approximate range

10 D < x

fd

< 60 D .

We might recall from ﬂuid mechanics that for fully developed laminar

ﬂow, the velocity vector simpliﬁes to u = u(r). That is, the radial and az-

imuthal velocity components vanish, leaving only the streamwise component

u. Consequently, the governing equation for u is obtained by simplifying the

streamwise momentum equation

(7.1)

µ

r

d

dr

r

du

dr

=

dP

dx

.

This is a second–order ordinary diﬀerential equation — recall that the ﬂow is

driven by the pressure gradient dP/dx, which is taken as a known quantity.

Therefore, we simply integrate twice to obtain the velocity distribution

(7.2) u(r) =

1

µ

dP

dx

r

2

4

+ C

1

ln r + C

2

,

where C

1

and C

2

are constants of integration. As usual, we must use bound-

ary conditions to evaluate them. One boundary condition is immediately

available from the no–slip requirement, u = 0 at r = r

0

, where r

0

is the pipe

radius. However, this is a situation in which the second boundary condition

is not completely obvious. It can be derived from either of the following

physical observations:

• the ﬂow is well–behaved, so that the natural log term must remain

ﬁnite at r = 0

• because of symmetry of the overall problem, the velocity proﬁle

must also be symmetric about r = 0

Both these observations yield the same result that C

1

= 0. For example,

u|

r=0

= 0 + C

1

ln0 + C

2

= ﬁnite C

1

= 0 .

7.2

Again, except for the pressure gradient, which cannot vanish, otherwise there would

be no driving force to sustain the ﬂow.

7.1. LAMINAR PIPE FLOW 79

Applying no–slip, we ﬁnd

u|

r=r

0

=

1

µ

dP

dx

r

2

0

4

+ C

2

= 0 ,

so that

C

2

= −

1

µ

dP

dx

r

2

0

4

Substituting C

1

and C

2

into the general solution given by Eq. (7.2), we ﬁnd

the exact solution is

u(r) =

1

µ

dP

dx

r

2

4

−

1

µ

dP

dx

r

2

0

4

,

or with further simpliﬁcation

(7.3) u(r) = −

1

4 µ

dP

dx

r

2

0

¸

1 −

r

r

0

2

¸

.

Note that the pressure gradient must be negative to drive the ﬂow in the

positive x direction, i.e. the ﬂow moves from high pressure to low pressure.

Volume ﬂow rate can be calculated by integrating the velocity proﬁle as

(7.4) Q = −

π r

4

0

8 µ

dP

dx

as shown in Appendix B. Again, the negative sign in Eq. (7.4) is com-

pensated for by the negative pressure gradient dP/dx. According to the

deﬁnition Q = ¯ uA, we immediately have the average, or mean velocity as

(7.5) ¯ u =

Q

A

=

Q

π r

2

0

= −

r

2

0

8 µ

dP

dx

= −

D

2

32 µ

dP

dx

.

We have rewritten the result in terms of the pipe diameter D in the last

expression. From this result, we see that the exact solution in Eq. (7.3) can

be expressed in the equivalent form

(7.6) u(r) = 2 ¯ u

¸

1 −

r

r

0

2

¸

.

Also, the mass ﬂow rate ˙ m = ρ¯ uA = ρQ is

(7.7) ˙ m = −

ρ π r

4

0

8 µ

dP

dx

Furthermore, Eqs. (7.3) and (7.6) indicate that the maximum velocity, which

occurs at r = 0, is

(7.8) u

max

= u(0) = −

r

2

0

4 µ

dP

dx

= 2 ¯ u .

Now that the ﬂuid mechanics problem is solved, we can turn our atten-

tion to the heat transfer problem. The immediate trouble we see is that,

unlike for external ﬂows, there’s no ﬁxed free–stream reference temperature

7.2. THE CASE OF CONSTANT HEAT FLUX 80

T

∞

. The convention is instead to use a mean or “bulk” temperature deﬁned

as

Acs

ρ u c

v

T dA

cs

= ˙ mc

v

T

m

.

From this expression, we see that T

m

is based on the thermal energy trans-

ported as the ﬂow moves through a cross–section of the pipe

7.3

. Let us

assume constant values for density ρ and speciﬁc heat c

v

. Moreover, dA

cs

=

2 π r dr and A

cs

= π r

2

0

, which gives

T

m

=

ρ c

v

r

0

0

u T 2 π r dr

ρ ¯ u π r

2

0

c

v

,

or simplifying

(7.9) T

m

=

2

¯ u r

2

0

r

0

0

u T r dr .

This is now a suitable quantity to use in our deﬁnition of the convective

heat transfer coeﬃcient, which we deﬁne for this problem as (

¨

Ozi¸sik, 1985,

pp. 243)

(7.10) q

s

= h(T

m

−T

s

) ,

where T

s

and q

s

are the temperature and heat ﬂux at the surface of the

pipe, respectively.

7.2. The Case of Constant Heat Flux

Note that unlike T

∞

for external ﬂows, T

m

as deﬁned by Eq. (7.9) is

generally not constant, but varies with axial distance. If the ﬂuid is be-

ing heated (T

s

> T

m

), then T

m

will increase along the ﬂow direction, and

vice versa. If that is the case, then clearly dT

m

/dx = 0, so it appears that

we can never realize the fully developed condition for the convection prob-

lem. Fortunately, this apparent contradiction is resolved if we work with

dimensionless temperature. Let us deﬁne

(7.11) θ =

T(r, x) −T

s

(x)

T

m

(x) −T

s

(x)

.

We then take fully developed thermal conditions to be deﬁned by ∂θ/∂x = 0,

which can be obtained for the case of constant wall heat ﬂux q

s

.

Let us now deduce some consequences laid out by Eq. (7.11). If ∂θ/∂x =

0, then θ cannot be a function of x for thermally fully developed ﬂow. It

follows that ∂θ/∂r cannot likewise be a function of x. We can evaluate

∂θ

∂r

r=r

0

=

∂

∂r

¸

T(r, x) −T

s

(x)

T

m

(x) −T

s

(x)

r=r

0

=

1

T

m

(x) −T

s

(x)

∂T

∂r

r=r

0

,

7.3

That is, ρu is the mass ﬂux and cvT is the energy per unit mass. Integrating

their product, the energy ﬂux, over the cross–section gives the rate at which energy is

transported through the cross–section.

7.2. THE CASE OF CONSTANT HEAT FLUX 81

and by the same argument conclude that this result is not a function of x.

In other words, this expression remains ﬁxed as the ﬂow proceeds in the x

direction. If we substitute surface heat ﬂux from Newton’s Law of Cooling

in Eq. (7.10), q

s

/h = (T

m

− T

s

), and from Fourier’s Law of Conduction,

∂T/∂r = −q

s

/k at r = r

0

then we ﬁnd

1

T

m

(x) −T

s

(x)

∂T

∂r

r=r

0

=

h

q

s

¸

−

q

s

k

r=r

0

¸

=

h

k

,

from which we must conclude that the local convection coeﬃcient h is inde-

pendent of x for fully developed ﬂow

7.4

.

Furthermore, Eq. (7.10) indicates that for constant h and constant q

s

,

the diﬀerence T

s

− T

m

must be a constant that does not vary with x. We

already know that T

s

and T

m

change with x, so that, if their diﬀerence is a

constant, the rates of change of these two temperatures must be the same

in the fully developed regime, i.e.

(7.12)

dT

m

dx

=

dT

s

dx

·

Let us go one step further. We evaluate ∂θ/∂x using θ as deﬁned in

Eq. (7.11). Our initial assumption of fully developed conditions requires

∂θ/∂x = 0. Evaluating, we ﬁnd

∂θ

∂x

=

∂

∂x

¸

T(r, x) −T

s

(x)

T

m

(x) −T

s

(x)

=

∂

∂x

[T(r, x) −T

s

(x)] [T

m

(x) −T

s

(x)]

−1

=

1

T

m

(x) −T

s

(x)

∂ [T(r, x) −T

s

(x)]

∂x

−

T(r, x) −T

s

(x)

[T

m

(x) −T

s

(x)]

2

∂ [T

m

(x) −T

s

(x)]

∂x

= 0 ,

The second term vanishes since ∂/∂x of [T

m

(x) −T

s

(x)] was just shown to

be 0 in Eq. (7.12). This leaves

1

T

m

(x) −T

s

(x)

∂ [T(r, x) −T

s

(x)]

∂x

= 0 ,

where T

m

(x) −T

s

(x) is, again, a non–zero constant according to Eq. (7.10).

We can therefore write more concisely

∂ [T(r, x) −T

s

(x)]

∂x

= 0 ,

7.4

Since the thermal conductivity k is constant, h must not be a function of x if the

expression as a whole cannot be a function of x.

7.2. THE CASE OF CONSTANT HEAT FLUX 82

which leads us to

∂T(r, x)

∂x

=

dT

s

(x)

dx

,

where we have changed ∂ to a plain derivative, since T

s

is only a function

of x. In light of Eq. (7.12), we now conclude

(7.13)

∂T(r, x)

∂x

=

dT

m

dx

·

In other words, the streamwise temperature gradient anywhere in the cross– I&D Ex. 8.1

pp 475 section is equal to the streamwise gradient of the mean temperature. This

result will be used in solving for the temperature distribution T(r, x) in the

pipe and, ultimately, the Nusselt number for laminar fully developed ﬂow.

We now address the actual problem of laminar fully developed pipe ﬂow

having a constant applied heat ﬂux q

s

at the pipe surface r = r

0

. We assume

constant properties and no energy generation. Derivation of the convection

energy equation in cylindrical coordinates is beyond our present scope, but

it is shown in numerous reference texts (e.g. Bejan, 1984, Chapter 1). For

steady ﬂow in (x, θ, r) coordinates (x is in the streamwise axial direction),

we have

(7.14) u

∂T

∂x

+

v

θ

r

∂T

∂θ

+ w

r

∂T

∂r

= α

¸

∂

2

T

∂x

2

+

1

r

2

∂

2

T

∂θ

2

+

1

r

∂

∂r

r

∂T

∂r

,

where u is again the axial streamwise velocity component, and v

θ

and w

r

are

the azimuthal and radial velocity components. According to our hydrody-

namic solution, u = u(r) is given by Eq. (7.3), while v

θ

= w

r

= 0. Also, the

problem is symmetric, so that ∂/∂θ = 0. We will further assume

7.5

that the

mean temperature T

m

is a linear function of x, so that ∂T/∂x is a constant

in Eq. (7.13) and therefore ∂

2

T/∂x

2

= 0. Eq. (7.14) then simpliﬁes to

(7.15) u(r)

dT

m

dx

= α

¸

1

r

∂

∂r

r

∂T

∂r

.

If we examine this equation more closely, we notice that since dT

m

/dx is

constant, the equation can be written as an ordinary diﬀerential equation

(7.16) u(r)

dT

m

dx

= α

¸

1

r

d

dr

r

dT

dr

.

Recasting this equation in dimensionless temperature θ, as deﬁned by Eq. (7.11),

we write

(7.17) u(r)

dT

m

dx

= α (T

m

−T

s

)

¸

1

r

d

dr

r

dθ

dr

,

which can be re–arranged as

(7.18)

1

r

d

dr

r

dθ

dr

=

u(r)

α (T

m

−T

s

)

dT

m

dx

.

7.5

This can be shown according to an energy balance (e.g. Incropera and Dewitt,

2002, §8.3.1).

7.2. THE CASE OF CONSTANT HEAT FLUX 83

Using the solution for u(r) expressed in terms of the average velocity ¯ u

in Eq. (7.6), we can write

(7.19)

d

dr

r

dθ

dr

= Ar

¸

1 −

r

r

0

2

¸

,

where A is the constant deﬁned by

A =

2 ¯ u

α (T

m

−T

s

)

dT

m

dx

.

Eq. (7.19) can be integrated once to get

r

∂θ

∂r

=

Ar

2

2

−

Ar

4

4 r

2

0

+ C

1

and then again to obtain

θ =

A r

2

4

−

Ar

4

16 r

2

0

+ C

1

lnr + C

2

,

where C

1

and C

2

are constants of integration.

The appropriate boundary conditions are similar to the hydrodynamic

problem. Temperature has a given value T

s

at the wall, r = r

0

, so that θ = 0

at r = r

0

. A boundary condition at r = 0 can be deduced from either of

• the temperature is well–behaved, so that the natural log term must

remain ﬁnite at r = 0

• because of symmetry of the overall problem, the temperature proﬁle

must also be symmetric about r = 0

Both these observations yield the same result that C

1

= 0. Applying the

remaining condition, we ﬁnd

C

2

= −

3

16

Ar

2

0

,

which enables us to write θ as

θ =

A r

2

4

−

A r

4

16 r

2

0

−

3

16

Ar

2

0

.

A equivalent, but more convenient form is

(7.20) θ = −A r

2

0

¸

3

16

+

1

16

r

r

0

4

−

1

4

r

r

0

2

¸

.

The unknown value of A can be determined by employing the deﬁnition

of the bulk mean temperature in Eq. (7.9). Let us write this in dimensionless

form by forming θ on both sides (subtract T

s

, then divide by T

m

−T

s

), which

yields

(7.21)

T

m

−T

s

T

m

−T

s

=

2

¯ u r

2

0

r

0

0

u

T −T

s

T

m

−T

s

r dr .

7.2. THE CASE OF CONSTANT HEAT FLUX 84

Converting to dimensionless notation, this equation is

(7.22) 1 =

2

¯ u r

2

0

r

0

0

u θ r dr .

Substituting in for u and θ and integrating, we obtain

(7.23) Ar

2

0

= −

96

11

,

as shown in Appendix B. Using this result, we can complete Eq. (7.20) as

(7.24) θ =

96

11

¸

3

16

+

1

16

r

r

0

4

−

1

4

r

r

0

2

¸

.

This is the dimensionless temperature proﬁle for the forced convection in a

circular tube for constant wall heat ﬂux.

Is it possible to develop this result even further? Fourier’s Law written

at the pipe’s surface assumes the form

q

s

= −k

f

∂T

∂r

r=r

0

.

Combining this with the expression for Newton’s Law of Cooling in Eq. (7.10),

we can express the convection coeﬃcient as

h = −

k

f

T

m

−T

s

∂T

∂r

r=r

0

.

Let us now express h in terms of the dimensionless temperature θ from

Eq. (7.11), where T(r, x) = θ [T

m

(x) −T

s

(x)] +T

s

(x). We ﬁnd

(7.25) h = −k

f

∂θ

∂r

r=r

0

.

Using the solution for θ in Eq. (7.24) to evaluate ∂θ/∂r at r = r

0

, we ﬁnd

∂θ

∂r

r=r

0

= −

96

44 r

0

= −

96

22 D

= −

48

11 D

.

Substituting into Eq. (7.25) yields

h = k

f

48

11 D

from which we can identify the Nusselt number as

(7.26) Nu =

h D

k

f

=

48

11

≈ 4.364 .

The case of a constant surface temperature can be examined, however

the mathematics of the problem are appreciably more diﬃcult (Kays and

Crawford, 1980, pp. 93–97). The result is similarly straightforward

(7.27) Nu ≈ 3.658 .

7.3. THE COUETTE PROBLEM 85

7.3. The Couette Problem

Let us now look at another internal conﬁguration known as the Couette

ﬂow problem (Fig. 7.2). Here, two inﬁnitely long ﬂat plates a distance L

L

y

x

u

1

T

T

1

0

Figure 7.2. Schematic of the Couette ﬂow problem.

apart enclose a working ﬂuid characterized by constant density ρ, viscosity

µ, and thermal conductivity k. One plate translates in its own plane past

the other with a constant axial velocity u

1

. By convention, we specify the

top plate as the moving one (y = L) and anchor our coordinate origin to

the bottom plate at y = 0. The top plate is at a temperature of T

1

, while

the bottom plate has a temperature of T

0

. As with the pipe problem, we

assume the ﬂow is fully developed, i.e. ∂/∂x = 0, however, there is no

pressure gradient. Rather, the top plate replaces pressure as the driving

force. This conﬁguration is a good model for a number of applications, for

example a journal in an oil–ﬁlled bearing.

The problem can be framed in terms of the Navier–Stokes equations

introduced in Eqs. (5.5) through (5.8) on pp. 57. For the fully developed

ﬂow assumption, we solve this problem as follows. The ﬁrst term in the

continuity equation

∂u

∂x

+

∂v

∂y

= 0

must vanish since the ﬂow is fully developed, which leaves ∂v/∂y = 0. At

most, v could then be a function of x, but since the ﬂow is fully developed v

must be a constant. However, no–slip boundary conditions dictate v = 0 at

both y = 0 and y = L, so the only admissible constant must be v = 0. As

a consequence, the y–momentum equation, Eq. (5.7), vanishes altogether,

while the only non–vanishing term in the x–momentum equation, Eq. (5.6),

is ∂

2

u/∂y

2

. Clearly, since u is the only non–zero velocity component, and it

is not a function of x (because of fully developed ﬂow conditions), it must be

the case that u = u(y), so that Eq. (5.6) simpliﬁes to the ordinary equation

d

2

u

dy

2

= 0 .

Integrating twice, we ﬁnd

u(y) = C

1

y + C

2

,

7.3. THE COUETTE PROBLEM 86

where C

1

and C

2

are evaluated from no–slip boundary conditions u|

y=0

= 0

and u|

y=L

= u

1

. We ﬁnd

u(y) =

u

1

y

L

.

With these results, the energy equation, Eq. (5.8) on pp. 57, simpliﬁes

to

d

2

T

dy

2

= −

µ

k

du

dy

2

.

Notice that we wrote this as an ordinary equation rather than a partial

one, since temperature is not a function of x, i.e. T = T(y). The term

on the right hand side represents viscous dissipation, which describes how

mechanical energy is degraded to heat by the mechanism of friction. In the

current problem, this can be viewed as a source term, because we know the

solution for u and can evaluate this term explicitly. The result is

d

2

T

dy

2

= −

µ u

2

1

k L

2

.

Once again, we can perform straightforward integration to obtain the general

solution

T(y) = −

µ u

2

1

2 k L

2

y

2

+ C

3

y + C

4

.

The boundary conditions T|

y=0

= T

0

and T|

y=L

= T

1

are used to determine

constants C

3

and C

4

, so that the exact solution is

(7.28) T(y) − T

0

=

y

L

¸

(T

1

−T

0

) +

µ u

2

1

2 k

1 −

y

L

.

First, let us examine the case of T

0

= T

1

. We will assume T

1

> T

0

,

although the opposite case would yield analogous results. Dividing by T

1

−

T

0

, we obtain

T(y) −T

0

T

1

−T

0

=

y

L

¸

1 +

1

2

µ u

2

1

k (T

1

−T

0

)

1 −

y

L

,

or, written in dimensionless terms

(7.29) θ = y

∗

¸

1 +

Pr Ec

2

(1 −y

∗

)

,

where θ is dimensionless temperature, y

∗

= y/L is the dimensionless coor-

dinate,

Pr =

c

p

µ

k

=

c

p

µ

k

ρ

ρ

=

1

α

µ

ρ

=

ν

α

is the Prandtl number, and

Ec =

u

2

1

c

p

(T

1

−T

0

)

is the Eckert number.

Note that the case of Pr Ec = 0 corresponds to the no–ﬂow condition,

and thus pure conduction. Thus, the temperature proﬁle is a straight line

7.3. THE COUETTE PROBLEM 87

connecting T

0

and T

1

(Fig. 7.3). For other cases, viscous dissipation distorts

the straight–line relationship as shown by plotting θ versus y

∗

in Fig. 7.3.

An interesting aspect of this problem is the heat ﬂux at the top wall, deﬁned

P

r

*

E

c

=

8

P

r

*

E

c

=

4 P

r

*

E

c

=

2

P

r

*

E

c

=

0

0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

d

i

m

e

n

s

i

o

n

l

e

s

s

"

y

"

dimensionless temperature

Figure 7.3. Temperature distribution in Couette ﬂow with vis-

cous dissipation for T

1

> T

0

.

by

q = −k

dT

dy

y=L

.

From Eq. (7.28), we evaluate the derivative to obtain

dT

dy

y=L

=

¸

T

1

−T

0

L

+

µ u

2

1

2 k

1

L

−

2 y

L

2

y=L

=

T

1

−T

0

L

−

µ u

2

1

2 k L

=

T

1

−T

0

L

¸

1 −

µ u

2

1

2 k (T

1

−T

0

)

=

T

1

−T

0

L

1 −

Pr Ec

2

,

which means that the heat ﬂux is

(7.30) q = −k

T

1

−T

0

L

1 −

Pr Ec

2

.

There are clearly three cases of interest, depending upon the sign of the

(1 −Pr Ec/2) term (again, assuming T

1

> T

0

):

• Pr Ec < 2, which makes the right hand side negative and therefore

heat ﬂows in the −y direction, or from the upper wall into the

liquid. This is what we would intuitively expect, given T

1

> T

0

.

7.4. EMPIRICAL CORRELATIONS 88

• Pr Ec > 2, which makes the right hand side positive and therefore

heat ﬂows in the +y direction, or from the liquid into the wall, even

though the upper wall is at a higher temperature than the lower

wall. Not intuitive.

• Pr Ec = 2, which makes the right hand side vanish and thus there

is no heat transfer at the upper wall. The upper wall behaves as

an insulated boundary (q

**= 0), even though there is no actual
**

insulation. Also not intuitive.

The opposite case from the above is T

0

= T

1

. Here, Eq. (7.28) reduces

to

T(y) − T

0

=

µ u

2

1

2 k

y

L

1 −

y

L

.

Non–trivial temperature distributions are due strictly to viscous dissipation

eﬀects. This conﬁguration is symmetric about y = L/2. In fact, the maxi-

mum temperature occurs at the middle of the channel and can be computed

by setting y = L/2 to get

T

max

− T

0

=

µ u

2

1

8 k

.

Though not identical, this case is qualitatively similar to heat generation for

conduction heat transfer in §3.4.

7.4. Empirical Correlations

Other problems related to internal convection are more complicated than

our present level of theory will allow us to handle. As with external conﬁg-

urations, we must defer to empirically–based correlations using the dimen-

sionless parameters we have developed.

7.4.1. Turbulent Flow in Circular Tubes. If the ﬂow is fully devel-

oped, both hydrodynamically and thermally, the Dittus–Boelter correlation

can be applied

(7.31) Nu

D

= 0.023 Re

4/5

D

Pr

n

,

where n = 0.4 for T

s

> T

m

(heating) and n = 0.3 for T

s

< T

m

(cooling). The

experimentally established range of applicability according to Incropera and

Dewitt (2002) is 0.7 ≤ Pr ≤ 160, Re

D

> 10

4

, and x > 10 D. All properties

are evaluated at T

m

.

Eq. (7.31) is appropriate when T

s

is not too diﬀerent from T

m

, however,

if there is appreciable variation, the Sieder–Tate correlation should be used

(7.32) Nu

D

= 0.027 Re

4/5

D

Pr

1/3

µ

µ

s

0.14

.

The limits are identical to Eq. (7.31), except that the Prandtl number can

be extended up to Pr ≈ 16, 700. For Eq. (7.32), all properties are evaluated

at T

m

, except µ

s

, which is evaluated at T

s

. Eqs. (7.31) and (7.32) can be

7.4. EMPIRICAL CORRELATIONS 89

reasonably applied for both the constant temperature and constant heat ﬂux

boundary conditions.

It is emphasized that both Eqs. (7.31) and (7.32) should only be used

for fully turbulent problems. The transition regime between laminar and

fully turbulent ﬂow, 2000 < Re

D

< 10

4

, entails additional considerations.

Incropera and Dewitt (2002, §8.5) discuss additional results for these cases.

7.4.2. Non–Circular Tubes. Many engineering applications involve

tubes or ducts having non–circular cross sections. Even for laminar ﬂow,

theoretical approaches are beyond the mathematics we have discussed thus

far. For example, for a rectangular cross section, the momentum equation

cannot be reduced to an ordinary diﬀerential equation like what we obtained

for circular pipes in Eq. (7.1). However, results we have obtained for circu-

lar tubes can be applied as an initial approximation to non–circular cross

sections using the hydraulic diameter as a length scale

(7.33) D

h

=

4 A

c

P

,

where A

c

is the cross–sectional area of the conduit and P is the wetted

perimeter

7.6

. The value of D

h

can be computed directly from geometry, for

example, for a rectangular duct of height a and width b, we obtain

(7.34) D

h

=

4 a b

2 (a +b)

=

2 a b

a +b

,

Thus, D

h

should be used to calculate the non–circular analogs of the dimen-

sionless parameters, e.g. Re

D

h

and Nu

D

h

.

For fully turbulent ﬂows, the Dittus–Boelter and Sieder–Tate correla-

tions can be reasonably used in conjunction with the hydraulic diameter.

Results are less accurate for laminar ﬂows, especially in geometries having

sharp corners. Here, Nusselt numbers based on exact solutions should be

used. For example, Table 7.1 shows selected results for channels of rectan-

gular cross section arranged according to the aspect ratio φ = b/a, where

b > a. Kays and Crawford (1980) consider such problems in greater detail.

Table 7.1. Nusselt numbers for rectangular channels of

various aspect ratios (Kays and Crawford, 1980).

φ Nu

D

h

(const q

s

) Nu

D

h

(const T

s

)

1 3.61 2.98

2 4.12 3.39

3 4.79 3.96

4 5.33 4.44

7.6

Eq. (7.33) contains a factor of 4 so that the hydraulic diameter of a circular pipe

is equal to its geometric diameter, i.e. D

h

= 4

`

πD

2

/4

´

/ (πD) = D.

CHAPTER 8

Natural Convection

Up until now we have considered cases where convection is a result of

the forced motion of a ﬂuid, e.g. a pressure gradient, moving boundary, etc.

However, there are many cases where initial heat transfer causes the local

temperature of a ﬂuid to change and thus its density to change as well. This

causes a “natural” ﬂuid motion which in turn gives rise to natural, or free

convection. Thus, free convection arises because of buoyancy forces. A few

notable situations are refrigerator coils, piping, electronics, steam radiators

in old homes, and ﬂow along window panes.

Generally, the density of a ﬂuid decreases with increasing temperature

because of volumetric expansion, which may induce a natural convection

ﬂow. This actually depends upon the conﬁguration of the problem. In par-

ticular, an instability must be able to occur. For example, imagine 2 inﬁnite

parallel horizontal plates which are both ﬁxed. If the top plate is hotter

than the lower one (Fig. 8.1, left), the conﬁguration is inherently stable be-

cause the lighter ﬂuid is already above the cooler heavier ﬂuid. There is no

cold

hot cold

hot

y

y

g

g

Figure 8.1. The concept of instability as a necessary condition

for natural convection.

tendency for the system to move away from this state of equilibrium and

any heat transfer between the plates will be a result purely of conduction.

However, if the bottom wall is hotter (Fig. 8.1, right), the hot light ﬂuid

will initially be below the cooler heavier ﬂuid. This “top heavy” system will

tend to ﬂow, with the heavy ﬂuid falling by the action of gravity and the

light ﬂuid correspondingly rising. A circulation pattern will arise, so that

heat transfer between the plates is eﬀected primarily by natural convection.

90

8.1. WALL BOUNDED CONVECTION ON A VERTICAL FLAT SURFACE 91

8.1. Wall Bounded Convection on a Vertical Flat Surface

Let us start by considering the familiar laminar boundary layer situ-

ation, except this time the ﬂat plate is placed vertically. If we consider

the problem ﬁrst on a conceptual basis, we quickly ﬁnd that the boundary

layer velocity proﬁle will be fundamentally diﬀerent from the standard case

we are accustomed to, i.e. as depicted in Fig. 5.1. While we still have a

no–slip boundary condition on the plate itself, the ﬂuid far away from the

plate (y → ∞) is at rest, rather than moving at some non–zero freestream

velocity. If we assume that the plate temperature T

s

is greater than the

ﬂuid temperature T

∞

, lighter ﬂuid will rise, causing an upward convection

pattern. The resulting velocity proﬁle would look qualitatively like the one

plotted in Fig. 8.2.

v

e

r

t

i

c

a

l

p

l

a

t

e

y

x

g

u

Figure 8.2. Boundary layer proﬁle on a vertical ﬂat plate.

We are again assuming incompressible ﬂow with one important excep-

tion: we must allow for the buoyancy force which drives the ﬂow. It this

term, the density is not constant! Using the boundary layer approximation,

we write the resulting equation in the streamwise direction x as

u

∂u

∂x

+ v

∂u

∂y

= −

1

ρ

dP

dx

− g + ν

∂

2

u

∂y

2

,

where g represents the gravity vector. There is no body force in the y

direction (i.e. horizontally), therefore the x pressure gradient at any point

within the boundary layer is the same as that in the quiescent region far

outside the boundary layer. Since there is no ﬂuid motion in this area,

vertical pressure gradient is prescribed simply by hydrostatic considerations,

∂P/∂x = −ρ

∞

g, where ρ

∞

is the density of quiescent ﬂuid far from the plate.

Substituting back into the equation gives

u

∂u

∂x

+ v

∂u

∂y

=

g

ρ

(ρ

∞

−ρ) + ν

∂

2

u

∂y

2

.

8.1. WALL BOUNDED CONVECTION ON A VERTICAL FLAT SURFACE 92

The ﬁrst term on the right hand side is the buoyancy force and in this

case it is the driving force of the ﬂow. If temperature is the only factor

aﬀecting density

8.1

, this term can be described by a thermodynamic property

known as the volumetric thermal expansion coeﬃcient

β = −

1

ρ

∂ρ

∂T

P

,

which describes the change of density as a function of temperature at con-

stant pressure. This can be approximated by a simple ﬁnite diﬀerence ex-

pression

β ≈ −

1

ρ

ρ

∞

−ρ

T

∞

−T

,

which implies

ρ

∞

−ρ ≈ ρ β (T −T

∞

) .

This idealization is the so–called Boussinesq approximation for density vari-

ation. Substituting, the streamwise momentum equation becomes

(8.1) u

∂u

∂x

+ v

∂u

∂y

= g β (T −T

∞

) + ν

∂

2

u

∂y

2

,

which nicely shows how the driving buoyancy force is related to a tempera-

ture diﬀerence.

Buoyancy eﬀects are strictly limited to the momentum equation, there-

fore the remaining equations are unaﬀected. Speciﬁcally, for conservation of

mass, we have the usual

(8.2)

∂u

∂x

+

∂v

∂y

= 0

and for conservation of energy, we likewise have

(8.3) u

∂T

∂x

+ v

∂T

∂y

= α

∂

2

T

∂y

2

.

Eqs. (8.1) through (8.3) are the boundary layer form of the natural convec-

tion equations. Viscous dissipation has been neglected here, primarily due

to the small velocities associated with natural convection.

Examining these equations, we discover a major mathematical compli-

cation as compared to forced convection: T now appears in the momentum

equation in addition to u appearing in the energy equation. Therefore, this

system is fully coupled, as opposed to forced convection, which was uncou-

pled since T only appeared in the energy equation. We can no longer treat

the hydrodynamic problem independently. The equations must be solved

simultaneously.

8.1

Density changes can arise via other means, as in for example supersonic ﬂow. We

do not consider such cases here.

8.2. DIMENSIONLESS FORMULATION 93

The thermal expansion coeﬃcient β is a material property. For an ideal

gas, the Ideal Gas Law ρ = P/RT gives ∂ρ/∂T = −P/RT

2

, so that

β = −

1

ρ

∂ρ

∂T

=

1

ρ

P

R T

2

=

R T

P

P

R T

2

=

1

T

.

For liquids and non–ideal gases, β must be obtained from appropriate tables.

8.2. Dimensionless Formulation

Let us now look at some of the non–dimensional parameters that are

relevant in natural convection. We introduce the usual scales, e.g. similar

to those described in §5.3

x

∗

=

x

L

, y

∗

=

y

L

,

u

∗

=

u

u

0

, v

∗

=

v

u

0

, T

∗

=

T −T

∞

T

s

−T

∞

,

where L is a characteristic length and u

0

is a characteristic velocity

8.2

. Non–

dimensionalizing the equations according to the results we developed in §4.4,

we ﬁnd, as usual, that the continuity equation remains the same in non–

dimensional form

(8.4)

∂u

∗

∂x

∗

+

∂v

∗

∂y

∗

= 0 .

The momentum and energy equations become

(8.5) u

∗

∂u

∗

∂x

∗

+ v

∗

∂u

∗

∂y

∗

=

g β (T

s

−T

∞

) L

u

2

0

T

∗

+

1

Re

∂

2

u

∗

∂y

∗2

,

and

(8.6) u

∗

∂T

∗

∂x

∗

+ v

∗

∂T

∗

∂y

∗

=

1

Re Pr

∂

2

T

∗

∂y

∗2

.

There is a new coeﬃcient we have not seen before in front of the buoyancy

term. However, we recall that u

0

is not a readily prescribed scale, so we can

arbitrarily multiply by another dimensionless parameter to obtain a new

dimensionless parameter

8.3

. In this case, we multiply this quantity by the

square of the Reynolds number, Re = u

0

L/ν, to get the Grashof number

Gr =

g β (T

s

−T

∞

) L

u

2

0

×

u

2

0

L

2

ν

2

,

which gives

(8.7) Gr =

g β (T

s

−T

∞

) L

3

ν

2

·

8.2

Characteristic velocity is not readily identiﬁable since conditions outside the bound-

ary layer are at rest and thus u∞ = 0. This is slightly diﬀerent from the method of

non–dimensionalization shown in §5.3.

8.3

Recall that this is permissible according to the Buckingham–Pi theorem from ﬂuid

mechanics.

8.3. SIMILARITY SOLUTION FOR THE VERTICAL PLATE 94

The Grashof number plays the same role in free convection that the Reynolds

number plays in forced convection, i.e. Re is the ratio of inertial forces to

viscous forces, whereas and Gr is the ratio of buoyancy forces to viscous

forces. We can then recast momentum conservation in Eq. (8.5) as

(8.8) u

∗

∂u

∗

∂x

∗

+ v

∗

∂u

∗

∂y

∗

= Gr T

∗

+

1

Re

∂

2

u

∗

∂y

∗2

,

The three conservation laws, Eqs. (8.4), (8.6), and (8.8), are functions of

the dimensionless parameters Re, Pr, and Gr. We would therefore expect

solutions of the natural convection problem, given by the Nusselt number,

to be of the form

Nu = Nu(Re, Pr, Gr) .

There is a subtle aspect to this interpretation. In formulating the Grashof

number, we were able to eliminate the velocity scale u

0

based on the obser-

vation that we could not necessarily characterize it appropriately. Yet, it

could be that an external forcing results in an explicit u

0

, so that a problem

would be a mixture of forced convection and natural convection. The above

presumption about the functional dependence of Nu is valid when forced

and natural convection aspects are comparable, i.e.

Gr

Re

2

∼ 1 .

Looking back at the form of Gr in Eq. (8.5), this condition is equivalent to

g β (T

s

−T

∞

) L ∼ u

2

0

.

Consequently, if forced convection dominates a problem,

Gr

Re

2

1 and Nu = Nu(Re, Pr) .

That is, free convection eﬀects are so small as to be neglected. Conversely,

if natural convection is dominant, we have

Gr

Re

2

1 and Nu = Nu(Pr, Gr) .

Here, the small forced convection eﬀect would be neglected, although strictly

speaking, natural convection occurs exclusively only for Gr/Re

2

→ ∞, for

which u

0

= 0.

8.3. Similarity Solution for the Vertical Plate

As already noted, natural convection is a diﬃcult problem to solve ana-

lytically because the equations are fully coupled. However, as with external

forced convection on the horizontal ﬂat plate, there are no obvious scales for

the problem, so we suspect that a similarity transform

8.4

might be used. If

successful, this would reduce the partial diﬀerential problem to an ordinary

diﬀerential problem.

8.4

The similarity technique was introduced in §4.6.

8.3. SIMILARITY SOLUTION FOR THE VERTICAL PLATE 95

From Fig. 8.2, we deduce the boundary conditions

y = 0 : u = v = 0, T = T

s

and

y →∞ : u →0, T →T

∞

,

where T

s

is the temperature of the plate. In this case, the transformation

variables

η =

y

x

Gr

x

4

1/4

and

f (η) =

ψ

4 ν

4

Gr

x

1/4

are appropriate, where ψ = ψ(x, y) is the stream function deﬁned in Eq. (6.5)

on pp. 67 and

Gr

x

=

g β (T

s

−T

∞

) x

3

ν

2

is the local Grashof number based on x.

Transforming the momentum equation appropriately, we ﬁnd it becomes

f

+ 3ff

− 2

f

2

+ T

∗

= 0 ,

where the prime symbol indicates the regular derivative of f (η). The energy

equation becomes

T

∗

+ 3 Pr f T

∗

= 0 .

Like the horizontal ﬂat plate problem, the momentum equation remains

non–linear. Moreover, the two equations are still coupled to each other. i.e.

f and T

∗

appear in both. In this case, a numerical method is typically

invoked to complete the solution.

It can be shown (e.g. Incropera and Dewitt, 2002, pp. 541–542) that the

general form for the local Nusselt number is

(8.9) Nu

x

=

h x

k

=

Gr

x

4

1/4

F (Pr) ,

where F (Pr) is a function of the Prandtl number as determined by the

solution of the above problem. A correlation, purported to be accurate to

within about 0.5 % (Incropera and Dewitt, 2002, pp. 542) is given by the

expression

(8.10) F (Pr) =

0.75 Pr

1/2

0.609 + 1.221 Pr

1/2

+ 1.238 Pr

1/4

·

The result can also be used to calculate the overall (averaged) Nusselt num-

ber according to the deﬁnition given by Eq. (5.2) on pp. 54 as

¯

h =

1

L

L

0

h dx =

1

L

L

0

Nu

x

k

x

dx =

1

L

L

0

k

x

Gr

x

4

1/4

F (Pr) dx .

8.3. SIMILARITY SOLUTION FOR THE VERTICAL PLATE 96

Substituting the local Grashof number, and observing that a number of

factors in the argument, including F (Pr) are not functions of x, and so can

be taken outside the integral, we ﬁnd

¯

h =

F (Pr) k

4

1/4

L

L

0

1

x

g β (T

s

−T

∞

) x

3

ν

2

1/4

dx

=

F (Pr) k

4

1/4

L

g β (T

s

−T

∞

)

ν

2

1/4

L

0

1

x

x

3/4

dx

=

F (Pr) k

L

g β (T

s

−T

∞

)

4 ν

2

1/4

L

0

1

x

1/4

dx

=

F (Pr) k

L

g β (T

s

−T

∞

)

4 ν

2

1/4

4

3

x

3/4

L

0

=

4

3

F (Pr) k

L

g β (T

s

−T

∞

) L

3

4 ν

2

1/4

=

4

3

k

L

Gr

L

4

1/4

F (Pr)

=

4

3

k

L

Nu

L

,

where the last line results directly from the form of the solution given in

Eq. (8.9). Moving k and L over to the left hand side, we ﬁnd the average

Nusselt number to be

(8.11) Nu

L

=

¯

h L

k

=

4

3

Nu

L

,

where Nu

L

is the local Nusselt number at the end of the plate, i.e. at x = L.

As with forced ﬂow, turbulent eﬀects can arise in natural convection.

We mentioned above that the Grashof number, deﬁned by Eq. (8.7), can

be taken as the ratio of buoyancy eﬀects versus viscous eﬀects. The inter-

play between these two phenomena is very similar to that deﬁned by the

Reynolds number for forced convection, i.e. viscous forces tend to dissi-

pate disturbances which could grow large enough to de–stabilize the ﬂow.

We would therefore expect that Gr serves as a direct measure of the ten-

dency toward turbulent ﬂow for natural convection in the same sense as Re

for forced convection. However, data correlate more strongly to a closely–

related parameter call the Rayleigh number, which is simply the product of

the Grashof and Prandtl numbers. The critical Rayleigh number for turbu-

lent ﬂow is approximately. I&D Ex. 9.1

pp 543

(8.12) Ra

x

= Gr

x

Pr =

g β (T

s

−T

∞

) x

3

ν α

≈ 10

9

.

Gebhart et al. (1988) discuss this in greater detail.

8.4. EMPIRICAL CORRELATIONS 97

8.4. Empirical Correlations

There is little more than can be done from an analytical standpoint with

natural convection because of the complexity of the problem, so we tend to

focus more on empirically correlated results. As with turbulent ﬂow, most

of the data correlate more appropriately to Ra rather than Gr. Properties

are again evaluated at the ﬁlm temperature, deﬁned by Eq. (6.1) on pp. 66.

8.4.1. Vertical Plate. The Churchill–Chu correlation can be applied

over the entire range of Ra

(8.13) Nu

L

=

0.825 +

0.387 Ra

1/6

L

1 + [0.492/Pr]

9/16

8/27

¸

¸

¸

2

,

although somewhat better accuracy for strictly laminar ﬂow is given by

(8.14) Nu

L

= 0.68 +

0.67 Ra

1/4

L

1 + [0.492/Pr]

9/16

4/9

where Ra

L

< 10

9

.

These correlations are applicable to cases where the plate temperature T

s

is constant. Incropera and Dewitt (2002, pp. 546) describe procedures to I&D Ex. 9.2

pp 546 extrapolate these results to several other conﬁgurations.

8.4.2. Horizontal Cylinder. Heated horizontal cylinders are closely

related to the vertical plate conﬁguration, except that the boundary layer

curves around the contour of the body rather than being strictly vertical

(Fig. 8.3). Development begins on the underside of the cylinder and the

boundary layer eventually detaches in the form of a plume that rises above

the cylinder. Churchill and Chu have formulated a correlation valid over a

g

Figure 8.3. Natural convection boundary layer on a horizontal

cylinder.

8.4. EMPIRICAL CORRELATIONS 98

wide range of Ra

(8.15) Nu

L

=

0.6 +

0.387 Ra

1/6

D

1 + [0.559/Pr]

9/16

8/27

¸

¸

¸

2

, Ra

D

< 10

12

.

where the Rayleigh number is based on the pipe diameter D.

8.4.3. Rectangular Enclosures. Conﬁgurations we have discussed

thus far are primarily of the external ﬂow type, but internal conﬁgurations

also arise in applications, for example in the form of various enclosures

(Fig. 8.4). Here, the bottom and top surfaces are adiabatic, while the ver-

c

o

l

d

h

o

t

L

H

Figure 8.4. Recirculating natural convection ﬂow pattern in a

vertically–oriented enclosure. This particular conﬁguration is an

excellent model for analyzing double–pane windows.

tical surfaces have speciﬁc temperatures, T

1

on the hot side and T

2

on the

cold side, and are separated by a distance L. If the Rayleigh number is suﬃ-

ciently high, a recirculating ﬂow pattern will form, similar to that shown in

the ﬁgure. For small Ra

L

, the ﬂow is weak and heat transfer occurs mainly

by conduction, i.e. Nu

L

∼ 1. For larger Ra

L

, a number of correlations have

been devised, e.g.

(8.16) Nu

L

= 0.22

Pr Ra

L

0.2 + Pr

0.28

H

L

−0.25

, 10

3

< Ra

L

< 10

10

,

which is valid for aspect ratios 2 < H/L < 10 and Pr < 10

5

. Other

correlations are available for larger aspect ratios (

¨

Ozi¸sik, 1985; Incropera

and Dewitt, 2002).

CHAPTER 9

Heat Exchangers

Heat exchangers are devices that facilitate heat transfer between two

ﬂuids at diﬀerent temperatures without allowing them to mix. Usually, the

ﬂuids are separated by a solid boundary, for example as in car radiators,

air conditioners, distillers, etc. These are called indirect contact exchangers.

However, if the ﬂuids do not tend to mix naturally, a direct contact heat

exchanger may be used, e.g. a water chiller.

Heat exchangers are typically classiﬁed by ﬂow arrangement and type

of construction. In parallel ﬂow units, ﬂuids enter at the same end and ﬂow

in the same direction, while in counter–ﬂow, the ﬂow of the two ﬂuids is in

opposite directions. Fig. 9.1 illustrates these arrangements for a simple heat

exchanger consisting of concentric tubes.

counter flow

parallel flow

Figure 9.1. Flow arrangements for concentric tube heat ex-

changer. One ﬂuid ﬂows within the innermost tube, while the other

ﬂows in the gap between the two tubes.

The concentric tube heat exchanger is a good model for introducing a

number of concepts. According to convention, the inner tube is called the

“tube”, while the outer tube is referred to as the “shell”. Thus, Fig. 9.1

shows the simplest shell–and–tube heat exchanger architecture. However,

according to our results for ﬁns in §3.5 we suspect that actual units might

not be as simple as that depicted in Fig. 9.1 because of the limited surface

area of the tube. Instead, units routinely utilize many tubes within a single

shell, so that the area for heat transfer is maximized (Fig. 9.2). Variations

99

9.1. THE THUMBNAIL DIAGRAM 100

tube side

inlet

tube side

outlet

shell side outlet

shell side inlet

Figure 9.2. Shell–and–tube heat exchanger with one tube pass

and one shell pass. Tube side enters and exits through manifolds.

on this basic architecture are shown in reference texts (e.g.

¨

Ozi¸sik, 1985;

Mills, 1999; Incropera and Dewitt, 2002).

It is also common to classify heat exchangers according to the area avail-

able for heat transfer per unit volume of the unit, i.e.

ϕ =

total area available for heat transfer

total volume of heat exchanger

·

Units having ϕ > 700 m

−1

are arbitrarily referred to as being compact heat

exchangers, regardless of their design architecture. Table 9.1 summarizes ϕ

for several classes of heat exchangers.

Table 9.1. Approximate area density for various classes of

heat exchangers (

¨

Ozi¸sik, 1985).

Type ϕ

m

−1

**industrial shell–and–tube 70 – 500
**

automotive radiators 1000

precision specialty units 5000 – 10,000

human lung 20,000

9.1. The Thumbnail Diagram

In analyzing heat exchangers, we will ﬁnd the concept of the thumbnail

diagram to be especially useful. The diagram is simply a plot of the temper-

atures of the two streams, hot side (H) and cold side (C), as functions of the

distance from an origin. For example, Fig. 9.3 shows a simple tube–type unit

of length L running in parallel ﬂow mode. Assuming the origin to be the

inlet side at x = 0, temperatures of the two streams are shown, along with

their ﬂow directions. Although direction arrows are not mandatory, they

will be extremely helpful for the “bookkeeping” aspect of heat exchanger

calculations.

Fig. 9.3 shows a number of interesting concepts for the parallel ﬂow

arrangement:

9.1. THE THUMBNAIL DIAGRAM 101

parallel flow

x = 0

x = L

L

t

e

m

p

e

r

a

t

u

r

e

H

C

∆ T

Figure 9.3. Thumbnail diagram for a simple tube–type heat

exchanger using the parallel ﬂow arrangement.

• The outlet temperature of the cool side cannot exceed that of the

hot side. At most, they can be equal, otherwise an un–physical

temperature gradient exists. Therefore, the eﬀectiveness of parallel

ﬂow is limited and not typically used for heat recovery.

• The temperature gradient between the streams, ∆T, is not con-

stant. Therefore the local heat ﬂux q

varies with x.

• If we assume that the wall temperature of the material separat-

ing the streams is the average between the two streams, then wall

temperature is roughly constant. This might be an advantageous

design aspect if the wall material is sensitive to stresses induced by

temperature diﬀerences along x.

Fig. 9.4 shows thumbnail diagrams for three other cases: counter–ﬂow,

and condensing and boiling heat transfer. For the counter–ﬂow design, the

H

C

C

H

H

C

t

e

m

p

e

r

a

t

u

r

e

t

e

m

p

e

r

a

t

u

r

e

t

e

m

p

e

r

a

t

u

r

e

0 L

0

L 0 L

counter−flow condensing boiling

Figure 9.4. Thumbnail diagrams for the counter–ﬂow arrange-

ment, and for condensing and boiling heat transfer.

9.2. OVERALL HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT 102

exit temperature of the cold ﬂuid can in fact be higher than that of the

hot ﬂuid. This makes the counter–ﬂow design more attractive than parallel

ﬂow units if the design requirements permit such a choice. Clearly, the wall

temperature in these units is not constant, which might cause large thermal

stresses that may eliminate certain materials from design consideration. Al-

though not necessarily the case, ∆T might also be constant along x for the

counter–ﬂow arrangement.

Although we do not discuss the physics of condensation and boiling heat

transfer per se, we can examine their application in heat exchangers utilizing

the simple fact that temperature is constant during a phase change. It should

be clear that the ﬂow direction of the phase change stream is irrelevant

because of its constant temperature. For the condenser, heat energy is

liberated from the condensate and absorbed by the cold side, causing its

temperature to rise

9.1

. For a boiling heat exchanger, the reverse is true: the

hot side transfers energy to boil the ﬂuid on the cold side and cools in the

process.

Thumbnail diagrams can be drawn for more complicated conﬁgurations

as well. For example, Fig. 9.5 illustrates a shell–and–tube exchanger having

one shell pass and two tube passes, along with its corresponding thumbnail

diagram.

tube side inlet

tube side outlet

shell side

inlet

shell side outlet

t

e

m

p

e

r

a

t

u

r

e

H

C

C

Figure 9.5. Thumbnail diagram for one shell pass, two tube

pass heat exchanger. We have assumed the tube side contains the

cold ﬂuid.

9.2. Overall Heat Transfer Coeﬃcient

We have devoted considerable attention to obtaining convection coeﬃ-

cients in Chapters 5 through 8. While these problems dealt strictly with

single ﬂows, the heat exchanger presents us with two ﬂows to analyze. How

9.1

A cold can of beer on a warm humid day is good example of this phenomenon.

Water vapor condenses on the outside of the can, transferring heat to the beer, causing it

to warm up.

9.2. OVERALL HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT 103

should this be handled? As we discussed in Chapter 3, the circuit analogy

can be used to obtain overall eﬀective thermal resistances. The same con-

cept can be applied here to calculate an overall heat transfer coeﬃcient for

a heat exchanger. The general form of this coeﬃcient is written

9.2

(9.1) U =

1

A

t

R

t

,

where A

t

is the total area available for heat transfer and R

t

is the eﬀective

(overall) thermal resistance. Calculating U is clearly a matter of ﬁrst deter-

mining R

t

. For a simple shell–and–tube heat exchanger, thermal resistance

is the sum of three basic resistive components in series (Fig. 9.6):

• convective resistance on the tube side

• conductive resistance of the wall between the two ﬂow streams

• convective resistance on the shell side

conductive resistance

tube side convective resitance

shell side convective resistance

Figure 9.6. Resistive components involved in calculating the

overall thermal resistance.

We can write the overall resistance as

(9.2) R

t

=

1

A

i

h

i

+ R

c

+

1

A

o

h

o

,

where subscripts i and o designate inner and outer, respectively, and R

c

is

the conductive resistance for a cylindrical surface derived in Eq. (3.22) on

pp. 22 as

R

c

=

ln (r

o

/r

i

)

2 π L k

·

Notice that we can use either A

i

or A

o

as the total area available for heat

transfer A

t

in Eq. (9.1). It makes no diﬀerence which one is used, as long

9.2

By convention, U is the symbol for overall convection coeﬃcient for heat exchang-

ers, rather than some form of h which is what we might have expected. This notation is

the standard (e.g.

¨

Ozi¸sik, 1985; Mills, 1999; Incropera and Dewitt, 2002).

9.3. LMTD ANALYSIS 104

as the basis is speciﬁed

9.3

. Using A

o

= 2 π r

o

L as the basis, we obtain

U

o

=

1

A

o

R

t

=

1

A

o

1

A

i

h

i

+

ln(ro/r

i

)

2 π L k

+

1

Aoho

,

which, after simplifying yields

(9.3) U

o

=

1

ro

r

i

h

i

+

ro ln(ro/r

i

)

k

+

1

ho

·

Similarly, for A

i

= 2 π r

i

L as the basis, we get

(9.4) U

i

=

1

1

h

i

+

r

i

ln(ro/r

i

)

k

+

r

i

roho

·

If the wall thickness is minimal

9.4

and the thermal conductivity is high, tube

wall resistance can be neglected to obtain

(9.5) U =

1

1

h

i

+

1

ho

·

In the course of normal operation, inner surfaces of a heat exchanger

can become coated with deposits that leach out of the working ﬂuids and/or

corrode due to reaction with the ﬂuid. These factors present additional

resistance to heat transfer that can be modeled via a fouling factor. Eq. (9.2)

can be modiﬁed as

(9.6) R

t

=

F

i

A

i

+

1

A

i

h

i

+ R

c

+

1

A

o

h

o

+

F

o

A

o

to consider fouling, where F

o

and F

i

are the fouling factors for the outer and

inner surfaces, respectively. Generally, performance is gradually degraded

over time and costs are increased because of maintenance requirements and

down time. The fouling factor is generally a known quantity based on the

working ﬂuid (Table 9.2).

9.3. LMTD Analysis

At this point we probably already suspect that the somewhat exacting

analysis methods we have applied to previous problems will not be possible

for heat exchangers. The ﬂow physics of these units is simply too complex

to obtain analytical solutions, e.g. because of turbulence, developing ﬂow,

separation, etc. Moreover, diverse geometry and architecture preclude gen-

eralizing results into a few relevant correlations. Instead, we will take what

9.3

Calculating the overall heat transfer will involve multiplying by At using a form of

Newton’s Law of Cooling (see Eq. (9.7)), so that, as long as consistency is preserved with

respect to which area is used, the eﬀect will cancel itself out.

9.4

If wall thickness is small, then ri ≈ ro, which means that ln (ro/ri) = ln (1) = 0,

resulting in a vanishing wall resistance term.

9.3. LMTD ANALYSIS 105

Table 9.2. Some representative fouling factors (TEMA, 1978).

Fluid Fouling Factor

m

2

K/W

seawater below 50

o

C 0.0001

seawater above 50

o

C 0.0002

fuel oil 0.0009

machine oils 0.00018

vegetable oils 0.00053

most refrigerants 0.0002

steam (non oil bearing) 0.0001

alcohol vapor 0.00009

industrial air 0.0004

may be thought of as an approximate integral approach in which the anal-

ysis is only dependent upon temperatures at the inlets and outlets and the

overall convection coeﬃcient.

Let us cast our analysis in the form of Newton’s Law of Cooling

(9.7) q = A

t

U

m

∆T

m

,

where A

t

and U

m

are the total area available for heat transfer and the overall

convection coeﬃcient, respectively, and ∆T

m

is a temperature diﬀerence that

must be determined. In general, the temperature diﬀerence between the hot

and cold ﬂuids is not a constant, as suggested by Figs. 9.3 and 9.4. How,

then do we determine ∆T

m

?

Here, we will introduce the method of the “Log Mean Temperature Dif-

ference” (LMTD) for solving heat exchanger problems. This procedure al-

lows us to calculate ∆T

m

, which can be thought of as an appropriately av-

eraged temperature diﬀerence between the two ﬂow streams. It is probably

no surprise that ∆T

m

depends upon the heat exchanger conﬁguration, ﬂow

arrangement, etc. To illustrate the concept, we will develop ∆T

m

for the

simple tube–type unit shown in Fig. 9.3. There are a number of additional

assumptions we must make to implement this method

• the unit is insulated such that no heat is exchanged with its sur-

roundings; heat transfer only takes place between the hot and cold

streams within the unit

• speciﬁc heats of both ﬂuids are constant

• overall heat transfer coeﬃcient is constant

• potential and kinetic energy changes can be neglected

We start by adding some detail to the thumbnail diagram (Fig. 9.7).

As usual, let x be the distance along the heat exchanger, A be the area,

˙ m

c

and ˙ m

h

be the mass ﬂow rates of the cold and hot sides, respectively,

∆T = T

h

−T

c

= ∆T(x) be the local temperature diﬀerence between the hot

and cold sides, and U = U(x) be the local overall heat transfer coeﬃcient.

Each stream experiences a diﬀerential change in temperature as a result of

9.3. LMTD ANALYSIS 106

T

h

T

c

T ∆

T

c,o

T

h,o

T ∆

T ∆

T

h

T

c

x = 0

x = L

dq

T + d T

T + d T

c

h

c

h

T

T

h,i

c,i

d T

d T

c

h

dq

cold side

hot side

hot side

cold side

d A

0

L

Figure 9.7. Diﬀerential analysis for LMTD calculation of the

parallel ﬂow simple tube–type heat exchanger.

interacting over an area dA. We can write a diﬀerential form of Newton’s

Law at x as

(9.8) dq = dA U ∆T ,

where dq is the thermal energy transferred from the hot stream to the cold

stream through area dA. The diﬀerential energy transfer can also be ex-

pressed in terms of the change of temperature of each stream over dA.

Speciﬁcally, the heat lost by the hot side results from a change in tem-

perature of (T

h

+dT

h

) −T

h

and is thus equal to

(9.9) dq = − ˙ m

h

c

h

dT

h

,

while for the cold side we have

(9.10) dq = ˙ m

c

c

c

dT

c

,

where c

h

and c

c

are the ﬂuid speciﬁc heats. From the local temperature

diﬀerence ∆T = T

h

− T

c

, we see that d(∆T) = dT

h

− dT

c

, so that we can

use Eqs. (9.9) and (9.10) to write

(9.11) d(∆T) = −

dq

˙ m

h

c

h

−

dq

˙ m

c

c

c

= −dq

1

˙ m

h

c

h

+

1

˙ m

c

c

c

·

Since the mass ﬂow rates and speciﬁc heats are assumed to be constant, we

let the last term in brackets be represented by the constant C

0

, i.e.

(9.12) d(∆T) = −dq C

0

.

9.3. LMTD ANALYSIS 107

Substituting dq from Eq. (9.8), we ﬁnd

(9.13) d(∆T) = −dA U ∆T C

0

,

or, dividing by ∆T,

(9.14)

d(∆T)

∆T

= −dA U C

0

.

Eq. (9.14) can be integrated over the whole length of the heat exchanger

(9.15)

∆T

x=L

∆T

x=0

d(∆T)

∆T

= −C

0

At

0

U dA .

Notice that C

0

comes outside the integral since it is a constant. The right

hand side can be multiplied by A

t

/A

t

, i.e.

(9.16)

∆T

x=L

∆T

x=0

d(∆T)

∆T

= −C

0

A

t

×

1

A

t

At

0

U dA.

Let us now deﬁne the average overall heat transfer coeﬃcient for the whole

heat exchanger in the usual fashion as

(9.17) U

m

=

1

A

t

At

0

U dA ,

so that by integrating the left hand side of Eq. (9.16), we get

(9.18)

ln ∆T

∆T

x=L

∆T

x=0

= ln

∆T

x=L

∆T

x=0

= −U

m

A

t

C

0

,

or rewriting to remove the minus sign, it becomes

(9.19) ln

∆T

x=0

∆T

x=L

= U

m

A

t

C

0

.

Eq. (9.19) is an interesting intermediate result, but is not yet in the form

of Newton’s Law of Cooling in Eq. (9.7). We can go back to Eq. (9.12) and

integrate this over the whole heat exchanger as

(9.20)

∆T

x=L

∆T

x=0

d(∆T) = −C

0

q

0

dq

,

from which we ﬁnd that the total heat transfer q can be expressed as

∆T

x=L

− ∆T

x=0

= −C

0

q .

Solving for C

0

, we obtain

C

0

=

∆T

x=0

− ∆T

x=L

q

,

which can be substituted into Eq. (9.19)

(9.21) ln

∆T

x=0

∆T

x=L

= U

m

A

t

∆T

x=0

− ∆T

x=L

q

·

9.3. LMTD ANALYSIS 108

Eq. (9.21) can be inverted as

(9.22) q = U

m

A

t

∆T

x=0

− ∆T

x=L

ln (∆T

x=0

/∆T

x=L

)

Therefore, we see based on our original assumption in Eq. (9.7) about the

form of the solution that

(9.23) ∆T

m

=

∆T

x=0

− ∆T

x=L

ln (∆T

x=0

/∆T

x=L

)

.

This is the log mean temperature diﬀerence.

Now, what happens if ∆T

x=0

= ∆T

x=L

? It appears that we get a zero

over zero situation, i.e. the numerator is 0 and the denominator is ln 1 =

0. Mathematically, this is of course undeﬁned and must be resolved. We

can apply L’Hospitals rule, which says essentially that both numerator and

denominator are diﬀerentiated until the limit of both can be meaningfully

evaluated. In essence, we want to evaluate

lim

∆T

0

→∆T

L

∆T

0

− ∆T

L

ln (∆T

0

/∆T

L

)

,

where we have shortened the notation for the temperatures. For the numer-

ator, we evaluate

d

d∆T

0

∆T

0

− ∆T

L

= 1 − 0 .

Recall that derivatives of the natural log function are deﬁned as

d

dx

ln f(x)

=

1

f(x)

df

dx

,

so that for the denominator f (∆T

0

) = ∆T

0

/∆T

L

we evaluate

d

d∆T

0

¸

ln

∆T

0

∆T

L

=

∆T

L

∆T

0

1

∆T

L

=

1

∆T

0

.

Reformulating the ratio, we now have

lim

∆T

0

→∆T

L

1 − 0

1/∆T

0

= ∆T

0

,

so in fact, the limit is ∆T

0

. Therefore, in the limiting case of ∆T

0

= ∆T

L

,

the log mean temperature diﬀerence ∆T

m

= ∆T

0

= ∆T

L

.

We have mentioned in a qualitative sense that the counter–ﬂow arrange-

ment is somewhat “better” than parallel ﬂow. Some quantitative light can

be shed on this matter by estimating ∆T

m

for each case. Assuming equal A

t

and U

m

, Eq. (9.7) indicates that heat transfer q depends upon ∆T

m

. The

expression given by Eq. (9.23) entails a subtle bookkeeping task of using the

appropriate temperatures to compute ∆T

x=0

and ∆T

x=L

. For example, the

parallel ﬂow situation in Fig. 9.7 implies

∆T

x=0

= T

h,i

− T

c,i

and ∆T

x=L

= T

h,o

− T

c,o

,

9.4. CORRECTION FACTORS FOR COMPLEX CONFIGURATIONS 109

so that

∆T

m, parallel

=

(T

h,i

− T

c,i

) − (T

h,o

− T

c,o

)

ln ([T

h,i

− T

c,i

] / [T

h,o

− T

c,o

])

=

(T

h,i

− T

h,o

) − (T

c,i

− T

c,o

)

ln ([T

h,i

− T

c,i

] / [T

h,o

− T

c,o

])

=

∆T

hot side

+ ∆T

cold side

ln (large number/small number)

Here, subscript “i” refers to an inlet temperature, while subscript “o” refers

to an outlet temperature. Although the numerator is large, the denominator

is not terribly small, i.e. it is the log of a rather large number.

Were we to duplicate the LMTD analysis for the counter–ﬂow arrange-

ment, we would once again realize Eq. (9.23), except that the bookkeeping

aspect dictates

∆T

x=0

= T

h,i

− T

c,o

and ∆T

x=L

= T

h,o

− T

c,i

,

which can also be deduced from Fig. 9.4. We can then estimate ∆T

m

as I&D Ex. 11.1

pp 655

∆T

m, counter−flow

=

(T

h,i

− T

c,o

) − (T

h,o

− T

c,i

)

ln ([T

h,i

− T

c,o

] / [T

h,o

− T

c,i

])

=

(T

h,i

− T

h,o

) − (T

c,o

− T

c,i

)

ln ([T

h,i

− T

c,o

] / [T

h,o

− T

c,i

])

=

∆T

hot side

− ∆T

cold side

ln (a number which may be close to unity)

Here, the numerator can be fairly small, but the denominator is the log of

an argument that can be close to unity. Therefore, the denominator is very

small, giving a larger LMTD temperature diﬀerence for the same input and

output values (Table 9.3).

Table 9.3. Representative LMTD temperatures for par-

allel and counter–ﬂow heat exchangers (all temperatures in

o

C)

Type T

h,i

T

h,o

T

c,i

T

c,o

∆T

m

parallel 100 80 60 78 12.69

counter–ﬂow 100 80 60 78 20.98

9.4. Correction Factors for Complex Conﬁgurations

The LMTD analysis we developed is valid for simple parallel ﬂow and

counter ﬂow units, but not for more complex multipass units (e.g. Fig. 9.5),

or cross ﬂow units (Fig. 9.8). In the latter design, ﬂuids can either be

“un–mixed”, meaning that transverse motion in a stream is not allowed, or

“mixed” meaning that a stream can mix laterally.

9.5. –NTU ANALYSIS 110

both fluids un−mixed

plate−type cross−flow design

tube−type cross−flow design

tube side is un−mixed

shell side can mix

Figure 9.8. Cross ﬂow heat exchanger designs for both ﬂuids

un–mixed (left) and one ﬂuid mixed, one ﬂuid un–mixed (right).

While such conﬁgurations have been analyzed, the results are usually

considered too complicated for practical use. Instead, these results have

been cast as correction factors to calculate appropriate LMTD temperatures.

The form of the corrected LMTD temperature is

∆T

m, corrected

= ∆T

m

F ,

where F is the appropriate correction factor and ∆T

m

is computed on the

basis of counterﬂow conditions! References (e.g.

¨

Ozi¸sik, 1985; Incropera

and Dewitt, 2002) typically present F graphically. Parameters in these I&D Ex. 11.2

pp 657 graphical results depend by convention on the following nomenclature: t is

the temperature on the tube side (hot or cold), while T is the temperature of

the opposite (shell) stream. If the temperature change of one of the streams

is negligible, as in a phase change, then F = 1. Generally, an exchanger

with both sides being unmixed will give somewhat better performance than

if one side is mixed because the streamwise temperature gradient is more

conserved in the former.

9.5. –NTU Analysis

For the LMTD method to be applicable, we must be able to compute

∆T

m

, therefore we must know both the outlet and inlet temperatures for

each stream. However, what if there is a situation in which the outlet

temperatures are not known? For example, we may have a design problem

where the inlet temperatures, ﬂuid properties, and ﬂow rates are known, but

the outlet temperatures are not. Using LMTD analysis in this case would

require a tedious iteration procedure to make sure that the heat transferred

in the heat exchanger equals the heat energy gained by the cold side and

lost by the hot side:

9.5. –NTU ANALYSIS 111

• Assume outlet temperatures and compute ∆T

m

• Determine q from Eq. (9.7), i.e. q = A

t

U

m

∆T

m

• Compute the outlet temperatures using q and the net temperature

change of each stream

• Compare the outlet temperatures with those assumed in ﬁrst step

and adjust as necessary

• Repeat until suitable convergence is achieved

In this case, there is a better analysis method termed the “Eﬀectiveness

Method”, or commonly known as the –NTU method. First, we deﬁne

the eﬀectiveness of a heat exchanger as the actual heat transfer over the

maximum possible heat transfer

(9.24) =

q

q

max

.

Before we delve into the –NTU method itself, let use also deﬁne heat ca-

pacity rates for the hot and cold side as

C

h

= ˙ m

h

c

p, h

and C

c

= ˙ m

c

c

p, c

.

According to what we have already concluded, q

max

would be obtained

using a counter–ﬂow architecture having an inﬁnite length. In this conﬁgura-

tion, one of the ﬂuids would experience the maximum possible temperature

change

(9.25) ∆T

max

= T

h, i

− T

c, i

,

where T

h, i

and T

c, i

are again the inlet temperatures of the hot and cold

streams, respectively. In this case the maximum heat transfer would be

(9.26) q

max

= C

min

(T

h, i

− T

c, i

) ,

where

(9.27) C

min

= min [C

h

, C

c

]

is the minimum of the two heat capacity rates. Can we prove that Eqs. (9.25)

through (9.27) always represent the maximum temperature change of one of

the streams?

There are only two possible cases: the cold side is the “minimum” side,

or the hot side is the “minimum” side (Fig. 9.9). If the cold side is the

minimum, then conservation of energy, written as

q = C

c

∆T

c

= C

h

∆T

h

,

dictates that the cold side undergoes a larger change in temperature than

the hot side, ∆T

c

> ∆T

h

, so that the cold side outlet temperature would

be heated up to the value of the hot side inlet temperature, T

c, o

= T

h, i

.

Therefore, the maximum energy transfer would be expressed as

q = C

c

(T

c, o

− T

c, i

) = C

c

(T

h, i

− T

c, i

) where C

c

= C

min

.

Conversely, if the hot side is the minimum, conservation of energy requires

the hot side to experience the larger change in temperature, ∆T

h

> ∆T

c

,

9.5. –NTU ANALYSIS 112

T

c, o

T

h, i

T

c, i

T

h, o

T

c, i

T

c, o

T

h, o

T

h, i

=

hot side is the "minimum"

t

e

m

p

e

r

a

t

u

r

e

=

cold side is the "minimum"

t

e

m

p

e

r

a

t

u

r

e

Figure 9.9. Diagrammatic representation of the concept of the

“minimum” side for heat exchangers.

so that the hot side outlet temperature would be cooled to the value of the

cold side inlet temperature, T

h, o

= T

c, i

. Now, maximum energy transfer

would be written

q = C

h

(T

h, i

− T

h, o

) = C

h

(T

h, i

− T

c, i

) where C

h

= C

min

.

This proves the above concept.

Based on this exercise, it should be clear that that q

max

is not based on

the maximum ˙ mc

p

. If it were, then according to conservation of energy, the

ﬂuid with the minimum ˙ mc

p

would undergo a temperature change greater

than the maximum ∆T, which is not possible. According to Eq. (9.24),

computing the heat transfer q depends on knowing . How do we determine

this?

The parameter depends upon the heat exchanger design and ﬂow ar-

rangement. Here, we illustrate the general procedure for deriving assuming

a parallel ﬂow single pass arrangement

9.5

. This derivation refers, once again

to Fig. 9.7. From the deﬁnition in Eq. (9.24), we get

=

q

C

min

(T

h, i

− T

c, i

)

.

Also, based upon the total heat transferred, we have

q = C

h

(T

h, i

− T

h, o

) = C

c

(T

c, o

− T

c, i

) .

By deﬁnition, we then have

(9.28) =

C

h

(T

h, i

− T

h, o

)

C

min

(T

h, i

− T

c, i

)

=

C

c

(T

c, o

− T

c, i

)

C

min

(T

h, i

− T

c, i

)

.

9.5

It is important to realize that qmax is always based on the counter–ﬂow arrange-

ment, but the analysis is applied to whatever speciﬁc architecture is used, for example as

shown here for the parallel ﬂow arrangement.

9.5. –NTU ANALYSIS 113

Now, recall Eq. (9.19) that was used in the derivation of the LMTD analysis

method, again for the parallel ﬂow arrangement

ln

∆T

x=0

∆T

x=L

= ln

T

h, i

− T

c, i

T

h, o

− T

c, o

= U

m

A

t

C

0

,

where we recall that

C

0

=

1

˙ m

h

c

h

+

1

˙ m

c

c

c

=

1

C

h

+

1

C

c

·

Taking the exponential, we can write

T

h, i

− T

c, i

T

h, o

− T

c, o

= e

Um At C

0

,

which inverts as

T

h, o

− T

c, o

T

h, i

− T

c, i

= e

−Um At C

0

.

From Eq. (9.28), we can solve for T

h, o

to get

T

h, o

= T

h, i

−

C

min

(T

h, i

− T

c, i

)

C

h

= T

h, i

−

C

c

(T

c, o

− T

c, i

)

C

min

(T

h, i

− T

c, i

)

C

min

(T

h, i

− T

c, i

)

C

h

= T

h, i

−

C

c

(T

c, o

− T

c, i

)

C

h

,

which can be used to eliminate T

h, o

from the exponential equation. This

yields

T

h, i

−

Cc (Tc, o −T

c, i

)

C

h

− T

c, o

T

h, i

− T

c, i

= e

−Um At C

0

.

Add and subtract T

c, i

to the numerator of the left hand side and we can

show that the expression becomes

T

h, i

− T

c, i

T

h, i

− T

c, i

+

T

c, i

− T

c, o

−

Cc (Tc, o −T

c, i

)

C

h

T

h, i

− T

c, i

= e

−Um At C

0

1 +

T

c, i

1 +

Cc

C

h

− T

c, o

1 +

Cc

C

h

T

h, i

− T

c, i

=

1 +

1 +

C

c

C

h

T

c, i

− T

c, o

T

h, i

− T

c, i

= e

−Um At C

0

Finally, this can be written as

T

c, i

− T

c, o

T

h, i

− T

c, i

=

e

−Um At C

0

− 1

1 +

Cc

C

h

**9.5. –NTU ANALYSIS 114
**

or

T

c, o

− T

c, i

T

h, i

− T

c, i

=

1 − e

−Um At C

0

1 +

Cc

C

h

**Referring back to Eq. (9.28), we see that the above expression can be directly
**

substituted to obtain , i.e.

=

C

c

C

min

1 − e

−Um At C

0

1 +

Cc

C

h

=

1 − e

−Um At C

0

C

min

Cc

+

C

min

C

h

·

=

1 − exp

−U

m

A

t

1

C

h

+

1

Cc

C

min

1

C

h

+

1

Cc

·

=

1 − exp

−

Um At

C

min

C

min

1

C

h

+

1

Cc

C

min

1

C

h

+

1

Cc

·

Such expressions are normally written in a short–hand form, where we deﬁne

the number of transfer units (NTU) as

NTU =

U

m

A

t

C

min

and the ratio of the minimum to maximum heat capacity rates as

C

1

=

C

min

C

max

·

It should be clear that, regardless of which side is the minimum side and

which is the maximum,

C

min

1

C

h

+

1

C

c

= 1 + C

1

,

which allows us to ﬁnally deﬁne for the parallel ﬂow arrangement as

(9.29) =

1 − e

−NTU (1 +C

1

)

1 + C

1

·

This equation is quite signiﬁcant in heat exchanger analysis, because one

need not know the outlet temperatures. It suﬃces only to know the heat

capacity rates

9.6

, the area, and the overall convection coeﬃcient to calculate

. Moreover, because of the way is deﬁned, the total heat transfer can be

computed from a knowledge of only the inlet temperatures of both streams.

9.6

There is, however, one subtle issue: the speciﬁc heats may depend upon tempera-

ture. If we were to use the average temperature of a stream to approximate speciﬁc heat,

we would need some a priori estimate of the exit temperature.

9.5. –NTU ANALYSIS 115

The procedure for analyzing other heat exchanger designs, e.g. counter–

ﬂow, multiple passes, etc., is similar but more complicated as compared to

what we have shown here. If we simply reverse the design in our simple

tube–type heat exchanger for counter–ﬂow conditions, we ﬁnd

9.7

(9.30) =

1 − e

−NTU (1 −C

1

)

/

1 − C

1

e

−NTU (1 −C

1

)

: C

1

< 1

NTU/ (NTU + 1) : C

1

= 1

Another notable conﬁguration arises when there is a phase change (boil-

ing or condensation), in which case ∆T of the phase change side essentially

vanishes (Fig. 9.4). According to the fact that there is a ﬁnite thermal

energy transfer, conservation of energy implies that ˙ mc

p

can be taken as in-

ﬁnite. Therefore, the phase change side is always the “maximum” side and

the heat capacity ratio can be taken as zero, i.e. C

1

= 0. Moreover, heat

exchanger performance is independent of architecture and ﬂow arrangement!

The analysis gives

(9.31) = 1 − e

−NTU

.

Reference texts (e.g. Incropera and Dewitt, 2002, Table 11.3, pp. 662–663)

furnish –NTU relationships for a number of conﬁgurations and the inverted

relations as well

9.8

. I&D Ex. 11.3

pp 665

9.7

The formula for this case in Incropera and Dewitt (2002, Table 11.3, pp. 662) is

incorrect.

9.8

That is, NTU as a function of is provided for the cases that are diﬃcult to invert.

CHAPTER 10

Introduction to Radiation

Up to now, we have considered our subject for the following general

situation: heat transfer occurs when there is a temperature gradient in a

participating medium. In conduction, the medium is not moving, while in

convection, motion is the primary driver. Conversely, heat transfer by ther-

mal radiation requires a temperature gradient but not participating medium.

All bodies at a temperature above absolute zero emit thermal radiation.

Consider for example a hot object in an evacuated container whose walls

are cold. Conduction and convection are not possible, so heat is transferred

strictly by radiation. Heat is transferred from the Sun to the Earth via

radiation. However, the actual mechanism of radiation transfer is not yet

fully understood. Maxwell’s electromagnetic theory and Planck’s quantum

theory have both been used toward this goal.

If radiation is treated as a wave, the radiation from a body of tempera-

ture T is considered emitted at all wavelengths from λ = 0 to λ = ∞. For

most thermal engineering applications, the range of interest is typically be-

tween λ ≈ 0.1µm and λ ≈ 100µm (Fig. 10.1). This portion of the spectrum

−rays

γ

X − rays

ultraviolet

visible

thermal radiation

infrared

microwave

1e−5 1e−4 1e−3 1e−2 0.1 1 10 100 1e3 1e4 1e5

wavelength (micrometers)

Figure 10.1. The electromagnetic spectrum.

is therefore usually referred to as the thermal radiation range. For example,

solar radiation from the Sun (T = 5760 K) is in the range λ ≈ 0.1 µm to

λ ≈ 3µm (

¨

Ozi¸sik, 1985). Between λ ≈ 0.4µm and λ ≈ 0.7µm is visible light.

For propagating radiation, the standard relationship between frequency ν

and wavelength λ is

λ =

c

ν

,

116

10.1. SOLID ANGLE AND RADIATIVE QUANTITIES 117

where c is the speed of light in the medium

10.1

.

Radiative heat transfer is quite a diﬀerent phenomenon than conduction

or convection. For example, in some materials, such as glass at certain tem-

peratures, the radiation emitted from a body is a volumetric phenomenon.

That is, it results as an integrated eﬀect from the depths of the body all

the way to its surface. Such bodies are called semi–transparent. Conversely,

opaque bodies realize radiative eﬀects mainly as a surface phenomenon. Ra-

diation from an interior molecule is largely absorbed by its neighbors, so that

any net emission results almost entirely from molecules near the surface of

the body, i.e. within about 1 µm (

¨

Ozi¸sik, 1985). We shall concentrate on

this model for our studies.

There are two additional points to mention before we proceed. First is

the spectral nature of radiation (Fig. 10.2). This means that the thermal

r

a

d

i

a

t

i

o

n

i

n

t

e

n

s

i

t

y

wavelength

angular dependence

Figure 10.2. “Spectral” nature of radiation (left) implies a

dependency upon wavelength, while the “directional” nature (right)

implies dependence upon direction.

radiation emitted by a body encompasses a range of wavelengths, where the

magnitude of the radiation varies with the wavelength. Second, radiation

has a directional dependence: emissions are generally a function of direction.

Because there are a number material properties associated with these phe-

nomena, the “bookkeeping” aspect of radiation calculations is much more

substantial than with other modes of heat transfer we have discussed thus

far.

10.1. Solid Angle and Radiative Quantities

In order to quantify radiative heat transfer, we must ﬁrst deﬁne a number

of fundamental entities. First, we consider a new geometric concept called

the solid angle, which will support the modeling of electromagnetic waves

10.1

For a vacuum, c ≈ 2.998 ×10

8

m/s.

10.1. SOLID ANGLE AND RADIATIVE QUANTITIES 118

as rays that can be described according to straight–line optical principles.

The solid angle can be thought of as the three–dimensional analog of the

standard planar angle. For example, planar angle is deﬁned as the unitless

ratio

10.2

of an arc length that is swept out by a radial arm to the arm’s

length (Fig. 10.3). This is naturally deﬁned in the context of a circle by the

(r, , ) φ

θ

y

z

φ

θ

r

dω

d A

x

r

r

d s

d A

dω = d A / r

n

2

d A

n

n

= d s / r θ d

definition of "solid angle" and

comparison to conventional

planar angle

spherical coordinate system

Figure 10.3. Deﬁnition of planar and solid angles and conﬁg-

uration of the solid angle in the spherical coordinate system.

diﬀerential expression

10.3

dθ =

ds

r

·

Solid angle is instead deﬁned in the context of a sphere as the ratio of a

subtended area and the square of the radius

10.4

. We express this as the

diﬀerential

(10.1) dω =

dA

n

r

2

·

We consider solid angle in the context of an observer anchored at the origin

of a spherical coordinate system whose ﬁeld of view encompasses a normally–

oriented area dA

n

a distance r away.

10.2

Although we attach a “unit” of radians to the planar angle, the quantity is indeed

dimensionless. Angles expressed in the artiﬁcial system of degrees are not dimensionless.

10.3

This clear from the observation that we can integrate this equation to obtain the

circumference as

Z

θ

=2π

θ

=0

r dθ

=

Z

s

=s

s

=0

ds , which gives s = r θ

˛

˛

θ

=2π

θ

=0

= 2πr .

10.4

The “unit” of the solid angle is the steradian, (abbreviated as sr) which, like its

planar counterpart, is actually dimensionless.

10.1. SOLID ANGLE AND RADIATIVE QUANTITIES 119

Actually, we must take this a step further and deﬁne solid angle in terms

of diﬀerentials associated with the spherical coordinate system (Fig. 10.4).

Consider emission from a diﬀerential element dA along radius r in a speciﬁc

dφ

θ

dθ

r

d A

r sin d θ φ

r d θ

r sin θ

Figure 10.4. Relationship between solid angle and spherical

coordinates.

direction deﬁned by angles θ and φ. When viewed from dA, the emitted

radiation passes through the diﬀerential element dA

n

on the boundary of

the hemisphere speciﬁed by radius r. By geometric arguments, we see

dA

n

= (r dφ sin θ) ×(r dθ) = r

2

sin θ dφ dθ ,

so that the solid angle relationship is

10.5

(10.2) dω =

dA

n

r

2

=

r

2

sinθ dφ dθ

r

2

= sinθ dφ dθ .

Another geometric consideration in analyzing radiation emitted from dA

is its projected area on dA

n

. In other words, the question is how much of

dA can an observer anchored on dA

n

see? We should notice from Fig. 10.4

that when these areas are normal, i.e. θ = 0, our observer will see all of dA,

while at θ = π/2, surface dA cannot be seen at all. A little trigonometry

(Fig. 10.5) should convince us that

(10.3) dA

n

= dA cos θ .

The second concept is the fundamental quantity that describes radiative

heat transfer, which is called the radiation intensity. Using this concept,

10.5

The solid angle for the entire hemisphere is

ω =

Z

area

dω =

Z

2π

0

Z

π/2

0

sin θ dθ dφ = φ |

2π

0

(− cos θ)|

π/2

0

= 2π .

10.1. SOLID ANGLE AND RADIATIVE QUANTITIES 120

d A

d A

n

θ

θ

d A

d A

n

Figure 10.5. Area of the emitter projected onto the hemisphere

boundary.

we will be able to quantify the spectral and directional properties of radi-

ation, and integrate them into forms that are useful for engineering calcu-

lations. Again, the context is emission by diﬀerential surface dA which is

intercepted by diﬀerential surface dA

n

. Radiation intensity of the emitter,

I

λ, e

, is deﬁned as the rate at which radiation dq is emitted in the (θ, φ)

direction at wavelength λ per unit area of the emitter normal to this direc-

tion dA

n

= dA cos θ, per unit solid angle about this direction dω, per unit

wavelength interval dλ about wavelength λ

(10.4) I

λ, e

(λ, θ, φ) =

dq

dA cos θ dω dλ

·

Intensity has units of W/

m

2

sr µm

**. We can re–arrange Eq. (10.4) in terms
**

of the rate at which radiation leaves the emitter dA and is intercepted by

dA

n

as

(10.5) dq

λ

=

dq

dλ

= I

λ, e

(λ, θ, φ) dA cos θ dω ,

where dq

λ

is a shorthand notation and has units of W/µm. This expression

allows us to compute radiation heat transfer as a function of radiation in-

tensity, once it is known. Substituting our results for the solid angle from

Eq. (10.2) and casting the heat transfer as a ﬂux quantity with respect to

dA, i.e. heat transfer per unit dA, we can write

(10.6) dq

λ

= I

λ, e

(λ, θ, φ) cos θ sin θ dθ dφ .

This provides a basis for integrating dq

λ

to ﬁnd q

λ

, the ﬂux associated with

any particular ﬁnite solid angle. For example, the ﬂux associated with the

hemisphere around dA is

q

λ

=

2π

0

π/2

0

I

λ, e

(λ, θ, φ) cos θ sin θ dθ dφ .

In other words, this expression gives the rate at which radiation at wave-

length λ is emitted in all directions. In more direct terms, it is simply the

rate at which radiation is emitted per unit area of the emitter. We deﬁne this

as the emissive power, or, more exactly, the spectral hemispherical emissive

10.1. SOLID ANGLE AND RADIATIVE QUANTITIES 121

power

10.6

(10.7) E

λ

(λ) =

2π

0

π/2

0

I

λ, e

(λ, θ, φ) cos θ sin θ dθ dφ ,

which has units of W/

m

2

µm

**. The total hemispherical emissive power,
**

i.e. the rate at which radiation is emitted in all directions at all wavelengths

per unit area of the emitter, is obtained by integrating over λ

(10.8) E =

∞

0

2π

0

π/2

0

I

λ, e

(λ, θ, φ) cos θ sin θ dθ dφ dλ ,

which has units of W/m

2

.

Although the directional distribution of surface radiation emission varies

according to the properties of speciﬁc surfaces, there is an idealization which

closely approximates conditions for many surfaces. This idealized form of

radiation is called diﬀuse radiation, which simply indicates that there is no

directional dependence. For example, for a diﬀuse emitter, the radiation

intensity is independent of direction, so that I

λ,e

(λ, θ, φ) → I

λ,e

(λ). Since

I

λ,e

(λ) is now constant with respect to directions, we see the emissive power

in Eq. (10.7) can be cast as

E

λ

(λ) =

2π

0

π/2

0

I

λ, e

(λ) cos θ sin θ dθ dφ

= I

λ, e

(λ)

2π

0

π/2

0

cos θ sin θ dθ dφ

= I

λ, e

(λ)

2π

0

dφ

π/2

0

cos θ sin θ dθ

= I

λ, e

(λ) φ

2π

0

1

2

sin

2

θ

π/2

0

= I

λ, e

(λ) 2π ×

1

2

E

λ

(λ) = π I

λ, e

(λ) (diﬀuse emitter) (10.9)

It can be similarly shown that E = πI

e

, where again E is the total emissive

power and I

e

is the total radiation intensity. I&D Ex. 12.1

pp 707 Now let’s look at some additional phenomena of interest in radiation

heat transfer. First is the concept of irradiation, i.e. incoming or incident

radiation. This is described by its own corresponding intensity, called the

incident spectral intensity, I

λ,i

(λ, θ, φ), which, like the corresponding quan-

tity for emitters, is a function of wavelength and direction and is given per

unit area of the intercepting surface normal to this direction per unit solid

angle, per unit dλ. The corresponding ﬂux is the irradiation. Speciﬁcally,

there is the spectral irradiation, G

λ

(λ), which is the rate at which radiation

10.6

We include the subscript λ in the notation for E

λ

(λ) to indicate that this is a per

unit wavelength dλ about λ quantity, synonymous with the way we have cast Eq. (10.5).

10.2. BLACKBODY RADIATION 122

of wavelength λ is incident on a surface per unit area of surface per unit dλ

about λ from all directions. Also, there is the total irradiation, G, which is

the rate at which radiation is incident per unit area from all directions at all

wavelengths. This phenomenon obeys all the equations we discussed above I&D Ex. 12.2

pp 710 if we substitute E

λ

→G

λ

, E →G, I

λ,e

→I

λ,i

, etc.

Another phenomenon is that of radiosity, which accounts for all radi-

ation leaving a surface, i.e. what is emitted directly plus whatever inci-

dent radiation is reﬂected. Therefore, this is generally not the same as the

emissive power. We have all the corresponding quantities with their usual

deﬁnitions: spectral radiosity intensity, I

λ,e+r

(λ, θ, φ), where e +r indicates

emission plus reﬂection, spectral radiosity, J

λ

(λ), and total radiosity, J. All

corresponding relationships among these quantities are the same as those

derived above.

10.2. Blackbody Radiation

When describing radiation with regard to real surfaces, it is useful to de-

ﬁne the ideal case, called a blackbody, for comparison. It has three idealized

properties

• A blackbody absorbs all incident radiation without reﬂecting, trans-

mitting, or scattering it, regardless of wavelength and direction

• For a given temperature and wavelength, no surface can emit more

energy than a blackbody — it is the ideal emitter

• While emitted radiation from a blackbody is a function of wave-

length and temperature, it is independent of direction — a black-

body is a diﬀuse emitter

Thus, a blackbody is deﬁned as a perfect absorber and emitter. The term

“black” should be distinguished from its common usage regarding the ap-

pearance by visual observation of the blackness of a surface. The human

eye can detect the color black only in the visual range of the radiation spec-

trum, but the visible range of light is only a small portion of the range

of the thermal radiation spectrum (recall Fig. 10.1). For example, ice is

non–black to the eye, however, for long wavelength thermal radiation, it is

essentially black. Note that our deﬁnition of a true blackbody means that

these properties must exist over the entire spectrum, i.e. λ = 0 →∞.

A blackbody, not surprisingly, is characterized by its own parameters,

for example, the spectral blackbody radiation intensity, I

λ,b

(λ, T). Note

that this does not depend on direction because of the diﬀuse nature of the

radiation. This quantity was ﬁrst determined by Max Planck for emission

into a vacuum as

(10.10) I

λ,b

(λ, T) =

2 h c

2

λ

5

e

h c/(λ k T)

− 1

,

where h = 6.6256 × 10−34 J · sec is the universal Planck constant, k =

1.3805×10

−23

J/K is the Boltzmann constant, c ≈ 2.998×10

8

m/sec is the

10.2. BLACKBODY RADIATION 123

approximate speed of light in a vacuum, and T is the absolute temperature.

Because the blackbody is a diﬀuse emitter, we can immediately derive the

spectral blackbody emissive power from the relation E

λ,b

(λ, T) = πI

λ,b

(λ, T)

to get

E

λ,b

(λ, T) =

2 π h c

2

λ

5

e

h c/(λ k T)

− 1

.

Some texts (e.g.

¨

Ozi¸sik, 1985; Incropera and Dewitt, 2002) show this relation

in terms of the so–called ﬁrst and second radiation constants, C

1

= 2πhc

2

and C

2

= hc/k giving

10.7

(10.11) E

λ,b

(λ, T) =

C

1

λ

5

e

C

2

/(λ T)

− 1

.

Eq. (10.11) is known as Planck’s Distribution (Fig. 10.6) and has the fol-

0.1 1 10 100

wavelength (micrometers)

1e-2

1e+0

1e+2

1e+4

1e+6

1e+8

s

p

e

c

t

r

a

l

e

m

i

s

s

i

v

e

p

o

w

e

r

(

W

/

m

*

*

2

m

i

c

r

o

m

e

t

e

r

)

T = 50 K

T = 100 K

T = 500 K

T = 1000 K

T = 2000 K

T = 5800 K

Figure 10.6. Planck’s Distribution of blackbody radiation.

lowing notable properties

• Emitted radiation varies continuously with wavelength

• At any wavelength, the magnitude of emitted radiation increases

with temperature

• The bulk of radiation is emitted at shorter wavelengths for higher

temperatures

• The sun, approximated as a 5800 K blackbody, emits a signiﬁcant

fraction of radiation in the visible region of the spectrum.

10.7

These products yield C1 = 3.743 ×10

8

W µm

4

/m

2

and C2 = 14, 387 µmK.

10.2. BLACKBODY RADIATION 124

The third point above has an interesting proof associated with it known as

Wien’s Displacement Law. If the Planck Distribution is diﬀerentiated with

respect to λ and set equal to zero then solved, the result is

(10.12) λ T ≈ 2897.8 µm· K .

This is shown in detail in Appendix C. The equation speciﬁes the locus

of peak points for E

λ,b

. Because the product λT is constant, the maxi-

mum spectral emissive power drifts toward shorter wavelengths for higher

temperatures.

What we are really interested in, i.e. what will enable us to solve prob-

lems, is the total blackbody emissive power. In principle, this can be derived

by integrating the spectral blackbody emissive power given by Eq. (10.11)

over all wavelengths

(10.13) E

b

(T) =

∞

0

C

1

λ

5

e

C

2

/(λT)

−1

dλ .

Although this operation is not trivial

10.8

it can be shown that

(10.14) E

b

(T) = σ T

4

,

where σ = 5.670 × 10

−8

W/(m

2

· K

4

) is the Stefan–Boltzmann constant,

which depends upon the radiation constants C

1

and C

2

. This equation is

known as the Stefan–Boltzmann Law and is important because it enables

calculation of the amount of radiation emitted in all directions and over all

wavelengths simply by knowing the blackbody temperature. Because the

blackbody is diﬀuse, we can back out the total blackbody intensity as

I

b

=

E

b

π

=

σ T

4

π

.

Often we need to know the fraction of radiative emission from a black-

body occurring over some ﬁnite wavelength range, e.g. λ = 0 →λ

1

. Rigor-

ously, this can be computed by simply integrating Eq. (10.11) appropriately,

e.g.

f

0→λ

1

=

λ

1

0

E

λ,b

dλ

∞

0

E

λ,b

dλ

=

1

σ T

4

λ

1

0

E

λ,b

dλ

However, like the Stefan–Boltzmann Law, computation of this integral is

not trivial. Introducing the Planck Distribution from above, we see that

this gives

f

0→λ

1

=

1

σ T

4

λ

1

0

C

1

λ

5

e

C

2

/(λ T)

− 1

dλ .

Because this is so diﬃcult to evaluate, we would like to leverage any ana-

lytical advantage that we can from this expression. We notice that f

0→λ

1

is a function of both wavelength and temperature, however, in this case, a

clever reduction of two variables to one variable can be made.

10.8

This integral can be evaluated in terms of the Riemann zeta function.

10.2. BLACKBODY RADIATION 125

Let us use the “Integration by Substitution” Theorem from Calculus

(e.g. Gillman and McDowell, 1978, pp. 270), given by

10.9

(10.15)

b

a

f(u)

du

dx

dx =

g(b)

g(a)

f(u) du ,

where u = g(x). We want to write f

0→λ

1

in terms of the combined variable

λT. Speciﬁcally, λ corresponds to x, and u maps to λT, therefore,

du = d (λ T) =

d (λ T)

dλ

dλ = T dλ ,

which leads to the substitution

dλ →

d (λ T)

T

.

The upper limit is now λ

1

→λ

1

T. Therefore, the equation can be rewritten

as

f

0→λ

1

=

1

σ T

4

λ

1

T

0

C

1

λ

5

e

C

2

/(λ T)

− 1

d (λT)

T

=

C

1

σ

λ

1

T

0

1

(T λ)

5

e

C

2

/(λ T)

− 1

d (λ T)

This expression can be recast in terms of u = λT as

(10.16) f

0→λ

1

=

C

1

σ

u

1

0

1

u

5

e

C

2

/u

− 1

du .

The form and diﬃculty are similar to Eq. (10.13). Reference texts have tab-

ulated f as a function of the combined variable λT. For example, Incropera

and Dewitt (2002, Table 12.1, pp. 716) and Appendix C (Table C.1)give

abbreviated summaries, while Dunkle (1954) and Siegel and Howell (2001)

contain more comprehensive data.

10.9

This theorem can be proven in a straightforward fashion, for example, let F be

the anti–derivative of function f and u = g(x), so that

Z

b

a

f(u)

du

dx

dx =

Z

b

a

f

`

g(x)

´

g

(x) dx = F

`

g(x)

´

˛

˛

˛

b

a

= F

`

g(b)

´

− F

`

g(a)

´

= F

`

u

´

˛

˛

˛

g(b)

g(a)

=

Z

g(b)

g(a)

f(u) du ,

which proves Eq. (10.15).

10.3. RADIATION CHARACTERISTICS OF REAL SURFACES 126

Eq. (10.16) can be applied more generally for arbitrary ranges of radia-

tion λ = λ

1

→λ

2

according to

f

λ

1

→λ

2

=

λ

2

λ

1

E

λ,b

dλ

σ T

4

=

λ

2

0

E

λ,b

dλ −

λ

1

0

E

λ,b

dλ

σ T

4

=

λ

2

0

E

λ,b

dλ

σ T

4

−

λ

1

0

E

λ,b

dλ

σ T

4

f

λ

1

→λ

2

= f

0→λ

2

− f

0→λ

1

(10.17)

Note the special case for a range with a lower bound λ = λ

2

→ ∞ corre-

sponds to I&D Ex. 12.3

pp 717

I&D Ex. 12.4

pp 719

f

λ

2

→∞

=

∞

λ

2

E

λ,b

dλ

σ T

4

=

∞

0

E

λ,b

dλ −

λ

2

0

E

λ,b

dλ

σ T

4

=

∞

0

E

λ,b

dλ

σ T

4

−

λ

2

0

E

λ,b

dλ

σ T

4

f

λ

2

→∞

=

σ T

4

σ T

4

−

λ

2

0

E

λ,b

dλ

σ T

4

= 1 − f

0→λ

2

(10.18)

10.3. Radiation Characteristics of Real Surfaces

10.3.1. Emissivity. Now that we have developed the concept of an

ideal surface (such that we have a basis of comparison), let us now look at

characteristics of real surfaces. In fact, we will specify properties of real sur-

faces via direct comparison to those of the blackbody. For example, recall

that the blackbody, being the ideal emitter, emits the maximum radiation

possible. Therefore, we can deﬁne the emissivity of a body as the ratio of

radiation emitted by its surface to the radiation emitted by a blackbody

at the same temperature. The spectrum of radiation emitted by a real

surface is not necessarily the same as that speciﬁed by the Planck Distribu-

tion (Fig. 10.7) Also, the directional distribution may not qualify as diﬀuse.

Therefore, emissivity can assume various forms according to whether one

talks of emission at a given wavelength or emission in a given direction, or

some overall integrated value.

First, we deﬁne a quantity called the spectral directional emissivity,

ε

λ,θ

(λ, θ, φ, T) of a surface at temperature T as the ratio of the intensity

of the radiation emitted at wavelength λ in the (θ, φ) direction to the inten-

sity of the radiation emitted by a blackbody for the same values of λ and

T. This has the form

(10.19) ε

λ,θ

(λ, θ, φ, T) =

I

λ,e

(λ, θ, φ, T)

I

λ,b

(λ, T)

.

10.3. RADIATION CHARACTERISTICS OF REAL SURFACES 127

Planck (blackbody)

real surface

wavelength

s

p

e

c

t

r

a

l

e

m

i

s

s

i

v

e

p

o

w

e

r

r

e

a

l

s

u

r

f

a

c

e

P

l

a

n

c

k

(

b

l

a

c

k

b

o

d

y

)

Figure 10.7. Potential diﬀerences between the characteristics

of real versus idealized (blackbody) surfaces for spectral (left) and

directional (right) aspects of radiation emission.

Note that the blackbody term in the denominator appears correctly as hav-

ing no dependence upon direction since it is diﬀuse emitter. Likewise, the

total directional emissivity, ε

θ

, is an average over the wavelength spectrum

and is deﬁned as

(10.20) ε

θ

(θ, φ, T) =

I

e

(θ, φ, T)

I

b

(T)

.

Note that these two quantities are actually deﬁned in terms of radiation

intensity because of directional dependence.

Conversely, we can also deﬁned an emissivity that has been averaged

over all directions, called the spectral hemispherical emissivity

(10.21) ε

λ

(λ, T) =

E

λ

(λ, T)

E

λ,b

(λ, T)

,

which is given in terms of emissive power. We recall from previous deﬁnitions

that these quantities represent emissive powers that have been integrated

over the hemispherical area of emission. How does this relate to the direc-

tional emissivity ε

λ,θ

? The spectral hemispherical emissivity can be written

according to the deﬁnitions

(10.22) ε

λ

(λ, T) =

2π

0

π/2

0

I

λ,e

(λ, θ, φ, T) cos θ sin θ dθ dφ

2π

0

π/2

0

I

λ,b

(λ, T) cos θ sin θ dθ dφ

.

Using Eq. (10.19), substitute I

λ,e

= ε

λ,θ

I

λ,b

into the top term, take note that

I

λ,b

in both numerator and denominator do not depend upon direction (so

they can be taken outside their integral signs), and the relation simpliﬁes to

(10.23) ε

λ

(λ, T) =

2π

0

π/2

0

ε

λ,θ

(λ, θ, φ, T) cos θ sin θ dθ dφ

2π

0

π/2

0

cos θ sin θ dθ dφ

.

If we make the further assumption that ε

λ,θ

is independent of φ (a rea-

sonable assumption for many surfaces), we can obtain (after evaluating the

10.3. RADIATION CHARACTERISTICS OF REAL SURFACES 128

denominator)

(10.24) ε

λ

(λ, T) = 2

π/2

0

ε

λ,θ

(λ, θ, T) cos θ sin θ dθ .

The total hemispherical emissivity, ε, accounts for all directions and all

wavelengths and is deﬁned as

(10.25) ε(T) =

E(T)

E

b

(T)

=

E(T)

σ T

4

.

Now, using our previously established deﬁnitions of E =

∞

0

E

λ

(λ) dλ and

E

λ

(λ, T) = ε

λ

(λ, T)E

λ,b

(λ, T), we can see that

(10.26) ε(T) =

∞

0

ε

λ

(λ, T) E

λ,b

(λ, T) dλ

E

b

(T)

.

If the emissivities of a surface are known, these deﬁnitions can be applied

directly to calculate all emission characteristics.

We note (again according to deﬁnition) that the directional emissivity

of a diﬀuse emitter is constant, i.e. independent of direction. For “real”

surfaces, it may be said in general that I&D Ex. 12.5

pp 724

I&D Ex. 12.6

pp 727

• emissivity of metallic surfaces is small

• oxide layers increase the emissivity of metallic surfaces

• emissivity of non–conductors is large

• emissivity of conductors increases with T, but may either decrease

or increase for non–conductors

Moreover, emissivity can depend on other factors, for example local residual

stresses or chemical interactions.

¨

Ozi¸sik (1985) and Incropera and Dewitt

(2002) contain summary data, while more comprehensive data are available

in reference texts (e.g. Wood et al., 1964).

10.3.2. Absorptivity. It follows that, like for emission, we can quan-

tify the characteristics of irradiation in terms of surface properties. At the

beginning of this chapter, we introduced the idea of a semi–transparent

medium in which a portion of the irradiation is absorbed

10.10

, a portion is

reﬂected

10.11

, and a portion is transmitted

10.12

. For the most part, we will

concentrate on situations where transmission vanishes, so that the problem

is one of only absorption and reﬂection. Recall that such a material is called

opaque.

A simple energy balance for opaque surfaces shows

(10.27) G

λ

= G

λ,ref

+ G

λ,abs

+ G

λ,trans

,

where G

λ

is the irradiation, G

λ,ref

and G

λ,abs

are the components reﬂected

and absorbed, respectively, and G

λ,trans

is the transmitted component, which

10.10

Manifested as heating at the surface.

10.11

Thrown back oﬀ away from the surface.

10.12

Allowed to pass through to lower layers of the material.

10.3. RADIATION CHARACTERISTICS OF REAL SURFACES 129

often vanishes. As we introduced various parameters that characterize emis-

sion, we likewise now introduce parameters that characterize absorption,

transmission, and reﬂection

10.13

. The spectral directional absorptivity de-

termines the fraction of irradiation absorbed by a surface

(10.28) α

λ,θ

(λ, θ, φ) =

I

λ,i,abs

(λ, θ, φ)

I

λ,i

(λ, θ, φ)

,

where these properties are not generally dependent upon surface tempera-

ture (as the corresponding parameters for emission were). The correspond-

ing parameter after directional averaging is the spectral hemispherical ab-

sorptivity which is deﬁned as

(10.29) α

λ

(λ) =

G

λ,abs

(λ)

G

λ

(λ)

,

which, from the deﬁnition

G

λ

=

2π

0

π/2

0

I

λ,i

(λ, θ, φ) cos θ sin θ dθ dφ

and Eq. (10.28), can be expressed directly as

(10.30) α

λ

(λ) =

2π

0

π/2

0

α

λ,θ

I

λ,i

(λ, θ, φ) cos θ sin θ dθ dφ

2π

0

π/2

0

I

λ,i

(λ, θ, φ) cos θ sin θ dθ dφ

.

Note that if the incident radiation is diﬀuse, I

λ,i

(λ, θ, φ) → I

λ,i

(λ) so this

comes outside the integrals and cancels on top and bottom. Also, if α

λ,θ

is

independent of φ we see that the expression becomes

(10.31) α

λ

(λ) = 2

π/2

0

α

λ,θ

(λ, θ) cos θ sinθ dθ .

in an analogous manner as Eq. (10.24) for the spectral emissivity.

The total hemispherical absorptivity is the integrated average over all

directions and the entire wavelength spectrum and is deﬁned simply as the

fraction of the total irradiation absorbed by the surface

(10.32) α =

G

abs

G

,

which, from the previous deﬁnition

G =

∞

0

G

λ

dλ

and Eq. (10.29) can be expressed directly as

(10.33) α =

∞

0

α

λ

(λ) G

λ

(λ) dλ

∞

0

G

λ

(λ) dλ

.

10.13

Although again, we will largely stress absorption and reﬂection over transmission.

10.4. KIRCHHOFF’S LAW AND GRAY SURFACES 130

10.3.3. Reﬂectivity. Reﬂectivity determines the fraction of incident

radiation reﬂected by a surface. The complicating factor here is that the

phenomenon is inherently bidirectional. That is, it depends both upon the

direction of the incident radiation and the direction of the reﬂected radiation.

For now, we will avoid this problem by working with a form that represents

the integrated average over the hemisphere associated with the reﬂected part

of the radiation — thus, the directional dependence is simply associated with

the incident radiation. Accordingly, the spectral directional reﬂectivity is

deﬁned as

(10.34) ρ

λ,θ

(λ, θ, φ) =

I

λ,i,ref

(λ, θ, φ)

I

λ,i

(λ, θ, φ)

,

the spectral hemispherical reﬂectivity is deﬁned as

(10.35) ρ

λ

(λ) =

G

λ,ref

(λ)

G

λ

(λ)

,

and the total hemispherical reﬂectivity is deﬁned as

(10.36) ρ =

G

ref

G

.

We can derive similar relations as we did for absorptivity, i.e.

(10.37) ρ

λ

(λ) =

2π

0

π/2

0

ρ

λ,θ

I

λ,i

(λ, θ, φ) cos θ sinθ dθ dφ

2π

0

π/2

0

I

λ,i

(λ, θ, φ) cos θ sin θ dθ dφ

and

(10.38) ρ =

∞

0

ρ

λ

(λ) G

λ

(λ) dλ

∞

0

G

λ

(λ) dλ

.

There are similar relationships for transmissivity τ.

10.3.4. Relationships. From the energy balance of irradiation we wrote

in Eq. (10.27), it can be shown by dividing by the irradiation that

10.14

(10.39) ρ

λ

+ α

λ

= 1

and, if properties are averaged over the entire wavelength spectrum I&D Ex. 12.7

pp 735

(10.40) ρ + α = 1 .

Therefore, knowledge of one property implies the other.

10.4. Kirchhoﬀ’s Law and Gray Surfaces

Energy conservation applied to irradiation gives rise to a relationship

between absorbtivity and reﬂectivity, shown in Eqs. (10.39) and (10.40).

There is an additional set of relationships between absorbtivity and emis-

sion, known as Kirchhoﬀ’s Law, which is derived as follows. Consider an

isothermal blackbody enclosure at temperature T

s

which contains a smaller

object, also at temperature T

s

(Fig. 10.8). The two bodies are in thermal

10.14

We assume here that the transmitted radiation vanishes, so that G

λ,trans

= 0.

10.4. KIRCHHOFF’S LAW AND GRAY SURFACES 131

T

T

s

s

Figure 10.8. Radiative transfer between two bodies at thermal

equilibrium.

equilibrium. The small object experiences a diﬀuse irradiation ﬂux which is

equal to the blackbody radiation ﬂux emitted by the enclosure G = E

b

(T

s

).

The amount of radiation absorbed by the object is then obtained simply by

multiplying by its absorbtivity α and area A

obj

(10.41) q

abs

= α A

obj

G = α A

obj

E

b

(T

s

) .

However, the body must emit radiation equal to the rate it is absorbed in

order to satisfy thermal equilibrium, which implies q

emit

= q

abs

. Combining

this observation with Eq. (10.41), we can write

(10.42) q

abs

= α A

obj

E

b

(T

s

) = q

emit

.

From the emission standpoint, we recall that emissivity is deﬁned as the

ratio of the actual emissive power to the total emissive power, as quantiﬁed

by Eq. (10.25). In particular, the emissivity of the small object is its actual

emissive power divided by the emissive power of a blackbody operating at the

same temperature. Converting these ﬂuxes into absolute quantities based

on the area of the small body, we can thus write

(10.43) q

emit

= ε A

obj

E

b

(T

s

) .

Eqs. (10.42) and (10.43) clearly imply

(10.44) ε = α

because they are otherwise equivalent. Note that in Eq. (10.42), the black-

body emissive power E

b

(T

s

) applies to the walls of the enclosure, while in

Eq. (10.43) the blackbody emissive power applies to our generic blackbody

object operating at temperature T

s

. Therefore, the restriction of thermal

equilibrium is a primary requirement for the validity of Eq. (10.44). This

equation is one form of Kirchhoﬀ’s Law.

By the same reasoning, both the spectral form of this law may be shown

to be true

(10.45) ε

λ

= α

λ

,

and the spectral–directional version as well

(10.46) ε

λ,θ

= α

λ,θ

.

10.4. KIRCHHOFF’S LAW AND GRAY SURFACES 132

Eq. (10.46) is applicable to all cases, because ε

λ,θ

and α

λ,θ

are indepen-

dent of their respective overall spectral and directional distributions. What

about the constraints on Eq. (10.45)? Are they as restrictive as those for

Eq. (10.44), i.e. that the irradiation is from a blackbody operating at the

same temperature?

Let us write Eq. (10.45) in terms of its respective deﬁnitions for ε

λ

in

Eq. (10.23) and α

λ

in Eq. (10.30), which yields

2π

0

π/2

0

ε

λ,θ

(λ, θ, φ, T) cos θ sin θ dθ dφ

2π

0

π/2

0

cos θ sinθ dθ dφ

=

2π

0

π/2

0

α

λ,θ

I

λ,i

(λ, θ, φ) cos θ sin θ dθ dφ

2π

0

π/2

0

I

λ,i

(λ, θ, φ) cos θ sin θ dθ dφ

·

This relation, and thus Eq. (10.45), will be satisﬁed for either of the following

two conditions

• If the irradiation I

λ,i

(λ, θ, φ) is diﬀuse then I

λ,i

(λ, θ, φ) →I

λ,i

(λ) so

this comes outside the integrals and cancels, leaving the two sides

equal since ε

λ,θ

is always equal to α

λ,θ

• If the surface is diﬀuse, so that ε

λ,θ

and α

λ,θ

are independent of

direction, then they come outside the integrals, in which case the

two sides are again equal

Are there any other conditions in which Eq. (10.44) will be satisﬁed?

As with the spectral components, let us recast Eq. (10.44) in terms of its

fundamental deﬁnitions for ε in Eq. (10.26) and α in Eq. (10.33). We ﬁnd

∞

0

ε

λ

(λ, T) E

λ,b

(λ, T) dλ

E

b

(T)

=

∞

0

α

λ

(λ) G

λ

(λ) dλ

G

·

Assuming ε

λ

= α

λ

, this expression is satisﬁed for either of the following two

conditions

• If the irradiation is the result of blackbody emission, then G

λ

(λ) =

E

λ,b

(λ, T) and G = E

b

(T), in which case the two sides are equal —

this was our original condition

• If the surface is gray, meaning that both ε

λ

and α

λ

are indepen-

dent of wavelength λ — they both come outside their respective

integrals, so that the expression is once again satisﬁed

We see now that there are a number of forms of Kirchhoﬀ’s Law. For I&D Ex. 12.9

pp 742

I&D Ex. 12.10

pp 744

convenience, we summarize these forms and their restrictions in Table 10.1.

10.4. KIRCHHOFF’S LAW AND GRAY SURFACES 133

Table 10.1. Forms of Kirchhoﬀ’s Law

Form Restrictions

ε

λ,θ

= α

λ,θ

none

ε

λ

= α

λ

ε

λ,θ

= α

λ,θ

and irradiation is diﬀuse or surface is diﬀuse

ε = α ε

λ

= α

λ

and thermal equilibrium and black irradiation

or gray surface

CHAPTER 11

Radiation Exchange

In Chapter 10, we described some of the characteristics of thermal radia-

tion. Now we extend this treatment to consider radiation exchange between

two or more ﬁnite bodies.

11.1. The View Factor

Radiation exchange depends on surface geometries and their orienta-

tions, not to mention their radiative properties and temperatures. We will

still invoke the idealization that any two surfaces are separated by a non–

participating medium. That is, the medium has no aﬀect upon the radiation

exchange, for example, as with a vacuum. We will initially focus on the geo-

metrical aspect by introducing the view factor concept

11.1

. The view factor,

F

ij

, is deﬁned simply as the fraction of radiation leaving surface i that is

intercepted by surface j. To derive F

ij

, we assume arbitrary surfaces A

i

and

A

j

, which have respective diﬀerential areas dA

i

and dA

j

(Fig. 11.1). The

d A

A

T

j

j

j

d A

A

T i

i

i

θ

i

R

θ

j

Figure 11.1. Calculation of the view factor.

diﬀerential areas under consideration are connected by a radius of length R,

which forms polar angles θ

i

and θ

j

with the respective unit normal vectors.

In general, R, θ

i

, and θ

j

are not constant as we consider the entirety of these

two surfaces, i.e. the surfaces may have curvature, etc.

11.1

The terms “conﬁguration factor” and “shape factor” used in some texts are

synonymous.

134

11.1. THE VIEW FACTOR 135

From the form of Eq. (10.5) on pp. 120, we can deduce the rate at which

radiation leaves dA

i

and strikes dA

j

as

dq

i→j

= I

i

dA

i

cos θ

i

dω

j,i

,

where I

i

is the intensity of the radiation leaving dA

i

and dω

j,i

is the solid

angle subtended by dA

j

when viewed from dA

i

. Now recall the deﬁnition of

solid angle is dA

normal

/R

2

, which means that, taking the projection of dA

j

,

gives

dω

j,i

=

dA

j

cos θ

j

R

2

.

Substituting, we ﬁnd

dq

i→j

= I

i

cos θ

i

cos θ

j

R

2

dA

i

dA

j

.

The total radiation coming from dA

i

is that which is emitted plus that which

is reﬂected, i.e. I

i

should be written more exactly as I

i

→I

i,e+r

, where the

extra subscripts indicate emission and reﬂection.

Now we make an important assumption about radiation emanating from

dA

i

. We assume that this surface emits and reﬂects diﬀusely, so that the

total radiation is given by the radiosity relationship J

i

= πI

i,e+r

. We can

then cast dq

i→j

as

(11.1) dq

i→j

= J

i

cos θ

i

cos θ

j

πR

2

dA

i

dA

j

.

We now make another critical assumption: J

i

is taken to be uniform over

surface i. Then, the total rate at which radiation leaves surface i and is

intercepted by surface j can be found simply by integrating Eq. (11.1) over

both surfaces, which gives

q

i→j

=

A

i

A

j

J

i

cos θ

i

cos θ

j

πR

2

dA

i

dA

j

= J

i

A

i

A

j

cos θ

i

cos θ

j

πR

2

dA

i

dA

j

.

Uniformity in J

i

allows us to take it outside the integral.

Now, from the deﬁnition of view factor, the radiation which leaves sur-

face i and is intercepted by surface j is q

i→j

and the total radiation that

leaves surface i (emitted plus reﬂected) is A

i

J

i

, therefore, by deﬁnition, the

view factor is

(11.2) F

ij

=

radiation from i that hits j

total radiation from i

=

q

i→j

A

i

J

i

·

By inspection, we see that view factor can be calculated as I&D Ex. 13.1

pp 798

(11.3) F

ij

=

1

A

i

A

i

A

j

cos θ

i

cos θ

j

πR

2

dA

i

dA

j

.

Eq. (11.3) is remarkable in the sense that, with the assumptions we have

made, the view factor is dependent strictly on geometry. We do not require

11.2. VIEW FACTOR ALGEBRA 136

any particular knowledge of the radiative quantities to calculate it. Again,

the important assumptions we have made in deriving Eq. (11.3) are

• the medium does not participate,

• surface i emits and reﬂects diﬀusely,

• radiosity of surface i is uniform

By a similar derivation, the complementary view factor F

ji

can be repre-

sented as

F

ji

=

radiation from j that hits i

total radiation from j

=

q

j→i

A

j

J

j

,

from which we ﬁnd

(11.4) F

ji

=

1

A

j

A

i

A

j

cos θ

i

cos θ

j

πR

2

dA

i

dA

j

.

11.2. View Factor Algebra

Based upon the deﬁnitions in Eqs. (11.3) and (11.4), certain identities

can be immediately deduced. For example, both F

ij

and F

ji

depend upon

the same integral, which implies

(11.5) F

ij

A

i

= F

ji

A

j

.

Eq. (11.5) is termed the reciprocity rule and is useful for ﬁnding one view

factor when the other is known. This relation is the ﬁrst result in a system

of algebra we will construct in order to minimize the number of times that

the view factor integral actually has to be computed for a speciﬁc radiation

problem.

Let us now consider view factors from the standpoint of conservation

of energy. Imagine an enclosure involving a particular surface, which may,

in general, be concave, ﬂat, or convex. This surface is denoted by cross–

hatching in Fig. 11.2. Without loss of generality, we label this surface as

convex

concave

flat

Figure 11.2. Enclosures for radiation exchange.

1, and the remaining surfaces in the enclosure 2, 3, . . . , N. Note that one

or more of the 2, 3, . . . , N surfaces may be “virtual” in the sense that they

represent an unbounded area.

The total radiation emanating from surface 1 is A

1

J

1

. In a proper ac-

counting of how energy is conserved, all of this radiation must be intercepted

by the other surfaces. In cases where surface 1 is concave, some of the ema-

nating radiation will be self–intercepted because this surface can “see” itself.

11.2. VIEW FACTOR ALGEBRA 137

In cases where the surface is ﬂat or convex, the surface does not intercept

any of its own emanating radiation. With these observations, we can write

a simple conservation law for the radiation from surface 1 as

A

1

J

1

= q

1→1

+ q

1→2

+ q

1→3

+ · · · + q

1→N

.

Dividing by A

1

J

1

, we ﬁnd

A

1

J

1

A

1

J

1

= 1 =

q

1→1

A

1

J

1

+

q

1→2

A

1

J

1

+

q

1→3

A

1

J

1

+ · · · +

q

1→N

A

1

J

1

.

Of course, the right hand side simply represents the sum of all the view

factors, i.e.

1 = F

11

+ F

12

+ F

13

+ · · · + F

1N

.

Note according to the above discussion that F

11

= 0 for ﬂat and convex

surfaces, but F

11

= 0 for concave surfaces. We can write this in compact

form for surface i = 1 as

(11.6)

N

¸

j=1

F

ij

= 1 ,

which is called the summation rule.

Once again, the summation rule is a simple statement of conservation of

radiative energy. We can write such an equation for each of the N surfaces

in the enclosure, i.e. 1 ≤ i ≤ N equations. For any of these equations, the

term F

ii

represents self–interception of radiation for that particular surface.

Generalizing the above observation, F

ii

= 0 for ﬂat and convex surfaces, but

F

ii

= 0 for concave surfaces.

Based on the observation in Eq. (11.6) that there are N view factors

associated with each surface and there are N surfaces, the total number

of view factors that characterize a radiation problem is N

2

, which can be

expressed as the matrix

F

11

F

12

F

13

· · · F

1N

F

21

F

22

F

23

· · · F

2N

F

31

F

32

F

33

· · · F

3N

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

F

N1

F

N2

F

N3

· · · F

NN

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

.

Each of these view factors is deﬁned by the view factor integral, as given

by Eq. (11.3). In general, the view factor integral is not trivial to evaluate.

However, Eqs. (11.5) and (11.6) clearly imply that not all of the factors has

to be calculated directly.

Using the summation rule, N view factors can be obtained from the N

equations derived from the summation rule applied to each surface of the

enclosure. Also, N(N −1)/2 of the factors can be obtained by N(N −1)/2

applications of the reciprocity relation. This number is derived as follows: as

11.2. VIEW FACTOR ALGEBRA 138

applied to a given surface there are N −1 reciprocity relations

11.2

, and this

can be applied N times, thus giving N(N −1) relationships. However, only

half of these are independent, giving N(N − 1)/2 relations

11.3

. Therefore,

only N

2

− N − N(N − 1)/2 = N(N − 1)/2 view factors actually have to

be calculated directly. For example, for a 3–surface enclosure there are

3

2

= 9 view factors, only 3 · 2/2 = 3 of which have to be computed directly.

The other 6 factors can be calculated using the algebraic relationships in

Eqs. (11.5) and (11.6).

Example 11.1:

Consider a simple 2–surface enclosure of a sphere within a sphere

(Fig. 11.3). The smaller sphere has an outer surface area of A

1

, while the

1

2

Figure 11.3. Two concentric spheres exchanging radiation.

larger has an inner surface area of A

2

. Determine the view factors charac-

terizing this problem.

There are N

2

= 2

2

= 4 relevant view factors, only N(N−1)/2 = 2·1/2 =

1 of which has to actually be calculated directly, i.e. by evaluating the view

factor integral. The trick is to intelligently pick the view factor that must be

calculated! For example, all radiation leaving the inner sphere is intercepted

by the outer sphere, therefore by inspection, we conclude F

12

= 1. In this

case, we skipped having to evaluate Eq. (11.3).

The rest of the problem is trivial. From reciprocity, we see

F

21

=

A

1

A

2

F

12

=

A

1

A

2

.

From summation, we see

F

11

+ F

12

= 1 → F

11

= 0 .

11.2

That is, there is a reciprocity relationship to every other surface besides the one

in question. There is no meaningful reciprocity relationship between a surface and itself.

11.3

An even more direct proof is to realize that this problem is also quantiﬁed by the

number of combinations of N entities taken 2 at a time. From combinatorics, we ﬁnd

CN,2 =

N!

(N −2)! 2!

=

N × (N −1) × (N −2)!

(N −2)! × 2 × 1

=

N (N −1)

2

·

11.2. VIEW FACTOR ALGEBRA 139

Of course, this also could have been concluded by inspection, since the inner

sphere is completely convex. This would have been the other easy starting

point for the problem. Also from summation, we see

F

21

+ F

22

= 1 → F

22

= 1 −

A

1

A

2

.

For more complex geometries, view factors may have to be calculated using

the double–integral deﬁnition. Solutions have been obtained for a variety of

conﬁgurations (e.g. Incropera and Dewitt, 2002, §13.1.2). ♦♦♦

Another important identity can be derived by considering the case where

a surface is broken up into its component parts (Fig. 11.4). First, it is evi-

i

2

1

Figure 11.4. Composite surfaces.

dent that radiation reaching a composite surface is the sum of the radiation

reaching each of its parts

(11.7) F

i(j)

=

n

¸

k=1

F

ik

,

where the parentheses around j indicate that it is a composite surface made

up of 1, 2, . . . , k, . . . , n components. The composite area is clearly

(11.8) A

(j)

=

n

¸

k=1

A

k

.

For example, in Fig. 11.4, we would write F

i(j)

= F

i(1,2)

= F

i1

+ F

i2

and

A

(j)

= A

(1,2)

= A

1

+A

2

. Turning this concept around via reciprocity, we can

also determine a component–wise description of the surface that originates

11.2. VIEW FACTOR ALGEBRA 140

the radiation. Multiplying Eq. (11.7) by A

i

, we obtain

A

i

F

i(j)

= A

i

n

¸

k=1

F

ik

= A

i

F

i1

+ F

i2

+ · · · + F

in

= A

i

F

i1

+ A

i

F

i2

+ · · · + A

i

F

in

= A

1

F

1i

+ A

2

F

2i

+ · · · + A

n

F

ni

(reciprocity)

=

n

¸

k=1

A

k

F

ki

.

We can also write an “overall” reciprocity equation A

i

F

i(j)

= A

(j)

F

(j)i

, so

that we ﬁnally conclude

(11.9) F

(j)i

=

1

A

(j)

n

¸

k=1

A

k

F

ki

.

Referring again to Fig. 11.4 as an example, we ﬁnd I&D Ex. 13.2

pp 799

F

(1,2)i

=

A

1

F

1i

+A

2

F

2i

A

1

+A

2

.

Finally, other view factor relations may exist, depending upon the spe-

ciﬁc problem. For example, because we have already shown that the view

factor integral in Eq. (11.3) depends only upon geometry, any geometric sym-

metry also implies symmetry in the corresponding view factors. Fig. 11.5

shows two examples for N = 3. In the triangular duct F

12

= F

13

. For

1

3

2

1

2 3

Figure 11.5. Radiation enclosures with N = 3 surfaces. Dot-

ted lines indicate planes of symmetry.

the cylinder, surface 1 is taken as the entire inside surface, so that again

F

12

= F

13

. Unlike Eqs. (11.5) and (11.6), such relations are problem speciﬁc

and will not necessarily exist for every conﬁguration.

In retrospect, we see that N(N − 1)/2 is actually the upper bound for

the number of view factors that have to be calculated directly. Any extra

relations that we can deduce, e.g. by inspection of ﬂat or convex surfaces

and by symmetry observations, decreases this number. Many problems are

such that the view factor integral never actually has to be evaluated.

11.4. EXCHANGE AMONG DIFFUSE GRAY SURFACES 141

11.3. Blackbody Radiation Exchange

In the general problem, radiation departs from a surface via both emis-

sion and reﬂection. At the target, it may be reﬂected and absorbed. How-

ever, for blackbodies the situation is greatly simpliﬁed since there is no

reﬂection. Energy only leaves a surface via emission and all incident radia-

tion is absorbed at the target surface. For radiation exchange between two

arbitrary blackbody surfaces, we can write

q

i→j

= J

i

A

i

F

ij

directly from the view factor deﬁnition in Eq. (11.2). Now, invoking the

blackbody assumption, radiosity equals the emissive power for a blackbody,

so that

q

i→j

= E

b,i

A

i

F

ij

.

Similarly, we can write the radiation transfer in the opposite direction as

q

j→i

= E

b,j

A

j

F

ji

.

The net exchange between the two surfaces can be written simply as the

diﬀerence between these two quantities

q

ij

= q

i→j

− q

j→i

= E

b,i

A

i

F

ij

− E

b,j

A

j

F

ji

= E

b,i

A

i

F

ij

− E

b,j

A

i

F

ij

(reciprocity)

= A

i

F

ij

E

b,i

− E

b,j

q

ij

= A

i

F

ij

σ

T

4

i

− T

4

j

. (11.10)

Eq. (11.10) is the net rate at which radiation leaves surface i (is lost from

surface i) as a result of interacting with surface j. Likewise, it is the net

rate at which surface j gains energy.

This concept can easily be extended to an enclosure of N blackbody

surfaces, all maintained at various temperatures. A similar treatment to the I&D Ex. 13.3

pp 801 above yields

(11.11) q

i

=

N

¸

j=1

A

i

F

ij

σ

T

4

i

− T

4

j

= σ A

i

N

¸

j=1

F

ij

T

4

i

− T

4

j

**as the net transfer of radiation from surface i as a result of interacting with
**

all of the other N −1 surfaces of the enclosure.

11.4. Exchange Among Diﬀuse Gray Surfaces

Eq. (11.11) is interesting from a conceptual standpoint, but we have

already seen that real surfaces often reﬂect radiation, i.e. ρ > 0 and α < 1.

The reality of this situation is that “packets” of radiation will interact with

many surfaces consecutively, each which might absorb some portion and

reﬂect the remainder. Two surfaces will therefore exchange energy at many

11.4. EXCHANGE AMONG DIFFUSE GRAY SURFACES 142

“levels”, as the radiation bounces back and forth. This bouncing eﬀect

complicates matters.

In this section, we will relax somewhat the assumption of a blackbody.

Speciﬁcally, we will model enclosures having the following properties for each

surface

• isothermal (uniform temperature)

• uniform radiosity and irradiation

• opaque (τ = 0), diﬀuse, and gray (ε = α)

and will then develop relations for the net rate at which radiation leaves a

surface i, deﬁned as q

i

. In particular, we can write q

i

according to conser-

vation of energy at the radiative surface, either in terms of the diﬀerence

between radiosity and irradiation, or equivalently, between emission and

absorption (Fig. 11.6). We have

q

G * A

J * A

E * A

q

α

* G * A

* G * A

ρ

G * A

Figure 11.6. Conservation of energy in two equivalent forms,

where q is the net loss from the surface.

q

i

= A

i

J

i

− G

i

(11.12)

= A

i

E

i

+ ρ

i

G

i

− G

i

= A

i

E

i

+ G

i

ρ

i

− 1

= A

i

E

i

− G

i

1 − ρ

i

q

i

= A

i

E

i

− α

i

G

i

. (11.13)

Notice that the form containing radiosity implicitly includes absorption,

while the form based on emission implicitly accounts for reﬂection. Let us

focus on the radiosity J

i

= E

i

+ ρ

i

G

i

. Using E

i

= ε

i

E

bi

and ρ

i

= 1 − α

i

=

1 −ε

i

, we can write radiosity as J

i

= ε

i

E

bi

+(1 −ε

i

) G

i

. Solving for G

i

, we

ﬁnd

G

i

=

J

i

−ε

i

E

bi

1 − ε

i

,

11.4. EXCHANGE AMONG DIFFUSE GRAY SURFACES 143

which, when substituted into q

i

above, yields

q

i

= A

i

J

i

−

J

i

−ε

i

E

bi

1 − ε

i

= A

i

J

i

1 − ε

i

1 − ε

i

−

J

i

−ε

i

E

bi

1 − ε

i

= A

i

J

i

(1 − ε

i

) − J

i

+ ε

i

E

bi

1 − ε

i

= A

i

ε

i

E

bi

− ε

i

J

i

1 − ε

i

=

A

i

ε

i

(E

bi

− J

i

)

1 − ε

i

q

i

=

E

bi

− J

i

(1 − ε

i

) / (A

i

ε

i

)

(11.14)

This expression is the net radiative energy from a surface. We readily notice

the analogy to circuits, i.e. E

bi

− J

i

represents driving potential, while q

i

is heat ﬂow (analogous to ﬂow of electrical current) and (1 −ε

i

) / (A

i

ε

i

)

is a radiative surface “resistance”. Fig. 11.7 illustrates this circuit analog.

Conceptually, we can think of Eq. (11.14) as quantifying the amount by

E

J

q

i

i

i

ε

i i

) / ( A (1 −ε

i

)

Figure 11.7. Circuit analogy for radiative exchange at a sur-

face as characterized by Eq. (11.14).

which a real surface diﬀers from the ideal blackbody radiator. In other

words, if we write Eq. (11.14) as

q

i

1 − ε

i

A

i

ε

i

= E

bi

− J

i

,

it is clear that ε

i

→ 1 implies J

i

→ E

bi

. In other words, as the emissivity

goes to unity, the radiosity approaches the blackbody emissive power — the

surface is then equivalent to the ideal blackbody surface, for which ε

i

= α

i

=

1 (perfect absorptivity) and ρ

i

= 0 (no reﬂection). For ε

i

< 1, the surface is

not ideal, so that it is described by Eq. (11.14).

Unfortunately, the results expressed thus far are incomplete because

we do not know the value of the radiosity J

i

in Eq. (11.14). This must

be calculated based on interaction with the other N − 1 surfaces of the

problem. However, the radiosities for these surfaces then come into play as

11.4. EXCHANGE AMONG DIFFUSE GRAY SURFACES 144

well. Recalling the developments that led to the summation rule in Eq. (11.6)

were based on the conservation of energy of the radiation leaving surface i.

Let us now consider the conservation of energy for the irradiation of surface

i, that is, the total irradiation is the sum of all net radiation transfers to

surface i. We write this as

A

i

G

i

= q

1→i

+ q

2→i

+ · · · + q

N→i

= A

1

J

1

F

1i

+ A

2

J

2

F

2i

+ · · · + A

N

J

N

F

Ni

(apply Eq. (11.2))

= J

1

A

1

F

1i

+ J

2

A

2

F

2i

+ · · · + J

N

A

N

F

Ni

= J

1

A

i

F

i1

+ J

2

A

i

F

i2

+ · · · + J

N

A

i

F

iN

(reciprocity)

= A

i

(J

1

F

i1

+ J

2

F

i2

+ · · · + J

N

F

iN

) .

Canceling A

i

from both sides, we can write the irradiation as

G

i

=

N

¸

j=1

J

j

F

ij

.

In turn, we can substitute this into Eq. (11.12) for the net rate of radiation

leaving surface i, which yields

q

i

= A

i

¸

J

i

−

N

¸

j=1

J

j

F

ij

¸

= A

i

¸

J

i

×1 −

N

¸

j=1

J

j

F

ij

¸

(multiply J

i

by 1)

= A

i

¸

J

i

N

¸

j=1

F

ij

−

N

¸

j=1

J

j

F

ij

¸

(Eq. (11.6))

= A

i

¸

N

¸

j=1

F

ij

J

i

−

N

¸

j=1

J

j

F

ij

¸

(take J

i

into Σ)

q

i

= A

i

N

¸

j=1

F

ij

(J

i

− J

j

) (11.15)

Eq. (11.15) represents the net radiation leaving surface i written in terms

of the interaction with radiosities of the other surfaces. We again notice a

clear analogy to linear circuits where J

i

− J

j

is the potential, q

i

is ﬂow,

and (A

i

F

ij

)

−1

is a resistance term

11.4

. Unlike the single resistor implied by

Eq. (11.14), this conﬁguration represents a resistor for each surface interact-

ing with the given surface i (Fig. 11.8). Surface i thus comprises the node

for this circuit. Furthermore, it should be clear that in a given problem of N

11.4

This quantity is usually referred to as the spatial resistance, geometric resistance,

or shape resistance.

11.5. THE GRAYBODY MATRIX PROBLEM 145

J

i

i

i

1

(

A

F

)

−

1

J

N

J

3

J

2

J

1

q

i

q

q

q

q

i −> 1

i −> 2

i −> 3

i −> N

i

(

A

F

)

−

1

i

(A F )

−1

i

i

2

i 3

i

N

(

A

F

)

−

1

Figure 11.8. Circuit analogy for radiative exchange at a sur-

face as characterized by Eq. (11.15).

surfaces, there will be N such circuits of the type shown in Fig. 11.8. That

is, there will be such a circuit for each node, where the nodes go from 1 to

N, each of which represents one surface of the problem.

11.5. The Graybody Matrix Problem

You have probably already deduced from the above discussion that the

problem must ultimately be cast as a matrix equation. Like Eq. (11.14),

there is insuﬃcient information in Eq. (11.15) to solve the typical problem,

because we generally do not know the values for q

i

. However, we can readily

set Eq. (11.14) equal to Eq. (11.15) to obtain

E

bi

− J

i

(1 − ε

i

) / (A

i

ε

i

)

= A

i

N

¸

j=1

F

ij

(J

i

− J

j

) .

Or, canceling A

i

, we can write more simply

(11.16)

E

bi

− J

i

(1 − ε

i

) /ε

i

=

N

¸

j=1

F

ij

(J

i

− J

j

) .

Let us examine this equation closely. Eq. (11.16) is written for a speciﬁc

surface i, so in an actual problem, there would be N such equations for

i : 1 →N. This equation is simply the conservation of energy for each node

(surface) in the equation. In fact, it is really nothing more than Kirchhoﬀ’s

Circuit Law, i.e. the sum of the currents (radiative transfers) for a node

must be zero. This same concept appears in Fig. 11.8.

11.5. THE GRAYBODY MATRIX PROBLEM 146

You have probably further deduced that the circuit analogy for this

problem becomes too unwieldy for large N. For example, the circuit rep-

resentation for N = 3 is shown in Fig. 11.9, but for higher values of N,

such diagrams quickly become too diﬃcult to reasonably draw. The matrix

J

1

J

2

J

3

E

b1

R

e2

R

s12

E

E

b2

b3

R

R

e1

e3

R

R

s23

s13

Figure 11.9. Circuit analogy for radiative exchange among 3

surfaces showing emissive powers, radiosity nodes, and all resis-

tances. Resistors with subscript “e” are emissive resistors, while

those with subscript “s” are shape resistors.

representation is rather more general. For the same N = 3 problem, we

would write a form of Eq. (11.16) for each surface as

ε

1

1 −ε

1

E

b1

−J

1

= F

11

J

1

−J

1

+F

12

J

1

−J

2

+F

13

J

1

−J

3

ε

2

1 −ε

2

E

b2

−J

2

= F

21

J

2

−J

1

+F

22

J

2

−J

2

+F

23

J

2

−J

3

ε

3

1 −ε

3

E

b3

−J

3

= F

31

J

3

−J

1

+F

32

J

3

−J

2

+F

33

J

3

−J

3

**where the unknowns are J
**

1

, J

2

, and J

3

. The emissive powers are considered

known because they can be calculated from the Stefan–Boltzmann Law in

Eq. (10.14) on pp. 124. Emissivities are also considered to be known, as are

the view factors. These equations can be written in matrix form as

F

12

+F

13

+ ¯ ε

1

−F

12

−F

13

−F

21

F

21

+ ¯ ε

2

+F

23

−F

23

−F

31

−F

32

F

31

+F

32

+ ¯ ε

3

¸

¸

J

1

J

2

J

3

¸

¸

=

¯ ε

1

E

b1

¯ ε

2

E

b2

¯ ε

3

E

b3

¸

¸

where ¯ ε

1

= ε

1

/ (1 −ε

1

), ¯ ε

2

= ε

2

/ (1 −ε

2

), and ¯ ε

3

= ε

3

/ (1 −ε

3

) are short-

hand notations. Of course, this particular system can be solved using any

suitable matrix iteration or inversion procedure (Kreyszig, 1988). Conﬁgu- I&D Ex. 13.4

pp 808 rations having N > 3 lead to commensurately larger matrix problems.

One conﬁguration where the circuit analogy is preferred is the case of

N = 2. This problem reduces to the simple series of resistors (Fig. 11.10).

11.6. ADDITIONAL CONFIGURATIONS 147

Here, we know the potential at the two termini from the Stefan–Boltzmann

J

1

J

2

1 2 1

(A F )

−1

q

1

− q

E

b1

E

b2

q

12

(1 − ) / (Α ) (1 − ) / (Α )

ε

ε

ε

ε

1 1 1 2

2 2

2

Figure 11.10. Series circuit for the N = 2 problem.

Law, and can thus write

(11.17) q

12

=

σ

T

4

1

− T

4

2

(1 −ε

1

) / (ε

1

A

1

) + 1/ (A

1

F

12

) + (1 −ε

2

) / (ε

2

A

2

)

·

Moreover, because there are only 2 surfaces, the net rate of transfer from

surface 1 to surface 2, q

12

, must be equal to the net rate of transfer from

surface 1, q

1

, and thus the net rate of transfer to surface 2, −q

2

.

11.6. Additional conﬁgurations

There are several interesting conﬁgurations related to radiation exchange.

For example, if we examine the form of the emissive resistance in Eq. (11.14)

R =

1 − ε

Aε

,

it is clear that R will be large if the emissivity is small. This provides

a basis for using low emissivity materials as radiation shields to decrease

the heat transfer between two bodies

11.5

. That is, a low–ε surface can be

placed between two bodies between which heat transfer is to be decreased.

This would result in additional high–resistance elements in Fig. 11.10 with a

commensurate decrease in q

12

. For gray surfaces we have α+ρ = ε +ρ = 1,

so that low–ε implies that the surface is highly reﬂective of radiation.

Another interesting conﬁguration is the re–radiating surface, which is

characterized by zero net radiation transfer, q

i

= 0. This is a reason-

able model when the surface is well–insulated on the opposite side. From

Eq. (11.14), we see that q

i

= 0 implies E

bi

= J

i

, so that the the radiosity at

node i will be known. How does this eﬀectively change the problem?

Let us carefully examine the example of a 3 surface enclosure, N = 3,

where one of the surfaces is a re–radiating surface (Fig. 11.11). It is clear

that q

13

= q

23

, because there is no radiative transfer through resistor R

e3

. In

other words, q

3

= 0 because this is a re–radiating surface. Also, J

3

= E

b3

is

known. The circuit is thus reduced to a simpler parallel arrangement where

one of the legs is R

s12

and the other is R

s13

+R

s23

. The circuit can be solved I&D Ex. 13.6

pp 815

11.5

For example, so–called low–ε glass is used in this capacity.

11.6. ADDITIONAL CONFIGURATIONS 148

J

1

J

2

J

3

E

b1

R

e2

R

s12

E

b2

R

R

e1

e3

R

R

s23

s13

= E

b3

q

23

13

q

Figure 11.11. Circuit for N = 3 enclosure with surface 3

acting as a re–radiating surface.

by formulating the overall resistance between E

b1

and E

b2

. Using standard

circuit analysis, the total resistance R

t

is found to be

R

t

= R

e1

+

1

1

R

s13

+ R

s23

+

1

R

s12

+ R

e2

= R

e1

+

R

s12

(R

s13

+ R

s23

)

R

s12

+ R

s13

+ R

s23

+ R

e2

,

from which we can write the solution in the form

q

1

= −q

2

=

E

b1

− E

b2

R

t

.

Notice that the problem is independent of resistor R

e3

, whose form is

R

e3

=

1 − ε

3

A

3

ε

3

·

In turn, this means that the problem is independent of the emissivity of

surface 3. This observation is true in general, i.e. the emissivity of a re–

radiating surface is irrelevant. Once q

1

is known, standard circuit theory can

again be applied to ﬁnd the potentials J

1

and J

2

. In a more general problem,

i.e. N > 3, we can apply Eq. (11.15) in the standard fashion to formulate

the matrix problem, except we simply set q

i

= 0 for any re–radiating surface

i.

APPENDIX A

Transient Conduction Example: The

Homogeneous Cooling Problem

The concept of transient conduction was examined in Chapter 4. While

certain idealizations were discussed, e.g. the lumped capacitance method,

there were appreciable limitations upon their applicability. Here, we intro-

duce a more generalized one–dimensional problem where spatial gradients do

not vanish and the Fourier number is such that the one term approximation

is not necessarily valid. We will focus on the case where boundary conditions

are of the ﬁrst kind (Dirichlet boundary conditions). There are a number of

ways to approach this problem, however, we will use the well–known method

of Separation of Variables.

Eq. (4.1) describes the physics of this problem

∂T

∂t

= α

∂

2

T

∂x

2

,

where T is only a function of x and t. Recall that this equation is a lin-

ear partial diﬀerential equation, so we suspect that we can treat speciﬁc

problems strictly with theoretical methods

A.1

. We take the problem domain

to be a ﬁnite region in Cartesian space 0 ≤ x ≤ L. Moreover, we assume

a temporal duration of t ≥ 0. To complete the description of a problem,

that is to make sure it is well–posed, we will require both boundary condi-

tions and initial conditions. We focus on homogeneous boundary conditions

of the ﬁrst kind, i.e. T(0, t) = T(L, t) = 0. It is assumed that speciﬁc

non–homogeneous cases can be cast in homogeneous form using a suitable

transformation. Initial conditions are given by a function T(x, 0) = F(x).

A.1. Separation of Variables Method

The method begins with a conjecture that the solution can be written

in the form

(A.1) T(x, t) = Ψ(x) Γ(t) .

That is, we assume that the physical problem is such that the contribution

related to temporal response can be separated from the contribution related

to spatial variation (Carrier and Pearson, 1976). For example, consider the

imaginary case T = (x

2

−1)t. This equation clearly represents a “separable”

problem, where Ψ = (x

2

− 1) and Γ = t. Conversely, the case T =

√

xt +

A.1

As opposed to non–linear problems which often cannot be solved analytically.

149

A.1. SEPARATION OF VARIABLES METHOD 150

tanh(x

2

√

t +

**x/t) is not readily separable. We therefore suspect that
**

even this method may be limited in the types of problems that may be

solved. Fortunately, it is known to work for the type of one–dimensional

conﬁgurations we are interested in here.

Under the conjecture of Eq. (A.1), partial derivatives have certain forms.

Using the Chain Rule of Calculus, we see

(A.2)

∂T

∂t

= Γ(t)

∂Ψ(x)

∂t

+ Ψ(x)

∂Γ(t)

∂t

= Ψ(x) Γ

(t) ,

where the prime symbol denotes the derivative of a univariate function.

Notice that the derivative of Ψ(x) with respect to t vanishes because Ψ is

only a function of x, not of t. Similarly, we can apply Chain Rule twice to

ﬁnd

(A.3)

∂

2

T

∂x

2

= Ψ

(x) Γ(t) .

Proceeding, we now substitute Eqs. (A.2) and (A.3) into the conduction

equation to obtain

(A.4)

1

α

Γ

(t)

Γ(t)

=

Ψ

(x)

Ψ(x)

.

We have now cast the problem in a separated form where the left hand side

is only a function of time t and the right hand side is only a function of

the spatial coordinate x. However, according to principle, Eq. (A.4) must

be valid for all x and t in the problem domain. It follows that each side

must be equal to a constant. Otherwise, either of x or t could be held ﬁxed

while the other could be varied such that Eq. (A.4) would be contradicted.

Therefore,

(A.5)

1

α

Γ

(t)

Γ(t)

= C

0

and

(A.6)

Ψ

(x)

Ψ(x)

= C

0

,

where C

0

is a constant. Positive values for C

0

lead to exponentially increas-

ing behavior and imaginary values (involving i =

√

−1 ) lead to periodic

behavior (Carrier and Pearson, 1976). These responses can be veriﬁed by

substitution. We are instead interested in the case where C

0

is negative.

This leads to behavior that decays exponentially in time, a phenomenon

compatible with the type of boundary and initial conditions we will employ.

Therefore, we deﬁne

(A.7) C

0

= −λ

2

,

where λ > 0.

A.2. SOLUTION PROCEDURE 151

We have now developed two individual ordinary diﬀerential equations

from the single partial diﬀerential equation

(A.8) Γ

(t) + αλ

2

Γ(t) = 0 t ≥ 0

and

(A.9) Ψ

(x) + λ

2

Ψ(x) = 0 0 ≤ x ≤ L .

These taken separately are each easier to solve than the original partial

diﬀerential equation.

We must apply the same separation process to the boundary conditions.

Using Eq. (A.1), the two boundary conditions can be written as

Ψ(0) Γ(t) = Ψ(L) Γ(t) = 0 .

Now, Γ(t) cannot vanish for arbitrary values of t, otherwise the whole so-

lution would be trivial. Therefore we see that Ψ(0) and Ψ(L) must vanish

instead. The boundary conditions are therefore

(A.10) Ψ(0) = 0

and

(A.11) Ψ(L) = 0 .

We do not perform a similar reduction on the initial condition. This is

handled diﬀerently as discussed below. The problem in (x, t) has now been

completely separated into two simpler problems: a spatial problem in x and

a temporal problem in t.

A.2. Solution Procedure

We are now faced with solving the individual problems in x and t. As

mentioned above, we are focusing speciﬁcally on homogeneous boundary

conditions of the ﬁrst kind. Cases involving other combinations of boundary

conditions are more complex and require a generalized treatment (

¨

Ozi¸sik,

1980).

The ﬁrst step is to realize that Eq. (A.8) has a solution of the form

(A.12) Γ(t) = e

−αλ

2

t

.

This can be readily veriﬁed by substitution. Next, we see that the trigono-

metric functions can satisfy Eq. (A.9) as

(A.13) Ψ(x) = C

1

sin λx + C

2

cos λx ,

where C

1

and C

2

are constants of integration. If we apply Eq. (A.10), we

get

Ψ(0) = C

1

sin 0 + C

2

cos 0 ,

which implies that C

2

= 0. Now apply Eq. (A.11) to obtain

Ψ(L) = C

1

sin λL = 0 .

A.3. DETERMINING MODE COEFFICIENTS 152

It is clear that C

1

= 0, otherwise the entire solution would once again be

trivial. Therefore, it must instead be the case that sin λL = 0, so that

(A.14) λL = nπ ,

where n = 1, 2, 3, . . . That is, the problem is only satisﬁed for certain val-

ues of λ, called eigenvalues, i.e. λ = nπ/L. Thus, this is an eigenvalue

problem

A.2

.

Note, we will now change the nomenclature to reﬂect the fact that there

are many admissible eigen–related values, thus λ →λ

n

, C

1

→C

n

, and λ

n

=

nπ/L. Also note that in this case “sin λ

n

x” is called the eigenfunction. Each

mode n yields an elementary solution to the problem. A general solution

is therefore obtained by the linear superposition of all modes n = 1 → ∞.

This can be written as

(A.15) T(x, t) =

∞

¸

n=1

C

n

sin (λ

n

x) e

−αλ

2

n

t

.

Eq. (A.15) now satisﬁes both the governing equation and the boundary

conditions. However, we have yet to determine mode coeﬃcients C

n

such

that the initial conditions are satisﬁed.

A.3. Determining Mode Coeﬃcients

Directly plugging in initial conditions at t = 0 yields

(A.16) T(x, 0) = F(x) =

∞

¸

n=1

C

n

sin λ

n

x ,

however, this appears to be a dead end at ﬁrst glance since there are an

inﬁnite number of unknown C

n

values and only one equation. In actuality,

we see that this problem boils down to one of expanding an arbitrary func-

tion F(x) into a series. In this case, the series will be a Fourier “sin” series

(Boyce and DiPrima, 1977). Let us review how such a series is constructed.

First, we make use of the fact that the eigenfunctions are orthogonal,

that is they obey

L

0

sinλ

n

x sinλ

m

x dx = 0

for m = n and

L

0

sinλ

n

x sinλ

m

x dx = N(λ

n

)

for m = n, where N(λ

n

) is the norm and is deﬁned simply as

N(λ

n

) =

L

0

sin

2

λ

n

x dx .

¨

Ozi¸sik (1980) has an extensive discussion of orthogonality.

A.2

¨

Ozi¸sik (1980) discusses eigenvalue problems in detail.

A.3. DETERMINING MODE COEFFICIENTS 153

Next, we operate on Eq. (A.16) with

L

0

sin λ

n

x dx to obtain

(A.17)

L

0

F(x) sin λ

n

x dx =

L

0

∞

¸

m=1

C

m

sin λ

m

x sinλ

n

x dx .

Note, the mode number symbol is arbitrary and we changed n →m in the

summation to avoid ambiguity. We recall that the mode coeﬃcients are

constants rather than functions of x, so Eq. (A.17) can be simpliﬁed to

(A.18)

L

0

F(x) sin λ

n

x dx =

∞

¸

m=1

C

m

L

0

sin λ

m

x sinλ

n

x dx .

The summation sign and coeﬃcients have been taken outside of the integral.

Now we make the observation that the right hand side vanishes except in

the case where m = n due to the orthogonality property. This can be better

visualized if we write out the terms explicitly. We obtain

C

1

L

0

sin λ

1

x sinλ

n

x dx +

C

2

L

0

sin λ

2

x sinλ

n

x dx +

C

3

L

0

sin λ

3

x sin λ

n

x dx + · · · +

C

n

L

0

sin λ

n

x sin λ

n

x dx +

C

n+1

L

0

sin λ

n+1

x sin λ

n

x dx +

C

n+2

L

0

sin λ

n+2

x sin λ

n

x dx + · · ·

as the explicit representation of the series. Clearly, only mode C

n

is non–

zero, as governed by orthogonality. The rest of the modes are trivial and

the summation itself vanishes. We can then simplify Eq. (A.18) to

(A.19)

L

0

F(x) sin λ

n

x dx = C

n

L

0

sin λ

n

sinλ

n

x dx ,

which can be written using the norm as

(A.20)

L

0

F(x) sin λ

n

x dx = C

n

N(λ

n

) .

Solving Eq. (A.20), we ﬁnd that the mode coeﬃcients are given by

(A.21) C

n

=

1

N(λ

n

)

L

0

F(x) sin λ

n

x dx .

It is left as an exercise to the reader to show that N(λ

n

) for this case is

simply L/2.

A.4. EXAMPLE: THE UNIT INITIAL CONDITION 154

Eq. (A.15) satisﬁes the governing equation and the boundary conditions

while Eq. (A.21) determines coeﬃcients such that the initial condition F(x)

is satisﬁed. If F(x) is very complicated, evaluation of Eq. (A.21) may not

be straightforward. Otherwise, it can usually be handled with the aid of

standard integral tables. These two equations give the ﬁnal solution to the

problem speciﬁed above. Physically, this means that we know the temper-

ature distribution T(x, t) for the entire problem domain 0 ≤ x ≤ L and

t ≥ 0. We can therefore compute quantities of engineering interest such as

heat ﬂux at any position and any time.

A.4. Example: The Unit Initial Condition

As an example of ﬁnishing the problem to obtain the exact solution, let

us consider the unit initial condition F(x) = 1, i.e. the temperature at any

x at time t = 0 is unity. We must now evaluate the mode coeﬃcients using

Eq. (A.21) as

A.3

C

n

=

1

N(λ

n

)

L

0

F(x) sin λ

n

x dx

=

2

L

L

0

1 sin λ

n

x dx =

2

L

L

0

sin λ

n

x dx

= −

2

L λ

n

cos λ

n

x

L

0

= −

2L

Lnπ

cos

nπx

L

L

0

= −

2

nπ

¸

cos

nπL

L

− cos 0

=

2

nπ

[1 − cos n π]

=

2

nπ

[1 − (−1)

n

]

The last result is obtained by noting that n varies as 1, 2, 3, . . . , for which the

cosine of nπ must correspondingly alternate between negative and positive

1. In fact, we can construct a table of how the term in brackets varies with

n (Table A.1). Clearly, all even–numbered modes drop out of the problem

Table A.1. Values of the alternating term: [1 −(−1)

n

]

n 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 · · ·

value 2 0 2 0 2 0 2 · · ·

because their resulting mode coeﬃcients are all 0. However, odd–numbered

modes remain. We can simplify C

n

further by writing it only for the non–

trivial odd modes as

C

n

= 2

2

nπ

=

4

nπ

where n = 1, 3, 5, 7, . . .

A.3

Recall that you’ve already showed that N(λn) = L/2.

A.4. EXAMPLE: THE UNIT INITIAL CONDITION 155

Finally, we can substitute C

n

into the general solution in Eq. (A.15) to

obtain

T(x, t) =

∞

¸

n=1,3,5,...

4

nπ

sin (λ

n

x) e

−αλ

2

n

t

.

This expression can be used to evaluate temperature at any arbitrary (x, t),

e.g. by

• choose desired (x, t)

• set T(x, t) = 0

• set n = 1

• evaluate current mode n and add to running total of T(x, t)

• compare old value of T(x, t) to newly calculated value

• stop if converged, i.e. if change of T(x, t) is below user–speciﬁed

convergence criterion, otherwise go to next mode

APPENDIX B

Laminar Forced Convection in a Pipe

This appendix shows the long–hand derivation of a number of equations

relevant to laminar forced convection in fully developed pipe ﬂow.

B.1. Volume Flow Rate

Eq. (7.4) gives the result for the volume ﬂow rate in laminar pipe ﬂow.

Here, we formally show this starting from the deﬁnition of volume ﬂow rate

as the integral over the ﬂow cross section

Q =

A

V· ˆ n dA =

r

0

0

u 2πr dr

and the exact solution given by Eq. (7.3). Substituting this expression we

ﬁnd

Q = −

r

0

0

1

4 µ

dP

dx

r

2

0

¸

1 −

r

r

0

2

¸

2πr dr

= −

π r

2

0

2 µ

dP

dx

r

0

0

¸

1 −

r

r

0

2

¸

r dr

= −

π r

2

0

2 µ

dP

dx

r

0

0

¸

r −

r

3

r

2

0

dr

= −

π r

2

0

2 µ

dP

dx

¸

r

2

2

−

r

4

4 r

2

0

r

0

0

= −

π r

2

0

2 µ

dP

dx

r

2

0

4

= −

π r

4

0

8 µ

dP

dx

,

which conﬁrms Eq. (7.4).

B.2. Integration of Mean Temperature Equation

Eq. (7.23) gives the result for the expression A in the case of constant

wall heat ﬂux. To show this, we must integrate Eq. (7.22), which has the

form

2

¯ u r

2

0

r

0

0

u θ r dr = 1 .

156

B.2. INTEGRATION OF MEAN TEMPERATURE EQUATION 157

We substitute for u and θ to ﬁnd

−

2 Ar

2

0

¯ u r

2

0

r

0

0

2 ¯ u

¸

1 −

r

r

0

2

¸ ¸

3

16

+

1

16

r

r

0

4

−

1

4

r

r

0

2

¸

r dr = 1 .

Writing out terms in long hand, we ﬁnd

−4 A

r

0

0

¸

3

16

r −

7

16

r

3

r

2

0

+

5

16

r

5

r

4

0

−

1

16

r

7

r

6

0

dr = 1 .

Carrying out term–by–term integration yields

−4 A

3

2 · 16

r

2

−

7

4 · 16

r

4

r

2

0

+

5

6 · 16

r

6

r

4

0

−

1

8 · 16

r

8

r

6

0

r

0

0

= 1

−4 A

36 −42 + 20 −3

24 · 16

r

2

0

=

−4 A

11

24 · 16

r

2

0

=

−A

11

6 · 16

r

2

0

=

−

11

96

A r

2

0

= 1

Solving, we ﬁnd

Ar

2

0

= −

96

11

,

which conﬁrms Eq. (7.23).

APPENDIX C

Blackbody Radiation

C.1. Wien’s Displacement Law

Eq. (10.12) reports Wien’s Displacement Law as

λ

max

T = 2897.8 µm· K .

Here, we prove this assertion starting from the spectral blackbody emissive

power in Eq. (10.11)

E

λ,b

(λ, T) =

C

1

λ

5

e

C

2

/(λ T)

− 1

.

We wish to determine the conditions for λ where E

λ,b

(λ, T) is a maximum.

Diﬀerentiating with respect to λ and setting the result equal to zero, we ﬁnd

dE

λ,b

(λ, T)

dλ

= −5 C

1

λ

−6

e

C

2

/(λ T)

− 1

−1

−

C

1

λ

−5

e

C

2

/(λ T)

− 1

−2

−

C

2

T

λ

−2

e

C

2

/(λ T)

= −

5

λ

·

C

1

λ

5

e

C

2

/(λ T)

− 1

+

C

1

λ

5

e

C

2

/(λ T)

− 1

·

1

e

C

2

/(λ T)

− 1

·

C

2

T λ

2

e

C

2

/(λ T)

= −

5

λ

· E

λ,b

+ E

λ,b

·

C

2

T λ

2

·

e

C

2

/(λ T)

e

C

2

/(λ T)

− 1

= 0 ,

which can be recast as

−

5

λ

· E

λ,b

+ E

λ,b

·

C

2

T λ

2

·

e

C

2

/(λ T)

e

C

2

/(λ T)

− 1

= 0 .

Factoring out E

λ,b

/λ, we can now simplify this expression as

C

2

T λ

·

e

C

2

/(λ T)

e

C

2

/(λ T)

− 1

= 5 .

Notice that the term C

2

/(λ T) appears as a uniﬁed variable. That is, we

can let x = C

2

/(λ T), and solve the equation

x

e

x

e

x

− 1

= 5 .

158

C.2. RADIATION FUNCTIONS 159

With a little algebra we ﬁnd

x = 5

e

x

−1

e

x

= 5

1 −e

−x

,

which is readily solved with a numerical procedure. For example, a few

iterations of the Bisection Method (Kreyszig, 1988) shows

x =

C

2

λ T

≈ 4.965782 .

Substituting C

2

= 14, 390 µm· K (Incropera and Dewitt, 2002) and solving,

we ﬁnd

λ T ≈

C

2

4.965782

=

14390

4.965782

= 2897.833 ,

which conﬁrms Wien’s Law in Eq. (10.12).

C.2. Radiation Functions

In §10.2, various blackbody radiation properties were discussed. Here,

we give a summary of these properties in terms of the combined variable λT

in units of µm· K. Units of the column containing the radiation intensity

are (µm· K · sr)

−1

. This form, i.e. where temperature appears to the minus

ﬁfth power, is convenient for tabulation owing to the fact the wavelength

appears as the negative ﬁfth power in Planck’s Distribution, e.g. Eqs. (10.10)

and (10.11). See Dunkle (1954) and Siegel and Howell (2001) for more

comprehensive data.

References show some variations due to diﬀerences in which integration

is performed. For example, Incropera and Dewitt (2002, Table 12.1, pp. 716)

shows f

0→λ

= 0.701046 for λT = 5, 600, while Arpaci et al. (2000, Table 8.1,

pp. 411) indicates this value is f

0→λ

= 0.70102.

Table C.1. Blackbody radiation functions

λT I

λ,b

/

σT

5

f

0→λ

λT I

λ,b

/

σT

5

f

0→λ

200 3.7668e-28 0.0 5600 3.1624e-05 0.70102

400 4.9126e-14 0.0 5700 3.0396e-05 0.71077

500 2.1422e-11 0.0 5800 2.9217e-05 0.72013

600 1.0416e-09 0.0 5900 2.8086e-05 0.72914

700 1.4812e-08 0.0 6000 2.7000e-05 0.73779

800 9.9175e-08 0.000016 6100 2.5959e-05 0.74611

900 4.0592e-07 0.000087 6200 2.4961e-05 0.75411

1000 1.1855e-06 0.000321 6300 2.4005e-05 0.76181

continued on next page . . .

C.2. RADIATION FUNCTIONS 160

λT I

λ,b

/

σT

5

f

0→λ

λT I

λ,b

/

σT

5

f

0→λ

1100 2.7224e-06 0.000911 6400 2.3088e-05 0.76920

1200 5.2404e-06 0.00213 6500 2.2210e-05 0.77632

1300 8.8324e-06 0.00432 6600 2.1369e-05 0.78317

1400 1.3442e-05 0.00779 6700 2.0563e-05 0.78976

1500 1.8889e-05 0.01285 6800 1.9792e-05 0.79610

1600 2.4913e-05 0.01972 6900 1.9053e-05 0.80230

1700 3.1227e-05 0.02853 7000 1.8345e-05 0.80808

1800 3.7554e-05 0.03934 7100 1.7667e-05 0.81373

1900 4.3654e-05 0.05211 7200 1.7018e-05 0.81918

2000 4.9337e-05 0.06673 7300 1.6396e-05 0.82443

2100 5.4466e-05 0.08305 7400 1.5800e-05 0.82949

2200 5.8955e-05 0.10089 7500 1.5229e-05 0.83437

2300 6.2760e-05 0.12003 7600 1.4682e-05 0.83910

2400 6.5873e-05 0.14026 7800 1.3656e-05 0.84801

2500 6.8312e-05 0.16136 8000 1.2713e-05 0.85625

2600 7.0113e-05 0.18312 8500 1.0672e-05 0.87457

2700 7.1325e-05 0.20536 9000 9.0103e-06 0.88999

2800 7.2005e-05 0.22789 9500 7.6496e-06 0.90304

2898 7.2212e-05 0.25011 10000 6.5296e-06 0.91416

2900 7.2212e-05 0.25056 10500 5.6024e-06 0.92367

3000 7.2005e-05 0.27323 11000 4.8308e-06 0.93185

3100 7.1441e-05 0.29578 11500 4.1852e-06 0.93892

3200 7.0576e-05 0.31810 12000 3.6421e-06 0.94505

3300 6.9458e-05 0.34011 12500 3.1831e-06 0.95401

3400 6.8132e-05 0.36173 13000 2.7932e-06 0.95509

3500 6.6640e-05 0.38291 13500 2.4605e-06 0.95921

3600 6.5017e-05 0.40360 14000 2.1753e-06 0.96285

3700 6.3295e-05 0.42376 14500 1.9299e-06 0.96607

3800 6.1501e-05 0.44337 15000 1.7178e-06 0.96893

3900 5.9657e-05 0.46241 15500 1.5338e-06 0.97149

4000 5.7785e-05 0.48087 16000 1.3736e-06 0.97377

4100 5.5901e-05 0.49873 16500 1.2336e-06 0.97581

4200 5.4019e-05 0.51600 17000 1.1109e-06 0.97765

4300 5.2151e-05 0.53268 18000 9.0777e-07 0.98081

4400 5.0306e-05 0.54878 19000 7.4879e-07 0.98341

4500 4.8492e-05 0.56430 20000 6.2298e-07 0.98555

4600 4.6716e-05 0.57926 25000 2.7633e-07 0.99217

4700 4.4982e-05 0.59367 30000 1.4039e-07 0.99529

4800 4.3293e-05 0.60754 35000 7.8621e-08 0.99695

4900 4.1654e-05 0.62089 40000 4.7364e-08 0.99792

5000 4.0065e-05 0.63373 45000 3.0200e-08 0.99852

5100 3.8528e-05 0.64608 50000 2.0150e-08 0.99890

5200 3.7043e-05 0.65795 55000 1.3952e-08 0.99917

5300 3.5610e-05 0.66936 75000 4.1837e-09 0.99971

5400 3.4230e-05 0.68034 100000 1.3568e-09 0.99991

5500 3.2902e-05 0.69088 ∞ 0 1.0

APPENDIX D

Document History

Version Year Remarks

1.0 1999 initial plain T

E

X implementation

2.0 2003 L

A

T

E

X re–implementation using “amsbook”

class; implementation of ﬁgures, tables,

equation numbering, references, and index

2.1 2005 some minor corrections and additions; added

page references where appropriate for better

navigation

161

About the Author

Michael C. Wendl holds Bachelor’s and Master’s Degrees in Mechani-

cal Engineering and a Doctorate in Applied Science and Engineering from

Washington University. He is on the Faculties of Medicine (Genetics) and

Engineering (Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering) at Washington Uni-

versity. Dr. Wendl’s research activity primarily focuses on analytical work,

especially in pure and applied mathematics, incompressible ﬂow, conduc-

tion heat transfer, random DNA processing, and other areas of theoretical

biology. His main teaching goal is to prepare and train students to think

critically not only about science/engineering, but also broader issues that

arise in life, e.g. decision–making, evaluating claims objectively, and logical

problem solving.

162

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Index

Biot number, 40, 44

Bisection Method, 159

boundary conditions, 13

adiabatic, 14

Dirichlet, 14, 149

Neumann, 14

no–slip, 55, 69, 71, 78, 85

Robbins, 14

boundary layer approximation, 57, 91

boundary layer equations, 59, 92

Boussinesq approximation, 92

buoyancy, 90

Chain Rule of Calculus, 44, 49, 150

characteristic length scale, 41

Churchill–Chu correlation

horizontal cylinder, 98

vertical plate, 97

circuit analogy, 17–23, 143

conduction, 2

equation, 9–12

constant conductivity, 12

cylindrical coordinates, 21

one–dimensional, 13

steady, 13

one–dimensional, 16–17

circuit analogy, 17–23

continuum assumption, 4–6

control surface, 3

control volume, 3

convection, 2, 53–54

coeﬃcient, 14, 18, 27, 53, 62

heat exchanger, overall, 103

inﬁnite, 47

external, 66–67

internal, 77

natural, 90

Couette ﬂow, 85

diﬀerential equation

separable, 38

Dittus–Boelter correlation, 88

DNA, 23

Eckert number, 86

eigenvalues, 45, 152

emissive power, 120

ﬁns, 27–36

eﬀectiveness, 34

eﬃciency, 35

general equation, 29

Fourier number, 44, 149

Fourier’s Law, 7, 17, 22, 28, 37, 50, 55,

81

Gaussian Error Function, 50

gel electrophoresis, 23

Grashof number, 93

heat exchanger, 99–100

–NTU analysis, 110–115

coeﬃcient, 103

concentric tube, 99

correction factors, 109

fouling factor, 104

heat capacity rate, 111

LMTD analysis, 104–109

shell–and–tube, 99

thumbnail diagram, 100–102

heat generation, 11, 23–27

hydraulic diameter, 89

hyperbolic trig functions, 30

Ideal Gas Law, 6, 93

initial conditions, 13

irradiation, 121

Kirchhoﬀ’s Circuit Law, 145

L’Hospitals rule, 108

Laplacian operator, 13

170

INDEX 171

lumped capacitance analysis, 38, 149

M–16 riﬂe, 2, 22

Navier–Stokes Equations, 57, 85

Newton’s Law of Cooling, 18, 27, 29, 33,

38, 53, 81, 105

Newton’s Law of Viscosity, 55

Nusselt number, 40, 63

overall heat transfer coeﬃcient, 103

Peclet number, 74

Prandtl number, 60, 86

product solution, 50

radiation, 2, 116–117

blackbody, 122

Planck’s Distribution, 123

Stefan–Boltzmann Law, 124

Wien’s Displacement Law, 124

diﬀuse, 121

emissivity, 126

gray body, 132

intensity, 119

Kirchhoﬀ’s Law, 130

opaque body, 117, 128

re–radiating surface, 147

semi–transparent body, 117, 128

view factor, 134

reciprocity rule, 136

summation rule, 137

radiosity, 122

Rayleigh number, 96

resistors

in parallel, 19

in series, 19

Reynolds number, 56, 60, 78

Reynolds–Colburn analogy, 63

Sieder–Tate correlation, 88

similarity transform, 48, 67, 94

skin friction factor, 62, 64, 68, 73

solid angle, 117

stream function, 67, 95

Taylor series, 9, 28

temperature, 1

absolute and relative, 6

ﬁlm, 66

gradient, 7–8

thermal

conductivity, 7, 8

contact resistance, 19

diﬀusivity, 8, 37

resistance, 17, 103

thermal expansion coeﬃcient, 92

thumbnail diagram, 100–102

volumetric heat capacity, 8

Fundamentals of Heat Transfer Theory and Applications c 1999, 2003, 2005 by Michael C. Wendl Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or display this document under the terms of the Attribution–NoDerivs–NonCommercial License, Version 1.0 or any later version published by Creative Commons. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled “Creative Commons Public License”. For more information, contact Creative Commons, 559 Nathan Abbott Way, Stanford, California 94305, USA.

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Contents

Preface Chapter 1. Introduction 1.1. Physical Mechanisms 1.2. Concept of Conservation of Energy 1.3. The Continuum Assumption 1.4. Absolute Versus Relative Temperature Chapter 2. Elementary Heat Conduction 2.1. Fourier’s Law 2.2. Thermal Properties of Matter 2.3. The Conduction Equation 2.4. Boundary and Initial Conditions Chapter 3. One–Dimensional Steady Conduction 3.1. General Solution 3.2. Circuit Analogy 3.3. Cylindrical Conﬁgurations 3.4. Heat Generation 3.5. Fin Analysis 3.6. Fin Performance Metrics Chapter 4. Transient Conduction 4.1. Generalities 4.2. Lumped Capacitance Analysis 4.3. Applicability of Lumped Capacitance 4.4. Casting the General One–Dimensional Problem 4.5. Transient Analysis in One Dimension 4.6. The Similarity Technique 4.7. Multi–dimensional Transient Conduction Chapter 5. Introduction to Convection 5.1. Boundary Layer Introduction 5.2. Governing Equations 5.3. Dimensionless Parameters 5.4. Reynolds–Colburn Analogy Chapter 6. External Convection

iii

vi 1 2 3 4 6 7 7 8 9 13 15 16 17 21 23 27 34 37 37 37 39 42 45 48 50 53 54 57 60 63 66

Chapter 11. 6. The Thumbnail Diagram 9.4. Similarity Solution for the Vertical Plate 8. A. Empirical Correlations Chapter 9. A. Overall Heat Transfer Coeﬃcient 9. Laminar Flow Over A Flat Plate Karman–Pohlhausen Integral Solution Empirical Correlations 67 69 74 77 77 80 85 88 90 91 93 94 97 99 100 102 104 109 110 116 117 122 126 130 134 134 136 141 141 145 147 149 149 151 152 154 156 156 156 Chapter 7. –NTU Analysis Chapter 10.4.1. Heat Exchangers 9.6. Laminar Pipe Flow 7.2. The Case of Constant Heat Flux 7. Appendix B. Wall Bounded Convection on a Vertical Flat Surface 8. Volume Flow Rate B. 11.2. Laminar Forced Convection in a Pipe B.3.2. Correction Factors for Complex Conﬁgurations 9. Empirical Correlations Chapter 8.1. Natural Convection 8.1.4. Radiation Exchange The View Factor View Factor Algebra Blackbody Radiation Exchange Exchange Among Diﬀuse Gray Surfaces The Graybody Matrix Problem Additional conﬁgurations Transient Conduction Example: The Homogeneous Cooling Problem Separation of Variables Method Solution Procedure Determining Mode Coeﬃcients Example: The Unit Initial Condition Appendix A. Internal Convection 7. 11. 10.4.3.2.1.1.2.3. 6. A. The Couette Problem 7.1.2. 10. 11.3.3.3. 10.5.5. Introduction to Radiation Solid Angle and Radiative Quantities Blackbody Radiation Radiation Characteristics of Real Surfaces Kirchhoﬀ’s Law and Gray Surfaces 11.CONTENTS iv 6. Dimensionless Formulation 8.4. LMTD Analysis 9. A.4. 11. 10. 11. Integration of Mean Temperature Equation .1.1.2.2.3.

Blackbody Radiation C.1. Radiation Functions Appendix D.2. Document History 158 158 159 161 162 163 166 170 About the Author Creative Commons Public License Bibliography Index . Wien’s Displacement Law C.CONTENTS v Appendix C.

medical devices. but will largely be left for in–class discussion by the instructor. In large part. since this volume serves as a collection of notes rather than a complete text. especially calculus and its theorems (e. This merely represents a collection of concepts I consider to be the most valuable in a one–semester introductory course. consumer products. we will cite appropriate sources. Supplementary margin notes appear at appropriate places suggesting example problems from Incropera and Dewitt (I & D) that could be discussed in class. especially the concepts of conservation of mass and momentum. linear diﬀerential equations. The style of presentation leans toward the theoretical and mathematical side of the spectrum rather than the empirical side. will be described in terms of a few empiricisms.g. and the life sciences. Issues related to this branch of thermodynamics arise in such varying circumstances as aerospace. The material is therefore intended to amplify and augment that which appears in your primary course textbook. linear algebra. e. this allows us not to ask readers to take too much on faith. Phenomena which cannot be presented according to ﬁrst principles. and simple combinatorics. we shall prove everything from ﬁrst principles so that the student can derive a truly fundamental understanding of the material. biology. physics. geo–environmental applications. Problems and examples are minimal. For the most part. much of this material depends upon the understanding of a basic level of ﬂuid mechanics (for example as covered by an introductory course). Moreover. we follow Incropera and Dewitt (2002) in terms of the way material is arranged. There are many excellent texts that introduce this subject and I do not consider this assembly of notes to be any sort of replacement. turbulence. machinery. A suﬃcient familiarity with mathematics is presumed. etc. Where formal proofs are beyond the scope of what might be presented in an introductory format. and nano–technology. we work exclusively in the International System (SI). the Chain Rule). Wendl December 2003 vi . Michael C. chemical processes. Where units are necessary. Moreover. some aspects of convection.g.Preface Heat transfer is fundamentally important in almost all aspects of engineering. My experience is that instilling good mathematical habits early in an undergraduate career is of signiﬁcant beneﬁt. There is no mention of English units of measurement.

2003) • Solar power generation: design and optimize hardware for maximal eﬃciency in heating a working ﬂuid (Odeh et al. This is usually deferred to graduate courses in thermodynamics where it arises from considerations of energy and entropy.CHAPTER 1 Introduction Heat Transfer can be described as the process of energy transmission due to a gradient in temperature T . which is usually limited to equilibrium states. and Air Conditioning 1 .. a typical problem in thermodynamics might be to determine the ﬁnal equilibrium T when an annealed steel machine part is quenched in a vat of water. For example. is essentially an extension of an introductory course in thermodynamics. 2003) 1. 1998) • Biomechanics: analyze body temperature increases as a function of frictional heating by physical exertion (Bergmann et al.1. 2000) • HVAC1. Thus. such as heat ﬂux can be derived from it.2: size required systems for ultra–high–rise oﬃce towers and predict resulting temperature distribution in oﬃces and common spaces (Sinha et al. Ventilation. which is a measurable quantity 1. The extension of this problem in heat transfer might be to ﬁnd the rate of cooling of the steel (T as a function of time and location). which deals with non–equilibrium processes. The subject of heat transfer... but typical approach of understanding temperature merely as a quantity that indicates thermal energy. 1. Here. 2001) • Electronics: increase eﬀectiveness of laptop computer cooling systems in response to increasing CPU power dissipation (Pastukhov et al. determining the temperature distribution for a given problem is the desired solution since other quantities of interest. What are a few common examples and associated problems and/or analyses? • Automotive cooling system: implement a design such that powerplant and working ﬂuid temperatures remain in a speciﬁed operating range while increasing overall engine eﬃciency (Taymaz et al. which is required to predict the resulting hardness in various regions of the part.1Temperature is a surprisingly diﬃcult concept to deﬁne in terms of ﬁrst principles. we will take the simplistic...2Heating.

so that the temperature in the barrel is approximately constant (Fig. it is diﬃcult to ﬁnd a problem totally devoid of heat transfer considerations. PHYSICAL MECHANISMS 2 • Medicine: analyze eﬀectiveness of hyperthermia treatments for cancer (Alexander. Example: heating sensation felt by bare skin in the noon sun.1). • Radiation occurs by way of electromagnetic phenomena as described by Maxwell’s equations and does not necessarily depend upon a medium (energy transfer can occur across a vacuum). a problem often relies on all three modes. Heat from expanding gas tube barrel conduction radiation handguard heat shield convection Figure 1. gas tube. M–16 cross section showing barrel. such as lattice vibrations and electron movement. heat shield.1. For example consider the M–16 riﬂe in automatic ﬁre mode. In the “real world”. • Convection relies on bulk motion of the medium. and outer handguard. combustion gas in the bore and friction between the bullet and the bore is conducted through the barrel to its outer surface. and radiation. Example: cooling eﬀect realized by standing in front of a fan after sprinting the 400m. There is no bulk motion of the medium — it is strictly a diﬀusion process. Example: the heat felt when holding one end of a long copper bar in a open ﬁre.1. 1. convection.1. 1. • Conduction occurs through microscopic mechanisms. 2003) • Aerodynamics: design fuselage to limit eﬀects of aerodynamic heating (Lee et al. 2003) In summary. The barrel is cooled by . Physical Mechanisms There are basically 3 main modes of heat transfer that we’ll study: conduction..1.

3 (across) the CS. but it can also be ˙ ˙ mechanical work. Control volume and control surface schematic.1. 1. for example nuclear decay. In later sections. while E pp 17 1. the rate of energy increase in the control volume is equal to the rate at which it is generated internally 1. experimental. This energy can be of various types — usually we mean thermal energy. However. The barrel is further cooled by radiating energy to inner cooling surface inside the handguard. ˙ 1.2.4We have not said anything about describing these E quantities yet.2. the conservation laws for mass and momentum arise in certain situations. and computational procedures. as we shall see. (1.5 plus the rate at which it comes into the control volume minus the rate at which it leaves.2. Conservation of energy can be stated symbolically as dEstored ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ = Estored = Ein + Egen − Eout .1) dt where E represents energy and the dot notation connotes a rate process 1. The terms Ein and Eout describe phenomena occurring at ˙ gen is a volumetric term associated with the CV . For example. Thus. we invariably require theoretical.2). Analyses of such real–world problems are usually quite diﬃcult. CONCEPT OF CONSERVATION OF ENERGY 3 convected air as heat is absorbed. 1. 1.5 Energy can be generated by a variety of means. This heat is carried away as the air leaves through holes in the top of the handguard. the full governing equations are non–linear partial diﬀerential equations 1.3.3Recall that these same complexities were present in analyzing ﬂuid mechanics problems.4. we will also see that E gen CV E in CS E stored E out Figure 1. . Concept of Conservation of Energy The cornerstone of heat transfer is the law of conservation of energy. I&D Ex. geometry is complicated and. 1. One of the most common situations is electrical dissipation via current ﬂowing through a wire having non–zero electrical resistance. for this course we’ll look primarily at idealized “model” systems that can be solved in closed form. causing a change in density and subsequent air movement. In other words. which is described in terms of a speciﬁc volumetric space called the control volume (CV ) and a bounding surface called the control surface (CS) that encloses the CV (Fig.

or pressure drop that are of engineering interest. the continuum assumptions is usually taken for granted. t is taken to be vanishingly small. so that the control surface encloses no mass or volume. The Continuum Assumption We will be concerned with heat transfer in both solids and ﬂuids. (1. especially for gases. for example as a boundary condition at a solid–gas. it is the macroscopic properties such as density. temperature.3. we want to understand the overall (or macroscopic) behavior of the system as a whole. 1. The thickness of this interface ∆Estored = Ein + Egen − Eout .3) reduces to the statement that conduction heat transfer equals convection heat transfer at a surface. Rather. What we are doing from the mathematical perspective is taking averages over small elemental volumes. Conservation of energy at an interface. 1. These volumes must be large enough such that they contain enough molecules at any instant in time to yield a statistically signiﬁcant average. fluid energy convected away from surface energy conducted to surface t solid Figure 1. so that Eq. Dotted lines indicate control surfaces. That is. If these conditions are met. For liquids and solids.1. THE CONTINUUM ASSUMPTION 4 Note that the equation integrated over any time period ∆t must also hold true: (1. the properties will have deﬁnite point .2) There will be occasions where the conservation of energy principle will be required at a surface. Conﬁgurations will typically involve conduction on the solid side and convection on the liquid or gas side.3) Ein = Eout . Yet they must also be small enough so that the statistical average does not vary over the volume — it should be a constant. The storage and generation terms are therefore irrelevant and the conservation of mass equation reduces to ˙ ˙ (1. liquid–gas. In ﬂuid mechanics. If we were to look at a mass of ﬂuid at the microscopic level.3. Let us have a brief review of this concept. the so–called continuum assumption played an important role in how theory was constructed.3. what we would see are individual molecules interacting with each other. We are not actually interested in the behavior of individual molecules for our engineering applications. or solid–liquid interface (Fig.3).

where density is deﬁned simply as mass per unit volume. 1.3. causing a corresponding variation in mass δm. they will be continuous functions of space and time. this limit is very small compared to the scales we are interested in for engineering calculations1. the average ρ would not be expected to be equal to the density at point C. the volume is small enough such that the number of molecules contained at a given instant of time is not constant in the average sense.4(a).6. Luckily. 1. To illustrate this concept. we compute δm/δV .4. we mean that the volume approaches but does not reach 0. To determine the density at C. the number of molecules in a volume about the size of a grain of sand.4(b) starting from large values of δV . Large region has volume V and mass m. Rather.3 kP a) contains about 2. we are permitted mathematically to approximate δV → 0 relative to the size of our engineering length scales. the continuum assumption will be valid for our problems of interest. which in turn leads to an erratic value for density δm/δV . which is large enough to ensure that the average mass would be constant. the average density within its volume V would simply be ρ = m/V . Therefore. The question governing the continuum assumption is how small or large is δV ? Let us plot δm/δV as a function of δV as in Fig. located at coordinates (x0 . Since this is an average. about 10−12 cubic meters. (a) Deﬁning density as a point function according to the continuum assumption. Therefore. Therefore. There is clearly a lower limit for δV which restricts the continuum assumption. (b) Value of density according to size of δV .5 × 1025 molecules.5×1013 . would be 2. This is the so–called continuum assumption. . For the larger region. y0 . z0 ). we would expect ρ to vary within V since V is large. consider the density ρ of a ﬂuid. y . a cubic meter of air at standard temperature and pressure (15 C. In other words. 1. Panton (1984) contains a more detailed discussion. Speciﬁcally. 101. We desire to ﬁnd the density at a point C y C (x . while the point region C has volume δV and mass δm. A region of ﬂuid is shown in Fig. The average density tends to approach an asymptotic value as the volume is lowered to the point such as to enclose only homogeneous ﬂuid in the immediate neighborhood of point C.oz ) o o the continuum assumption δm δV δV (b) ρ defined here x z (a) Figure 1. Below this point. By this. the number varies erratically. THE CONTINUUM ASSUMPTION 5 values.6For example.1.

15) − (Tc. for example the Ideal Gas Law given by P = ρRT . Thus. ρ = ρ(x.1. 1.8For example. other problems. It is important to remember Table 1.1 = (Tc.15) = Tc. we will see the same requirement for radiation problems.4) Tkelvin = Tcelsius + 273. If ρ were computed simultaneously for all δV in the ﬂuid. we can express an absolute temperature diﬀerence ∆T as ∆T = Tk.8. z0 ) location of point C is arbitrary. and R is the ideal gas constant. Absolute Versus Relative Temperature We will strictly use the International System (SI). where P is pressure.2 − Tc. The unit of kelvin (K) refers to the absolute scale. t).4. depend only on temperature diﬀerences.15 . 1.1.7 (o C) is a relative quantity. we could formulate an expression as a function of the location and time of the measurements. the continuum assumption leads naturally to functional deﬁnitions for the properties of interest. or in a relative sense. that is. Some common SI units Quantity length mass time temperature Unit meter (m) kilogram (kg) second (s) kelvin (K) that temperature can be interpreted in an absolute sense. relative to absolute zero.2 − Tk. for which it is easy to verify that both relative or absolute units are appropriate1. where the absolute temperature raised to the fourth power becomes important. Similarly. Their relationship is given by (1. y0 .4.7This is also referred to as centigrade in some countries.2 + 273.1 . i.e. . with the most common quantities and units being given in Table 1.1 + 273. ρ at any point in the region could likewise be determined.1. which is clearly equivalent to the corresponding relative temperature diﬀerence. ρ is ﬂuid density. Some problems are intrinsically formulated upon the premise of absolute temperature. ABSOLUTE VERSUS RELATIVE TEMPERATURE 6 Since the (x0 . 1. Using relative temperature is incorrect for these problems! Conversely. for example in convection. while celsius1. y. z.

Fourier’s Law In chapter 1. The general three–dimensional form written in vector notation is (2. Thus.2) looks rather strange. The fundamental governing law is Fourier’s Law of Heat Conduction. energy ﬂows from a high temperature region to one of lower temperature. we stated that heat conduction is a diﬀusion process that occurs via molecular mechanisms. dx x2 − x 1 which is clearly a negative quantity. 7 2.2) q = −k T = −k ˆ ˆ ∂T + ˆ ∂T + k ∂T j i ∂x ∂y ∂z . For example.CHAPTER 2 Elementary Heat Conduction Here we will introduce the basic concepts of conduction heat transfer. but T2 − T1 is negative. That is. dx where q is heat ﬂux. additional terms result in much more complicated relationships.1 energy ﬂows in the positive x direction. In fact. 2. where the constant of proportionality is the viscosity. It holds for all the physical conﬁgurations we shall study here. shear stress and rate of strain are linearly related. 2. but additional terms are required for more complicated materials.1) and (2. for example some animal tissues 2. Heat energy is conducted along a temperature gradient. T2 − T1 must be negative. and dT /dx is temperature gradient along an independent coordinate x. (2. since x 2 − x1 is positive.1. in Fig. temperature is a function of position. and is written in the 1–D case as T (x). Although the negative sign in Eqs. therefore q must be a positive quantity. Recall that for a Newtonian ﬂuid.2. For Non–Newtonian ﬂuids.1) is a phenomenological law derived from numerous experimental observations rather than ﬁrst principles.1 dT (2. whereas lack thereof indicates the quantity has been integrated over an area.1 .1) q = −k . In one dimension this is 2. (2. it is required for consistency of the physics. otherwise the resulting gradient We follow the notation of Incropera and Dewitt (2002) where double–prime indicates a ﬂux. 2. Eq. Heat ﬂux is clearly a directional quantity. The temperature gradient is T2 − T 1 dT = . k is thermal conductivity.2This situation is quite analogous to Newtonian versus Non–Newtonian ﬂuids.

or mobile electrons.3At the atomic levels. Heat is conducted along a negative gradient from high temperature toward low temperature. Other properties will arise Table 2.2.1. and the thermal diﬀusivity. including many of those associated with ﬂuid mechanics problems and surface properties for radiation. Unites for these quantities are list in Table 2. the leading negative sign is clearly required for consistency. Thermal properties Property thermal conductivity volumetric heat capacity thermal diﬀusivity Notation k ρ cp α = k/(ρ cp ) Units W/(m K) J/(m3 K) m2 /s as well. As mentioned.1. 2. we would suspect that solids would generally have the highest conductivities. 2. . THERMAL PROPERTIES OF MATTER 8 T1 T T2 x x 1 x2 heat flow Figure 2. and ﬁnally gases. In this sense. especially for metals. Since k is deﬁned as positive. α. the temperature gradient is very similar to the pressure gradient in pipe ﬂow: movement proceeds along a negative gradient. would not allow energy to ﬂow as shown. the desire for heat transfer problems is to determine the temperature distribution for a given problem. This is in fact the case and is largely due to diﬀerences in the molecular spacings (Fig. followed by liquids.2.2). shown in the positive direction here. These will be introduced as needed. Thermal Properties of Matter We mentioned the thermal conductivity k as a material parameter in Fourier’s Law.2. Recalling that the physical basis for conductivity is at the molecular and atomic levels2. ρc p .1. this is primarily associated with the concept of free. The subject of materials 2. Two other quantities are important to the problems we wish to study: the volumetric heat capacity.3.

We deﬁne an inﬁnitely small control volume 2. Actual values are available in many references (e. Instead. THE CONDUCTION EQUATION 9 pure metals alloys non−metallic solids liquids gases 0. but not too small. which are exceedingly small.1 1 10 100 1000 thermal conductivity (W / m K) Figure 2.4The integral approach is not typically as important in heat transfer as in ﬂuid mechanics. so that T = T (x. but will be introduced later for certain conﬁgurations.3. y. The Conduction Equation It was mentioned in the opening sentences of Chapter 1 that the goal of heat transfer is to determine the temperature distribution.g. it typically presents a more challenging mathematical situation than the integral approach 2.2.g. Approximate ranges of thermal conductivity for various classiﬁcations of matter. We extend the conceptual treatment using the classic diﬀerential approach. the material is either a solid.3). Any properties depending upon a ﬂux can be extrapolated to the boundaries using truncated 1–term Taylor series 2.6. we must base our theoretical framework on the conservation law for energy. small enough. This is characteristic of diﬀerential formulations: the conservation law must be satisﬁed simultaneously for all (x.2. .01 0. y. however. A term more suitable is then perhaps “diﬀerential”. (δx)2 . e.6Terms of second–order and higher can all be neglected since they involve products of the diﬀerential quantities. science deals much more comprehensively with such issues. or a non–moving ﬂuid.4. the concept of “inﬁnitely small” remains restricted to the continuum assumption introduced in Chapter 1. Appendix A).5Once again. this will depend on all three spatial dimensions and on time. In this sense. According to the concept of conduction. which was introduced only at a conceptual level in Chapter 1. the diﬀerential formulation is exact. z. 2.1). which connotes. We introduced Fourier’s Law in Eq. The resulting equation will be valid for every diﬀerential point in a problem domain. t). 2. z. 2002. 2.3. Incropera and Dewitt. In the general case.5 with a properties of interest deﬁned in the center. Deﬁne the diﬀerential element according to the volume δx × δy × δz (Fig. (2. We formulate all quantities at a given instant 2. but this alone does not provide a foundation for calculating T . t). 2.

we ﬁnd (2.2. Egen and Est .8) Energy generation is simply (2.3.3. represented as volumetric entities in the element.5) (2.3) (2. THE CONDUCTION EQUATION 10 y qt q f . Figure 2.9) ˙ Egen = q δx δy δz .4) (2. E st . E gen q x n q z δx b δz Diﬀerential volume showing energy generation ˙ ˙ Egen and energy storage Est terms in the center and heat ﬂuxes at the boundaries.6) (2. ˙ ˙ of time: the energy generation and storage terms. Expressing these terms as 1–term Taylor series expansions with respect to their associated values deﬁned in the center.7) (2. and all heat conduction terms at the boundaries. ˙ q l = qx − q r = qx + q b = qy − q t = qy + q f = qz − q n = qz + ∂qx δx ∂x 2 ∂qx δx ∂x 2 ∂qy δy ∂y 2 ∂qy δy ∂y 2 ∂qz δz ∂z 2 ∂qz δz ∂z 2 . q l δy q r q.

13) to obtain (2. δx ∂T δx δy ∂z 2. or would be measurable ˙ for a problem.16) qx = −k qy = −k qz = −k ∂T δy δz ∂x ∂T δx δz ∂y ∂T δx δy ∂z which can be substituted into Eq.8We assume that heat generation q would be prescribed. THE CONDUCTION EQUATION 11 where q is the per unit volume rate of generation 2.2. (2. (2.13) represents the limit in terms of what can be derived strictly from theory.17) ρ cp + ∂ ∂y ∂T δx δy δz = q δx δy δz − ˙ ∂t −k ∂T δx δz ∂y δy + ∂ ∂z ∂ ∂x −k −k ∂T δy δz ∂x δz .1) on pp. (2. .14) (2.3. (2. 3.12) ρ cp ∂t ∂y 2 ∂z 2 ∂qx δx ∂qz δz ∂qx δx ∂qy δy − qz + − qx + − qy + .10) Est = ρ cp δx δy δz . (1. we can express the heat terms as (2.7. We then cancel and combine terms appropriately to get + qx − (2. we have additional relationships between T and q in the form of Fourier’s Law! In light of Eq.11) ρ cp ∂t which becomes ∂qy δy ∂qz δz ∂T + qz − δx δy δz = q δx δy δz + qy − ˙ (2. the rate of ˙ change of thermal energy stored in the element can be expressed as ∂T ˙ (2. Finally. which can be easily confused with heat conduction q and heat ﬂux q . However. where the rate of energy entering the element is ˙ ˙ Ein = qb + qf + ql and the rate of energy leaving is Eout = qn + qr + qt .3) through (2. This operation yields ∂T δx δy δz = q δx δy δz + qb + qf + ql − (qn + qr + qt ) . 2.8.6) for the heat conduction terms. ∂t These terms can be used directly in the conceptual conservation law in Eq. ∂x 2 ∂z 2 ∂x 2 ∂y 2 after substituting Eqs. It cannot be solved.2).13) ρ cp ∂T δx δy δz = q δx δy δz − ˙ ∂t ∂qx ∂qy ∂qz δx + δy + δz ∂x ∂y ∂z .15) (2. because T and q are both unknowns 2.7This is the unfortunate notation used in Incropera and Dewitt (2002). ˙ (2. Eq.

We have explicitly derived this equation in the Cartesian (rectangular) coordinate system. However.9Actually. this is a linear partial diﬀerential equation. the assumption of linearity of the overall equation also depends on the heat generation term q as being itself linear. We shall not discuss such complicated cases here. if we multiply ∂/∂x (k ∂T /∂x) in Eq. In mathematical terms. You should have a conceptual understanding of what the terms in this equation mean physically. leaving (2. Thus. Mathematically. this is more straightforward to work with than Eq. Eq. (2. for example 2. which will be suﬃcient for many of the problems we will study. as the theoretical treatment is quite diﬃcult. Most reference texts address these cases (e. these problems are amenable to theoretical treatments. (2. in some instances we will require the cylindrical and spherical forms of the conduction equation.20) 1 ∂T ∂2T ∂2T q ˙ ∂2T + + . Thus.18).11). it can be moved outside of the derivatives. so that (2.3.9. as a power of T . We can solve this in principle because there is one equation and exactly one unknown. Incropera and Dewitt.18) speciﬁes that the net rate of conduction into the control volume plus the rate of generation is equal to the rate of change of energy stored at any point in the domain.18) expresses conservation of energy in terms of the single dependent variable of temperature T . we see (2.18) ρ cp ∂T ∂ = q + ˙ ∂t ∂x k ∂T ∂x + ∂ ∂y k ∂T ∂y + ∂ ∂z k ∂T ∂z as the general three–dimensional time–dependent form of the heat conduction equation.g. For example. Similar interpretations hold for the corresponding terms in the y and z directions.g. (2. e. (2. if q depended upon T in some ˙ ˙ non–linear fashion. = + α ∂t k ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂z 2 where q is again the energy generation rate per unit volume (W/m 3 ) and α ˙ is the thermal diﬀusivity. THE CONDUCTION EQUATION 12 All volume terms δx×δy ×δz cancel and all double–negatives cancel. since T does not appear in the form of any products of itself. (2. However. . Further simpliﬁcations are possible. if k is a constant.18).19) ∂ ∂x k ∂T ∂x dx = ql − qr is essentially the net heat ﬂux into the control volume in the x direction. Notice that we have not made any assumptions regarding the conductivity k in Eq. (2.18) by dx and compare to terms in Eq. or its derivatives 2. 2002). Non–linear systems (which do exist in many problems) typically require advanced theory and/or computational treatment.2. then the equation would no longer be linear. However. Eq.

4. However. That is. Boundary and Initial Conditions The various forms of the conduction equation we have just discussed govern the physics of how heat is conducted in the interior of some pre– deﬁned domain. Almost always. t) |t=0 = T (x. where x is one. 2. We must also have some speciﬁcation of temperature (or its derivatives) on the boundaries of the domain — these are called boundary conditions.23) 2 = 0 using the Laplacian operator ∂2 ∂2 ∂2 + + . if the problem is also unsteady. BOUNDARY AND INITIAL CONDITIONS 13 if conduction is also steady (stationary). if energy generation is absent. or three spatial coordinates.25) T (x.e. (2. can take a number of forms. the latter takes the form of prescribing T itself at some instant of time. t) |x=0 = Ts . there is only one initial condition needed for any unsteady problem because the temporal term appears as a ﬁrst derivative. Moreover. depending upon the problem. depending upon the physics of the problem. two. T = T (x). Eq.20) reduces to (2. we obtain (2. ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂z 2 2T Moreover.24) d2 T = 0. on the other hand. ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂z 2 = Finally. For example we could write (2. dx2 where the regular derivative d has replaced the partial derivative ∂ since temperature is a now a function of only a single variable. we must also know the initial condition for the problem. Boundary conditions.21) ∂2T ∂2T ∂2T q ˙ + + + = 0. we must have the value of T (or its derivative) at some speciﬁc time. where a speciﬁc value of T is speciﬁed at a coordinate location. and T0 is a function of T that gives the temperature distribution throughout the domain at the particular instant of time.26) T (x. if temperature varies only in one coordinate direction. . 0) = T0 (x) .4. usually by convention at t = 0. which can be written in a few diﬀerent ways (2. there are two required boundary conditions for each spatial coordinate in the problem since these terms are in the form of second derivatives. Conversely. this still does not completely deﬁne the problem. we obtain (2. As you may remember from diﬀerential equations. k ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂z 2 ∂2T ∂2T ∂2T + + = 0. The most obvious case is similar to the initial condition.2. i.22) which can also be written (2.

∂x x=0 where T∞ is a temperature characterizing the ﬂuid which convects heat away and h is a convection coeﬃcient which we discuss at length in later chapters2.1). For example. we will see that convection heat transfer is largely the study of determining h. Fourier’s Law in Eq. whereas we had not yet introduced this concept in Eq.10.11. (2.27) −k ∂x x=0 In other words. specify a balance between energy conduction at the boundary and the rate at which this energy is convected away. (1. the heat ﬂux qs at the x = 0 boundary is related to the temperature gradient ∂T /∂x at x = 0 as prescribed by this equation 2.2. 2. we will assume that h is known for problems involving Eq. (2. x=0 Boundary conditions of the third type. For instance.29) −k = h (T∞ − T |x=0 ) . ∂T = qs .28) ∂T ∂x = 0.10Note that we have replaced the regular derivative d with the partial derivative ∂ to indicate that the temperature may be multi–dimensional. A boundary condition of the second kind. e.3) on pp. This case was described conceptually in Fig. (2.29). (2. Eq. 1. if the boundary is in contact with a medium undergoing a phase change. Later. The form is something of a combination of the ﬁrst two types of boundary condition in that it contains both temperature itself and its derivative ∂T (2.1) on pp. 7 is a ready–made Neumann boundary condition when applied at a physical boundary. (2. the constant temperature boundary condition is a good model. or a Dirichlet boundary condition. and is common to heat transfer problems. or Neumann boundary condition. The special case of the adiabatic (perfectly insulated) boundary is given by (2. 2.26) is commonly known as a boundary condition of the ﬁrst kind. 4 in Chapter 1. involves the derivative of T .4. also called Robbins boundary conditions. BOUNDARY AND INITIAL CONDITIONS 14 where Ts is the temperature at the surface coinciding with the coordinate location x = 0.11For the moment. .3 and Eq.g.

13 governs this situation. and where the problem is steady. ∂x2 ∂y 2 However. Figure 3. that Eq. 15 . T |x=0 = T |y=0 = 0 and T |x=x1 = T |y=y1 = T1 . consider the two–dimensional domain shown in Fig.e.1.1 and assume that the temperature on the boundaries is given by the equations y y1 (0. (2. such a problem could be satisfactorily approximated as one–dimensional. but is also a good engineering approximation for cases where there is dominance in one dimension. (2. According to discussions in Chapter 2. say the x direction. T1 − 0 ∂T ≈ ∂x x1 − 0 and ∂T T1 − 0 ≈ . dx2 This equation is useful for conceptual understanding of conduction. 3.24) on pp. ∂y y1 − 0 it is clear that gradients in the x direction will be small compared to those in the y direction. particularly Eq.CHAPTER 3 One–Dimensional Steady Conduction Here.e. Recall.1) d2 T = 0. i. we will examine problems where conduction occurs along only one primary dimension. Thus. we could deduce that this problem is governed formally by the conduction equation (3. (3.22) on pp. i. if we look at the relative sizes of temperature gradients using a simple ﬁnite–diﬀerence approximation. 13. 0) x1 x Two–dimensional domain with one dimension much longer than the other.2) ∂2T ∂2T + = 0. x1 y1 . For example.

Eq.05 x 310 K Figure 3.3. (3. a hot–side steam temperature of Th = 400K. r = 2. the boundary conditions are T (0) = T h and T (b) = Tc . Assuming a b = 0.4) is linear.1) once gives (3. regardless of their boundary conditions. Using the general solution in Eq.4) where C1 and C2 are constants to be determined using the boundary conditions. determine the heat transfer through one of the heads.1.4). (3.05m plate thickness.3) shows that the temperature gradient in the domain is a constant.1: The heads of the Titanic’s 29 coal–ﬁred steam boilers can be modeled as simple circular plates having a radius of r = 2. Frontal and planar view of Titanic steam boiler Gradients in the radial direction will be small compared to gradients through the head since the dimensions diﬀer by about a factor of ﬁfty. Example 3. and a stoker room temperature of T c = 310K.1. we can treat this problem one–dimensionally. therefore. Thus. according to Fourier’s Law. Speciﬁcally. GENERAL SOLUTION 16 3.4 400 K b = 0.4m. (3. a thermal conductivity of k = 60W/mK. An interesting physical observation can be gleaned for all one– dimensional problems. (3. the heat ﬂux is constant throughout the domain. the temperature distribution is a line whose endpoints are the boundary temperatures and.3) dT = C1 dx T = C 1 x + C2 . According to the ﬁgure. Integrating Eq. head. we can solve for the constants as C 2 = Th and .2. General Solution The diﬀerential equation for the steady one–dimensional heat conduction problem is trivial to solve by direct integration. and integrating once again yields (3. so that the temperature variation given by Eq.

7) is the thermal resistance of conduction. kA (3.6) q = −k A = −k A = kA = ∆T .cond = .05 Thus. for which we can use the slightly more descriptive notation L (3.7) ∆T = q . From Fourier’s Law. ♦♦♦ q = −k A 3. R t in Eq. CIRCUIT ANALOGY 17 C1 = (Tc − Th )/b.42 = 1. current I ﬂows along gradients in voltage ∆V = V 2 −V1 through a resistance R (Fig. A little algebra shows the equivalent relationship L = q Rt . (3.2. Circuit Analogy The linear nature of the solution in Eq. equation (3. (3.5) where ∆T is analogous to voltage (driving potential). kA whose form is identical to Eq. More speciﬁcally.8) Rt.4) suggests an analogy between heat conduction and electrical conduction. Recall that in a linear circuit. This gives a temperature distribution of T (x) = Tc − T h x + Th .5) ∆V = I R Looking more closely at Eqs. we see that the linear drop in temperature gradient coupled with Fourier’s Law allows us to write the conduction heat transfer in the exact form as dT T2 − T 1 T1 − T 2 kA (3.2.95 M W . the heat transfer is almost 2 million Watts. (3.4). dx L L L where the generic problem is deﬁned according to boundary conditions T (0) = T1 and T (L) = T2 . Linear circuit showing current ﬂowing through a resistor along a voltage gradient.3. (3.3. q is analogous to current (what “ﬂows” in the circuit). These entities are related through the simple linear circuit R V1 I V2 Figure 3. and Rt is a thermal resistance. we obtain 310 − 400 dT = −kπr 2 C1 = −60 · π · 2. 3. b The total heat transfer is simply the heat ﬂux times the area of the boiler plate. dx 0.3) and (3.3).

3 L4 4 T2 T1 R3 T2 R1 R4 One–dimensional problem in a composite domain along with corresponding thermal circuit model. Speciﬁcally. This equation is a form of Newton’s Law of Cooling (3. 14. (3.1). but cannot conveniently be treated using Eq. (2. Are such analogs useful for practical problem solving? To answer this question. So the problem is one–dimensional. But how can we treat the latter situation.4? Here. Figure 3. CIRCUIT ANALOGY 18 In Eq. The former case is easily analyzed by solving Eq. refer back to the idea at the beginning of this chapter where we discussed the pure one–dimensional problem versus the multi–dimensional problem for which the size of the terms allowed us to use a one–dimensional approximation. (3.9) which shows that this form of convection is also linear.conv . boundaries are insulated.4.conv = 1 hA ∆T = q Rt. (3.29) on pp. for example with respect to a problem having composite layers all of diﬀerent thermal conductivities as shown in Fig.2.10) T |x=0 − T∞ = q hA Or.1) and applying boundary conditions. the top and bottom y R2 2 T1 1 3 x L1 L 2. Again. and temperature variation is only important in the x direction. we introduced the idea of convection heat transfer as quantiﬁed by a convection coeﬃcient h.11) where (3. we need only reduce the analogous circuit diagram to the simplest possible arrangement using the standard rules of circuit analysis: . q = h A ( T |x=0 − T∞ ) . 3.3.12) Rt. However. it readily yields to the circuit analogy. some simple algebra allows us to arrange this equation as 1 . put more directly (3. is the thermal resistance for convection.

3.2. CIRCUIT ANALOGY

19

• Resistors in series have additive resistance, e.g. for N resistors in series Rt,total = Rt,1 + Rt,1 + · · · + Rt,N • Resistors in parallel are governed by the reciprocal relationship, e.g. for N resistors in parallel 1 1 1 1 = + + ··· + Rt,total Rt,1 Rt,1 Rt,N These resistances are of the appropriate variety: conductive as given by Eq. (3.8) or convective, as in Eq. (3.12). Nodes function exactly as in circuit analysis as well. For example, the temperature at the interface between two layers can be computed from the corresponding nodal value in the circuit diagram. Thus, the entire conduction problem can be solved using the standard tools from circuit analysis. Moreover, the circuit model allows us to neatly account for other factors, such as the large drop in temperature across the interface of between two materials. Microscopically, an interface contains small gas–ﬁlled voids that may present a signiﬁcant thermal “contact resistance” Rt,c , which we would expect to be able to determine based on the two materials (Incropera and Dewitt, 2002). Lets look at an example that combines all of these phenomena. Example 3.2: A manufacturer of pre–fabricated components for high–rise buildings is determining the thermal rating of a new panel design. The system consists of a header made up of an exterior cladding material having thermal conductivity kc , and an inner insulator of conductivity k i , window glass with conductivity kg , and a footer of the same construction as the header. It can be assumed that heat transfer occurs one–dimensionally through the panel. What would the thermal circuit for this system be assuming that there is a thermal contact resistance of Rc between the cladding and insulator components? The panel height and width are w × L and the header, pane, and footer each have a height of w/3. The total thickness is t, half of which is cladding and half of which is insulating material. The following factors must be accounted for • convection boundary condition that relates the temperature of the outside air T∞ to the temperature of the panel’s outer surface T s,o through a known convection coeﬃcient h — based on a total surface area of wL, Eq. (3.12) indicates this resistance would be 1 Rconv = wLh • heat transfer through the header and footer, which is resisted by the cladding, the insulator, and the contact resistance between them, which we assume is known to be Rc — these three resistances are

3.2. CIRCUIT ANALOGY

20

w/3 cladding w/3 insulation glass w/3

L heat transfer

t/2 t/2

Figure 3.5. Pre–fabricated window panel for a high–rise building.

in series, so they are additive, with the conductive resistances for cladding and insulators given by Eq. (3.8). The total for each of the header and footer is Rh,f = t/2 kc L w/3 + Rc +

cladding

t/2 ki L w/3

insulation

• heat transfer through the glass pane, whose resistor is also given by Eq. (3.8) as Rg = t kg L w/3

cladding

where we note the the full thickness t appears in the numerator since the glass is twice as thick as the cladding and insulation. • convection boundary condition that relates the temperature of the inside oﬃce environment Tof f ice to the temperature of the panel’s inner surface Ts,i through a known convection coeﬃcient h — since the area and the coeﬃcient are the same as for the external side, this resistor is given by Rconv above We can assemble these into the circuit diagram shown in Fig. 3.6, where the nodes give the appropriate temperatures. This can easily be reduced to a single circuit via the rules for resistors in parallel and in series. ♦♦♦

3.3. CYLINDRICAL CONFIGURATIONS

21

R h,f

T oo Ts,o R conv

Rg T s,i R conv R h,f

T office

Figure 3.6. Circuit model for pre–fabricated window panel. 3.3. Cylindrical Conﬁgurations As with the Cartesian system, the circuit analogy is applicable to other coordinate systems if a one–dimensional model of conduction is justiﬁed. If we were to go through the same derivation of the conduction equation in cylindrical coordinates (r, θ, z) as shown back in Chapter 2, we would ﬁnd (3.13) ρ cp 1 ∂ ∂T = q + ˙ ∂t r ∂r kr ∂T ∂r + 1 ∂ r 2 ∂θ k ∂T ∂θ + ∂ ∂z k ∂T ∂z

(see e.g. Incropera and Dewitt, 2002, for derivation). If we assume one– dimensional steady conductivity in the radial direction, a constant thermal conductivity k, and no heat generation, Eq. (3.13) simpliﬁes to k d dT r r dr dr When integrated twice, this yields (3.14) (3.15) = 0.

T (r) = C1 ln r + C2 ,

where C1 and C2 are constants to be determined using the boundary conditions. Assume we have an annular section where T = T h at r = rh (an inner “hot” side) and T = Tc at r = rc (an outer “cool” side) where rc > rh > 0. Substituting, we get Th = C1 ln rh + C2 and Tc = C1 ln rc + C2 . Therefore, Th − Tc = C1 (ln rh − ln rc ) = C1 ln(rh /rc ), which can be solved for the constant as Th − T c . (3.16) C1 = ln (rh /rc ) Backsubstituting, the value of the other constant is found to be Th − T c (3.17) C 2 = Tc − ln rc , ln (rh /rc ) so that the resulting temperature distribution is (Th − Tc ) ln (r/rc ) + Tc . (3.18) T (r) = ln (rh /rc )

8. this can be simpliﬁed to 2 π L k (Th − Tc ) . we have assumed rc > rh > 0 thus far. (3. We assume that the plating is “perfect”. 2πLk Recall. respectively. = −k × (2 π r L) × dr ln (rh /rc ) r rc where L is the length along the z coordinate direction of the domain. we ﬁnd . however. Let’s go back for a minute to the M–16 cooling problem.7). Chrome–plated GI M–16 barrel.3. How can this system be represented by a thermal circuit? We simply construct a series circuit representing the thermal resistance of the chrome plating.21) . 3.e. this adds another “layer” of thermal resistance (Fig. the barrel itself. (3. i.19) q = −k A . 3. be the radius of the bore. there are no interstitial voids. Also let’s assume that conditions in the bore are such that the bore temperature equals the temperature at the inner surface of the barrel. Applying the circuit analogy.3. rc the radius of the chrome plating. so there is no thermal contact resistance. and the convection occurring at the outer surface of the barrel. and r o be the outer radius of the barrel. With a little algebra.21) in a slightly more generic form as ln (ro /ri ) (3. Let r i ri ro rc Ti To convection T oo Figure 3.20) q = ln (rc /rh ) where we have absorbed the negative sign according to ln (r c /rh ) = − ln (rh /rc ).7. so we could write Eq. as depicted in Fig.22) Rt = .7) that the thermal resistance R t = ∆T /q. (3. we see that the thermal circuit representation for conduction in a cylindrical domain is ln (rc /rh ) Rt = (3. 2πLk where subscripts “o” and “i” denote the outer and inner boundaries. Recalling from Eq. The bores of GI barrels are chrome–plated for increased wear and anti–fouling properties. CYLINDRICAL CONFIGURATIONS 22 Application of the Fourier Law yields dT Th − T c rc 1 (3.

2001). which yields (3.9). we conclude that chrome–plating the barrel does not measurably aﬀect the heat transfer situation. used to generate the raw data of the Human Genome Project (Lander et al. (3. separates fragments by size by exploiting the diﬀerence in net charge (Fig. 3.23) where (3. This technique. Again.25) (3. we obtain (3. 2 π ro L h Here.21) for one– dimensional conduction in a Cartesian domain. L is the length of the barrel and h is the convection coeﬃcient at its outer surface.26) Rplating = Rbarrel = ln (rc /ri ) . . Circuit for M–16 barrel problem. conversion of electrical energy to heat energy through the action of Ohmic resistance. therefore. Rconvection = 3. The natural log of this is close to zero.8. Rplating + Rbarrel + Rconvection 1 . Heat Generation We now want to look at the important case of heat generation occurring in the medium itself. e. 2 π L kchrome ln (ro /rc ) . Let us consider an application of Eq. We notice that for this problem..4.28) to the problem of DNA fragment separation using Polyacrylimide Gel Electrophoresis 3. 2 π L kbarrel q = Ti − T ∞ . therefore rc /ri is just slightly more than unity . dx2 k where for example q = I 2 Relec per unit volume for the electric problem. ˙ This equation is straightforward to solve by direct integration.1. we must use the boundary conditions to evaluate the constants of integration.3. Simplifying Eq. The axial voltage diﬀerence leads to heat generation within 3. (3. (2.28) T (x) = − I&D Ex.24) (3.27) ˙ q d2 T + = 0.1Fred Sanger won the 1980 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for inventing the sequencing reaction that supplies the input for this process.4. 3. the thickness of plating is very thin.4 pp 107 qx2 ˙ + C1 x + C 2 2k as the general solution. HEAT GENERATION 23 Ti R plating R barrel To T oo R convection Figure 3.g.

k I&D Ex.30) describes the inﬂuences that design parameters have on the process.9. This is a parabolic proﬁle with a maximum at x = 0 (the center of the gel) of (3.5 q L2 /k + Ts . the gel. Let the gel thickness be 2L and the ohmic dissipation per unit volume be q = I 2 Rgel . ˙ so that the exact solution is (3. • the surface temperature of the gel T s results from the surrounding temperature in the laboratory environment. Solutions are developed in a similar fashion for the cylindrical coordinate system. If there is a suﬃcient temperature rise.29) T (x) = qL2 ˙ 2k 1− x2 L2 + Ts . 3. 2k Eq.30) Tmax = qL2 ˙ + Ts . Also. L is a strong variable. let the temperature at both surface of the gel ˙ be Ts . Polyacrylimide Gel Electrophoresis.3. DNA will de–nature in the gel.6 pp 117 . for example halving it reduces the temperature rise by a factor of four. The governing equation is (3. which we assume is not a systematically controlled variable • heat generation q results from the voltage gradient and is therefore ˙ a function of the experimental requirements — this is maximized to the greatest degree possible to achieve reasonable results • the gel conductivity k is essentially a ﬁxed parameter • the gel thickness 2L can be directly controlled — gels are therefore made as thin as possible Since it appears as a square. which is a signiﬁcant design consideration in sequencing lab instrumentation. HEAT GENERATION 24 x high voltage x=+L lower voltage Ts Ts migration of DNA fragments x=−L Figure 3. We can solve for the constants as C1 = 0 and C2 = 0.4.31) 1 d r dr r dT dr + q ˙ = 0. (3.

3.008Ω/m T oo ri rw w ire la tio n in su Tw Ti Figure 3.3: Find the current–carrying capacity of a wire (Fig. where “w” denotes a wire property and “i” denotes an insulation property: • radii: rw = 0. HEAT GENERATION 25 Once again. The circuit equation is q = (Tw − T∞ )/Rtotal .6526 K = .4. T (r) = − Example 3.003m • conductivities: kw = 80W/(mK) and ki = 10W/(mK) • convection parameters: T∞ = 300K and hi = 20W/(m2 K) • electrical resistance: ρw = 0. but for the other part having heat generation it can’t.659 K 0.10) assuming the failure mode is the onset of insulation melting and ﬁnd the temperature in the wire at this condition.10.002m and ri = 0. Current capacity: Intuitively. Since there’s no energy generation in the insulation. we get the general solution (3. we can use the thermal circuit analogy to solve for the limiting current I. we know that the maximum insulation temperature will occur at the wire surface r w because if heat is ﬂowing radially outward. This simpliﬁes to 2. where the resistors are added in series as ln (ri /rw ) 1 + 2 π L ki 2 π r i L hi and L is the length of the wire. Assume failure occurs at T = 330K. Rtotal = L W L W Rtotal = Rinsul + Rconvec = . integrating twice. the temperature in the insulation at larger radii must be lower.32) q r2 ˙ + C1 ln r + C2 . Electrical power transmission wire. 3.00645 + 2. 4k Now let’s look at an interesting combination problem for which the circuit analogy can be applied for part of the problem. The following parameters are given.

therefore q is simply the dissipation rate. therefore qr 2 ˙ 897. otherwise the term would blow up because ln 0 → −∞. L where Tw − T∞ = 30K.0022 = 330 + = 330. Therefore. Circuit representing the wire insulation.008LI 2 = Tw − T∞ . .4. which can be ˙ computed as q = ˙ ˙ Egen I 2 Relectric 0.2.659 0.002) + T (r) = − q r2 ˙ + 330. 828 3 .659 which yields 37. This results in I2 = 30 .008 · 2.6 Amps3. (3. 4k We see that because the wire is a solid cross–section that C 1 = 0. which is I 2 Relectric = 0. Max wire temperature: For the wire. HEAT GENERATION 26 Tw R insul Ti R convec T oo Figure 3. we have 2. so that T (r) = − T (r) = − q r2 ˙ + C2 . with an appropriate safety factor deﬁned by a municipal electrical code.01 K . 4k 3.01 . 0. 828 · 0. Because the system is steady–state. 4k We have to know the volumetric heat generation rate. we have to refer back to the general solution in Eq.11. the heat generated by the dissipation all goes through the insulation. Of course.0022 L m Now we can evaluate C2 using the fact that the temperature at the wire— insulation boundary is known to be 330 K at failure. from the circuit equation. the maximum prescribed load would be somewhat less. q.3. Therefore. no circuit analogy can be used because of the heat generation. 4k 4 · 80 The exact solution is therefore C2 = T (0.62 W = = = 897. 2 V ol π rw L π 0.2This is about enough to carry the load of forty 100 W light bulbs.008 L 37.32) for temperature with heat generation: ˙ q r2 + C1 ln r + C2 .008LI 2 W .

we develop the so–called ﬁn equation. as with the wire problem in the previous example. heat exchangers. the device temperature and thus the resulting surface temperature is usually constrained to a small operating range. • h: This can be increased to a degree. but it may be impractical due to weight. Fin Analysis Extended surfaces.5. we analyze a diﬀerential length dx of a ﬁn as shown in Fig. However. which is a special case of the general conduction equation that explicitly incorporates a convection boundary condition.33) q = hA T |surf ace − Tf luid . • T |surf ace : Similar to Tf luid . car radiators. I/C chips. if at all. aerodynamics. 18. lawn mower engines. temperature gradients are small in the radial direction.5. In the usual fashion. etc. (3. we can write a generic form of this convection equation as (3. however. it is still highly constrained. FIN ANALYSIS 27 which allows us to determine the temperature at the center of the wire in a straightforward fashion.3. We see that there’s hardly any diﬀerence in temperature between the center of the wire and the edge of the wire. We therefore assume the . electrical considerations. both in the radial direction and along the axis. to properly analyze such systems. we must ﬁrst have the appropriate equation describing the conservation of energy. energy is conducted along the ﬁn in the x direction and dissipated by convection along the entire radial boundary.12. for example adding a blower to increase convection may be possible. so that conduction will be correspondingly small enough to be neglected. we ﬁnd T (0) = C2 = 330. or “ﬁns”. pipes. for example if air is the working ﬂuid then the atmospheric air temperature is essentially a constant. Here. Conduction in this problem is actually two–dimensional. where h is once again the convective heat transfer coeﬃcient. Here. size restrictions. Why is this the case? If we recall the concept of Newton’s Law of Cooling introduced in Eq. ♦♦♦ 3. Evaluating T (0). for example as applied to air conditioner coils. are often used to increase heat transfer. etc. It’s essentially at a constant temperature. 3. How can the various components of this equation be modiﬁed to increase q? • Tf luid : Usually this cannot be changed much.01 K . • A: It’s easy to increase this by huge margins using ﬁns! Of course.9) on pp.

constant conductivity.1) on pp. since it is assumed constant.3. 7. Diﬀerential ﬁn element. The local cross–sectional area at x is A c .34) qx = qx+dx + dqconv . which can be written for this problem as dT (3.12. which is a constant for any particular element.) We immediately recognize qx from Fourier’s ˙ where E Law in Eq. conduction is strictly one–dimensional along the axial x direction. . we assume this can vary along the axis. We will further assume steady–state conditions. we write the equation (3.36) qx+dx = qx + dx dx dx dx where we have removed k from under the derivative in the second term. dx where Ac (x) is again the cross–sectional area of the ﬁn that varies with x. (2.35) qx = −k Ac (x) . (1.1) on pp. so we properly write this as a function of x. The local boundary area exposed to convection is dA s . however. Heat is conducted into the element at x at a rate of q x and is conducted out of the element at x + dx at a rate qx+dx . we write the convection term once 3. 3: Estored = Ein + Egen − Eout . Heat is convected away at the radial boundary at a rate dqconv .3Recall we did this with the derivation of the conduction equation in Chapter 2 for ﬂux terms as well. ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ (This is clearly a form of Eq. (3. and constant convection coeﬃcient. For energy to be conserved. FIN ANALYSIS 28 dAs qx d q conv Ac convection cooling around a fin x x dx x + dx q x + dx Figure 3. Finally.5. as in Ac (x). We can expand qx+dx according to a truncated 1–term Taylor series 3. ˙ stored = Egen = 0.3 to obtain dT d dT dqx dx = −k Ac (x) − k Ac (x) dx .

If we divide by k dx and change sign.39) Ac (x) − h dAs (T − T∞ ) = 0 . Notice that a non–trivial aspect of Eq.5.39) simpliﬁes to hP d2 T − (T − T∞ ) = 0 . k dx This equation is the generalized ﬁn equation for one–dimensional conduction. derivatives of T can be recast directly in terms of θ. (3. for ∞ example d(θ + T∞ ) dθ dT∞ dθ dT = = + = .39) depends on the geometric attribute of how the cross–section varies along the ﬁn. dx dx dx dx dx Further derivatives clearly show the same behavior.39) is that we must know the function Ac (x) before we can solve the problem. for constant cross–section Ac (x) → Ac is a constant and can be moved outside of the diﬀerential term in Eq.4 can be made to reduce the problem to a simple second–order homogeneous equation: θ(x) = T (x) − T ∞ . That is.34) to obtain (3. Let us examine the most straightforward case: a uniform cross–section.40) (3. then (3) sum to get the general solution. Eq. However.4Since T is a constant. dx2 3. dqconv = h dAs (T − T∞ ) . Eq.39). The result is (3. Moreover. it’s not as easily integrated as the standard conduction equation because it contains both the second derivative of T and T itself. so that we obtain dAs /dx = P by simple diﬀerentiation. FIN ANALYSIS 29 again according to Newton’s Law of Cooling as (3. It is a second–order equation which requires 2 boundary conditions to solve it.3. we get the canonical form (3. dx2 k Ac This is a second–order linear non–homogeneous equation. however. . (3.37) where T∞ is the temperature of the ﬂuid absorbing the heat. (3. in this case we are lucky that a change of variables3. With these two observations. Under these conditions. (3. We recall from diﬀerential equations that the typical method of handling this type of equation is (1) solve the homogeneous form then (2) solve to get the particular solution. We can now substitute these components back into our original conservation law in Eq.41) d2 θ − m2 θ = 0 .38) h dAs (T − T∞ ) − k d dx dT dx d dx Ac (x) dT dx dx = 0 . (3. the total surface area A s is simply the perimeter of the cross–section P multiplied by the length x As = P x .

If we substitute this into Eq. i. (3. In our derived variable. At the end of the ﬁn.46) θ(0) = θ0 = C1 + C2 . there are 4 cases that are of interest here.44) and eβ − e−β . we ﬁnd that one of our boundary equations will always be (3. The general solution for Eq. Likewise. The ﬁrst boundary (3.43) θ(x) = C1 emx + C2 e−mx . one at the base of the ﬁn x = 0. now we are back in the old position of having to use boundary conditions for an actual problem to determine the constants of integration.42) m2 = (3.41) can be written in the form of exponentials as (3. this translates to θ(0) = T (0) − T∞ = T0 − T∞ = θ0 . FIN ANALYSIS 30 where hP k Ac is a composite parameter made up of the physical and geometric attributes of the problem. We once again need 2 boundary conditions. they are: .43). (3. 2 Of course.e. T (0) = T 0 . Boundary locations for ﬁns.13. condition is rather straightforward: at the base of the ﬁn we will assume that the temperature is known. and one at the end of the ﬁn at x = L (Fig. it could also be written in terms of the hyperbolic trigonometric functions according to the identities (3. Listed in order of mathematical diﬃculty.5.13). 3.3.45) sinh β = cosh β = eβ + e−β 2 x=0 x=L x Figure 3.

along with the boundary condition from x = 0 in Eq. (3. there is no longer any temperature gradient because there is no more heat to be transferred. (3. so we must conclude that C1 = 0. This equation.46). emL + e−mL .43) dθ = C1 m emx − C2 m e−mx dx and substitute this into the boundary condition to obtain the equation C1 emL − C2 e−mL = 0 . we obtain a boundary condition of dθ dx = 0. it is clear that the ﬁrst term would be unbounded.e. i.3. If we assume that the ﬁn tip is very long. which can be substituted into the above equation 0 = = (θ0 − C2 ) emL − C2 e−mL θ0 emL − C2 emL + e−mL emL .5. simpliﬁes to C1 = θ 0 e−mL .46) to solve for C 1 as C1 = θ 0 − θ 0 emL = θ0 emL + e−mL 1 − which. If we substitute this into Eq.43). • Negligible ﬁn tip convection: In this case. we have C1 = θ0 − C2 from Eq. eventually all of the heat will be convected away. so that the solution is (3. emL + e−mL emL emL + e−mL so that C2 can be solved as C2 = θ 0 We can substitute this right back into Eq. we assume the end of the ﬁn is insulated. L → ∞. (3. x=L We can take the derivative of Eq. so that q = 0 at x = L. this means that θ(∞) → 0. (3. (3. FIN ANALYSIS 31 • Fin is very long: Fins convect heat to the surrounding ﬂuid along their length. That is. For example. so that the temperature at the very end must be equal to T ∞ . Writing this in terms of Fourier’s Law.46) allows us to solve for the constants. According to our original substitution θ(x) = T (x) − T∞ .47) θ(x) = θ0 e−mx . with a little algebra. We can then use the boundary condition at the base to ﬁnd C2 = θ0 .

similar to that at the base x = 0 θ(L) = θL . although the algebra is somewhat more involved. we now know the exact temperature distribution for the entire ﬁn in terms of our modiﬁed variable θ(x). θ(x) = θ0 • Fin tip temperature is known: That is.50) θ(x) = θ0 . The procedure to evaluate C1 and C2 for this case is identical to what we have seen so far.48) cosh m (L − x) . We ﬁnd cosh m(L − x) + λ sinh m(L − x) (3. emL + e−mL According to the identity for cosh in Eq. we can write this result in the more simple form θ(x) = θ0 (3. x=L This case is the most tedious to solve. cosh mL which is the exact solution. θ(x) = sinh mL • Convection from ﬁn tip: Rate of energy transfered to the ﬂuid by convection at the tip of the ﬁn equals the rate at which energy arrives at the tip via conduction. FIN ANALYSIS 32 Finally. cosh mL + λ sinh mL where λ = h/(mk) is a constant that depends upon the characteristics of the boundary condition. it should now be possible to calculate the total amount of heat transfered by the ﬁn to its surroundings qf . In each of these four cases.3. we have a standard Dirichlet boundary condition at x = L. (3.5.44). speciﬁcally h and k. This is the quantity of primary interest .49) which can be simpliﬁed using our change of variables to h θ(L) = −k .43) to obtain the exact solution emL e−mL emx + θ0 mL e−mx emL + e−mL e + e−mL e−mL emx + emL e−mx = θ0 emL + e−mL m(L−x) + e−m(L−x) e = θ0 . In principle. (3. we can substitute C1 and C2 into Eq. The ﬁnal solution turns out to be θL sinh mx + θ0 sinh m(L − x) . We write the standard equation h Ac T (L) − T∞ = −k Ac dθ dx dT dx . x=L (3.

. Figure 3. the easy way is to simply evaluate the total heat transferred into the ﬁn by way of Fourier’s Law applied at the base of the ﬁn x = 0 dθ .14. in the case of the inﬁnite ﬁn. Magnitude of temperature gradient decreases with increasing x as a consequence of the reduction in q with increasing x due to continuous convection loss from the ﬁn surface.3.5. over 0 ≤ x ≤ L. 3. (3. Conversely. While this task is somewhat straightforward for the inﬁnite ﬁn using Eq.14. especially since the ﬁn tip convection must be considered3. this is a simple matter of taking a ﬁrst derivative. we ﬁnd dθ = −θ0 m e−mx .51) qf = −k Ac dx x=0 Since we know the exact temperature distribution.5. so that the energy entering the ﬁn via conduction at x = 0 must be equal to the energy convected by the ﬁn to its surroundings over its total area. i.5The exception is of course the case of the insulated ﬁn tip. As By deﬁnition. But how do we do this? As is often the case. and a hard way. this gives us the entire energy transferred to the surroundings.e. dx 3. For example. the other cases are rather more diﬃcult. One of our original assumptions was that the problem temperature convection q fin f x convection Schematic and qualitative temperature distribution in a constant cross–section ﬁn. (3. is steady state. The hard way is to integrate Newton’s Law of Cooling about the entire surface area of the ﬁn qf = As h (T (x) − T∞ ) dAs = h θ(x) dAs .47). there is an easy way. The two possibilities may already be clear at this point. FIN ANALYSIS 33 for many real–world problems. Refer to Fig.

3.6. FIN PERFORMANCE METRICS

34

which can be evaluated at x = 0 and substituted into Eq. (3.51) to yield qf = −k Ac (−θ0 m) = θ0 k Ac m . Recalling the original deﬁnition of parameter m from Eq.(3.42), we can write the result in the more intuitive form (3.52) q f = θ0 h P k Ac .

This equation indicates that the temperature diﬀerence at the base is the strongest parameter of the problem. In particular, doubling the temperature diﬀerence will double the heat transfer. Conversely, the other four variables are not as signiﬁcant, since they appear as square roots. For example, to double the heat transfer, the convection coeﬃcient would have to be increased by a factor of 4, and so forth. Total heat transfer for the other three cases can be worked out in a similar fashion. If we write the shorthand quantity in Eq. (3.52) as ξ = √ θ0 h P k Ac , we ﬁnd for the adiabatic (insulated) ﬁn tip (3.53) qf = ξ tanh mL , I&D Ex. 3.8 pp 133

for the prescribed ﬁn tip temperature boundary condition cosh mL − θL /θ0 , sinh mL and for the convective ﬁn tip boundary condition (3.54) qf = ξ (3.55) qf = ξ sinh mL + λ cosh mL , cosh mL + λ sinh mL

where again λ = h/(mk). 3.6. Fin Performance Metrics The fact that heat must be conducted along the ﬁn means that the ﬁn itself represents a thermal resistor in the context of the circuit analogy. In other words, a conductor has been added to an original un–ﬁnned surface and this represents another resistance. So how do we know that a ﬁn actually helps increase the heat transfer? We can evaluate this by using a measure of ﬁn eﬀectiveness, i.e. the ratio of the ﬁnned heat transfer rate, q f , to the heat transfer that would occur without the ﬁn, h A c θ0 qf , (3.56) εf = h A c θ0 where Ac is cross–sectional area of the virtual ﬁn and θ 0 represents the temperature diﬀerence at that location. Generally, the use of ﬁns can be justiﬁed if there would be at least a 100 % increase in heat transfer, i.e. εf ≥ 2 (Incropera and Dewitt, 2002). If we make what might be a big assumption in some cases, i.e. the coeﬃcient of convection h stays the same whether the ﬁn is present or not, we

3.6. FIN PERFORMANCE METRICS

35

can compute εf for a variety of cases. For example, we can insert Eq. (3.52) for the inﬁnite ﬁn into Eq. (3.56) to ﬁnd √ kP θ0 h P k A c = . εf = (3.57) h A c θ0 h Ac What does this say generally about ﬁns? • Fin performance is enhanced by using a high conductivity material. Of course, this is almost obvious. • An eﬀective ﬁn has a high P/Ac ratio, that is the perimeter is large compared to the cross–sectional area. For example, assume the ﬁn has a square cross–section of side length b, then P = 4b and Ac = b2 , therefore P/Ac = 4/b, which means the ratio, thus the eﬀectiveness improves as b becomes smaller. Therefore, lots of thin, closely–spaced ﬁns promote heat transfer, with the provision that the space between them is still enough to maintain good convection. • The use of ﬁns is justiﬁed for conditions when h itself is small, because the increase in heat transfer can be many fold. Typically h for gases is much lower than h for liquids (e.g. Incropera and Dewitt, 2002, Table 1.1, pp. 8). In particular, unforced convection for a gas is quite low. That’s why for cases like the small lawn mower engine, which does not have an active cooling system, there are always ﬁns to augment heat removal. Heat exchanger design also follows such logic. Automotive radiators have lots of ﬁns on the air side (low h), but no ﬁns on the anti– freeze coolant side (high h). Another metric is ﬁn eﬃciency, i.e. the ratio of the actual heat transfer, qf , to the maximum possible heat transfer, hA f θ0 , which would take place if the entire ﬁn was at the base temperature, so that convection was maximized all along the ﬁn length3.6. The form is qf . (3.58) ηf = h A f θ0 Eqs. (3.52) through (3.55) can be used to compute the eﬃciency for constant– area ﬁns using the various types of boundary conditions we have discussed. Eﬃciencies for more complicated ﬁns, for example those having variable cross–sectional areas, have been worked out and tabulated in references (e.g. ¨ s Ozi¸ik, 1985; Mills, 1999; Incropera and Dewitt, 2002). Perhaps more useful is the concept of overall ﬁn eﬃciency for an array of ﬁns. The deﬁnition is similar to Eq. (3.58) for a single ﬁn, except quantities are summed for all ﬁns, i.e. qtotal (3.59) η0 = . h Atotal θ0

3.6Recall from Fig. 3.14 that the gradient along a real ﬁn lessens the heat transfer.

3.6. FIN PERFORMANCE METRICS

36

We can derive a relationship between η f for a single ﬁn and the overall eﬃciency for N ﬁns as follows. First, the total area A total is simply the sum of the areas of all the ﬁns plus the remaining overall area of the unﬁnned base Ab . For N ﬁns this is (3.60) Atotal = N Af + Ab . According to Eq. (3.58), the heat transfer from one ﬁn is η f hAf θ0 , so that the heat transfer from N ﬁns is N ηf hAf θ0 . We include the heat transfer from the remaining unﬁnned base hAb θ0 , so that the total heat transfer is (3.61) qtotal = N ηf hAf θ0 + hAb θ0 . Now, assuming that h is taken as a single constant value for both the ﬁnned surface and the remaining area of the base, we can substitute Eqs. (3.60) and (3.61) into Eq. (3.59) to ﬁnd N η f Af + A b N ηf hAf θ0 + hAb θ0 = · (3.62) η0 = h (N Af + Ab ) θ0 N Af + Ab This equation is sometimes given in a slightly diﬀerent form that can be derived by adding and subtracting 1 from η f as η0 = [N Af + Ab ] + (ηf − 1) N Af N (ηf + 1 − 1) Af + Ab = , N Af + Ab N Af + Ab I&D Ex. 3.9 pp 144

which simpliﬁes to (3.63) Atotal − (1 − ηf ) N Af N Af = 1− (1 − ηf ) . Atotal Atotal Eq. (3.63) can be used to calculate the total heat transfer for a ﬁn array. η0 =

but k → ∞.1. a physical situation that is not realistic within our current framework. if we simplify the general equation of heat conduction. the approximation may be valid if the convection at the boundary is the “rate–determining 4.1For example.CHAPTER 4 Transient Conduction 4. it may be closely approximated if the resistance to conduction within the material is low compared to the resistance of energy transfer from the boundary of the material to its surroundings. Mathematically. By Fourier’s Law. = α ∂t ∂x2 where α is the thermal diﬀusivity. Eq.e. 4. Speciﬁcally. i. recall that the temperature in the electrical wire problem back in Chapter 3 was very nearly constant. to model a 1–D transient problem. Consider the conceptual case where spatial gradients in a material vanish. Lumped Capacitance Analysis That said. we get (4. Speciﬁcally dT q = −k = 0 dx if dT /dx → 0.1. transient problems (in general) result in a partial diﬀerential equation. i. or the start–up and shut–down of any generic thermal system. (2. Consider also solar systems whose input is a function of the sun’s position. the temperature in the material is spatially uniform at any instant in time4.18) on pp. 12. This equation is quite a bit more diﬃcult to solve than what we’ve seen up to now. the annealed steel quenching problem that we alluded to in Chapter 1.e. for instance internal combustion engines. Generalities There are of course numerous engineering situations where unsteady effects are important. In other words.1) ∂2T ∂T . it is implied that heat transfer with no gradient can only take place if conductivity approaches inﬁnity. which is typically much more diﬃcult to solve. whereas steady 1–D conduction problems can be reduced to an ordinary diﬀerential equation. these represent fairly complicated conduction problems. which changes as a function of time. For example. 37 . we’ll now reverse ourselves and look at a special case where the problem can still be described by a fairly simple ordinary diﬀerential equation. So although this situation is not actually possible.2.

i.2) is a so–called separable diﬀerential equation. (1. First. Let us assume. (4. hAsurf t ρV c t 0 Carrying out the integration. Eq. Note that on the left hand side. dt Or. we can write this expression more conveniently as (ln θ − ln θ0 ) = − ln θ θ0 = − hAsurf t. θ(t) = T (t) − T∞ . θ|t =0 = θ0 θ θ0 and θ|t =t = θ(t) = θ .e. That is ˙ where Eout is the rate at which convection removes heat energy. which can be conveniently solved as follows. so the conventional conduction equation is not relevant. 3. The method we derive to treat this conﬁguration is lumped capacitance analysis.2.2) so the variables are “separated” as hAsurf dθ = − dt θ ρV c then integrate over a ﬁnite time θ θ0 hAsurf dθ = − θ ρV c t dt . hAsurf t. we can write an overall energy balance. dt ρV c ˙ ˙ Estored = −Eout . akin to Eq.2) hAsurf dθ = − θ. we ﬁnd ln θ which evaluates to = − . The rate at which heat energy stored decreases is E stored = ρV cdT /dt. ρV c Using the logarithm identity (ln a − ln b) = ln(a/b). 0 where t and θ are variables of integration. except that we need only account for the energy transfer that takes place at the boundary of the conductor by the mechanism of convection. ρV c . we are explicitly using limits that correspond to the initial condition (at t = 0) and to the condition at the time t of interest. (4. making the standard change of variables as introduced in Chapter 3. for the moment. this becomes ρV c (4.1) on pp. This is once ˙ again quantiﬁed by Newton’s law of Cooling as Eout = hAsurf (T −T∞ ). Gradients do not arise. re–arrange Eq. LUMPED CAPACITANCE ANALYSIS 38 step”. Instead.4. that temperature in a conducting body is approximately constant. This gives dT = −hAsurf (T − T∞ ) .

The second term.7) Q = ρV c θ0 1 − e−t/τ . we know conceptually that this method is valid if the tendency for energy transfer via conduction within the material is much greater than the tendency for energy transfer via convection at the boundary. Determining the total energy transferred over some period of time is simply a matter of integrating Newton’s Law of Cooling over a particular time range t t Q = 0 q dt = hAsurf 0 θ dt . we can exponentiate both sides to obtain the more useful form hAsurf t . According to Eq. or both.3) θ = θ0 exp − ρV c Substituting back the actual temperatures. (4.7). (4. which gives (4. We can write this equation as T (t) − T∞ = e−t/τ . Aside from the qualitative constraint about gradients. how do we actually determine whether such analysis is applicable? Recall.4).3. APPLICABILITY OF LUMPED CAPACITANCE 39 Finally. decreasing either h. the resistance to conduction within the material must be low compared to the resistance of energy transfer from the boundary of the material to its surroundings. but equivalent form hAsurf T (t) − T∞ (4. 4. Likewise. i.3. (4.4) = exp − t . Increasing this resistance. temperature response is a simple exponential when spatial gradients are small enough to be neglected. with solutions for temperature and total heat transfer given respectively by Eqs. is the lumped thermal capacitance of the conductor. A surf . In other words. increases the response time of the system. but also in how much heat was transferred over a particular time period. Notice that the ﬁrst term is the standard form for the convective resistance we examined back in Chapter 3.6) τ = = (ρV c) hAsurf hAsurf is a “time constant”. ρV c. Applicability of Lumped Capacitance The lumped capacitance method provides a very convenient analysis of problems where gradients are negligible.3) and (4. we would be interested not only in T (t). In engineering systems. (4.5) T (0) − T∞ where ρV c 1 (4. We can quantify this using a . T (0) − T∞ ρV c where T (0) is the initial temperature of the conductor.e. we can also write the alternative.4. any increase of this term increases response time.

Diagram of relative magnitudes of temperature gradients for various Biot numbers. Assuming no heat generation. Notice further Eq. not the surrounding ﬂuid 4. (4. We emphasize that k is the thermal conductivity of the conductor. we ﬁnd Ts1 − Ts2 hL (4. so that we write kA(Ts1 − Ts2 ) = hA(Ts2 − T∞ ) .2We will ﬁnd a dimensionless expression similar to Eq.e. Mathematically. we use a straight–line gradient to represent dT /dx in Fourier’s Law. = Ts2 − T∞ k where Bi is called the Biot number .8) provides a straightforward way to evaluate Bi based on measurable parameters of the problem without even having to know what these gradients are in advance. The Biot Number is a dimensionless parameter that describes the ratio of the temperature drop (gradient) in the solid relative to the temperature drop (gradient) from the surface to the ﬂuid. (4. t) → T (t) for Bi 1. we would expect lumped capacitance analysis to be valid when the Biot Number is very small.8) = Bi . L Re–arranging terms. at x = L in Fig. i. 4. we can restate the simpliﬁcation as T (x.8) called the Nusselt number arises in convection. APPLICABILITY OF LUMPED CAPACITANCE 40 low Biot (<<1) conduction convection moderate Biot (~1) high Biot (>>1) Ts1 Ts2 Ts2 Ts2 x=0 x=L Too Figure 4.1. except where k in that case is the conductivity of the surrounding ﬂuid. Recalling our assumption of small temperature gradient in the material. e.2.1. It follows that the very ﬁrst thing one should do when confronted with a transient temperature problem is check the Biot Number! Convention has it that lumped capacitance can be used when 4.3. . Bi 1.g.4. simple conduction–convection energy equation written at a boundary.

2002).4. This may be more conservative. 1985). 4. as is the value of L if the geometry is simple.g. 2L x H R R sphere: radius R slab: width 2L cylinder: radius R Figure 4.g. the ratio of the volume to the surface area in the direction of heat transfer of the conductor Lc = V Asurf . so that Lc = L. for example. e.1 pp 245 . I&D Ex. Area is both sides in the direction of heat transfer: A surf = 2(H × D). The values for k and h are clear.1. Speciﬁc problems may observe other conventions. where D denotes depth. we resort to using a so–called characteristic length scale Lc which can be deﬁned as. Error in neglecting gradients is ¨ s then less than 5 % (Ozi¸ik.3. • Sphere: V = 4πR3 /3 and A = 4πR2 giving Lc = R/3. 5. • Cylinder: V = πR2 H and area is the surface area in the (radial) direction of heat transfer 2πRH. For example.2. 4. as shown in Fig. for instance the length scale might be chosen to correspond to the dimension where the maximum ∆T occurs. However.1 (Incropera and Dewitt. e. • Slab: V = 2L × H × D. this convention can be applied to some of the most common geometries.2. so that L c = R/2. what is the length scale L if the geometry is more complicated? Often. Common geometries for which characteristic length scales can be determined. APPLICABILITY OF LUMPED CAPACITANCE 41 Bi < 0. as in Fig.

it is worthwhile to mention the standard practice of non–dimensionalizing the system. • Specify 2 boundary conditions.3. L. t) according to the following procedure. ∂t ∂x2 where α is the thermal diﬀusivity.3. The “insulated” boundary condition is equivalent to a “symmetry” condition at x = 0. T0 . α. k. including proofs of the relevant theorems. This will be used to evaluate the constant of integration resulting from the ﬁrst–order temporal term. These will be used to evaluate the 2 constants of integration resulting from the second–order spatial term.1). . dx x=L Therefore. Casting the General One–Dimensional Problem The condition Bi 1 clearly excludes many cases of interest. We recall this from steady 1–D conduction analysis. • Specify 1 initial condition. which we recall is ∂2T ∂T = α . That is. We recall the basic form from Lumped Capacitance analysis. now instead of simply being constant. for example an insulated surface at the left and a convective boundary condition for the surface on the right: dT dx and = 0 x=0 dT . in¨ s cluding separation of variables and integral transforms ( Ozi¸ik. although.9) T = T (x. Eq. 4. so the temperature proﬁle is symmetric about this point. we must go back to the governing equation of conduction.4. T∞ .4. In general. 0) = T0 (x) . 1980). we obtain the solution T (x. the problem is a multivariate function h [T (L. • Obtain the general solution via advanced calculus techniques.4.3Panton (1984) has an extensive discussion of dimensional analysis. This is a partial diﬀerential equation rather than an ordinary diﬀerential equation. 4. Before delving into this problem. the initial temperature may be some function of the spatial variable T (x. One of the primary advantages of this process is to reduce the number of relevant variables in the problem. t) − T∞ ] = −k (4. The physical manifestation of this problem is shown in Fig. For conﬁgurations where Lumped Capacitance analysis is not valid. no heat is conducted across the x = 0 boundary. (4. and is therefore more diﬃcult to solve. t. CASTING THE GENERAL ONE–DIMENSIONAL PROBLEM 42 4. For example. which was probably covered in ﬂuid mechanics4. h) .

instead of plotting families of curves for u 0 . can be combined into a single group. and kinematic viscosity. In a typical study of drag.4. recall how 3 separate variables in a standard ﬂow problem: characteristic velocity and length. as in αt t∗ = 2 = F o . u0 and L0 . and ν versus D. x∗ = L • Dimensionless time coordinate: Time may be non–dimensionalized using the characteristic length dimension and the thermal diﬀusivity. T0 − T ∞ θ0 which clearly implies the limits 0 ≤ θ ∗ ≤ 1. Re. D. CASTING THE GENERAL ONE–DIMENSIONAL PROBLEM 43 x* convection Figure 4. for an aerodynamic body. we ﬁnd a number of relevant “groups”: • Dimensionless temperature: According to our now–standard variable substitution θ = T − T∞ . L0 . we simply plot Re versus D. we obtain x . • Dimensionless spatial coordinate: Using the characteristic length dimension. we can write a dimensionless temperature as T − T∞ θ θ∗ = = .3. So what are the relevant non–dimensional groups in our 1–D conduction problem? Going through the non–dimensionalization process using the Buckingham–Π Theorem. the Reynolds number. Diagram of transient problem. L . ν.4.

as in ∂2 ∂ = 2x ∂ ∂x ∂ ∂x = ∂ ∂x 1 ∂ L ∂x∗ = 1 ∂ ∂x∗ L ∂x∗ ∂x ∂ ∂x∗ = 1 ∂2 .11) and boundary conditions become (4. 256). L2 ∂ 2 x∗ Using these expressions.9). .12) and (4. In that sense.g. t∗ ) = dθ ∗ dx∗ . (4. Eq. (4.4. ∂x ∂x∗ ∂x L ∂x∗ The latter expression leads us to the required second derivative in x. for example the Reynolds number in ﬂuid mechanics. the problem is now (4. 4. we ﬁrst determine how derivatives behave in the dimensionless realm using the Chain Rule of Calculus. arises in the boundary conditions. (4.1) can be written in the dimensionless form (4. the Biot number.4This is the unfortunate nomenclature used in most texts. where the single parameter. To apply the same dimensionless treatment to the governing equation. The Fourier number is not a dimensionless “number” in the same sense as. although it does not have any units.4.4. it could also be loosely interpreted as a “dimensionless number”. That is. it would be more appropriately referred to as a dimensionless coordinate. t∗ .14) θ ∗ = θ ∗ (x∗ . It is a function of time. However. pp. it does also connote the relative eﬀectiveness with which a body conducts and stores energy (e. 2002. as a ﬁrst approximation. Incropera and Dewitt.13) −Bi · θ ∗ (1. as in ∂ ∂ ∂t∗ α ∂ = = 2 ∗ ∂t ∂t∗ ∂t L ∂t and ∂ ∂x∗ 1 ∂ ∂ = = . 0) = 1 Likewise. Therefore. x∗ =1 dθ ∗ dx∗ = 0 x∗ =0 The number of relevant variables has been dramatically reduced as compared to the dimensional form of the problem stated in Eq. the initial condition becomes (4. Eq. Bi) .1).10) ∂ 2 θ∗ ∂θ ∗ = ∂t∗ ∂x∗ 2 θ ∗ (x∗ . CASTING THE GENERAL ONE–DIMENSIONAL PROBLEM 44 where F o is commonly called the Fourier Number 4.

pp. the series can be approximated by the ﬁrst term only. Thus. the solution process involves advanced techniques. especially since the eigenvalues are not given by an explicit relationship. where Q = Eout . As mentioned. Extensive tabulations are available in reference texts (e. 936).2). 2002. the solution can be taken to be (4. 2ζ1 + sin (2ζ1 ) θ ∗ = C1 e−ζ1 t cos ζ1 x∗ .18) where (4.19) C1 = 4 sin ζ1 . for t ∗ = F o > 0. except for small values of the Fourier Number (t ∗ < 0. 2 ∗ where the mode coeﬃcients are (4. However. we can integrate the expression over the domain to obtain the . Several roots for various values of Bi have been tabulated (e. let us use the well–established solution directly.17) ζn tan ζn = Bi .13) represent a linear partial diﬀerential system.21) ∗ θ0 = C1 e−ζ1 t . rather than examining details of the actual solution process for this system. ∗ where θ0 is the time–dependent temperature at the mid–plane x = 0 (4.3. 2 ∗ We can express the solution equivalently as (4.g. Appendix B.1. pp.16) Cn = 4 sin ζn 2ζn + sin (2ζn ) and ζn are eigenvalues given by the roots of the transcendental equation (4. To calculate the total amount of heat transferred over some interval. 1980). TRANSIENT ANALYSIS IN ONE DIMENSION 45 4. 2 ∗ A condensed summary of coeﬃcients C 1 and the eigenvalues ζ1 is provided in Table 4. and ∆Estored = E(t) − E(0).5. This solution is quite a bit more complex than what we have dealt with so far. 258).15) θ∗ = n=1 Cn e−ζn t cos ζn x∗ . including ¨ s separation of variables or integral transforms ( Ozi¸ik.2. Ein = 0. 2002. Incropera and Dewitt. (4. Substituting these quantities. Transient Analysis in One Dimension Eqs. At this point.g.10) through (4. Incropera and Dewitt. The solution takes the form of an inﬁnite series ∞ (4.20) ∗ θ ∗ = θ0 cos ζ1 x∗ .5.4. we again resort to our basic conservation equation ∆Estored = Ein − Eout .

4149 1.9 1.0130 1.0 3.1795 1.3978 1.4961 1.1987 0. The expression Q0 is not only the initial energy present.0 9. Coeﬃcients and eigenvalues for the one–term approximate solution of transient heat conduction in the rectangular coordinate system. TRANSIENT ANALYSIS IN ONE DIMENSION 46 Table 4.03 0. V Using our deﬁnition of θ ∗ .1016 1.0 ∞ ζ1 1. this simpliﬁes to Q 1 = Q0 V vol Integration can be carried out by substituting the one–term approximate solution.8603 C1 1.1.7051 0.25 0.1410 0. preferably Eq.0701 1.2425 0.0098 1.2699 1.2287 1.5 0.09 0. into this expression.2646 1. as in Q = − [E(t) − E(0)] = − vol ρ c [T (t) − T0 ] dV .5218 0.2733 total heat transfer.0311 1.2217 0. Recall. The ratio Q/Q0 is therefore the fraction of total energy transferred over an interval 0 → t.0 ζ1 0.2402 1.02 0.0066 1.2956 0.5707 C1 1.2791 0.1732 0.3 0.0919 1.08 0.5932 0.e.0160 Bi 0.1107 1.6533 0.3111 C1 1.2615 0. [T0 − T∞ ] V which can be manipulated further by adding and subtracting T ∞ in the numerator to obtain Q = − Q0 vol T0 − T ∞ T (t) − T∞ − T0 − T ∞ T0 − T ∞ (1 − θ ∗ ) dV .8274 0.0 5. the temperature diﬀerence at t = 0 Q0 = ρ c V [T0 − T∞ ] .2479 1.7506 0.0033 1.7910 0.2598 1.0 10.0 6.0 7.0017 1.5.1925 1.01 0.0769 1.3496 1.0 8. −ρ c [T (t) − T0 ] dV = ρ c [T0 − T∞ ] V vol − [T (t) − T0 ] dV .2532 1.2620 1. it is also the maximum amount of energy which could be transferred as t → ∞.4801 0. We ﬁnd Q = Q0 vol Let us introduce a (non–obvious) factor Q 0 to non–dimensionalize this equation based on the initial temperature diﬀerence.0 4.2570 1.2 0. i.1191 Bi 2.4289 1.2102 1.0814 1. the length of our dimensionless domain varies as 0 ≤ x ∗ ≤ 1 from the mid–plane to the .8 0. dV .0450 1.0998 0.05 0.7 0.3766 1.0114 1. (4.0082 1.3138 1.4 0.0145 1.4.0580 1.07 0. Bi 0.0049 1.10 ζ1 0.06 0.20).0 20.4328 0.04 0.0382 1.6 0.

4.5. TRANSIENT ANALYSIS IN ONE DIMENSION

47

edge. If we take w ∗ and l∗ to be dimensionless width and depth of our domain, we have dV = w ∗ l∗ dx∗ and V = w∗ l∗ · 1 = w∗ l∗ . We thus ﬁnd Q 1 = ∗∗ Q0 w l

1 1 0 ∗ (1 − θ0 cos ζ1 x∗ ) w∗ l∗ dx∗ = 0 ∗ (1 − θ0 cos ζ1 x∗ ) dx∗ .

∗ Again, recall that θ0 only describes the time–dependent temperature behavior at the mid–plane, so it is not a function of dx ∗ . Also, the eigenvalue ζ1 is a constant. We therefore have a simple “cosine” integration, which yields

Q = Q0 which evaluates to (4.22)

x∗ −

∗ θ0 sin ζ1 x∗ ζ1

1

,

0

θ∗ Q = 1 − 0 sin ζ1 . Q0 ζ1

These results can, of course, also be applied to a slab of thickness L with an insulated boundary on the left at x ∗ = 0, since the mathematical problem, speciﬁcally the boundary conditions, are exactly the same as the problem we have just examined. Also, our result can also be applied to problems where there is a step change of the surface temperature on free boundary at x∗ = 1 to a new value Ts . Conceptually, we would realize the same result if we allowed a step change in ﬂuid temperature T ∞ → Ts and prescribed an inﬁnite Biot number4.5, so that the change in ﬂuid temperature would also be immediately transmitted to the surface at x ∗ = 1. Thus, step change problems of this sort are handled by allowing Bi → ∞. I&D Ex. 5.4 For other systems, e.g. the inﬁnitely long cylinder and the sphere, similar pp 262 approaches can be taken to determine exact solutions. These are even more complicated than slab problems because of the additional considerations that non–rectangular coordinate systems place on the problem. For example, the solution for radial one–dimensional transient conduction is

∞

θ∗ =

n=1

J1 (ζn ) 2 2 (ζ ) + J 2 (ζ ) ζn J0 n 1 n

e−ζn t J0 (ζn r ∗ ) ,

2 ∗

2 where t∗ = αt/r0 and J0 and J1 are Bessel functions of the ﬁrst kind. Here, eigenvalues are the roots of

ζn

J1 (ζn ) = Bi . J0 (ζn )

So, we ﬁnd that the problems are more diﬃcult, but their solutions appear to be more diﬃcult to evaluate, as well. Luckily, we ﬁnd that the one–term approximation is again valid for t∗ = F o > 0.2, so that tabulated values (e.g. Incropera and Dewitt, 2002, pp. 258) can be used directly.

4.5Recall from Eq. (4.8) the form of the Biot number is Bi = hL/k, so that an inﬁnite

Biot number is equivalent to prescribing an inﬁnite convection coeﬃcient h.

4.6. THE SIMILARITY TECHNIQUE

48

4.6. The Similarity Technique Another geometry which can be studied analytically is that of a semi– inﬁnite solid, which serves as a useful idealization for many problems, e.g. any body which is very “thick” Fig. 4.4. This sort of problem is described

x

Figure 4.4. Diagram of semi–inﬁnite domain. by the same equation and initial conditions as the other problems, however, boundary conditions are special. We still require 2 boundary conditions because of the second–order spatial derivative, but there is clearly only 1 surface to specify a boundary condition at, i.e. x = 0. There is no boundary at x → ∞. However, we can use the conceptual boundary condition of T (x → ∞, t) = T0 , which says simply that for some value x that is large enough, the temperature will always be the initial temperature. Physically, this makes sense because if truly x → ∞, then we can always pick x large enough such that it is so far away from the boundary at x = 0 that temperature variations cannot be perceived. For the surface, we can specify any of the 3 standard types of boundary conditions we’ve studied. The mathematical signiﬁcance of this problem is that there is a very clever trick to simplify the partial diﬀerential equation, Eq. (4.1), to an ordinary diﬀerential equation. This trick is known as a similarity transform and eﬀectively converts the problem of two independent variables, x and t, into a problem of just one independent variable, the similarity transform variable η. Such a transform is often seen in ﬂuid mechanics and may be possible for any problem that doesn’t have naturally–identiﬁable scales, for example problems where there’s no clear length scale because of inﬁnite dimensions. Determining what the similarity transform variable is for a

4.6. THE SIMILARITY TECHNIQUE

49

speciﬁc problem is not trivial! In this case, the correct variable is x η = √ · 4αt Let us apply this to Eq. (4.1). First, we use the Chain Rule to determine what the derivatives are with respect to the new (transformed) variable η, speciﬁcally dT dT ∂η 2 x α 4 α t dT x ∂T √ = = − = − 3/2 4 α t dη ∂t dη ∂t 2 t 4 α t dη (4 α t) and ∂T dT ∂η 1 dT = = √ · ∂x dη ∂x 4 α t dη Another derivative in x yields ∂2T d = 2 ∂x dη ∂T ∂x d ∂η = ∂x dη dT 1 √ 4 α t dη 1 d2 T 1 √ = · 4 α t dη 2 4αt

Substituting these into Eq. (4.1), we ﬁnd x dT 1 d2 T √ = α , 4 α t dη 2 2 t 4 α t dη which can be simpliﬁed to − dT 4xt d2 T √ = − , dη 2 2 t 4 α t dη and ﬁnally (4.23) dT d2 T = −2η . 2 dη dη

Note that Eq. (4.23) is now an ordinary diﬀerential equation (second–order), having the single independent variable η. The most straightforward method to solve this equation is to make the variable substitution dT ξ= , dη so that Eq. (4.23) is written as d dη dT dη = −2η dT dη

and recast according to the new variable as (4.24) dξ = −2ηξ. dη dξ = − 2 η dη ξ

Eq. (4.24) is separable, so that it can be written as

where −L1 ≤ x ≤ L1 and −L2 ≤ y ≤ L2 and where the initial temperature is T 0 (Fig.7. T = T s at x = 0. We can write an equivalent equation in exponential form as ξ = e−η 2 +C 0 = C1 e−η .25) 2 dT = C1 e−η .27) T − Ts = erf η . (4.g. pp. then multi–dimensional solutions are merely the simple products of corresponding one–dimensional solutions. 2 where C1 replaces the equivalent constant exp(C 0 ). 2 the process is actually not trivial. The . Recalling our variable substitution. The surface heat ﬂux can be obtained by applying Fourier’s Law. it is possible to combine 1–D solutions that we have looked at to construct. 2–D solutions for transient problems.25) is the result of doing one integration on our second–order Eq. e. Appendix B. we obtain the solution (4. solutions for boundary conditions of the second and third kind can be obtained as well (Incropera and Dewitt. While this equation appears to be in good shape to perform the second integration. Incropera and Dewitt. MULTI–DIMENSIONAL TRANSIENT CONDUCTION 50 and then integrated once to obtain ln ξ = −η 2 + C0 . and is applicable only if the solution of the general problem can be shown to be equivalent to the product of 2 one–dimensional transient heat conduction problems.2. (4. If. If there is no energy generation. This function is tabulated in reference texts (e. where C0 in an integration constant. (4.5).4. T0 − T s where erf is the Gaussian Error Function. we can show that if the one– term approximation is valid. 935).7. for example. 2002). What is the theory behind this? Consider a rectangular region of dimension 2L 1 ×2L2 . 2002. dη Eq. This approach is called the method of product solution. 4.26) T = C1 e−η dη + C2 . from which one obtains (4.28) Ts − T 0 · qs = k √ παt Although somewhat more involved. i. Multi–dimensional Transient Conduction Transient problems that depend upon more than 1 dimension are often encountered in practice.23). we can now write this equation in the form (4. In particular. for example. we prescribe boundary conditions of the ﬁrst–kind.e.g. 4.

6We have omitted the star notation indicating dimensionless variables as shown in § 4.29) are taken to be dimensionless.29). We will examine the product solution technique for the governing equation in 4.31) ∂ 2 θ2 ∂θ2 = ∂t ∂y 2 ∂θ1 ∂ 2 θ1 = ∂t ∂x2 in the x and y directions4. t).29) ∂θ ∂2θ ∂2θ = + . t) into Eq. Independent variables in Eq. substitute θ(x.30) and (4.10). t) are one–dimensional solutions in the x and y coordinate directions. Now. t) = θ1 (x.4 for brevity. t) = θ1 (x.29 with the realization that boundary conditions are treated in a similar fashion. y. t) and θ2 (y. y.29) is obtained via standard non–dimensionless techniques 4. That is. t) = T (x.6 shown in § 4. t)·θ2 (y. For various components we obtain ∂θ ∂θ1 ∂θ2 ∂θ1 · θ2 = = θ2 + θ1 ∂t ∂t ∂t ∂t 4.7.7. y.4. 4. (4.7Compare these equations to Eq.5. y. (4. The components θ1 (x. respectively. t) is governed by the multi–dimensional equation (4.4. we assume these functions satisfy (4. The dimensionless temperature is deﬁned as θ(x. . y. and are further assumed to be given by the one–dimensional approximation. MULTI–DIMENSIONAL TRANSIENT CONDUCTION 51 y=L2 y x = − L1 x x=L1 y = − L2 Figure 4. ∂t ∂x2 ∂y 2 Eq. t) in the form of the product θ(x. (4. problem is driven by convection on all 4 faces at an ambient temperature of T∞ . (4. Two–dimensional heat conduction domain. T0 − T ∞ where θ(x. t) · θ2 (y. t) − T∞ . y. Let us now assume that we can represent θ(x.

5. the terms in brackets do in fact vanish. Eq. we’ve managed to ﬁnd a signiﬁcant simpliﬁcation I&D Ex. pp 277 Once it is determined that the product solution is valid. otherwise the problem is trivial. i.30) and (4. solving a problem proceeds by treating the one–dimensional problems individually.31). boundary conditions can be treated similarly. we see that ∂ 2 θ2 ∂2θ = θ1 2 . from our one–dimensional work. for the required conditions of the two–dimensional problem • take the product of the one–dimensional expressions as the ﬁnal solution of the problem .29) and moving everything to the left hand side. e. two–dimensional problem with no heat generation. so that ∂θ2 ∂θ1 ∂ 2 θ1 ∂θ1 ∂θ2 ∂ 2 θ2 ∂2θ = + θ2 2 + + θ1 2 . Thus. calculate individual Fourier numbers (dimensionless times) for each coordinate direction • compute individual one–dimensional solutions. once again. (4.4. (4. ∂x2 ∂x ∂x ∂x ∂x ∂x ∂x However. ∂y 2 ∂y Substituting these terms into Eq. Note how the presence of a heat generation term would prevent us from drawing our ﬁnal conclusion since neither of the equations for θ1 and θ2 would necessarily be zero. we get (4. we know various solutions corresponding to θ 1 and θ2 and the rules under which they (and their simpliﬁcations) can be applied. θ 1 and θ2 do not generally vanish.e. recalling that ∂θ2 /∂x = 0 since θ2 is not a function of the x coordinate. θ 1 and θ2 . Examining this equation more closely we see that the terms in brackets are nothing more than Eqs.32) θ2 ∂θ1 ∂ 2 θ1 − ∂t ∂x2 + θ1 ∂θ2 ∂ 2 θ2 − ∂t ∂y 2 = 0. MULTI–DIMENSIONAL TRANSIENT CONDUCTION 52 and ∂2θ ∂ 2 θ1 · θ 2 ∂ = = 2 ∂x ∂x2 ∂x θ2 ∂θ2 ∂θ1 + θ1 ∂x ∂x . So. or the terms within the brackets must both vanish. As mentioned above. then either θ 1 and θ2 must both vanish.7.g.32) is the original governing equation written in terms of our product solution hypothesis.7 for a special case. and the original hypothesis of the product solution is valid. If it is valid. (4. ∂x2 ∂x According to a similar procedure. Now. Of course. this term simpliﬁes to ∂2θ ∂ 2 θ1 = θ2 2 . In particular • calculate individual Biot numbers for each coordinate direction using the appropriate length scale for each coordinate • likewise.

we focus on the underlying physics before actually developing calculation methods for quantifying the heat transfer. The integration can then be 53 . h will vary from point to point on the surface because the ﬂow conditions will vary. so that their diﬀerence.CHAPTER 5 Introduction to Convection So far we have only considered convection to the extent that it supplies a boundary condition for conduction problems. convection. Ts − T∞ . as in q = As h (Ts − T∞ ) dAs .1. One of our basic assumptions will be that both T ∞ and Ts are constant. Whereas before we assume that h is a constant. In this chapter. surface area using the usual Newton’s Law of Cooling dq = h (Ts − T∞ ) dAs . the total heat transfer can be obtained by integrating over the surface. is also constant. If Ts = T∞ then we can write the heat transfer for a diﬀerential u o To o o y δ x Ts dx Figure 5. Clearly. even though there remains some level of conduction. Consider a ﬂuid moving over a ﬂat plate at free–stream velocity u ∞ and free–stream temperature T∞ . However. Flat–plate conﬁguration showing boundary layer. is the dominant mode of heat transfer.1). we know that. in reality. where the surface of the plate is at temperature Ts (Fig. driven by bulk motion of the participating medium. where h is formally deﬁned as the local coeﬃcient of heat transfer or the local convection coeﬃcient. 5. in many cases.

At a distance deﬁned as y = δ the drag eﬀect becomes negligible. u. the velocity along the surface. the free–stream velocity.99u∞ . Boundary Layer Introduction Recall the concept of the boundary layer from ﬂuid mechanics. then As = W × L and dAs = W × dx.1) h = h dAs . speciﬁc heat. Therefore. .1. not only is geometry.1. etc. the problem is not trivial.1 layer theory. As Let us separately deﬁne an average heat transfer coeﬃcient by again applying Newton’s Law of Cooling ¯ q = h (Ts − T∞ ) As . conductivity. Now the task becomes actually ﬁguring out what this is for speciﬁc problems. The convention used to deﬁne the boundary layer is δ = y at which u = 0. which gradually decreases as distance y from the plate increases. ﬂuid density. it is clear that we can write the average convection coeﬃcient in terms of its local value as 1 ¯ (5. A s As So we see that what we were really talking about all along in conduction was an averaged value of the convection coeﬃcient. 6. • The region outside the boundary layer in which gradients and shear stresses are negligible.2) 1 ¯ h = L L h dx . From these two equations. 0 Determining convection coeﬃcients is viewed as the “convection problem”. viscosity. we must now also worry about ﬂow conditions. Much of this depends upon the concept of boundary I&D Ex. If we take the length of the plate as L and the width as W . However. the average convection coeﬃcient can be simpliﬁed.1. So. since now we have the additional complexity of ﬂuid motion. which can be used to describe ﬂow regions in the neighborhood pp 329 of a solid surface. 5. 5. BOUNDARY LAYER INTRODUCTION 54 simpliﬁed as q = (Ts − T∞ ) h dAs . we ﬁnd (5.. τ . The drag imposed by the ﬁxed no–slip surface acts through the mechanism of shear stress. etc. Integrating over the length of the plate from the leading edge 0 → L. important.5. Thus the ﬂow problem is deﬁned by two distinct regions: • The boundary layer in which velocity gradients and shear stresses are signiﬁcant. gradually increases from zero at the surface (no–slip boundary conditions) to a value of u ∞ . For the special case of the ﬂat plate in Fig.

a temperature proﬁle develops. The incoming To o To o y δt x Ts Figure 5. In turn. BOUNDARY LAYER INTRODUCTION 55 These observations refer to the ﬂuid problem. Therefore. particles at the plate surface attain thermal equilibrium at the plate’s higher surface temperature Ts . etc. a thermal boundary layer develops if the ﬂuid free stream and the surface temperatures diﬀer (Fig. At the plate’s surface. τ .2. That is.. ﬂow has a uniform temperature distribution T ∞ . in which temperature gradients within the thermal boundary layer. Speciﬁcally. these particles exchange energy with those near them. It follows that heat transfer between the plate and the ﬂuid immediately adjacent to it must result solely from conduction. Thermal boundary layer on a ﬂat plate. Just as the velocity boundary layer develops for the ﬂuid problem. however. where µ is the material property known as the dynamic viscosity. The behavior of the thermal boundary layer is qualitatively similar to the velocity boundary layer in that the thickness grows as x increases. we can write heat transfer directly from Fourier’s Law of Conduction as q = −kf ∂T ∂y . The primary factor. so this boundary layer is termed the velocity boundary layer. δ t . The layer itself is deﬁned as y at which Ts − T = 0. is deﬁned for a Newtonian ﬂuid according to Newton’s Law of Viscosity τ = µ ∂u ∂y y=0 at the plate’s surface. the no–slip condition indicates there is no ﬂuid motion.5. 5. assume T s > T∞ . Ts − T ∞ Note the correspondence with the factor of 0. are signiﬁcant. and outside they are negligible.2).1.99 for the velocity boundary layer.99 . y=0 . which is the same basic dynamic process familiar from the action of viscosity.

therefore variation in h depends upon ∂T /∂y. By combining this with a local heat ﬂux derived from Newton’s Law of Cooling.5.4) Rex = .1) and (5. so that convection and shear stress near the plate are generally higher than in the laminar case. The laminar regime is characterized by orderly ﬂow in which streamlines can be easily identiﬁed. The turbulent velocity proﬁle is thus sharper than its laminar counterpart (Fig. therefore h and q decrease with x. the gradient decreases with x. From ﬂuid mechanics. and u∞ is the free–stream velocity of the ﬂow.3) h = − Ts − T∞ ∂y y=0 From this. is the Reynolds number . Qualitative characterization of velocity proﬁles in laminar and turbulent boundary layers. The integrals in Eqs. (5. we should recall that the physical structure of the boundary layer depends upon whether it is laminar or turbulent. we see kf ∂T . deﬁned as u∞ x . we make the following interesting observation: T s − T∞ and kf are constants. BOUNDARY LAYER INTRODUCTION 56 where kf is the thermal conductivity of the ﬂuid. 5. (5. while turbulent ﬂow is chaotic and irregular. Chaotic mixing in turbulent boundary layers increases momentum and energy transfer. Transition from a laminar to a turbulent boundary layer occurs at approximately Rex ∼ 5 × 105 .1.2) are expected to be non–trivial since the local value of h in the integrand is not constant. ν is the ﬂuid kinematic viscosity.3). The relevant parameter for boundary layers FLOW laminar turbulent Figure 5.3. ν where x is distance traveled as measured from the leading edge. Because δ t increases with x. q = h (Ts − T∞ ). (5.

but also convection and the mechanisms which degrade mechanical energy into heat. where (u. y) coordinate directions.5) ∂x ∂y (5. (2.6) and (5. Eq.7) are conservation of momentum in the (x. while the term in brackets is the net rate at which energy is conducted into the control volume5.3Recall this interpretation from Eq.7) arise from applying Newton’s Second Law.5.1Recall that Eqs. The last term. in fact. cp 2 + + ∂u ∂v + ∂x ∂y is the viscous energy dissipation function. 5. (5.3. (5. 5.2.6) and (5. (5.19) on pp. we can write these equations as ∂v ∂u + = 0.8) represents the net outﬂow of energy from the control volume due to convection5. . respectively. we can derive the following equation for the conservation of energy (5.2. v) are the velocity components in the (x. while Eqs. We can invoke the so–called boundary layer approximation to 5. respectively. Expanding this approach for thermal energy to include not only conduction.7) u ∂v 1 ∂P ∂v + v = − + ν ∂x ∂y ρ ∂y ∂2v ∂2v + ∂x2 ∂y 2 . (5. y) coordinate directions. GOVERNING EQUATIONS 57 5. u ∂u ∂u 1 ∂P + v = − + ν ∂x ∂y ρ ∂x ∂2u ∂2u + ∂x2 ∂y 2 . Governing Equations From ﬂuid mechanics.1 and 5. Φ. The left hand side of Eq. more comprehensive than what is actually necessary to model ﬂow over the ﬂat plate because certain gradients in the streamwise direction are very small compared to those in the normal direction. If we assume steady ﬂow over the ﬂat plate in the (x.2.2.2That is. 12. the energy convected into the control volume minus the energy convected out. This system of equations is. we recall further that the ﬂow physics are governed by the Navier–Stokes Equations. (5. y) domain as shown in Figs 5. which describe conservation of mass and conservation of momentum. denotes thermal energy that arises via the action of viscous (frictional) forces degrading mechanical energy.8) where Φ = 2 ∂u ∂x u ∂T ∂T + v = α ∂x ∂y 2 ∂2T ∂2T + ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂v ∂y 2 + ν Φ. These equations are typically derived using a diﬀerential approach much like that introduced in Chapter 2 for the conduction equation 5.6) and (5.1.5) represents the conservation of mass.

∂v/∂x ∼ [ ] and ∂ 2 v/∂ 2 x ∼ [ ]. using the Reynolds number as deﬁned in Eq. which we write as ∂u/∂x ∼ [1]. Showing the orders of magnitude in square brackets beside each term.9) u and (5.10) u ∂v ∂v ∂P 1 2 [1] · [ ] + v [ ] · [1] = − + [ ] ∂x ∂y ∂y Re ∂2v ∂2v [ ] + [ ∂x2 ∂y 2 −1 ∂u ∂u [1]·[1] + v [ ]·[ ∂x ∂y −1 ]=− ∂P 1 2 + [ ] ∂x Re ∂2u ∂2u [1] + [ ∂x2 ∂y 2 −2 ] ] for the momentum equations. (5. and ∂ 2 v/∂ 2 y ∼ [1/ ]. the boundary layer thickness.e. i.5) through (5. Thus. but that v ∼ [ ].7) in dimensionless form.e.5. ∂u/∂y ∼ [1/ ]. i. (5. In other . we can say that ∂/∂x ∼ [1]. • In the boundary layer. Since there are no parameters in this equation and we know that the ﬂow must develop along the axis. i. i. • The ﬂow remains predominantly oriented along the plate so that the vertical velocity component is much smaller than the horizontal component. If we were to rewrite the Eqs. Since ∂/∂x ∂/∂y. where 1.e.10) should be the same order of magnitude as the equation itself. we write v ∼ [ ]. ∂/∂x = 0. 1979). i. we see ∂ 2 u/∂ 2 x ∼ [1]. we can write ∂/∂y ∼ [1/ ]. then gradients in the vertical direction must be much larger than gradients along the plate.5) through (5. v u. u ∼ [1].11) ∂u ∂v [1] + [1] = 0 .e. i. the term ∂v/∂y must be the same order of magnitude.9) and (5. We can infer that the pressure gradient in Eq. (5. That is.2. Since u ∼ [1] and ∂u/∂x ∼ [1]. • The free–stream ﬂow is of order unity.5) that ∂u/∂x is of order unity. The simpliﬁcation process proceeds by examining the order of magnitude of each of the terms (Schlichting. • Assume in continuity Eq. we ﬁnd (5. inertial and viscous eﬀects must be of the same overall order of magnitude. (5. ∂/∂x ∂/∂y. ∂x ∂y We did not write down the orders of magnitude for the pressure terms in Eqs.4).e. That is ∂v/∂y ∼ [1]. ∂ 2 u/∂ 2 y ∼ [1/ 2 ]. we would see that Re ∼ [1/ 2 ] for this to be the case.10). GOVERNING EQUATIONS 58 derive a simpliﬁed system. let us rewrite Eqs. Therefore. (5. Following the last point. (5.e. is a small number. As we said above. Note that we could also infer this from the fact that ∂v/∂y ∼ [1]. the entire continuity equation is of order unity.7) in dimensionless form along with the orders of magnitude for each term we have deduced above. • Since changes in the vertical direction happen over a very short distance. (5. Moreover.

This leads us to conclude P ∼ [ 2 ] across the boundary layer (in the vertical direction). the entire Eq.15) u ν ∂T ∂2T ∂T + + v = α 2 ∂x ∂y ∂y cp ∂u ∂y . so it can be dropped. (5.12).14) u where Φ = 2 ∂u ∂x 2 u ∂u 1 ∂P ∂2u ∂u + v = − + ν ∂x ∂y ρ ∂x ∂y 2 ∂T ∂T [1]·[1]+v [ ]·[ ∂x ∂y −1 ] = α[ 2 ] ∂2T ∂2T [1] + [ ∂x2 ∂y 2 −2 ] + ν 2 [ ]Φ.10) is of overall order [ ]. (5. First.13). (5. We assume • temperature is of order unity. (5.4 here is (∂u/∂y)2 ∼ [1/ 2 ].5. ∂x ∂y We can also apply the same order of magnitude analysis for energy in Eq.9) is very small compared to the other terms in that equation. i. we must have α ∼ [ 2 ] for the overall viscous order to be unity. (5.12) and ∂u ∂v + = 0. order [1].8). Also. changes in pressure across the boundary layer should be of comparable size to the other terms in the equation. Eqs. cp 2 [1] + ∂v ∂y 2 [1] + ∂u ∂v [ ] + [ ∂x ∂y 2 −1 ] . (5.10) is small compared Eq. (5. These deductions show that Eq. ∂P/∂y ∼ [ ]. since Eq. this simpliﬁes to (5. so that we see ν/cp ∼ [ 2 ] We can then write the energy equation as (5. Speciﬁcally.11) can be simpliﬁed to (5. • the dissipation term Φ should also be of overall order of magnitude unity — the largest term5. so that the viscous terms should also be of overall order unity — since the largest viscous term is ∂ 2 T /∂ 2 y ∼ [1/ 2 ] (similar again to the momentum equations).9).13) (5.e.4The basic term ∂u/∂y is clearly of order [1/ ]. but squaring this term raises it to [1/ ]. (5.2. We can now make some simplifying observations. P is approximately only a function of x. so that we assume the pressure term in Eq. Therefore. Dropping terms of order [ ] and higher. 2 . ∂ 2 u/∂x2 in Eq. we see that the convective terms will be of order unity. and (5.9) through (5. 5.15) are the so–called boundary layer equations. so that it may be neglected. GOVERNING EQUATIONS 59 words. T ∼ [1] • similar to the momentum equations. since ∂P/∂y ∼ [ ] and ∂/∂y ∼ [1/ ].9) is of the same overall magnitude as the equation itself. (5.

3. u ∞ . velocity. 42.4 on pp. T∞ . let us deﬁne characteristic length. ∂x∗ ∂y ∗ u∞ L ∂y ∗ 2 From these equations. we can identify two non–dimensional parameters • Reynolds number: deﬁned as Re = u∞ L/ν • Prandtl number: deﬁned as P r = ν/α . we ﬁnd ∂u∗ ∂v ∗ + = 0. but usually a full–blown numerical approach is used. Dimensionless Parameters Unfortunately. • Thus P = P (x) and ∂P/∂x → dP/dx. L. • No terms drop out of the continuity equation. which further implies that P (x) can be determined from free–stream conditions so that dP/dx is a known quantity. our primary goal is to identify relevant non–dimensional parameters for the problem (much like we did for conduction) and to develop some important analogies between momentum and heat transfer. ∂x∗ ∂y ∗ dx u∞ L ∂y ∗2 u∗ ∂T ∗ α ∂2T ∗ ∂T ∗ + v∗ = . • Since the pressure is constant in the y direction across the boundary layer. x∗ = L L v u u∗ = .g. For the moment. u∞ u∞ and T − Ts · T∗ = T∞ − T s Performing the non–dimensionalization on the equations according to the results we developed in §4. its value is equivalent to the value in the free–stream. As usual. There are advanced techniques that can be employed (e.5. scales for the problem at hand to non–dimensionalize the variables as y x . and temperature. we will neglect the viscous dissipation term. So why do we bother to study this problem here? Aside from developing an appreciation for the physical processes. DIMENSIONLESS PARAMETERS 60 Reiterating some of the interesting characteristics of these equations: • The pressure does not vary in the y direction. y∗ = . we are still faced with the fact that this system of equations is non–linear and cannot be solved with the mathematical techniques that we have utilized so far.3. v∗ = . similarity approaches that we outlined earlier). 5. ∂x∗ ∂y ∗ u∗ and dP ∗ ν ∂ 2 u∗ ∂u∗ ∂u∗ + v∗ = − ∗ + .

as for example the velocity and length scales in the Reynolds number. P r gives some approximate indication of the thickness of the velocity boundary layer versus the thermal boundary layer 5. It can be interpreted as the ratio of inertial forces to viscous forces.17) and (5. ∂x∗ ∂y ∗ dx Re ∂y ∗ 2 ∂T ∗ ∂2T ∗ ∂T ∗ 1 . . It does not contain any non–ﬂuid properties.18). δt that is. the Prandtl number is new — it appears only in the energy equation. Taking a closer look. just as previously. + v∗ = ∗ ∗ ∂x ∂y Re · P r ∂y ∗ 2 (5.18) u∗ The Reynolds number is familiar from ﬂuid mechanics. the 5.3.5This is not the case in turbulent ﬂows where transport is a function of turbulent mixing. the former of which indicates the rate of momentum diﬀusion (from the viscous terms in the momentum equations) and the latter of which is the rate of thermal diﬀusion momentum diﬀusion ν = · Pr = α thermal diﬀusion We can say equivalently that P r represents the ratio of the eﬀectiveness of diﬀusional energy transport in the velocity boundary layer versus the thermal boundary layer. the ﬁnal non–dimensionalized form of the equations can be written (5. How do we interpret this parameter physically? The Prandtl number is the ratio of kinematic viscosity ν to thermal diﬀusivity α. ∂x∗ ∂y ∗ u∗ ∂u∗ ∂u∗ dP ∗ 1 ∂ 2 u∗ + v∗ = − ∗ + . (5. we still have not lost anything in terms of non–linearity of the system in Eqs. In laminar ﬂows. DIMENSIONLESS PARAMETERS 61 The Prandtl number is clear in light of the following from the energy equation u∞ L u∞ L ν u∞ L ν = = = Re · P r . This of course bears directly on whether a particular ﬂow is laminar or turbulent. as well as diﬀusion. we can thus infer Pr ∼ δ . Conversely.5 (Table 5. however. We can therefore speak of “the Prandtl number of a ﬂuid”. we see that P r is a direct property of the ﬂuid itself.16) through (5.5. Of course. α α ν ν α Thus. so it serves as a direct metric of how well frictional dissipation is able to dampen perturbations in a ﬂow.16) ∂v ∗ ∂u∗ + = 0.1).

dP ∗ dx∗ . dP ∗ dx∗ .20) C f = Cf x∗ . y ∗ =0 Eq. the velocity distribution should be of the form (5. Recall from ﬂuid mechanics that the stress is deﬁned as τ = µ ∂u ∂y = y=0 µ u∞ ∂u∗ L ∂y ∗ . is only governed by three “universal” parameters according to the functional form (5. so that it has the same dependencies of u ∗ . DIMENSIONLESS PARAMETERS 62 Table 5.19) u∗ = u∗ x∗ .3. an important engineering quantity. Approximate boundary layer relationships for various ﬂuid types Fluid Pr gases ∼1 1 liquid metals 1 oils relationship δ ≈ δt δ δt δ δt number of relevant variables to any problem has been reduced. where dP ∗ /dx∗ is considered to be determined by the geometry of the problem and the free–stream conditions and is considered a known parameter as mentioned previously. Likewise. 56 as h = − kf ∂T Ts − T∞ ∂y . Recall that we cast the convection coeﬃcient in Eq. Therefore. y ∗ . Re. deﬁned by Cf = τ /(ρu2 /2). Re. (5.5.21) T ∗ = T ∗ x∗ .1. we see that T ∗ is essentially a function of the form (5.3) on pp. as ∞ Cf = 2 ∂u∗ Re ∂y ∗ .19) indicates that ∂u∗ /∂y ∗ evaluated at y ∗ = 0 is only a function of (x∗ . For example. dP ∗ dx∗ . (5. What other dimensionless parameters arise for such conﬁgurations? Let us consider frictional drag on the body surface that arises because of viscous shear stress. Re. we arrive at the signiﬁcant conclusion that the skin friction factor. dP ∗ /dx∗ ). y ∗ =0 This expressions allows us to derive the following form of the skin friction factor . y ∗ . Re. y=0 . P r. except with the addition of the Prandtl number as another parameter.

(5. 5.2. we will develop an analogy among these parameters. as posed by Eqs. at y ∗ = 0.6. P r. Re. Re. y ∗ =0 This expression leads directly to the deﬁnition of the Nusselt number hL ∂T ∗ = Nu = . 5. so that the Nusselt number depends only upon variables as dP ∗ (5. y ∗ does not come into play at the wall.1 and 5. 5. we will derive the Reynolds–Colburn analogy for laminar ﬂow along a ﬂat plate. so that we refer to this form as the “local Nusselt number”.7Most textbooks write down the exact solution directly in the form of the required dimensionless parameters (using the “please believe this” approach). This is only a “please believe this temporarily” approach. so that the main concept can at least be illustrated5. This is particularly useful.I&D Ex. where the the pressure gradient along the plate is assumed to vanish. so that we can get the answer to a convection problem by solving a ﬂuid mechanics problem5.4. so that the analogy is trivially obvious. We start with the approximate solution for velocity and temperature distribution. The rigorous development of this result relies on the exact solution of the boundary layer problem. Reynolds–Colburn Analogy Now that we have introduced Cf . which has the functional form N u = N u (Cf . Assume. according to Figs.16) through (5. and P r as important dimensionless parameters in convection. We will be able to calculate the Nusselt number from the Prandtl and Reynolds numbers and the skin friction factor. We can also write an average Nusselt number by simply substi. that u ∞ is 5. REYNOLDS–COLBURN ANALOGY 63 which. we can recast with dimensionless variables as kf ∂T ∗ kf T∞ − Ts ∂T ∗ = h = − L Ts − T∞ ∂y ∗ y∗ =0 L ∂y ∗ . Here. Note that. k is that of the ﬂuid for the Nusselt number (convection) and that of the solid for the Biot number (conduction). We are not in a mathematical position to derive this solution. 6.4.5.5 ¯ tuting the average convection coeﬃcient h.7. . i. N u.e. depends on the local convection coeﬃcient h.18). P r) . as we will actually . Re. As with the skin friction factor.6Recall in Chapter 3 where the circuit analogy allowed us to get the answer to a heat conduction problem by solving an electrical circuit problem. since measuring Re and Cf for the ﬂuid mechanics problem is more straightforward than measuring N u directly. but we will rather use the approximate solution as a surrogate. while the form of pp 351 the Nusselt number and the Biot number appear the same.22) N u = N u x∗ . as we have written it here. dx∗ The Nusselt number. ∗ ∂y y∗ =0 kf which is essentially the non–dimensional temperature gradient at the wall.

Writing the skin friction factor in the usual fashion as C f = τ / 0. which we will now use. and substituting τ = µ ∂u/∂y = ν ρ ∂u/∂y at y = 0 from ∞ Newton’s Law of Viscosity.5ρu2 . (5. we can solve for the velocity gradient at the wall as ∂u ∂y = y=0 3 u∞ .24). .664.3) on pp. 2 δt derive this solution in the following chapter. This will be pointed out. the constant 0. we insert the dimensionless temperature into the gradient to obtain kf ∂T ∗ ∂T = kf . we can write Cf = 2 ν ∂u u2 ∂y ∞ .24) T ∗ = 3 y 1 T − Ts = − T∞ − T s 2 δt 2 y δt where δt = From the solution for the velocity proﬁle in Eq. and δt is the thermal boundary layer thickness. δ is the velocity boundary layer thickness. 56. The only non–rigorous component of the process is where we substitute a certain constant derived from the exact solution for its counterpart from the approximate solution. (5.646 = · 1/2 280 u∞ x Rex Again.25) From the solution of the temperature proﬁle in Eq. in a more useful form Cf = Cf 0. y is the coordinate normal to the plate.5. we can solve for the temperature gradient at the wall as ∂T ∗ ∂y = y=0 3ν 3ν 2 ν 3 u∞ = = 2 u∞ 2 δ u∞ δ u∞ 13 u∞ = 280 ν x 3 .23).332 = · 1/2 2 Rex This is one–half of what is needed to complete the analogy. (5.23) u∗ = and · 1/2 Rex P r 1/3 Deriving the analogy is matter of manipulating the solutions appropriately.64 x ≈ .52 x (5. y=0 3 y 1 u = − u∞ 2 δ 2 y δ 3 where 3 δ = 280 νx 4.646 represents the approximate solution and is very close to the value for the exact solution of 0. We 1/2 therefore write Cf = 0. REYNOLDS–COLBURN ANALOGY 64 free–stream velocity.664/Rex . Referring back to Eq. We start with an approximate solution for the boundary layer problem (5. or. h = − Ts − T∞ ∂y y=0 ∂y y=0 (5.4. 2δ so that a substitution yields Cf as 117 ν 0. 13 u∞ Rex 4.

27) Cf Re P r 1/3 . x kf h ≈ Combining Eqs.332 Re1/2 P r 1/3 . 2 which is the Reynolds–Colburn analogy.26).26) Nu = = 0.5. This equation is applicable for laminar ﬂat plate ﬂow in the range of approximately 0. REYNOLDS–COLBURN ANALOGY 65 so that substitution yields h as h = Plugging in δt .25) and (5. 2002). we can write (5.4. (5. Nu = 1/2 3 kf · 2 δt .332 kf Rex P r 1/3 .6 < P r < 60 (Incropera and Dewitt. x from which we can manipulate to write in terms of the Nusselt number as hx (5. we ﬁnd 0.

vary according to temperature. the primary objective is to determine the convection coeﬃcient. etc. there are a number of approaches for doing this • theoretical: apply analytical techniques to solve governing equations (this is the approach we exploited for all of our conduction problems) • empirical: perform experimental measurements under controlled conditions and correlate data in terms of relevant dimensionless parameters • numerical: approximate governing equations with discrete expressions and use computers to solve iteratively As we have discussed in Chapter 5. We have already determined the relevant dimensionless groups for the typical convection problem. m. Rex . Of course. results can be cast in the form of correlations. Given suﬃcient measurement data. empirical techniques lend themselves well to these sorts of problems. meaning that a pressure gradient or some other externally–applied force powers the ﬂow (as opposed to buoyancy eﬀects). P r). We will concentrate on forced convection. which may be found via the Nusselt number N u x = N ux (x∗ . This includes cases such as ﬂow over a ﬂat plate. so the success of theoretical approaches will be limited to a few speciﬁc cases. 2 66 .CHAPTER 6 External Convection Now we would like to focus on convection problems of external ﬂow more closely. However. convection problems are usually non–linear. Conversely.1) Tf = Ts + T ∞ . It is well–known that ﬂuid properties. this sort of approach presents an immediate and obvious problem. airfoil. for example viscosity and conductivity. equations of the form N ux = C Rem P r n . Once again. and C. L where N ux is the averaged Nusselt number. and n are problem– speciﬁc constants that must be determined. How do we properly account for such variations in a correlation equation? One method is to evaluate properties at the so–called ﬁlm temperature (6. for example.

. Flow over a ﬂat plate is one such conﬁguration (Figs.1 and 5. ∂x ∂y ∂y 2 ∂v ∂u + = 0.12).5) u = and v = − · ∂y ∂x Transforming the momentum equation appropriately. but will be unable to follow it to completion.18) on pp. The similarity technique introduced in §4. to this problem. for example of the form (µ∞ /µs )r . (5. we will discuss cases that can be treated purely via theory. Another possibility is the incorporation of additional correlation terms.3) and (6. LAMINAR FLOW OVER A FLAT PLATE 67 which is simply the average of the temperature extremes. ∂x ∂y ∂T ∂T ∂2T + v = α · ∂x ∂y ∂y 2 (6. y) is the stream function. we ﬁnd it becomes 2f + ff = 0. Where do these solutions come from? The exact solution is not trivial.6 can be used to reduce the partial diﬀerential system to an ordinary diﬀerential equation. 6.1. Laminar Flow Over A Flat Plate Before delving further into correlations. 5. and (5.4) u In Chapter 5.6. the boundary layer form of the equations given by Eqs. (5. to account for such variations. As we mentioned previously. We can cast the solution procedure. we derived the Reynolds–Colburn analogy using analytical solutions. this is a result of the non–linearity of the system in Eqs. the transformation variables η = y u∞ νx ψ u∞ and νx u∞ f (η) = are appropriate. In this case.1. 59 can be written as (6. one should suspect that a similarity approach may work when no inherent scales can be identiﬁed in the problem.15) on pp. (5.2).13). Assuming no pressure gradient along the plate and no viscous dissipation. both approximate and exact. which is deﬁned as ∂ψ ∂ψ (6. in fact it is beyond the mathematical capabilities we have developed thus far.2) u ∂u ∂2u ∂u + v = ν . where ψ = ψ(x. 61. Again.16) through (5.

002 0. we will see that it is linear.994 0.482 3.664 (6.569 1.297 0.6) Conversely.930 2. with the so–called “shooting method”.976 0.0 4. because the velocity components are known.999 1.956 0.1Numerically.4 0. This equation can be solved in a number of ways6.922 1.6. LAMINAR FLOW OVER A FLAT PLATE 68 where the prime symbol indicates the regular derivative of a uni–variate function.g. f 0 0.7) Cf = √ · Rex (6.005 0. if we take a closer look at the energy equation in Eq.812 0.184 0.8 boundary layer thickness is 5x δ = √ Rex and the resulting skin friction coeﬃcient is 0. for example by numerical 6.880 4.001 0.679 5.8 1. The resulting Table 6.2 3. a series expansion technique can also be used to solve to any desired degree of precision. e.0 2.332 0.420 0.079 f = u∗ 0 0.238 0.267 0.011 0.1.231 1.6.650 0. this equation is fairly straightforward to solve.027 0.6 4.0 6. Boundary layer solution η 0 0.8 3.394 0.923 0. Conversely.997 0. we can transform this equation into Pr T∗ + f T∗ = 0 . This can be solved.317 0.331 0. this ordinary diﬀerential equation is still non–linear.064 0.729 0.133 0.4 6.1.517 0.000 1.1.000 f 0.4 2.139 0.6 2.18) on pp.6 6.1 to yield the solution given in Table 6. (5.098 0.988 0.085 3. 2 where T ∗ = T ∗ (η) and the prime symbol again denotes the regular derivative of a uni–variate function.022 0.2 1.4 4. Using the similarity variables.000 .265 0. 61.228 0.2 5.280 4. unlike the conduction problem in §4.8 5.039 0.630 0.327 0.692 3.106 0.306 2.876 0. Unfortunately.

Applying integration by parts.2) over the boundary layer δ (6. Pohlhausen (1921) derived just such a solution in the form of an integral method that can be solved to various degrees of accuracy. First. ∂x Now. (5. KARMAN–POHLHAUSEN INTEGRAL SOLUTION 69 integration for a speciﬁc Prandtl number. we see vdu = uv − udv.12) v |y=δ = − 0 ∂u dy . δ (6. ∂y 2 which gives. R 6.14). Karman–Pohlhausen Integral Solution The fact that the exact solution in the previous section is diﬃcult from a mathematical standpoint suggests that an approximate solution might be useful. 6.2If integrating by parts. again by the Chain Rule.14) 0 u ∂u y=δ dy + uv |y=0 − ∂x δ u 0 ∂u ∂v dy = ν ∂y ∂y y=δ . after integrating the second term on the left hand side by parts6.11) 0 ∂u dy + ∂x δ 0 ∂v dy = 0 .2. in particular the local Nusselt number N u x in Eq. The dimensionless results can be cast as hx x = 0. 64 for the Reynolds–Colburn analogy. T.6 . von Karman (1921) and K.2. we start with the continuity equation ∂v ∂u + = 0 (6. we have already used this solution in the form of Eqs. y=0 as simply du by the Chain Rule. ∂y Now note that v = 0 at y = 0 (as part of the no–slip boundary condition) and that the second part of the equation is simply dv because of the chain rule.6. This gives: δ (6. In fact. However. (6. ∂v dy = dv. (6.10) ∂x ∂y and integrate it across the boundary layer: δ (6.8) can be integrated to obtain an averaged value of (6.23) and (5. (6.332 Re1/2 P r 1/3 for P r ≥ 0. we can consider ∂u dy ∂y . which R R means we are evaluating vdu.24) on pp.8) N ux = x kf A number of additional results are shown in Incropera and Dewitt (2002). to yield T ∗ . we also integrate the boundary layer form of the momentum equation (6.9) N u x = 2 N ux . This gives the second and third terms ∂y on the left hand side of Eq.2 and recognizing the right hand side can be integrated directly.13) 0 u ∂u dy + ∂x δ v 0 ∂u dy = ν ∂y δ 0 ∂2u dy .

In the third term.14). We apparently have an implicit equation in u that cannot be solved in closed form.10) to swap ∂v/∂y = − ∂u/∂x. however. therefore ∂/∂x → d/dx. let us assume that u is described by a polynomial 6. 2u ∂u = ∂u2 ∂x ∂x 6. therefore it is a function of both x and y. KARMAN–POHLHAUSEN INTEGRAL SOLUTION 70 The ﬁrst term remains the same.19) d dx δ 0 (u0 − u) · u dy = τw .18) is an integral form of the boundary layer equations. the left hand side also cannot be evaluated because it contains u.r.t. The second term can be evaluated using Eq. we utilize the original continuity equation (6. (6. (6. (6. Speciﬁcally. we would like to use a polynomial that is a function of just a single 6. y=0 Now. y) and done later. . we can apply reasonable approximations for u. lower–order polynomials will.17) 0 ∂ ∂u (u0 · u − u · u) dy = ν ∂x ∂y . which yields: (6. We know that the ﬂow is developing.3. in general. (6.6. y).12) for v and observing that u = 0 at y = 0 and u = u 0 at y = δ.e. we see that the right hand side is basically the shear stress at the surface of the plate. These modiﬁcations give δ (6. Similarly. For example. If we examine this equation carefully.3i.2. However. y=0 Eq. That is. i. y=0 which can be simpliﬁed to (6. yield less accurate results as compared to higher–order polynomials. the right hand side is basically a term that is evaluated.4. we make the following observations. u = u(x. y=0 The u0 can be taken directly under the integral and the u can be “integrated” in6. and the diﬀerential on the left hand side can be taken outside the integral (since the term is an integral w.4Here is where the idea of various degrees of accuracy enters into the problem.16) u0 0 ∂u dy − ∂x 2u 0 ∂u ∂u dy = ν ∂x ∂y .15) 0 u ∂u dy − u0 ∂x δ δ 0 ∂u dy + ∂x δ δ u 0 ∂u ∂u dy = −ν ∂x ∂y . to further develop Eq.18) d dx δ 0 (u0 − u) · u dy = ν ∂u ∂y . However. This quantity is unknown because we do not know the velocity proﬁle u. The order is limited by how many boundary conditions we can identify because these must be used to evaluate the polynomial coeﬃcients. The fourth term is evaluated using the fact that ∂u/∂y is zero at y = δ.e. which yields: δ (6.

however.e. as we shall see shortly. u0 δ δ δ Eq. Eq. This gives (6. (6. a2 = 1. since the boundary layer thickness depends upon x. and a fourth that can be deduced without too much diﬃculty. (6. • While these 3 boundary conditions are fairly obvious.5.6. and a4 = −0.21) u |y=0 = 0 .2) we see that this can be evaluated at y = 0 using.e. but since we do not know how δ varies. (6. (6.6).18). (6.22) ∂u ∂y = 0. plugging in u = v = 0 at y = 0.23). y=0 Now. .5There are three boundary conditions that can be easily identiﬁed. we ﬁnd (6.25) to now evaluate the terms in Eq. we ﬁnd a 1 = a3 = 0.25) . once again.24) ∂2u ∂y 2 = 0. Let us show this explicitly: 6. a fourth can be deduced with a little eﬀort. our solution for u/u0 is a function of both x and y.5. Looking back to the boundary layer momentum equation (6.20) appears to depend only upon y. We use Eq. We now know the form of u/u 0 . the rate of change of u with respect to y goes to zero at y ≥ δ. y=δ • The velocity at the edge of the boundary layer is known to be u 0 . Carrying this out. we have four unknowns: a1 . and four equations with which to evaluate them: (6. .18). Let us then assume the following: choose a third–order polynomial having 4 constants6. which gives (6. Therefore.23) u |y=δ = u0 . KARMAN–POHLHAUSEN INTEGRAL SOLUTION 71 variable. • The gradient of velocity vanishes at the edge of the boundary layer.24).20) = a1 + a2 + a4 . . which gives u 3 y 1 y 3 (6. δ = δ(x) as shown in Eq. i. (6. (5.5 y 2 u y y 3 + a3 (6. we still do not know the explicit solution for u/u 0 ! This is where we will now apply the integral form of the boundary layer equations we derived: i.21) through (6.20): • No–slip boundary conditions at the wall give (6. = − u0 2 δ 2 δ Note that this equation is the ﬁrst part of the solution shown back in Eq. a4 . In other words.2. the concept that there is no–slip at the plate surface. Let us describe the boundary conditions that we will use to evaluate the coeﬃcients in Eq.

25 1.5 0.5 y − 3 y3 δ δ 1.5 y − 2 y2 − 3 y3 + 4 y4 − 6 y6 δ δ δ δ δ δ y=0 dy 3 2 3 1 3 5 1 7 y − 2 y3 − 3 y4 + y − y 4 4δ 4δ 8δ 10δ 28δ 6 which simpliﬁes to 39 2 u δ 280 0 • The right hand side of Eq. (6. that is.18) as δ 0 δ (u0 − u) · u dy = which is u2 0 0 u2 0 2.5 y + 3 y3 δ δ • Starting inside the integral on the left hand side we can then write u0 − u = u 0 1 − so that (u0 − u) · u = u2 1 − 0 0.5 1.18) can then be written as d dx 39 2 u δ 280 0 = 3 νu0 2 δ • We note that δ is the only term on the left hand side that is a function of x. we write u as u = u0 0.25).2. therefore we can write the equation as 39 2 u 280 0 dδ 3 νu0 = dx 2 δ which is a simple separable diﬀerential equation that can be written as 140 ν δ dδ = dx 13 u0 • This equation can be integrated along the ﬂow direction.5 y + 3 y3 δ δ 0.6.5 1.5 1.5 y − 3 y3 δ δ • We can then evaluate the integral on the left hand side of Eq.5 0. in x as 140 ν dx δ dδ = 13 u0 .18) is easily evaluated as 3 νu0 2 δ • Eq. (6.5 1.25 0. (6. (6. Everything else is constant with respect to x. KARMAN–POHLHAUSEN INTEGRAL SOLUTION 72 • From Eq.

we can also evaluate the shear stress and the wall skin friction coeﬃcient C f .2. since Eq.664 linear 3. including the cubic polynomial we have used here. KARMAN–POHLHAUSEN INTEGRAL SOLUTION 73 from which we ﬁnd δ2 140 ν x = + C0 2 13 u0 where C0 is a constant.48 0. along with Eq.64 is remarkably close to the value of 5.79 0. 2 /2 = ρ u0 Rex which is.3). (6. We see that the second part of Eq. • Recalling the fact that the boundary layer thickness is zero at the leading edge of the plate.7).0 that was obtained from the full non–linear (and much more diﬃcult) exact solution! Using Eq.46 0.64 0. §8.4) for temperature is Table 6. .g. once again. we ﬁnd C 0 = 0 so that δ2 140 ν x = 2 13 u0 which can be written as 280 ν x 280 ν x 2 δ = = x = 4. We assumed a third–order polynomial for the velocity proﬁle in Eq.0 0.2 compares the exact solution to several approximate ones. We can therefore write the boundary layer solution as 4.655 somewhat similar.27). other forms could have been assumed as well.25) describe the complete velocity proﬁle.64 x (6. that is δ(0) = 0.28) Cf = τw 0. (6.23).27) δ ≈ Re1/2 We have now solved the problem.646 sinusoidal 4. The procedure to solve Eq. Of course.19). (6. Note that the constant 4.26) is simply the inverse of the square root of the Reynolds number based on x.6.578 5.640955 13 u0 13 u0 x2 (6. quite comparable to the exact solution in Eq. Laminar boundary layer solutions √ √ solution δ Rex /x Cf Rex exact 5. (6. Table 6.20). for example (6. Development of this result is shown in a number of reference texts (e.26) ν u0 x x Note that this equation is the second and concluding part of the solution shown back in Eq. (6. 1983. (6.24).646 √ .2. (6. (5. Burmeister. but more tedious and leads to Eq. (5.730 parabolic cubic 4.

7. Unless otherwise noted. Eqs. One 6. Flat Plate.6.565 P e1/2 x where P ex = Rex P r is the Peclet number . It is important to understand the limitations of these formulae.0296 Re4/5 P r 1/3 x is reasonably accurate.6 ≤ P r ≤ 60 and Rex ≤ 107 averaged Nusselt number can be obtained by direct integration according to Eq. when solving problems. They are not general solutions! They are simply relationships that have been found to be reasonably accurate in some limited range of the parameters 6. we are compelled to admit our inability to examine more complicated conﬁgurations from a purely theoretical perspective. Empirical Correlations Now that we have comprehensively studied laminar ﬂow over a ﬂat plate.30) N ux = 0. we have characterized boundary layer–type problems in terms of the relevant dimensionless parameters and this provides a basis for correlating experimental measurements for various conﬁgurations.2) on pp. undergoes transition. EMPIRICAL CORRELATIONS 74 6. 1985. these results are based on evaluating ﬂuid properties at the ﬁlm temperature.6. .3.0468/P r] 2/3 1/4 1/2 P r ≤ 0. These texts also list the original references for the correlations presented below. We do not delve into the details of making such measurements. Incropera and Dewitt.31) are valid for the local Nusselt number.1.3.6. recall from Table 5. the thermal boundary layer develops very rapidly. (5. and then becomes turbulent 6.g ¨ s Ozi¸ik. For turbulent ﬂow.29) through (6. Theoretical results for the laminar ﬂat plate were restricted to P r > 0.6Accuracy may be on the order of about 20 %. if the area of interest is strictly laminar or turbulent. P ex ≥ 100 . we simply catalog some of the notable formulae for basic problems. This yields (6.05 and P ex ≥ 100 . In this case.29) N ux = 0. the correlation (6. however.3. We can assume then that u = u∞ over the whole thermal boundary layer and rework the thermal boundary layer solution. it is always important to make sure its parameters correspond to the correlation that is chosen. 6.31) N ux = 0.3387 Rex P r 1/3 1 + [0. 6. Correlations for the averaged Nusselt number are somewhat more diﬃcult because they have to account for the fact that a boundary layer initially has a laminar behavior. so that δ t δ. the appropriate 0.7Of course.1 that liquid metals can have substantially lower Prandtl numbers. Therefore. 2002). Various texts have more extensive listings (e. However. Rather. A correlation valid for laminar ﬂow and all P r is given by (6. 54. (6.

we could then model the overall convection coeﬃcient as (6. Cylinders in Cross–Flow.1). EMPIRICAL CORRELATIONS 75 way to handle this is to assume that transition occurs at a speciﬁc critical location along the plate xc . As you might recall laminar boundary layer large wake turbulent boundary layer small wake Figure 6. ﬂow separation occurs at some point where the boundary layer detaches from the surface. and by the coeﬃcient of drag ReD = CD = FD . Af ρ u2 /2 ∞ where FD is the measured drag force and Af is the projected frontal area normal to the ﬂow. from ﬂuid mechanics. which divides the plate into laminar and turbulent regions.1 pp 400 Using hlam based on Eq.2). where the limits are 0.33) N uL = 0.e. 7. The character of the boundary layer (laminar or turbulent) strongly inﬂuences where separation occurs. (We assume that transition occurs at Re = 5 × 105 .3. According to Eq. we ﬁnd (6.8) and hturb based on Eq. ν where u∞ is the velocity upstream of the cylinder and D is the diameter.) 6.000. I&D Ex.31). (6. (6.2) on pp.3. 54. forming a low–pressure wake. 5 × 10 5 ≤ Re ≤ 108 .6 ≤ P r ≤ 60 and the end of the plate at x = L is assumed to lie in the turbulent zone. (5. i. There is a signiﬁcant decrease as transition and turbulent ﬂow become important at Reynolds numbers above 200.2.000 to 500.6.32) 1 ¯ h = L xc L hlam dx + 0 xc hturb dx . These .037 ReL 4/5 − 871 P r 1/3 .1. 6. The ﬂow is characterized by the Reynolds number u∞ D . 6. and thus the magnitude of CD (Fig. Laminar and turbulent boundary layer formation for cross–ﬂow over a cylinder. Engineering applications frequently involve cross–ﬂow over one or more cylinders (Fig.

An overall Nusselt number.6. Boundary layer eﬀects for ﬂow over spheres are similar to those described for cylinders.5 < ReD < 7. except µs . µs where all properties are evaluated at T ∞ . Coeﬃcient of drag for cross–ﬂow over a circular features strongly inﬂuence the convection characteristics (e. EMPIRICAL CORRELATIONS 76 1000 drag coefficient 100 10 1 0. Incropera and Dewitt (2002) list several additional correlation equations that are appropriate for groups of more than a single cylinder. The primary correlation for averaged Nusselt number is µ 1/4 . 6.g.3. ﬂuid properties are evaluated at the ﬁlm temperature.6 × 104 (Incropera and Dewitt.34) N uD = 0. 7.35) N uD = 2 + 0. has been proposed as (6.71 < P r < 380 and 3.3. pp 415 (6. Again.2. valid over all Reynolds numbers Re D for which data are available.3.5 0.3 + 0.62 ReD P r 1/3 1 + [0.9. Fig.35) are approximately I&D Ex.4 ReD 1/2 + 0. 2002).4 . Incropera and Dewitt.1 1 10 100 1000 10^4 10^5 10^6 Reynolds number Figure 6. 7.4/P r]2/3 1/4 1/2 1 + ReD 282. 2002. 410). (6. cylinder.01 0. Spheres. which is evaluated at the sphere surface temperature The restrictions on Eq. pp. 000 5/8 4/5 · The restriction on the Prandtl number is roughly Re D P r > 0.1 0.06 ReD 2/3 P r 0.2.

Laminar Pipe Flow Let us start with the example of fully developed laminar ﬂow in a circular pipe (Fig. The distance x f d at which this 7.1. For conﬁgurations where the ﬂow remains in a developing state. where the growth of the boundary layer is not constrained. pipes.1. We will ﬁnd that. whereas it is fully developed if ∂/∂x = 0 (with the exception of the pressure gradient. Flow in a pipe with developing and fully developed regions. 77 . eventually merging so as to encompass the entire cross–sectional area of the pipe. we shall study conﬁgurations of internal ﬂow in which the boundary layer is not permitted to grow without limitation.CHAPTER 7 Internal Convection In Chapter 6.1.g. unlike for external ﬂows.1). certain internal ﬂow conﬁgurations can be solved exactly in closed form since non–linear terms in the momentum equations may disappear. as you probably remember from ﬂuid mechanics. and grow inward from the periphery. which need not vanish). Here. ducts. Now. in addition to the consideration of laminar versus turbulent ﬂow. solution procedures will be somewhat limited and we shall be compelled to rely more on empirical data and correlations. we examined convection in external ﬂows. e. etc. As ﬂuid enters the pipe.1Recall from ﬂuid mechanics that ﬂow along the x coordinate direction is developing if ∂/∂x = 0. 7. a boundary layer begins to form boundary layer inviscid core boundary layer x developing flow (hydrodynamic entrance region) fully developed flow Figure 7. 7. we must be concerned with whether the ﬂow is developing or fully developed 7. are always those in which the ﬂow is fully developed and thus the velocity vector is only a function of the streamwise velocity component. These cases.

2 no longer change as a function of x. we simply integrate twice to obtain the velocity distribution (7. LAMINAR PIPE FLOW 78 occurs is the hydrodynamic entry length. or mean velocity over the cross–section u ¯ uD ¯ · ν Transition from laminar to turbulent ﬂow is usually in the neighborhood of ReD ≈ 2300. As usual.2) u(r) = 1 µ dP dx r2 + C1 ln r + C2 . the governing equation for u is obtained by simplifying the streamwise momentum equation (7. and viscous eﬀects are non–negligible throughout the entire cross–section of the pipe. 7.2Again. For laminar ﬂow. That is. so that the natural log term must remain ﬁnite at r = 0 • because of symmetry of the overall problem. We might recall from ﬂuid mechanics that for fully developed laminar ﬂow. One boundary condition is immediately available from the no–slip requirement. u|r=0 = 0 + C1 ln 0 + C2 = ﬁnite be no driving force to sustain the ﬂow. which is taken as a known quantity. we must use boundary conditions to evaluate them. For x ≥ x f d . The Reynolds number characterizing pipe ﬂows is based on the pipe diameter D and the average. Consequently. 4 where C1 and C2 are constants of integration.1) µ d r dr r du dr = dP . except for the pressure gradient. while for turbulent ﬂow it is in the approximate range 10 D < xf d < 60 D . this is a situation in which the second boundary condition is not completely obvious. It can be derived from either of the following physical observations: • the ﬂow is well–behaved. the radial and azimuthal velocity components vanish. otherwise there would .1. C1 = 0 . However. the velocity vector simpliﬁes to u = u (r).05 ReD D . where r0 is the pipe radius. the ﬂow is fully developed. which cannot vanish. u = 0 at r = r 0 . leaving only the streamwise component u. dx This is a second–order ordinary diﬀerential equation — recall that the ﬂow is driven by the pressure gradient dP/dx. For example. meaning quantities7. Therefore. xf d is on the order ReD = xf d ≈ 0.7. the velocity proﬁle must also be symmetric about r = 0 Both these observations yield the same result that C 1 = 0.

7.1. LAMINAR PIPE FLOW

79

**Applying no–slip, we ﬁnd u|r=r0 = so that 1 µ dP dx
**

2 r0 + C2 = 0 , 4

2 1 dP r0 µ dx 4 Substituting C1 and C2 into the general solution given by Eq. (7.2), we ﬁnd the exact solution is 2 1 dP r 2 1 dP r0 u(r) = − , µ dx 4 µ dx 4

C2 = −

**or with further simpliﬁcation (7.3) u(r) = − 1 4µ dP dx
**

2 r0

1−

r r0

2

.

Note that the pressure gradient must be negative to drive the ﬂow in the positive x direction, i.e. the ﬂow moves from high pressure to low pressure. Volume ﬂow rate can be calculated by integrating the velocity proﬁle as (7.4) Q = −

4 π r0 dP 8 µ dx

as shown in Appendix B. Again, the negative sign in Eq. (7.4) is compensated for by the negative pressure gradient dP/dx. According to the deﬁnition Q = uA, we immediately have the average, or mean velocity as ¯ (7.5) u = ¯ Q D 2 dP r 2 dP Q = = − 0 = − . 2 A 8 µ dx 32 µ dx π r0

We have rewritten the result in terms of the pipe diameter D in the last expression. From this result, we see that the exact solution in Eq. (7.3) can be expressed in the equivalent form (7.6) u(r) = 2 u 1 − ¯ r r0

2

.

**Also, the mass ﬂow rate m = ρ¯A = ρQ is ˙ u (7.7) m = − ˙
**

4 ρ π r0 dP 8 µ dx

**Furthermore, Eqs. (7.3) and (7.6) indicate that the maximum velocity, which occurs at r = 0, is
**

2 r0 dP = 2u. ¯ 4 µ dx Now that the ﬂuid mechanics problem is solved, we can turn our attention to the heat transfer problem. The immediate trouble we see is that, unlike for external ﬂows, there’s no ﬁxed free–stream reference temperature

(7.8)

umax = u(0) = −

7.2. THE CASE OF CONSTANT HEAT FLUX

80

**T∞ . The convention is instead to use a mean or “bulk” temperature deﬁned as ρ u cv T dAcs = m cv Tm . ˙
**

Acs

From this expression, we see that Tm is based on the thermal energy transported as the ﬂow moves through a cross–section of the pipe 7.3. Let us assume constant values for density ρ and speciﬁc heat c v . Moreover, dAcs = 2 2 π r dr and Acs = π r0 , which gives Tm = or simplifying (7.9) Tm = 2 u r0 ¯ 2

r0

ρ cv

u T 2 π r dr , 2 ρ u π r 0 cv ¯

r0 0

u T r dr .

0

This is now a suitable quantity to use in our deﬁnition of the convective ¨ s heat transfer coeﬃcient, which we deﬁne for this problem as ( Ozi¸ik, 1985, pp. 243) (7.10) where Ts and qs are the temperature and heat ﬂux at the surface of the pipe, respectively. 7.2. The Case of Constant Heat Flux Note that unlike T∞ for external ﬂows, Tm as deﬁned by Eq. (7.9) is generally not constant, but varies with axial distance. If the ﬂuid is being heated (Ts > Tm ), then Tm will increase along the ﬂow direction, and vice versa. If that is the case, then clearly dT m /dx = 0, so it appears that we can never realize the fully developed condition for the convection problem. Fortunately, this apparent contradiction is resolved if we work with dimensionless temperature. Let us deﬁne (7.11) θ = T (r, x) − Ts (x) . Tm (x) − Ts (x) qs = h (Tm − Ts ) ,

We then take fully developed thermal conditions to be deﬁned by ∂θ/∂x = 0, which can be obtained for the case of constant wall heat ﬂux q s . Let us now deduce some consequences laid out by Eq. (7.11). If ∂θ/∂x = 0, then θ cannot be a function of x for thermally fully developed ﬂow. It follows that ∂θ/∂r cannot likewise be a function of x. We can evaluate ∂θ ∂r =

r=r0

∂ T (r, x) − Ts (x) ∂r Tm (x) − Ts (x)

=

r=r0

1 ∂T Tm (x) − Ts (x) ∂r

,

r=r0

7.3That is, ρu is the mass ﬂux and c T is the energy per unit mass. Integrating v their product, the energy ﬂux, over the cross–section gives the rate at which energy is transported through the cross–section.

7.2. THE CASE OF CONSTANT HEAT FLUX

81

and by the same argument conclude that this result is not a function of x. In other words, this expression remains ﬁxed as the ﬂow proceeds in the x direction. If we substitute surface heat ﬂux from Newton’s Law of Cooling in Eq. (7.10), qs /h = (Tm − Ts ), and from Fourier’s Law of Conduction, ∂T /∂r = −qs /k at r = r0 then we ﬁnd ∂T 1 Tm (x) − Ts (x) ∂r =

r=r0

h qs

−

qs k

=

r=r0

h k

,

from which we must conclude that the local convection coeﬃcient h is independent of x for fully developed ﬂow 7.4. Furthermore, Eq. (7.10) indicates that for constant h and constant q s , the diﬀerence Ts − Tm must be a constant that does not vary with x. We already know that Ts and Tm change with x, so that, if their diﬀerence is a constant, the rates of change of these two temperatures must be the same in the fully developed regime, i.e. (7.12) dTs dTm = · dx dx

Let us go one step further. We evaluate ∂θ/∂x using θ as deﬁned in Eq. (7.11). Our initial assumption of fully developed conditions requires ∂θ/∂x = 0. Evaluating, we ﬁnd ∂θ ∂x = = = ∂ T (r, x) − Ts (x) ∂x Tm (x) − Ts (x) ∂ [T (r, x) − Ts (x)] [Tm (x) − Ts (x)]−1 ∂x ∂ [T (r, x) − Ts (x)] 1 Tm (x) − Ts (x) ∂x T (r, x) − Ts (x) ∂ [Tm (x) − Ts (x)] − ∂x [Tm (x) − Ts (x)]2 0,

=

The second term vanishes since ∂/∂x of [T m (x) − Ts (x)] was just shown to be 0 in Eq. (7.12). This leaves 1 ∂ [T (r, x) − Ts (x)] = 0, Tm (x) − Ts (x) ∂x where Tm (x) − Ts (x) is, again, a non–zero constant according to Eq. (7.10). We can therefore write more concisely ∂ [T (r, x) − Ts (x)] = 0, ∂x

7.4Since the thermal conductivity k is constant, h must not be a function of x if the

expression as a whole cannot be a function of x.

Derivation of the convection energy equation in cylindrical coordinates is beyond our present scope.2. so that ∂T /∂x is a constant in Eq. We now address the actual problem of laminar fully developed pipe ﬂow having a constant applied heat ﬂux q s at the pipe surface r = r0 . In light of Eq. but it is shown in numerous reference texts (e. the streamwise temperature gradient anywhere in the cross– I&D Ex. Incropera and Dewitt. Eq. as deﬁned by Eq. we notice that since dT m /dx is constant. we now conclude ∂T (r. According to our hydrodynamic solution. so that ∂/∂θ = 0. Chapter 1).13) and therefore ∂ 2 T /∂x2 = 0. x) = . we write 1 d dTm dθ = α (Tm − Ts ) r . ultimately.5 that the mean temperature Tm is a linear function of x.14) u 2 2 ∂x r ∂θ ∂r ∂x r ∂θ r ∂r ∂r (7.7. u = u (r) is given by Eq. (7. (7. 1984.14) then simpliﬁes to (7. the problem is symmetric. . x) in the pipe and. 8. This pp 475 result will be used in solving for the temperature distribution T (r. (7. (7. the Nusselt number for laminar fully developed ﬂow.g.17) u(r) dx r dr dr which can be re–arranged as (7. since T s is only a function of x. x) dTm = · ∂x dx In other words. r) coordinates (x is in the streamwise axial direction). §8. Bejan.3).13) where u is again the axial streamwise velocity component.3. (7. (7. we have ∂2T vθ ∂T ∂T 1 ∂2T 1 ∂ ∂T ∂T + + wr =α + 2 + r . (7. and v θ and wr are the azimuthal and radial velocity components.18) 1 d r dr r dθ dr = u(r) dTm . Recasting this equation in dimensionless temperature θ.1 section is equal to the streamwise gradient of the mean temperature. the equation can be written as an ordinary diﬀerential equation (7. For steady ﬂow in (x. Also. while v θ = wr = 0. which leads us to If we examine this equation more closely. We assume constant properties and no energy generation. 2002.16) u(r) dTm = α dx 1 d r dr r dT dr . ∂x dx where we have changed ∂ to a plain derivative.12).15) u(r) dTm = α dx 1 ∂ r ∂r r ∂T ∂r . THE CASE OF CONSTANT HEAT FLUX 82 dTs (x) ∂T (r. θ.g. α (Tm − Ts ) dx 7.5This can be shown according to an energy balance (e.11).1). We will further assume 7.

4 16 r0 where C1 and C2 are constants of integration. but more convenient form is (7. 4 16 r0 1 3 + 16 16 r r0 4 3 2 A r0 . Temperature has a given value T s at the wall. α (Tm − Ts ) dx Eq. A boundary condition at r = 0 can be deduced from either of • the temperature is well–behaved.2. (7.6). THE CASE OF CONSTANT HEAT FLUX 83 Using the solution for u(r) expressed in terms of the average velocity u ¯ in Eq. (7. The appropriate boundary conditions are similar to the hydrodynamic problem.21) 2 Tm − T s = Tm − T s u r0 ¯ 2 r0 u 0 T − Ts r dr . where A is the constant deﬁned by A = dTm 2u ¯ . the temperature proﬁle must also be symmetric about r = 0 Both these observations yield the same result that C 1 = 0. then divide by Tm −Ts ). Applying the remaining condition. The unknown value of A can be determined by employing the deﬁnition of the bulk mean temperature in Eq. (7. Let us write this in dimensionless form by forming θ on both sides (subtract T s . which yields (7. 16 A equivalent. so that the natural log term must remain ﬁnite at r = 0 • because of symmetry of the overall problem. r = r0 .20) 2 θ = − A r0 − 1 4 r r0 2 . Tm − T s . we can write (7.7.19) can be integrated once to get r and then again to obtain θ = ∂θ A r2 A r4 = − 2 + C1 ∂r 2 4 r0 A r4 A r2 − 2 + C1 ln r + C2 .9). so that θ = 0 at r = r0 . we ﬁnd C2 = − which enables us to write θ as θ = 3 A r2 A r4 2 − 2 − 16 A r0 .19) d dr dθ r dr = Ar 1− r r0 2 .

r=r0 Let us now express h in terms of the dimensionless temperature θ from Eq. x) = θ [Tm (x) − Ts (x)] + Ts (x). 1980. (7. (7. Using this result. . we ﬁnd r=r0 = − 96 48 96 = − = − . The result is similarly straightforward (7.658 . pp.364 . (7. we obtain 96 2 (7. This is the dimensionless temperature proﬁle for the forced convection in a circular tube for constant wall heat ﬂux. kf 11 The case of a constant surface temperature can be examined. 11 as shown in Appendix B.23) A r0 = − . We ﬁnd (7. 0 Substituting in for u and θ and integrating.10). 44 r0 22 D 11 D Substituting into Eq. THE CASE OF CONSTANT HEAT FLUX 84 Converting to dimensionless notation. Is it possible to develop this result even further? Fourier’s Law written at the pipe’s surface assumes the form qs = − k f ∂T ∂r .7. (7.22) 1 = 2 u r0 ¯ 2 r0 u θ r dr . r=r0 Using the solution for θ in Eq. r=r0 Combining this with the expression for Newton’s Law of Cooling in Eq. 93–97).25) yields 48 11 D from which we can identify the Nusselt number as h = kf (7. however the mathematics of the problem are appreciably more diﬃcult (Kays and Crawford. this equation is (7.24) to evaluate ∂θ/∂r at r = r 0 . where T (r. we can express the convection coeﬃcient as h = − kf ∂T Tm − Ts ∂r .25) h = − kf ∂θ ∂r ∂θ ∂r . (7.26) Nu = 48 hD = ≈ 4.24) θ = 96 11 1 3 + 16 16 r r0 4 − 1 4 r r0 2 .27) N u ≈ 3.2.11).20) as (7. we can complete Eq.

57. while the bottom plate has a temperature of T 0 . apart enclose a working ﬂuid characterized by constant density ρ.e. ∂/∂x = 0. As with the pipe problem.5) through (5.7.3. THE COUETTE PROBLEM 85 7. it must be the case that u = u(y). Eq. .6) simpliﬁes to the ordinary equation d2 u = 0. (5. we assume the ﬂow is fully developed. This conﬁguration is a good model for a number of applications. and thermal conductivity k. the top plate replaces pressure as the driving force. The Couette Problem Let us now look at another internal conﬁguration known as the Couette ﬂow problem (Fig. and it is not a function of x (because of fully developed ﬂow conditions).7). At most. however.6).2). no–slip boundary conditions dictate v = 0 at both y = 0 and y = L. but since the ﬂow is fully developed v must be a constant. As a consequence. we solve this problem as follows. is ∂ 2 u/∂y 2 . Schematic of the Couette ﬂow problem. so that Eq. (5. we specify the top plate as the moving one (y = L) and anchor our coordinate origin to the bottom plate at y = 0. v could then be a function of x.3. while the only non–vanishing term in the x–momentum equation. Clearly. The ﬁrst term in the continuity equation ∂v ∂u + = 0 ∂x ∂y must vanish since the ﬂow is fully developed. For the fully developed ﬂow assumption. Eq. One plate translates in its own plane past the other with a constant axial velocity u 1 . since u is the only non–zero velocity component. i. (5. there is no pressure gradient. so the only admissible constant must be v = 0. vanishes altogether. (5.8) on pp.2. Rather. two inﬁnitely long ﬂat plates a distance L y T1 L T0 x u1 Figure 7. viscosity µ. The top plate is at a temperature of T 1 . for example a journal in an oil–ﬁlled bearing. dy 2 Integrating twice. However. the y–momentum equation. By convention. which leaves ∂v/∂y = 0. 7. Here. we ﬁnd u(y) = C1 y + C2 . The problem can be framed in terms of the Navier–Stokes equations introduced in Eqs.

written in dimensionless terms P r Ec (7. because we know the solution for u and can evaluate this term explicitly. cp µ cp µ ρ 1 µ ν Pr = = = = k k ρ α ρ α is the Prandtl number. this can be viewed as a source term. y ∗ = y/L is the dimensionless coordinate. 2 .28) T (y) − T0 = µ u2 T (y) − T0 y 1 y 1 = 1 + 1− T1 − T 0 L 2 k (T1 − T0 ) L or.3. we obtain (7. = − dy 2 k dy Notice that we wrote this as an ordinary equation rather than a partial one. Dividing by T 1 − T0 . dy 2 k L2 Once again. 2 k L2 The boundary conditions T |y=0 = T0 and T |y=L = T1 are used to determine constants C3 and C4 . L 2k L First. which describes how mechanical energy is degraded to heat by the mechanism of friction. (5.29) θ = y∗ 1 + (1 − y ∗ ) . Note that the case of P r Ec = 0 corresponds to the no–ﬂow condition. 57. we can perform straightforward integration to obtain the general solution µ u2 2 1 T (y) = − y + C3 y + C 4 . L With these results. let us examine the case of T0 = T1 . since temperature is not a function of x. In the current problem. We ﬁnd u1 y u(y) = . the temperature proﬁle is a straight line .7. and thus pure conduction.8) on pp. Thus.e. the energy equation. The term on the right hand side represents viscous dissipation. i. THE COUETTE PROBLEM 86 where C1 and C2 are evaluated from no–slip boundary conditions u| y=0 = 0 and u|y=L = u1 . although the opposite case would yield analogous results. and Ec = u2 1 cp (T1 − T0 ) is the Eckert number. Eq. The result is µ u2 d2 T 1 = − . We will assume T1 > T0 . T = T (y). so that the exact solution is µ u2 y y 1 (T1 − T0 ) + 1− . simpliﬁes to µ du 2 d2 T . where θ is dimensionless temperature.

by q = −k dT dy dT dy .2 Ec = 8 0. There are clearly three cases of interest.3. which makes the right hand side negative and therefore heat ﬂows in the −y direction.3.3). For other cases. deﬁned 1 dimensionless "y" 0. .6 0. y=L From Eq.4 0.28). (7. This is what we would intuitively expect.4 1.30) q = −k L 1− . L 2 P r Ec 2 which means that the heat ﬂux is T1 − T 0 (7.4 0. assuming T 1 > T0 ): • P r Ec < 2.6 Figure 7. Temperature distribution in Couette ﬂow with viscous dissipation for T1 > T0 . depending upon the sign of the (1 − P r Ec/2) term (again.2 dimensionless temperature 1.8 0. THE COUETTE PROBLEM 87 connecting T0 and T1 (Fig. An interesting aspect of this problem is the heat ﬂux at the top wall. 7. or from the upper wall into the liquid.6 0.2 0 * Pr = Ec 0 = Ec 2 =4 Pr * Pr c *E Pr * 0. viscous dissipation distorts the straight–line relationship as shown by plotting θ versus y ∗ in Fig. given T 1 > T0 . 7. we evaluate the derivative to obtain = y=L T1 − T 0 µ u2 1 + L 2k u2 1 1 2y − 2 L L y=L = = = T1 − T 0 µ − L 2kL T1 − T 0 µ u2 1 1 − L 2 k (T1 − T0 ) T1 − T 0 P r Ec 1− .8 1 1.7.3.

all properties are evaluated at Tm . This conﬁguration is symmetric about y = L/2. Not intuitive. (7. or from the liquid into the wall.32). which is evaluated at Ts .14 . even though the upper wall is at a higher temperature than the lower wall.31) and (7. 4/5 where n = 0. Tmax − T0 = 7.027 ReD P r 1/3 4/5 µ µs 0.1. For Eq.4 for Ts > Tm (heating) and n = 0. if there is appreciable variation. Empirical Correlations Other problems related to internal convection are more complicated than our present level of theory will allow us to handle. If the ﬂow is fully developed. which makes the right hand side vanish and thus there is no heat transfer at the upper wall. Also not intuitive. As with external conﬁgurations. Eq.7 ≤ P r ≤ 160. ReD > 104 .32) N uD = 0. however.28) reduces to 2 y µ u1 y 1− . the Sieder–Tate correlation should be used (7. EMPIRICAL CORRELATIONS 88 • P r Ec > 2.32) can be .31) is appropriate when Ts is not too diﬀerent from Tm . Eq. except that the Prandtl number can be extended up to P r ≈ 16. except µs .31). The limits are identical to Eq.023 ReD P r n . 2k L L Non–trivial temperature distributions are due strictly to viscous dissipation eﬀects.7. 700. 8k Though not identical. (7. The upper wall behaves as an insulated boundary (q = 0). Here. (7. • P r Ec = 2. which makes the right hand side positive and therefore heat ﬂows in the +y direction. (7. (7.31) N uD = 0.4. and x > 10 D. we must defer to empirically–based correlations using the dimensionless parameters we have developed. both hydrodynamically and thermally. Turbulent Flow in Circular Tubes. the maximum temperature occurs at the middle of the channel and can be computed by setting y = L/2 to get T (y) − T0 = µ u2 1 .3 for Ts < Tm (cooling). even though there is no actual insulation. this case is qualitatively similar to heat generation for conduction heat transfer in §3. Eqs. the Dittus–Boelter correlation can be applied (7.4. 7. All properties are evaluated at Tm . The opposite case from the above is T 0 = T1 .4. In fact. The experimentally established range of applicability according to Incropera and Dewitt (2002) is 0.4.

7.34) Dh = 2 (a + b) a+b Thus.5) discuss additional results for these cases.12 3. results we have obtained for circular tubes can be applied as an initial approximation to non–circular cross sections using the hydraulic diameter as a length scale 4 Ac . EMPIRICAL CORRELATIONS 89 reasonably applied for both the constant temperature and constant heat ﬂux boundary conditions. For fully turbulent ﬂows. i. Dh should be used to calculate the non–circular analogs of the dimensionless parameters.39 3 4. theoretical approaches are beyond the mathematics we have discussed thus far. φ N uDh (const qs ) N uDh (const Ts ) 1 3.33) contains a factor of 4 so that the hydraulic diameter of a circular pipe ` ´ .1 shows selected results for channels of rectangular cross section arranged according to the aspect ratio φ = b/a. the momentum equation cannot be reduced to an ordinary diﬀerential equation like what we obtained for circular pipes in Eq.61 2. (7.6Eq. Kays and Crawford (1980) consider such problems in greater detail. §8. Nusselt numbers based on exact solutions should be used.31) and (7.33) Dh = P where Ac is the cross–sectional area of the conduit and P is the wetted perimeter7.79 3.32) should only be used for fully turbulent problems. (7.6. For example. ReDh and N uDh . 2000 < ReD < 104 . (7. (7. e. we obtain 2ab 4ab = . However.4. (7.4. The transition regime between laminar and fully turbulent ﬂow. the Dittus–Boelter and Sieder–Tate correlations can be reasonably used in conjunction with the hydraulic diameter.1. for a rectangular duct of height a and width b. 1980).g.1). It is emphasized that both Eqs.7.2. Many engineering applications involve tubes or ducts having non–circular cross sections. Results are less accurate for laminar ﬂows. entails additional considerations. Even for laminar ﬂow. 7. For example. The value of Dh can be computed directly from geometry. Here.e. Table 7. where b > a.98 2 4. especially in geometries having sharp corners. for example. Nusselt numbers for rectangular channels of various aspect ratios (Kays and Crawford.33 4.44 is equal to its geometric diameter.96 4 5. Incropera and Dewitt (2002. for a rectangular cross section. Table 7. Non–Circular Tubes. Dh = 4 πD2 /4 / (πD) = D.

left). In particular. imagine 2 inﬁnite parallel horizontal plates which are both ﬁxed. Generally. 8. there are many cases where initial heat transfer causes the local temperature of a ﬂuid to change and thus its density to change as well. electronics. There is no hot cold g y y g cold hot Figure 8. A circulation pattern will arise.1. and ﬂow along window panes. if the bottom wall is hotter (Fig. 8. For example. tendency for the system to move away from this state of equilibrium and any heat transfer between the plates will be a result purely of conduction. so that heat transfer between the plates is eﬀected primarily by natural convection. This actually depends upon the conﬁguration of the problem. This causes a “natural” ﬂuid motion which in turn gives rise to natural. steam radiators in old homes. the conﬁguration is inherently stable because the lighter ﬂuid is already above the cooler heavier ﬂuid. e. 90 .1. etc. the density of a ﬂuid decreases with increasing temperature because of volumetric expansion. or free convection. A few notable situations are refrigerator coils. piping.CHAPTER 8 Natural Convection Up until now we have considered cases where convection is a result of the forced motion of a ﬂuid. an instability must be able to occur. moving boundary. which may induce a natural convection ﬂow. Thus. with the heavy ﬂuid falling by the action of gravity and the light ﬂuid correspondingly rising. free convection arises because of buoyancy forces. If the top plate is hotter than the lower one (Fig. However.g. The concept of instability as a necessary condition for natural convection. This “top heavy” system will tend to ﬂow. the hot light ﬂuid will initially be below the cooler heavier ﬂuid.1. right). a pressure gradient. However.

g u vertical plate y x Figure 8. causing an upward convection pattern. If we assume that the plate temperature T s is greater than the ﬂuid temperature T∞ .1. We are again assuming incompressible ﬂow with one important exception: we must allow for the buoyancy force which drives the ﬂow. the density is not constant! Using the boundary layer approximation. we quickly ﬁnd that the boundary layer velocity proﬁle will be fundamentally diﬀerent from the standard case we are accustomed to. as depicted in Fig.e. + v = − − g + ν ∂x ∂y ρ dx ∂y 2 where g represents the gravity vector. lighter ﬂuid will rise. ∂P/∂x = −ρ∞ g. i. + v = (ρ∞ − ρ) + ν ∂x ∂y ρ ∂y 2 . If we consider the problem ﬁrst on a conceptual basis.e. where ρ∞ is the density of quiescent ﬂuid far from the plate. While we still have a no–slip boundary condition on the plate itself.2. It this term. therefore the x pressure gradient at any point within the boundary layer is the same as that in the quiescent region far outside the boundary layer. 8. we write the resulting equation in the streamwise direction x as u ∂u ∂u 1 dP ∂2u .8. Wall Bounded Convection on a Vertical Flat Surface Let us start by considering the familiar laminar boundary layer situation. except this time the ﬂat plate is placed vertically. The resulting velocity proﬁle would look qualitatively like the one plotted in Fig. 5.1.1. Substituting back into the equation gives u ∂u g ∂2u ∂u . the ﬂuid far away from the plate (y → ∞) is at rest. Boundary layer proﬁle on a vertical ﬂat plate. horizontally).2. There is no body force in the y direction (i. Since there is no ﬂuid motion in this area. WALL BOUNDED CONVECTION ON A VERTICAL FLAT SURFACE 91 8. rather than moving at some non–zero freestream velocity. vertical pressure gradient is prescribed simply by hydrostatic considerations.

8. ∂x ∂y ∂y 2 and for conservation of energy.1Density changes can arise via other means. WALL BOUNDED CONVECTION ON A VERTICAL FLAT SURFACE 92 The ﬁrst term on the right hand side is the buoyancy force and in this case it is the driving force of the ﬂow. The equations must be solved simultaneously. primarily due to the small velocities associated with natural convection.2) ∂v ∂u + = 0 ∂x ∂y ∂T ∂2T ∂T + v = α . which was uncoupled since T only appeared in the energy equation. We can no longer treat the hydrodynamic problem independently. this system is fully coupled. for conservation of mass.3) are the boundary layer form of the natural convection equations.1. We do not consider such cases here. 8. we have the usual (8. Examining these equations. . P which describes the change of density as a function of temperature at constant pressure. we discover a major mathematical complication as compared to forced convection: T now appears in the momentum equation in addition to u appearing in the energy equation. Substituting.1. ∂x ∂y ∂y 2 which nicely shows how the driving buoyancy force is related to a temperature diﬀerence. therefore the remaining equations are unaﬀected. β ≈ − ρ T∞ − T which implies ρ∞ − ρ ≈ ρ β (T − T∞ ) . as opposed to forced convection. Viscous dissipation has been neglected here. (8. Therefore. This idealization is the so–called Boussinesq approximation for density variation.1) through (8. as in for example supersonic ﬂow.1) u ∂u ∂2u ∂u + v = g β (T − T∞ ) + ν . Buoyancy eﬀects are strictly limited to the momentum equation. this term can be described by a thermodynamic property known as the volumetric thermal expansion coeﬃcient β = − 1 ρ ∂ρ ∂T . Speciﬁcally. This can be approximated by a simple ﬁnite diﬀerence expression 1 ρ∞ − ρ . If temperature is the only factor aﬀecting density8. we likewise have (8. the streamwise momentum equation becomes (8.3) u Eqs.

3 x y x∗ = .g. so we can arbitrarily multiply by another dimensionless parameter to obtain a new dimensionless parameter8.4) ∂x∗ ∂y ∗ The momentum and energy equations become (8. 8.6) u∗ Gr = which gives (8. similar to those described in §5. L L u v T − T∞ u∗ = . Non– dimensionalizing the equations according to the results we developed in §4. y∗ = . For an ideal gas.2.7) Gr = g β (Ts − T∞ ) L3 · ν2 g β (Ts − T∞ ) L u2 L2 × 02 . so that 1 ∂ρ 1 P RT P 1 = = = . v∗ = . that the continuity equation remains the same in non– dimensional form ∂v ∗ ∂u∗ + = 0. to get the Grashof number (8.2Characteristic velocity is not readily identiﬁable since conditions outside the bound- ary layer are at rest and thus u∞ = 0. DIMENSIONLESS FORMULATION 93 The thermal expansion coeﬃcient β is a material property. (8.2. we recall that u0 is not a readily prescribed scale. Re = u 0 L/ν. the Ideal Gas Law ρ = P/RT gives ∂ρ/∂T = −P/RT 2 . as usual. we ﬁnd. e. we multiply this quantity by the square of the Reynolds number. ∂x∗ ∂y ∗ Re P r ∂y ∗ 2 There is a new coeﬃcient we have not seen before in front of the buoyancy term. T∗ = . ν u2 0 u∗ ∂u∗ g β (Ts − T∞ ) L ∗ 1 ∂ 2 u∗ ∂u∗ + v∗ = . T + 2 ∂x∗ ∂y ∗ Re ∂y ∗2 u0 8.5) and ∂T ∗ 1 ∂T ∗ ∂2T ∗ + v∗ = . We introduce the usual scales. This is slightly diﬀerent from the method of non–dimensionalization shown in §5. In this case. β must be obtained from appropriate tables. β = − 8. 2 2 ρ ∂T ρ RT P RT T For liquids and non–ideal gases.8.3Recall that this is permissible according to the Buckingham–Pi theorem from ﬂuid mechanics. Dimensionless Formulation Let us now look at some of the non–dimensional parameters that are relevant in natural convection. .3. However.3.2 .4. u0 u0 Ts − T ∞ where L is a characteristic length and u 0 is a characteristic velocity8.

we were able to eliminate the velocity scale u 0 based on the observation that we could not necessarily characterize it appropriately. there are no obvious scales for the problem.8) ∂u∗ 1 ∂ 2 u∗ ∂u∗ + v∗ = Gr T ∗ + .6. Re2 That is.3. If successful.e. Eqs. this condition is equivalent to u∗ Consequently. (8. it could be that an external forcing results in an explicit u 0 . 8. In formulating the Grashof number.8. SIMILARITY SOLUTION FOR THE VERTICAL PLATE 94 The Grashof number plays the same role in free convection that the Reynolds number plays in forced convection. P r) . this would reduce the partial diﬀerential problem to an ordinary diﬀerential problem. i.e.8). Gr) . Similarity Solution for the Vertical Plate As already noted. natural convection is a diﬃcult problem to solve analytically because the equations are fully coupled. to be of the form N u = N u (Re. are functions of the dimensionless parameters Re. Conversely.4). Re is the ratio of inertial forces to viscous forces. 8.5). (8. as with external forced convection on the horizontal ﬂat plate. given by the Nusselt number.3. free convection eﬀects are so small as to be neglected. g β (Ts − T∞ ) L ∼ u2 . natural convection occurs exclusively only for Gr/Re 2 → ∞. if natural convection is dominant. and Gr.5) as (8. The above presumption about the functional dependence of N u is valid when forced and natural convection aspects are comparable. Yet. although strictly speaking. 0 . P r. Re2 Looking back at the form of Gr in Eq. the small forced convection eﬀect would be neglected. However.4 might be used. We can then recast momentum conservation in Eq. (8. so that a problem would be a mixture of forced convection and natural convection. if forced convection dominates a problem. Gr) . for which u0 = 0.4The similarity technique was introduced in §4. Gr ∼ 1. There is a subtle aspect to this interpretation. P r. and (8. ∂x∗ ∂y ∗ Re ∂y ∗ 2 The three conservation laws. so we suspect that a similarity transform 8. whereas and Gr is the ratio of buoyancy forces to viscous forces. We would therefore expect solutions of the natural convection problem. Gr 1 and N u = N u (Re.6). we have Gr 1 and N u = N u (P r. i. Re2 Here. (8.

we ﬁnd it becomes f + 3f f − 2 f 2 u = v = 0. 2002. the two equations are still coupled to each other.e. pp. we deduce the boundary conditions y=0 : and where Ts is the temperature of the plate. T → T∞ . 2002. the momentum equation remains non–linear. (6.g. 8. i.10) F (P r) = 0.221 P r 1/2 + 1.8. 541–542) that the general form for the local Nusselt number is (8.5) on pp. T = Ts u → 0. 54 as 1 ¯ h = L L h dx = 0 1 L L 0 1 N ux k dx = x L L 0 k x Grx 4 1/4 F (P r) dx .9) N ux = hx = k Grx 4 1/4 F (P r) . The energy equation becomes T∗ + 3 Pr f T∗ = 0 . where the prime symbol indicates the regular derivative of f (η). y) is the stream function deﬁned in Eq. where ψ = ψ(x. a numerical method is typically invoked to complete the solution.2) on pp. . Like the horizontal ﬂat plate problem. Incropera and Dewitt. y→∞ : + T∗ = 0 . pp. purported to be accurate to within about 0. In this case.3. the transformation variables y Grx 1/4 and η = x 4 ψ 4 1/4 f (η) = 4 ν Grx are appropriate. A correlation. SIMILARITY SOLUTION FOR THE VERTICAL PLATE 95 From Fig. (5.5 % (Incropera and Dewitt. 542) is given by the expression (8.238 P r 1/4 · The result can also be used to calculate the overall (averaged) Nusselt number according to the deﬁnition given by Eq. f and T ∗ appear in both.2. It can be shown (e.609 + 1. where F (P r) is a function of the Prandtl number as determined by the solution of the above problem. In this case. Moreover.75 P r 1/2 0. 67 and g β (Ts − T∞ ) x3 Grx = ν2 is the local Grashof number based on x. Transforming the momentum equation appropriately.

However. 9. turbulent eﬀects can arise in natural convection. We mentioned above that the Grashof number. data correlate more strongly to a closely– related parameter call the Rayleigh number . Moving k and L over to the left hand side. can be taken as the ratio of buoyancy eﬀects versus viscous eﬀects.1 pp 543 Gebhart et al. i. να I&D Ex. (8. and so can be taken outside the integral. we ﬁnd ¯ h = = = = = = = F (P r) k 41/4 L F (P r) k 41/4 L F (P r) k L F (P r) k L 4 F (P r) k 3 L 4 3 4 3 k GrL L 4 k N uL . deﬁned by Eq. The interplay between these two phenomena is very similar to that deﬁned by the Reynolds number for forced convection.7). including F (P r) are not functions of x. (8. SIMILARITY SOLUTION FOR THE VERTICAL PLATE 96 Substituting the local Grashof number. at x = L. we ﬁnd the average Nusselt number to be (8. As with forced ﬂow. . k 3 where N uL is the local Nusselt number at the end of the plate.e.8.e.9). We would therefore expect that Gr serves as a direct measure of the tendency toward turbulent ﬂow for natural convection in the same sense as Re for forced convection.11) N uL = ¯ hL 4 = N uL . which is simply the product of the Grashof and Prandtl numbers. The critical Rayleigh number for turbulent ﬂow is approximately.12) Rax = Grx P r = g β (Ts − T∞ ) x3 ≈ 109 . (8. viscous forces tend to dissipate disturbances which could grow large enough to de–stabilize the ﬂow. and observing that a number of factors in the argument.3. L L 0 1 x g β (Ts − T∞ ) x3 ν2 1/4 0 1/4 0 1/4 L L 1/4 dx 1 3/4 x dx x 1 x1/4 L 0 g β (Ts − T∞ ) ν2 g β (Ts − T∞ ) 4 ν2 g β (Ts − T∞ ) 4 ν2 dx 4 3/4 x 3 1/4 g β (Ts − T∞ ) 4 ν2 1/4 L3 F (P r) where the last line results directly from the form of the solution given in Eq. i. (1988) discuss this in greater detail.

4. Incropera and Dewitt (2002. (6.13) = 0.4.4. Heated horizontal cylinders are closely related to the vertical plate conﬁguration. . EMPIRICAL CORRELATIONS 97 8.8.1) on pp. As with turbulent ﬂow.825 + 0. Natural convection boundary layer on a horizontal cylinder.4.1. Vertical Plate. 8. 66. 546) describe procedures to I&D Ex.3.492/P r] 9/16 8/27 .67 RaL 1/4 9/16 4/9 (8. most of the data correlate more appropriately to Ra rather than Gr.14) N uL = 0.2. Properties are again evaluated at the ﬁlm temperature. Churchill and Chu have formulated a correlation valid over a g Figure 8.2 extrapolate these results to several other conﬁgurations.68 + 0. 1 + [0. where RaL < 109 . except that the boundary layer curves around the contour of the body rather than being strictly vertical (Fig. deﬁned by Eq.3). so we tend to focus more on empirically correlated results. Empirical Correlations There is little more than can be done from an analytical standpoint with natural convection because of the complexity of the problem. 9. pp 546 8. pp. The Churchill–Chu correlation can be applied over the entire range of Ra 2 N uL although somewhat better accuracy for strictly laminar ﬂow is given by (8.387 RaL 1/6 1 + [0. 8.492/P r] These correlations are applicable to cases where the plate temperature T s is constant. Horizontal Cylinder. Development begins on the underside of the cylinder and the boundary layer eventually detaches in the form of a plume that rises above the cylinder.

while the ver- (8.e.6 + wide range of Ra 0.387 1/6 RaD 9/16 1 + [0. the bottom and top surfaces are adiabatic. similar to that shown in the ﬁgure.g. 1985. Recirculating natural convection ﬂow pattern in a vertically–oriented enclosure.559/P r] 8/27 2 . a recirculating ﬂow pattern will form. 103 < RaL < 1010 . EMPIRICAL CORRELATIONS 98 where the Rayleigh number is based on the pipe diameter D.25 .22 P r RaL 0. Here.2 + P r 0. i. but internal conﬁgurations also arise in applications. This particular conﬁguration is an excellent model for analyzing double–pane windows. For small RaL .4. which is valid for aspect ratios 2 < H/L < 10 and P r < 10 5 . e.4. cold hot H L Figure 8. T 1 on the hot side and T2 on the cold side. the ﬂow is weak and heat transfer occurs mainly by conduction.4. 8.16) N uL = 0. N uL ∼ 1.3. a number of correlations have been devised. Conﬁgurations we have discussed thus far are primarily of the external ﬂow type. 2002). 8. Rectangular Enclosures. Other ¨ s correlations are available for larger aspect ratios ( Ozi¸ik. (8. and are separated by a distance L.15) N uL = 0. For larger RaL . Incropera and Dewitt. RaD < 1012 .4). . If the Rayleigh number is suﬃciently high. for example in the form of various enclosures (Fig.28 H L −0. tical surfaces have speciﬁc temperatures.8.

These are called indirect contact exchangers. for example as in car radiators. Usually. e.1 illustrates these arrangements for a simple heat exchanger consisting of concentric tubes.1. One ﬂuid ﬂows within the innermost tube.2). Variations 99 . 9.1 because of the limited surface area of the tube. if the ﬂuids do not tend to mix naturally.1 shows the simplest shell–and–tube heat exchanger architecture.5 we suspect that actual units might not be as simple as that depicted in Fig. while the outer tube is referred to as the “shell”. Instead.CHAPTER 9 Heat Exchangers Heat exchangers are devices that facilitate heat transfer between two ﬂuids at diﬀerent temperatures without allowing them to mix. according to our results for ﬁns in §3. Fig. air conditioners. parallel flow counter flow Flow arrangements for concentric tube heat exchanger. Figure 9. while in counter–ﬂow. 9. However. 9.g. 9. Fig. the ﬂuids are separated by a solid boundary. etc. The concentric tube heat exchanger is a good model for introducing a number of concepts. distillers. the inner tube is called the “tube”. However. In parallel ﬂow units. ﬂuids enter at the same end and ﬂow in the same direction. while the other ﬂows in the gap between the two tubes. the ﬂow of the two ﬂuids is in opposite directions. According to convention. Thus. so that the area for heat transfer is maximized (Fig. a water chiller. Heat exchangers are typically classiﬁed by ﬂow arrangement and type of construction. a direct contact heat exchanger may be used. units routinely utilize many tubes within a single shell.

regardless of their design architecture. It is also common to classify heat exchangers according to the area available for heat transfer per unit volume of the unit. 2002).9. ϕ = total area available for heat transfer · total volume of heat exchanger Units having ϕ > 700 m−1 are arbitrarily referred to as being compact heat exchangers. Mills.000 9. i. Tube side enters and exits through manifolds. Table 9.000 20. ¨ s on this basic architecture are shown in reference texts (e. Type industrial shell–and–tube automotive radiators precision specialty units human lung ϕ m−1 70 – 500 1000 5000 – 10. Incropera and Dewitt.1. The Thumbnail Diagram In analyzing heat exchangers. 1985. Fig. we will ﬁnd the concept of the thumbnail diagram to be especially useful. 9. 1985). Assuming the origin to be the inlet side at x = 0.1 summarizes ϕ for several classes of heat exchangers.2. 9.3 shows a simple tube–type unit of length L running in parallel ﬂow mode.3 shows a number of interesting concepts for the parallel ﬂow arrangement: .e. The diagram is simply a plot of the temperatures of the two streams. Shell–and–tube heat exchanger with one tube pass and one shell pass.g. For example. THE THUMBNAIL DIAGRAM 100 shell side inlet tube side inlet tube side outlet shell side outlet Figure 9. temperatures of the two streams are shown. 1999. along with their ﬂow directions. Table 9.1. Although direction arrows are not mandatory. they will be extremely helpful for the “bookkeeping” aspect of heat exchanger calculations. Ozi¸ik. Fig. Approximate area density for various classes of ¨ s heat exchangers (Ozi¸ik.1. hot side (H) and cold side (C). as functions of the distance from an origin.

otherwise an un–physical temperature gradient exists. the H temperature H temperature C temperature C H C 0 counter−flow L 0 condensing L 0 boiling L Figure 9. 9. THE THUMBNAIL DIAGRAM 101 L parallel flow temperature H ∆T C x=L x=0 Figure 9. • The outlet temperature of the cool side cannot exceed that of the hot side.4 shows thumbnail diagrams for three other cases: counter–ﬂow. This might be an advantageous design aspect if the wall material is sensitive to stresses induced by temperature diﬀerences along x.4. • The temperature gradient between the streams. Therefore the local heat ﬂux q varies with x. Thumbnail diagrams for the counter–ﬂow arrangement. then wall temperature is roughly constant. they can be equal. Thumbnail diagram for a simple tube–type heat exchanger using the parallel ﬂow arrangement. At most. • If we assume that the wall temperature of the material separating the streams is the average between the two streams.1. and condensing and boiling heat transfer. ∆T . For the counter–ﬂow design. . and for condensing and boiling heat transfer.3. the eﬀectiveness of parallel ﬂow is limited and not typically used for heat recovery. Fig. Therefore. is not constant.9.

For a boiling heat exchanger. For example. we can examine their application in heat exchangers utilizing the simple fact that temperature is constant during a phase change. Thumbnail diagram for one shell pass. OVERALL HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT 102 exit temperature of the cold ﬂuid can in fact be higher than that of the hot ﬂuid. 9.5. causing its temperature to rise9.1A cold can of beer on a warm humid day is good example of this phenomenon. tube side inlet shell side inlet tube side outlet shell side outlet temperature H C C Figure 9. the heat exchanger presents us with two ﬂows to analyze.9. along with its corresponding thumbnail diagram. While these problems dealt strictly with single ﬂows. heat energy is liberated from the condensate and absorbed by the cold side. the reverse is true: the hot side transfers energy to boil the ﬂuid on the cold side and cools in the process.1. We have assumed the tube side contains the cold ﬂuid. 9.2. Thumbnail diagrams can be drawn for more complicated conﬁgurations as well. Clearly. Overall Heat Transfer Coeﬃcient We have devoted considerable attention to obtaining convection coeﬃcients in Chapters 5 through 8. Fig. transferring heat to the beer. Water vapor condenses on the outside of the can. Although not necessarily the case. It should be clear that the ﬂow direction of the phase change stream is irrelevant because of its constant temperature. causing it to warm up. .2. two tube pass heat exchanger. How 9. which might cause large thermal stresses that may eliminate certain materials from design consideration.5 illustrates a shell–and–tube exchanger having one shell pass and two tube passes. This makes the counter–ﬂow design more attractive than parallel ﬂow units if the design requirements permit such a choice. the wall temperature in these units is not constant. Although we do not discuss the physics of condensation and boiling heat transfer per se. For the condenser. ∆T might also be constant along x for the counter–ﬂow arrangement.

the circuit analogy can be used to obtain overall eﬀective thermal resistances.2By convention. Ai hi Ao ho where subscripts i and o designate inner and outer. Resistive components involved in calculating the overall thermal resistance. Ozi¸ik.g. It makes no diﬀerence which one is used. thermal resistance is the sum of three basic resistive components in series (Fig. 2002). OVERALL HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT 103 should this be handled? As we discussed in Chapter 3. 1985. Mills.2) Rt = 1 1 + Rc + . Calculating U is clearly a matter of ﬁrst determining Rt . The same concept can be applied here to calculate an overall heat transfer coeﬃcient for a heat exchanger. 1999. respectively.6): • convective resistance on the tube side • conductive resistance of the wall between the two ﬂow streams • convective resistance on the shell side tube side convective resitance conductive resistance shell side convective resistance Figure 9. rather than some form of h which is what we might have expected.2 (9.1) U = 1 . This notation is ¨ s the standard (e.22) on pp. U is the symbol for overall convection coeﬃcient for heat exchangers. For a simple shell–and–tube heat exchanger. as long 9.2. We can write the overall resistance as (9. . (9.1). 9. Incropera and Dewitt. At Rt where At is the total area available for heat transfer and R t is the eﬀective (overall) thermal resistance. 22 as ln (ro /ri ) Rc = · 2πLk Notice that we can use either Ai or Ao as the total area available for heat transfer At in Eq. The general form of this coeﬃcient is written 9.6.9. and R c is the conductive resistance for a cylindrical surface derived in Eq. (3.

then r ≈ r . after simplifying yields (9. Eq. Using Ao = 2 π ro L as the basis.4If wall thickness is small. Instead. we obtain Uo = 1 = Ao Rt Ao 1 1 A i hi + ln(ro /ri ) 2πLk + 1 A o ho .2).7)). Generally. 9. LMTD ANALYSIS 104 as the basis is speciﬁed9. tube wall resistance can be neglected to obtain (9. 9. (9. Moreover.2) can be modiﬁed as 1 1 Fo Fi + + Rc + + (9. LMTD Analysis At this point we probably already suspect that the somewhat exacting analysis methods we have applied to previous problems will not be possible for heat exchangers. inner surfaces of a heat exchanger can become coated with deposits that leach out of the working ﬂuids and/or corrode due to reaction with the ﬂuid. which.4 and the thermal conductivity is high. i o o i resulting in a vanishing wall resistance term. the eﬀect will cancel itself out.3. (9. because of turbulence. The fouling factor is generally a known quantity based on the working ﬂuid (Table 9. we will take what 9.4) Ui = 1 1 hi + ri ln(ro /ri ) k + ri r o ho · If the wall thickness is minimal9. performance is gradually degraded over time and costs are increased because of maintenance requirements and down time.5) U = 1 hi 1 + 1 ho · In the course of normal operation. These factors present additional resistance to heat transfer that can be modeled via a fouling factor .3Calculating the overall heat transfer will involve multiplying by A using a form of t Newton’s Law of Cooling (see Eq. developing ﬂow. diverse geometry and architecture preclude generalizing results into a few relevant correlations.3. separation.6) Rt = Ai Ai hi Ao ho Ao to consider fouling. where Fo and Fi are the fouling factors for the outer and inner surfaces.9. we get (9. . e. so that. The ﬂow physics of these units is simply too complex to obtain analytical solutions. etc. for Ai = 2 π ri L as the basis. respectively.g.3) Uo = 1 ro r i hi + ro ln(ro /ri ) k + 1 ho · Similarly. which means that ln (r /r ) = ln (1) = 0.3. as long as consistency is preserved with respect to which area is used.

which can be thought of as an appropriately averaged temperature diﬀerence between the two ﬂow streams.9. To illustrate the concept. mc and mh be the mass ﬂow rates of the cold and hot sides. let x be the distance along the heat exchanger. as suggested by Figs. respectively.0001 0. we will develop ∆T m for the simple tube–type unit shown in Fig. A be the area. then do we determine ∆Tm ? Here. It is probably no surprise that ∆Tm depends upon the heat exchanger conﬁguration. This procedure allows us to calculate ∆Tm .0009 0.0002 0.0002 0. There are a number of additional assumptions we must make to implement this method • the unit is insulated such that no heat is exchanged with its surroundings. Fluid seawater below 50 o C seawater above 50 o C fuel oil machine oils vegetable oils most refrigerants steam (non oil bearing) alcohol vapor industrial air Fouling Factor m2 K/W 0.0004 may be thought of as an approximate integral approach in which the analysis is only dependent upon temperatures at the inlets and outlets and the overall convection coeﬃcient.3 and 9.2. In general.4. How.3. ﬂow arrangement. We start by adding some detail to the thumbnail diagram (Fig. ˙ ˙ ∆T = Th − Tc = ∆T (x) be the local temperature diﬀerence between the hot and cold sides. heat transfer only takes place between the hot and cold streams within the unit • speciﬁc heats of both ﬂuids are constant • overall heat transfer coeﬃcient is constant • potential and kinetic energy changes can be neglected . As usual.3.7) q = At Um ∆Tm . etc.7). 1978). 9.00053 0. respectively.00009 0. we will introduce the method of the “Log Mean Temperature Difference” (LMTD) for solving heat exchanger problems. LMTD ANALYSIS 105 Table 9.00018 0. Let us cast our analysis in the form of Newton’s Law of Cooling (9. and U = U (x) be the local overall heat transfer coeﬃcient. Some representative fouling factors (TEMA. 9. the temperature diﬀerence between the hot and cold ﬂuids is not a constant. 9. Each stream experiences a diﬀerential change in temperature as a result of where At and Um are the total area available for heat transfer and the overall convection coeﬃcient.0001 0. and ∆T m is a temperature diﬀerence that must be determined.

˙ while for the cold side we have (9. we let the last term in brackets be represented by the constant C 0 . From the local temperature diﬀerence ∆T = Th − Tc . LMTD ANALYSIS 106 T h Th + d T h dq dA Tc + d T c hot side cold side Tc Th. Speciﬁcally. interacting over an area dA.9.i x=0 dTh dq hot side T h.o x=L Figure 9. where dq is the thermal energy transferred from the hot stream to the cold stream through area dA. ˙ dq = mc cc dTc . We can write a diﬀerential form of Newton’s Law at x as (9.7.10) to write (9. i.12) d(∆T ) = − dq C0 .e. Diﬀerential analysis for LMTD calculation of the parallel ﬂow simple tube–type heat exchanger. the heat lost by the hot side results from a change in temperature of (Th + dTh ) − Th and is thus equal to (9. (9.10) where ch and cc are the ﬂuid speciﬁc heats.8) dq = dA U ∆T . we see that d(∆T ) = dTh − dTc .11) d(∆T ) = − dq dq = − dq − m h ch ˙ m c cc ˙ 1 m h ch ˙ + 1 m c cc ˙ · Since the mass ﬂow rates and speciﬁc heats are assumed to be constant. so that we can use Eqs.i Th ∆ T0 ∆T Tc dTc Tc.o ∆T cold side L Tc.3. (9.9) dq = − mh ch dTh . . The diﬀerential energy transfer can also be expressed in terms of the change of temperature of each stream over dA.9) and (9.

we obtain C0 = ∆Tx=0 − ∆Tx=L .14) ∆Tx=L d(∆T ) = − dA U ∆T C0 .19) ln ∆Tx=0 ∆Tx=L = U m At C0 . ∆T Eq. Eq. (9. (9. 0 Let us now deﬁne the average overall heat transfer coeﬃcient for the whole heat exchanger in the usual fashion as (9. (9.18) ln ∆T ∆Tx=L ∆Tx=0 = ln ∆Tx=L ∆Tx=0 = − U m At C0 .19) (9.9.21) ln ∆Tx=0 ∆Tx=L = U m At .20) ∆Tx=0 d(∆T ) = − C0 dq .14) can be integrated over the whole length of the heat exchanger (9. LMTD ANALYSIS 107 Substituting dq from Eq. ∆Tx=L (9. The right hand side can be multiplied by At /At .13) or.3. q ∆Tx=0 − ∆Tx=L · q which can be substituted into Eq. (9. We can go back to Eq. d(∆T ) = − dA U C0 . dividing by ∆T . (9. but is not yet in the form of Newton’s Law of Cooling in Eq.15) ∆Tx=0 d(∆T ) = − C0 ∆T At U dA .19) is an interesting intermediate result. we get (9. 0 so that by integrating the left hand side of Eq. Solving for C0 .17) Um = 1 At At U dA . we ﬁnd (9. (9.7).8).16) ∆Tx=0 d(∆T ) 1 = − C 0 At × ∆T At At U dA . or rewriting to remove the minus sign. i. 0 from which we ﬁnd that the total heat transfer q can be expressed as ∆Tx=L − ∆Tx=0 = − C0 q .16).12) and integrate this over the whole heat exchanger as ∆Tx=L q (9.e. (9. it becomes (9. 0 Notice that C0 comes outside the integral since it is a constant. (9.

Assuming equal At and Um .i − Tc. . ln (∆T0 /∆TL ) where we have shortened the notation for the temperatures. the log mean temperature diﬀerence ∆T m = ∆T0 = ∆TL . In essence.22) q = U m At ∆Tx=0 − ∆Tx=L ln (∆Tx=0 /∆Tx=L ) Therefore. We can apply L’Hospitals rule.7) about the form of the solution that ∆Tx=0 − ∆Tx=L . we see based on our original assumption in Eq. which says essentially that both numerator and denominator are diﬀerentiated until the limit of both can be meaningfully evaluated.o − Tc. dx f (x) dx so that for the denominator f (∆T0 ) = ∆T0 /∆TL we evaluate d ln d∆T0 ∆T0 ∆TL = ∆TL 1 1 = . We have mentioned in a qualitative sense that the counter–ﬂow arrangement is somewhat “better” than parallel ﬂow. Mathematically. what happens if ∆Tx=0 = ∆Tx=L ? It appears that we get a zero over zero situation. (9. in the limiting case of ∆T 0 = ∆TL . (9. (9.23) ∆Tm = ln (∆Tx=0 /∆Tx=L ) This is the log mean temperature diﬀerence. i.7 implies ∆Tx=0 = Th. The expression given by Eq.23) entails a subtle bookkeeping task of using the appropriate temperatures to compute ∆T x=0 and ∆Tx=L .9. we evaluate d ∆T0 − ∆TL d∆T0 = 1 − 0. Some quantitative light can be shed on this matter by estimating ∆T m for each case.3. Now. we want to evaluate ∆T0 →∆TL lim ∆T0 − ∆TL . LMTD ANALYSIS 108 Eq.e. For example.i and ∆Tx=L = Th. (9. we now have ∆T0 →∆TL lim 1 − 0 = ∆T0 .21) can be inverted as (9. this is of course undeﬁned and must be resolved. Therefore. the numerator is 0 and the denominator is ln 1 = 0. Eq. Recall that derivatives of the natural log function are deﬁned as 1 df d ln f (x) = . (9. the parallel ﬂow situation in Fig.7) indicates that heat transfer q depends upon ∆T m . 1/∆T0 so in fact.o . ∆T0 ∆TL ∆T0 Reformulating the ratio. For the numerator. 9. the limit is ∆T0 .

o − Tc.i − Th.i .i − Tc.i ) ln ([Th.o ] / [Th.o ∆Tm Type parallel 100 80 60 78 12. counter−f low = = = (Th.o − Tc.i ) ln ([Th. Correction Factors for Complex Conﬁgurations The LMTD analysis we developed is valid for simple parallel ﬂow and counter ﬂow units. meaning that transverse motion in a stream is not allowed.i − Th.o ] / [Th.o ]) ∆Thot side + ∆Tcold side ln (large number/small number) Here. ﬂuids can either be “un–mixed”.i − Tc.i Th. Therefore. . the denominator is very small. we would once again realize Eq. the denominator is not terribly small. We can then estimate ∆T m as ∆Tm. but not for more complex multipass units (e.o − Tc. I&D Ex.i − Tc. it is the log of a rather large number. (9. subscript “i” refers to an inlet temperature.8).i ] / [Th. 9.5).9.o − Tc.o ) − (Tc.i Tc. giving a larger LMTD temperature diﬀerence for the same input and output values (Table 9.o − Tc.i ]) (Th. Were we to duplicate the LMTD analysis for the counter–ﬂow arrangement. 11. CORRECTION FACTORS FOR COMPLEX CONFIGURATIONS 109 so that ∆Tm.o ) − (Tc. while subscript “o” refers to an outlet temperature.i − Tc. Fig.69 counter–ﬂow 100 80 60 78 20.o − Tc.o − Tc.4. i. or cross ﬂow units (Fig.98 9.i − Tc.i ) − (Th.o Tc. 9.o − Tc. but the denominator is the log of an argument that can be close to unity.i ]) ∆Thot side − ∆Tcold side ln (a number which may be close to unity) ∆Tx=0 = Th. Representative LMTD temperatures for parallel and counter–ﬂow heat exchangers (all temperatures in o C) Th.o ) − (Th. parallel = = = (Th.o and ∆Tx=L = Th.i − Tc.23). Table 9.i − Tc. or “mixed” meaning that a stream can mix laterally.3. Although the numerator is large.e.4. In the latter design.3).o ]) (Th.1 pp 655 Here.o ) ln ([Th. 9.g. the numerator can be fairly small.4.i − Tc.i ] / [Th. except that the bookkeeping aspect dictates which can also be deduced from Fig.o ) ln ([Th.

an exchanger with both sides being unmixed will give somewhat better performance than if one side is mixed because the streamwise temperature gradient is more conserved in the former. as in a phase change. The form of the corrected LMTD temperature is ∆Tm. and ﬂow rates are known. therefore we must know both the outlet and inlet temperatures for each stream. these results have been cast as correction factors to calculate appropriate LMTD temperatures.9. what if there is a situation in which the outlet temperatures are not known? For example. While such conﬁgurations have been analyzed. but the outlet temperatures are not. 2002) typically present F graphically. If the temperature change of one of the streams is negligible. ﬂuid properties. the results are usually considered too complicated for practical use. However. Instead. Using LMTD analysis in this case would require a tedious iteration procedure to make sure that the heat transferred in the heat exchanger equals the heat energy gained by the cold side and lost by the hot side: . Parameters in these I&D Ex. then F = 1. 11. 1985. corrected = ∆Tm F .5.2 graphical results depend by convention on the following nomenclature: t is pp 657 the temperature on the tube side (hot or cold). 9. Cross ﬂow heat exchanger designs for both ﬂuids un–mixed (left) and one ﬂuid mixed. Incropera and Dewitt.g. we may have a design problem where the inlet temperatures.8. –NTU ANALYSIS 110 tube−type cross−flow design plate−type cross−flow design both fluids un−mixed tube side is un−mixed shell side can mix Figure 9. where F is the appropriate correction factor and ∆T m is computed on the ¨ s basis of counterﬂow conditions! References (e. Generally. while T is the temperature of the opposite (shell) stream. Ozi¸ik. we must be able to compute ∆Tm . –NTU Analysis For the LMTD method to be applicable. one ﬂuid un–mixed (right).5.

conservation of energy requires the hot side to experience the larger change in temperature.9).e.26) where (9. i . ∆T h > ∆Tc . ˙ According to what we have already concluded. (9. or commonly known as the –NTU method.27) always represent the maximum temperature change of one of the streams? There are only two possible cases: the cold side is the “minimum” side. o = Th. In this conﬁguration. so that the cold side outlet temperature would be heated up to the value of the hot side inlet temperature. First. let use also deﬁne heat capacity rates for the hot and cold side as ˙ Ch = mh cp.9.25) through (9. . i ) where Cc = Cmin . (9. ∆Tc > ∆Th . is the minimum of the two heat capacity rates.24) = qmax Before we delve into the –NTU method itself. –NTU ANALYSIS 111 • Assume outlet temperatures and compute ∆T m • Determine q from Eq.25) where Th. i and Tc. i − Tc. i. In this case the maximum heat transfer would be (9. i − Tc. written as q = Cc ∆Tc = Ch ∆Th . Can we prove that Eqs. i ) = Cc (Th.27) qmax = Cmin (Th. we deﬁne the eﬀectiveness of a heat exchanger as the actual heat transfer over the maximum possible heat transfer q . dictates that the cold side undergoes a larger change in temperature than the hot side.5. respectively. 9. i . c . if the hot side is the minimum. i − Tc. If the cold side is the minimum.7). Cmin = min [Ch . i ) . the maximum energy transfer would be expressed as Conversely. there is a better analysis method termed the “Eﬀectiveness Method”. T c. q = A t Um ∆Tm • Compute the outlet temperatures using q and the net temperature change of each stream • Compare the outlet temperatures with those assumed in ﬁrst step and adjust as necessary • Repeat until suitable convergence is achieved In this case. i are again the inlet temperatures of the hot and cold streams. q = Cc (Tc. then conservation of energy. one of the ﬂuids would experience the maximum possible temperature change (9. Therefore. or the hot side is the “minimum” side (Fig. q max would be obtained using a counter–ﬂow architecture having an inﬁnite length. h and Cc = mc cp. (9. Cc ] ∆Tmax = Th. o − Tc.

If it were. This proves the above concept.28) = Ch (Th. for example as shown here for the parallel ﬂow arrangement. we have q = Ch (Th. i ) 9. we get = q Cmin (Th. Here. i − Tc. i T c. i ) . Diagrammatic representation of the concept of the “minimum” side for heat exchangers. computing the heat transfer q depends on knowing .24). i ) Cmin (Th. i − Tc. i ) . i ) = . but the analysis is applied to whatever speciﬁc architecture is used. o − Tc. then according to conservation of energy. o ) Cc (Tc. we then have (9. based upon the total heat transferred. o = T h. How do we determine this? The parameter depends upon the heat exchanger design and ﬂow arrangement. which is not possible.5. i temperature T h. Now. o ) = Ch (Th. o hot side is the "minimum" Figure 9. so that the hot side outlet temperature would be cooled to the value of the cold side inlet temperature. Based on this exercise.24). (9. o temperature T c. 9. i − Tc. Th. o ) = Cc (Tc. o T c. i − Tc. By deﬁnition. i − Th. it should be clear that that q max is not based on the maximum mcp . (9.5It is important to realize that q max is always based on the counter–ﬂow arrangement. we illustrate the general procedure for deriving assuming a parallel ﬂow single pass arrangement 9. once again to Fig. According to Eq. . o − Tc.9.7. the ˙ ﬂuid with the minimum mcp would undergo a temperature change greater ˙ than the maximum ∆T . This derivation refers. i .9. maximum energy transfer would be written q = Ch (Th. i − Th. Cmin (Th. From the deﬁnition in Eq. i = T h. i cold side is the "minimum" T c. –NTU ANALYSIS 112 T h. i ) where Ch = Cmin . Also.5. o = Tc. i − Th.

i 1 + Cc Ch = = e − Um At C0 Finally. Th. i to the numerator of the left hand side and we can show that the expression becomes o Tc. i ) = Cc Ch e − Um At C0 1 + Tc.Ch Th. i − Tc. we can solve for Th. i − Tc. i Cc Tc. o − Tc. o + 1 m c cc ˙ = = U m At C0 . (9. i − Tc. i Th. i 1 + Cc Ch − Tc. o 1 + Th. where we recall that C0 = 1 m h ch ˙ 1 1 + · Ch Cc Taking the exponential. i − Tc. o from the exponential equation. o − Tc. i ) Ch Cc (Tc. o − Tc. i Th. i − Cc (Tc. i + Th. i − Tc. i ) − Cmin (Th. i − Tc. i − Tc. i − Tc. o − Tc. i ) Ch Cc (Tc.9. o − Tc. i ) Cmin (Th. i − Th. − Ch From Eq. recall Eq. o = e − Um At C0 . i Cmin (Th. (9. i − Tc. o = e − Um At C0 . i Tc.19) that was used in the derivation of the LMTD analysis method. o to get Th. i − Tc. i − Tc. Th. i Th. –NTU ANALYSIS 113 Now. again for the parallel ﬂow arrangement ln ∆Tx=0 ∆Tx=L = ln Th. i − Tc. i − Tc.28). o which inverts as Th. this can be written as . we can write Th. i − Tc. i which can be used to eliminate Th. i − Tc. This yields Th. o − c c. o e − Um At C0 − 1 = Th. C (T − Tc. i − Tc. o = = = Th. o − Tc. i = e Um A t C0 . o 1 + 1 + Ch Th.5. i − Tc. i ) . i Th. i ) Ch Add and subtract Tc.

one subtle issue: the speciﬁc heats may depend upon temperature. because one need not know the outlet temperatures. i − Tc. = C c 1 − e − Um At C0 Cc Cmin 1 + Ch 1 − e − Um At C0 · Cmin Cmin Cc + Ch 1 − exp − Um At Cmin = 1 − exp − 1 Ch Um A t Cmin 1 Ch = + = 1 Cc + 1 Cc 1 Ch 1 Cc · 1 Cc Cmin + + Cmin 1 Ch · Such expressions are normally written in a short–hand form. which allows us to ﬁnally deﬁne (9. It suﬃces only to know the heat capacity rates9. i 1 + Ch Referring back to Eq. . C1 = Cmin 1 1 + Ch Cc = 1 + C1 . If we were to use the average temperature of a stream to approximate speciﬁc heat.6.6There is. i. 9. because of the way is deﬁned.e. –NTU ANALYSIS 114 or Tc. we see that the above expression can be directly substituted to obtain . however.5.28). the area. the total heat transfer can be computed from a knowledge of only the inlet temperatures of both streams. (9. Moreover. we would need some a priori estimate of the exit temperature. i 1 − e − Um At C0 = Cc Th. o − Tc.29) = for the parallel ﬂow arrangement as 1 − e−N T U (1 + C1 ) · 1 + C1 This equation is quite signiﬁcant in heat exchanger analysis. and the overall convection coeﬃcient to calculate . where we deﬁne the number of transfer units (NTU) as Um At Cmin and the ratio of the minimum to maximum heat capacity rates as NT U = Cmin · Cmax It should be clear that. regardless of which side is the minimum side and which is the maximum.9.

662) is incorrect. pp. the phase change side is always the “maximum” side and the heat capacity ratio can be taken as zero.5. conservation of energy implies that mc p can be taken as in˙ ﬁnite.4). 662–663) furnish –NTU relationships for a number of conﬁgurations and the inverted relations as well9. . Table 11. I&D Ex. If we simply reverse the design in our simple tube–type heat exchanger for counter–ﬂow conditions.7 (9. 9. in which case ∆T of the phase change side essentially vanishes (Fig.31) Reference texts (e. multiple passes. we ﬁnd 9. Moreover. 9. is similar but more complicated as compared to what we have shown here.3 pp 665 9. 2002. Therefore.30) = 1 − e−N T U (1 − C1 ) / 1 − C1 e−N T U (1 − C1 ) N T U/ (N T U + 1) : C1 < 1 : C1 = 1 Another notable conﬁguration arises when there is a phase change (boiling or condensation). pp. 11.e. According to the fact that there is a ﬁnite thermal energy transfer. etc.3.7The formula for this case in Incropera and Dewitt (2002. –NTU ANALYSIS 115 The procedure for analyzing other heat exchanger designs. i. C 1 = 0.9.3.8. Table 11. counter– ﬂow..g. e.g. Incropera and Dewitt. heat exchanger performance is independent of architecture and ﬂow arrangement! The analysis gives (9. NTU as a function of is provided for the cases that are diﬃcult to invert.8That is. = 1 − e−N T U .

so heat is transferred strictly by radiation. For example. we have considered our subject for the following general situation: heat transfer occurs when there is a temperature gradient in a participating medium. Consider for example a hot object in an evacuated container whose walls are cold.1 microwave infrared thermal radiation 1 10 100 1e3 1e4 1e5 wavelength (micrometers) Figure 10. However. heat transfer by thermal radiation requires a temperature gradient but not participating medium. Maxwell’s electromagnetic theory and Planck’s quantum theory have both been used toward this goal.7µm is visible light. while in convection. 10. ν 116 . For propagating radiation. 1985). For most thermal engineering applications. Conversely.1 µm and λ ≈ 100 µm (Fig. The electromagnetic spectrum. the medium is not moving. solar radiation from the Sun (T = 5760 K) is in the range λ ≈ 0. the range of interest is typically between λ ≈ 0.1. Heat is transferred from the Sun to the Earth via radiation. This portion of the spectrum visible ultraviolet X − rays γ −rays 1e−5 1e−4 1e−3 1e−2 0.4µm and λ ≈ 0. All bodies at a temperature above absolute zero emit thermal radiation. Conduction and convection are not possible. is therefore usually referred to as the thermal radiation range. If radiation is treated as a wave.1 µm to ¨ s λ ≈ 3µm (Ozi¸ik. the actual mechanism of radiation transfer is not yet fully understood. motion is the primary driver. the standard relationship between frequency ν and wavelength λ is c λ = . Between λ ≈ 0. the radiation from a body of temperature T is considered emitted at all wavelengths from λ = 0 to λ = ∞.1).CHAPTER 10 Introduction to Radiation Up to now. In conduction.

First is the spectral nature of radiation (Fig. We shall concentrate on this model for our studies.2. we consider a new geometric concept called the solid angle. “Spectral” nature of radiation (left) implies a dependency upon wavelength.1. Such bodies are called semi–transparent. it results as an integrated eﬀect from the depths of the body all the way to its surface. For example. i. Radiative heat transfer is quite a diﬀerent phenomenon than conduction or convection. . Because there are a number material properties associated with these phenomena. so that any net emission results almost entirely from molecules near the surface of ¨ s the body. while the “directional” nature (right) implies dependence upon direction. 1985).1For a vacuum. 10. Solid Angle and Radiative Quantities In order to quantify radiative heat transfer. we must ﬁrst deﬁne a number of fundamental entities.2). radiation has a directional dependence: emissions are generally a function of direction.1. Second. where the magnitude of the radiation varies with the wavelength. which will support the modeling of electromagnetic waves 10.10. 10. Conversely. such as glass at certain temperatures. the “bookkeeping” aspect of radiation calculations is much more substantial than with other modes of heat transfer we have discussed thus far. the radiation emitted from a body is a volumetric phenomenon. There are two additional points to mention before we proceed. c ≈ 2. That is. First.1. in some materials.e. within about 1 µm (Ozi¸ik. opaque bodies realize radiative eﬀects mainly as a surface phenomenon. Radiation from an interior molecule is largely absorbed by its neighbors. This means that the thermal angular dependence radiation intensity wavelength Figure 10.998 × 108 m/s. SOLID ANGLE AND RADIATIVE QUANTITIES 117 where c is the speed of light in the medium 10. radiation emitted by a body encompasses a range of wavelengths.

3This clear from the observation that we can integrate this equation to obtain the circumference as Z θ =2π Z s =s ˛θ =2π r dθ = ds . 10.1. diﬀerential expression10. which gives s = r θ ˛θ =0 = 2πr .1) dω = r2 We consider solid angle in the context of an observer anchored at the origin of a spherical coordinate system whose ﬁeld of view encompasses a normally– oriented area dAn a distance r away.4. Deﬁnition of planar and solid angles and conﬁguration of the solid angle in the spherical coordinate system. θ =0 s =0 10. SOLID ANGLE AND RADIATIVE QUANTITIES 118 as rays that can be described according to straight–line optical principles.3). (abbreviated as sr ) which. Angles expressed in the artiﬁcial system of degrees are not dimensionless. 10.3. planar angle is deﬁned as the unitless ratio10.3 ds · r Solid angle is instead deﬁned in the context of a sphere as the ratio of a subtended area and the square of the radius 10. We express this as the diﬀerential dAn · (10. θ . For example. This is naturally deﬁned in the context of a circle by the r y d An θ dAn d ω = d An / r 2 r (r. dθ = 10.2Although we attach a “unit” of radians to the planar angle. . like its planar counterpart. the quantity is indeed dimensionless.4The “unit” of the solid angle is the steradian.10.2 of an arc length that is swept out by a radial arm to the arm’s length (Fig. φ ) r dθ = d s / r ds dA dω x definition of "solid angle" and comparison to conventional planar angle φ z spherical coordinate system Figure 10. is actually dimensionless. The solid angle can be thought of as the three–dimensional analog of the standard planar angle.

10. dAn r 2 sin θ dφ dθ = = sin θ dφ dθ .5 (10. 0 .2) dω = dAn = (r dφ sin θ) × (r dθ) = r 2 sin θ dφ dθ . the emitted radiation passes through the diﬀerential element dA n on the boundary of the hemisphere speciﬁed by radius r. our observer will see all of dA.e.3) dAn = dA cos θ . The second concept is the fundamental quantity that describes radiative heat transfer.4 that when these areas are normal.5) should convince us that (10. coordinates. θ = 0. 10. we must take this a step further and deﬁne solid angle in terms of diﬀerentials associated with the spherical coordinate system (Fig. In other words.1. By geometric arguments. Using this concept.4). A little trigonometry (Fig. we see so that the solid angle relationship is 10. the question is how much of dA can an observer anchored on dAn see? We should notice from Fig.4. while at θ = π/2. 10. r2 r2 Another geometric consideration in analyzing radiation emitted from dA is its projected area on dAn . SOLID ANGLE AND RADIATIVE QUANTITIES 119 Actually. which is called the radiation intensity. Consider emission from a diﬀerential element dA along radius r in a speciﬁc r sin θ θ r r dθ r sin θ d φ dθ dφ dA Figure 10.5The solid angle for the entire hemisphere is ω = Z dω = area Z 2π 0 Z π/2 0 2π sin θ dθ dφ = φ |0 (− cos θ)|π/2 = 2π . 10. 10. i. When viewed from dA. surface dA cannot be seen at all. Relationship between solid angle and spherical direction deﬁned by angles θ and φ.

θ. This expression allows us to compute radiation heat transfer as a function of radiation intensity. 0 0 In other words.4) in terms of the rate at which radiation leaves the emitter dA and is intercepted by dAn as dq = Iλ. the context is emission by diﬀerential surface dA which is intercepted by diﬀerential surface dA n . the ﬂux associated with the hemisphere around dA is 2π π/2 qλ = Iλ. i.6) dqλ = Iλ. per unit solid angle about this direction dω. φ) = dq · dA cos θ dω dλ Intensity has units of W/ m2 sr µm . This provides a basis for integrating dq λ to ﬁnd qλ . Iλ. θ. heat transfer per unit dA. and integrate them into forms that are useful for engineering calculations. φ) cos θ sin θ dθ dφ .2) and casting the heat transfer as a ﬂux quantity with respect to dA. (10. Again. once it is known.e. e .4) Iλ. We deﬁne this as the emissive power . e (λ. is deﬁned as the rate at which radiation dq is emitted in the (θ. e (λ. it is simply the rate at which radiation is emitted per unit area of the emitter. We can re–arrange Eq.1. In more direct terms. e (λ. Radiation intensity of the emitter. θ. e (λ.5) dqλ = (10. the spectral hemispherical emissive . (10. per unit wavelength interval dλ about wavelength λ (10. φ) direction at wavelength λ per unit area of the emitter normal to this direction dAn = dA cos θ. more exactly. the ﬂux associated with any particular ﬁnite solid angle. Area of the emitter projected onto the hemisphere boundary. φ) dA cos θ dω . we will be able to quantify the spectral and directional properties of radiation. For example.10. φ) cos θ sin θ dθ dφ . Substituting our results for the solid angle from Eq. SOLID ANGLE AND RADIATIVE QUANTITIES 120 d An d An θ dA dA θ Figure 10.5. θ. we can write (10. dλ where dqλ is a shorthand notation and has units of W/µm. this expression gives the rate at which radiation at wavelength λ is emitted in all directions. or.

7) Eλ (λ) = 0 0 Iλ.i (λ.10. called the incident spectral intensity. which has units of W/ m2 µm . e (λ) (diﬀuse emitter) It can be similarly shown that E = πIe . which simply indicates that there is no directional dependence. we see the emissive power in Eq. θ. For example. φ) cos θ sin θ dθ dφ . e (λ) 0 2π 0 cos θ sin θ dθ dφ π/2 Iλ. 12. Now let’s look at some additional phenomena of interest in radiation heat transfer. i.7) can be cast as 2π π/2 Eλ (λ) = 0 0 Iλ. The total hemispherical emissive power. (10. i. where again E is the total emissive power and Ie is the total radiation intensity. G λ (λ). Since Iλ.6We include the subscript λ in the notation for E (λ) to indicate that this is a per λ I&D Ex.e (λ).6 2π π/2 (10. This is described by its own corresponding intensity. θ. SOLID ANGLE AND RADIATIVE QUANTITIES 121 power10. e (λ) 2π × 2 π Iλ. W/m 0 Iλ. per unit dλ. there is an idealization which closely approximates conditions for many surfaces. is a function of wavelength and direction and is given per unit area of the intercepting surface normal to this direction per unit solid angle. which. Speciﬁcally. . Iλ. is obtained by integrating over λ ∞ 2π 0 π/2 (10. φ) → Iλ.e (λ.5). which is the rate at which radiation 10. synonymous with the way we have cast Eq.1 pp 707 unit wavelength dλ about λ quantity. there is the spectral irradiation. which has units of Although the directional distribution of surface radiation emission varies according to the properties of speciﬁc surfaces. φ) cos θ sin θ dθ dφ dλ . for a diﬀuse emitter. e (λ. e (λ) φ sin θ 2 0 0 1 Iλ. (10. e (λ) 0 2π dφ 0 cos θ sin θ dθ π/2 1 2 Iλ. the radiation intensity is independent of direction.e. This idealized form of radiation is called diﬀuse radiation.9) Eλ (λ) = Iλ. e (λ) cos θ sin θ dθ dφ 2π π/2 = = = = (10. so that I λ.e. incoming or incident radiation. First is the concept of irradiation. the rate at which radiation is emitted in all directions at all wavelengths per unit area of the emitter. φ). θ. e (λ. like the corresponding quantity for emitters.e (λ) is now constant with respect to directions. θ.8) E = 0 2.1. The corresponding ﬂux is the irradiation.

e+r (λ. This phenomenon obeys all the equations we discussed above I&D Ex. 12.b (λ. for example. i. a blackbody is deﬁned as a perfect absorber and emitter.b (λ.6256 × 10−34 J · sec is the universal Planck constant. which is the rate at which radiation is incident per unit area from all directions at all wavelengths. A blackbody. I λ. where h = 6.2. λ = 0 → ∞.2. there is the total irradiation. what is emitted directly plus whatever incident radiation is reﬂected. All corresponding relationships among these quantities are the same as those derived above. Therefore. ice is non–black to the eye. T ).10.2 if we substitute Eλ → Gλ . called a blackbody.998 × 10 8 m/sec is the . 10. Also. θ. for long wavelength thermal radiation. it is useful to deﬁne the ideal case.e. 10. it is essentially black. and total radiosity. E → G. We have all the corresponding quantities with their usual deﬁnitions: spectral radiosity intensity.1). k = 1. this is generally not the same as the emissive power. T ) = 2 h c2 λ5 eh c/(λ k T ) − 1 . or scattering it.i . J. spectral radiosity. for comparison. but the visible range of light is only a small portion of the range of the thermal radiation spectrum (recall Fig. transmitting.10) Iλ. φ). however. no surface can emit more energy than a blackbody — it is the ideal emitter • While emitted radiation from a blackbody is a function of wavelength and temperature.e. c ≈ 2. Iλ. which accounts for all radiation leaving a surface. BLACKBODY RADIATION 122 of wavelength λ is incident on a surface per unit area of surface per unit dλ about λ from all directions. I λ. It has three idealized properties • A blackbody absorbs all incident radiation without reﬂecting. is characterized by its own parameters. This quantity was ﬁrst determined by Max Planck for emission into a vacuum as (10.e → Iλ. it is independent of direction — a blackbody is a diﬀuse emitter Thus. The human eye can detect the color black only in the visual range of the radiation spectrum. Note that our deﬁnition of a true blackbody means that these properties must exist over the entire spectrum. G. J λ (λ). etc. For example. regardless of wavelength and direction • For a given temperature and wavelength. not surprisingly. pp 710 Another phenomenon is that of radiosity. Note that this does not depend on direction because of the diﬀuse nature of the radiation. the spectral blackbody radiation intensity. Blackbody Radiation When describing radiation with regard to real surfaces. The term “black” should be distinguished from its common usage regarding the appearance by visual observation of the blackness of a surface. where e + r indicates emission plus reﬂection. i.3805 × 10−23 J/K is the Boltzmann constant.

(10.10. the magnitude of emitted radiation increases with temperature • The bulk of radiation is emitted at shorter wavelengths for higher temperatures • The sun. 1 2 .743 × 108 W µm4 /m2 and C = 14. lowing notable properties • Emitted radiation varies continuously with wavelength • At any wavelength. Ozi¸ik. T ) to get 2 π h c2 . BLACKBODY RADIATION 123 approximate speed of light in a vacuum. (10.b (λ. Planck’s Distribution of blackbody radiation. Incropera and Dewitt. and T is the absolute temperature.6.b (λ.6) and has the folspectral emissive power (W/m**2 micrometer) 1e+8 T = 50 K T = 100 K T = 500 K T = 1000 K T = 2000 K T = 5800 K 1e+6 1e+4 1e+2 1e+0 1e-2 0. 10. Eλ.1 1 10 wavelength (micrometers) 100 Figure 10. approximated as a 5800 K blackbody. 10.b (λ. Because the blackbody is a diﬀuse emitter.11) Eq. T ) = πIλ.g.11) is known as Planck’s Distribution (Fig. T ) = λ5 C1 C2 /(λ T ) e − 1 .b (λ.7 Eλ. we can immediately derive the spectral blackbody emissive power from the relation E λ. 2002) show this relation in terms of the so–called ﬁrst and second radiation constants.2. T ) = 5 h c/(λ k T ) λ e − 1 ¨ s Some texts (e. C 1 = 2πhc2 and C2 = hc/k giving10. 387 µm K. 1985. emits a signiﬁcant fraction of radiation in the visible region of the spectrum.7These products yield C = 3.

This equation is known as the Stefan–Boltzmann Law and is important because it enables calculation of the amount of radiation emitted in all directions and over all wavelengths simply by knowing the blackbody temperature. this can be computed by simply integrating Eq. Rigorously. (10. If the Planck Distribution is diﬀerentiated with respect to λ and set equal to zero then solved.12) This is shown in detail in Appendix C. λ1 λ1 Eλ. in this case. which depends upon the radiation constants C 1 and C2 .670 × 10−8 W/(m2 · K 4 ) is the Stefan–Boltzmann constant. Introducing the Planck Distribution from above.10. In principle. λ = 0 → λ 1 . computation of this integral is not trivial. we can back out the total blackbody intensity as σ T4 Eb = . a clever reduction of two variables to one variable can be made. λ5 eC2 /(λT ) − 1 . Because the product λT is constant. the maximum spectral emissive power drifts toward shorter wavelengths for higher temperatures. however.b . we see that this gives λ1 C1 1 dλ .b dλ 1 = Eλ. where σ = 5. What we are really interested in. π π Often we need to know the fraction of radiative emission from a blackbody occurring over some ﬁnite wavelength range. is the total blackbody emissive power. f0→λ1 = 4 5 eC2 /(λ T ) − 1 σT λ 0 Because this is so diﬃcult to evaluate.8 µm · K . what will enable us to solve problems.8This integral can be evaluated in terms of the Riemann zeta function. Because the blackbody is diﬀuse. (10. e.2. like the Stefan–Boltzmann Law.14) Eb (T ) = σ T 4 . e.11) over all wavelengths ∞ λ T ≈ 2897. The equation speciﬁes the locus of peak points for Eλ. C1 dλ .11) appropriately.g.b dλ f0→λ1 = 0∞ σ T4 0 0 Eλ.b dλ However.e.13) Eb (T ) = 0 Although this operation is not trivial 10. Ib = 10. We notice that f 0→λ1 is a function of both wavelength and temperature. this can be derived by integrating the spectral blackbody emissive power given by Eq. the result is (10.8 it can be shown that (10. we would like to leverage any analytical advantage that we can from this expression. BLACKBODY RADIATION 124 The third point above has an interesting proof associated with it known as Wien’s Displacement Law .g. i. (10.

1. given by 10. the equation can be rewritten as f0→λ1 = = 1 σ T4 C1 σ 0 λ1 T 0 λ1 T λ5 (T λ) C1 C2 /(λ T ) e 1 5 d (λT ) T − 1 − 1 d (λ T ) eC2 /(λ T ) This expression can be recast in terms of u = λT as (10. T d (λ T ) dλ = T dλ . g(a) which proves Eq. (10. and u maps to λT . λ corresponds to x. therefore. dλ The upper limit is now λ1 → λ1 T . for example. Gillman and McDowell. so that Z b f (u) a du dx dx = = Z b a ` ´˛g(b) ˛ F g(b) − F g(a) = F u ˛ = ` ´ ` ´ g(a) ` ´ ` ´˛b ˛ f g(x) g (x) dx = F g(x) ˛ a Z g(b) f (u) du . BLACKBODY RADIATION 125 Let us use the “Integration by Substitution” Theorem from Calculus (e.15) a f (u) du dx = dx g(b) f (u) du .9 b (10. 270). 1978. let F be the anti–derivative of function f and u = g(x).2. Speciﬁcally. 716) and Appendix C (Table C. du = d (λ T ) = which leads to the substitution dλ → d (λ T ) .10. (10. pp. The form and diﬃculty are similar to Eq.15). Therefore.16) f0→λ1 = C1 σ u1 0 1 u5 eC2 /u − 1 du . pp. Incropera and Dewitt (2002. g(a) where u = g(x). Table 12. while Dunkle (1954) and Siegel and Howell (2001) contain more comprehensive data.1)give abbreviated summaries.g. We want to write f0→λ1 in terms of the combined variable λT .9This theorem can be proven in a straightforward fashion. . For example.13). Reference texts have tabulated f as a function of the combined variable λT . 10.

The spectrum of radiation emitted by a real surface is not necessarily the same as that speciﬁed by the Planck Distribution (Fig. emits the maximum radiation possible.3. emissivity can assume various forms according to whether one talks of emission at a given wavelength or emission in a given direction. T ) . RADIATION CHARACTERISTICS OF REAL SURFACES 126 Eq.19) ελ.3.10.b dλ σ T4 − 0 = 1 − f0→λ2 4 σT σ T4 I&D Ex. θ.b dλ λ1 0 λ1 0 Note the special case for a range with a lower bound λ = λ 2 → ∞ corresponds to fλ2 →∞ = = = (10.e (λ. (10. T ) of a surface at temperature T as the ratio of the intensity of the radiation emitted at wavelength λ in the (θ.b dλ σ T4 dλ λ dλ − 0 2 Eλ. Radiation Characteristics of Real Surfaces 10.b dλ σ T4 ∞ λ2 Eλ.b dλ − σ T4 λ2 0 Eλ.18) fλ2 →∞ = ∞ λ2 Eλ. φ. we can deﬁne the emissivity of a body as the ratio of radiation emitted by its surface to the radiation emitted by a blackbody at the same temperature. For example.b dλ − 0 4 σT σ T4 λ2 Eλ.16) can be applied more generally for arbitrary ranges of radiation λ = λ1 → λ2 according to fλ1 →λ2 = = = (10. 12. let us now look at characteristics of real surfaces.1. φ.3. Now that we have developed the concept of an ideal surface (such that we have a basis of comparison). 12.7) Also. In fact. ελ. or some overall integrated value. First. Therefore.3 pp 717 I&D Ex.4 pp 719 10. (10. being the ideal emitter.b σ T4 ∞ 0 Eλ. φ) direction to the intensity of the radiation emitted by a blackbody for the same values of λ and T . 10. This has the form Iλ.b dλ 0 Eλ. θ. Emissivity. recall that the blackbody. Therefore. T ) = Iλ. T ) . we deﬁne a quantity called the spectral directional emissivity.b (λ.b dλ Eλ. θ.b dλ − σ T4 f0→λ2 − f0→λ1 λ2 0 Eλ. we will specify properties of real surfaces via direct comparison to those of the blackbody. the directional distribution may not qualify as diﬀuse.17) fλ1 →λ2 = λ2 λ1 Eλ.b σ T4 Eλ.θ (λ.θ (λ. φ.

θ is independent of φ (a reasonable assumption for many surfaces).21) ελ (λ.b (λ.7. θ.b into the top term. T ) = Ib (T ) Note that these two quantities are actually deﬁned in terms of radiation intensity because of directional dependence.θ (λ.b in both numerator and denominator do not depend upon direction (so they can be taken outside their integral signs). T ) cos θ sin θ dθ dφ 0 0 . We recall from previous deﬁnitions that these quantities represent emissive powers that have been integrated over the hemispherical area of emission. T ) = Eλ (λ. take note that Iλ. How does this relate to the directional emissivity ελ. Note that the blackbody term in the denominator appears correctly as having no dependence upon direction since it is diﬀuse emitter. T ) cos θ sin θ dθ dφ cos θ sin θ dθ dφ 2π π/2 0 0 . is an average over the wavelength spectrum and is deﬁned as Ie (θ. φ. εθ .e (λ. (10. the total directional emissivity.3. θ. we can obtain (after evaluating the . substitute Iλ. T ) . Likewise.20) εθ (θ. RADIATION CHARACTERISTICS OF REAL SURFACES Planck (blackbody) real surface 127 spectral emissive power Pl ck an su rfa ce (b b ck la re al od y) wavelength Figure 10.10. Using Eq.22) ελ (λ. T ) which is given in terms of emissive power. φ.19).23) ελ (λ. we can also deﬁned an emissivity that has been averaged over all directions. T ) . If we make the further assumption that ε λ.e = ελ. φ. T ) = 2π π/2 Iλ. called the spectral hemispherical emissivity (10. (10.θ Iλ. T ) cos θ sin θ dθ dφ 0 0 2π π/2 Iλ. T ) = 2π π/2 0 0 ελ. Conversely. Potential diﬀerences between the characteristics of real versus idealized (blackbody) surfaces for spectral (left) and directional (right) aspects of radiation emission. φ. Eλ.b (λ.θ ? The spectral hemispherical emissivity can be written according to the deﬁnitions (10. and the relation simpliﬁes to (10.

we will concentrate on situations where transmission vanishes. T ) dλ . A simple energy balance for opaque surfaces shows (10. Absorptivity.θ (λ.abs are the components reﬂected and absorbed.. but may either decrease or increase for non–conductors Moreover. 12. and Gλ. where Gλ is the irradiation.3.24) ελ (λ. 10. it may be said in general that • emissivity of metallic surfaces is small • oxide layers increase the emissivity of metallic surfaces • emissivity of non–conductors is large • emissivity of conductors increases with T .trans is the transmitted component. respectively.b (λ.26) ε(T ) = ∞ 0 dλ and ελ (λ. At the beginning of this chapter.e. θ. i. 10.25) ε(T ) = E(T ) E(T ) = . Eb (T ) If the emissivities of a surface are known. T ) cos θ sin θ dθ . emissivity can depend on other factors. we introduced the idea of a semi–transparent medium in which a portion of the irradiation is absorbed 10.2.trans . accounts for all directions and all wavelengths and is deﬁned as (10. these deﬁnitions can be applied directly to calculate all emission characteristics.10. Eb (T ) σ T4 ∞ 0 Eλ (λ) Now. ε. 10.11Thrown back oﬀ away from the surface. for example local residual ¨ s stresses or chemical interactions. using our previously established deﬁnitions of E = Eλ (λ. 1964). T ) Eλ. We note (again according to deﬁnition) that the directional emissivity of a diﬀuse emitter is constant. Gλ. The total hemispherical emissivity.10.ref and Gλ.6 pp 727 . which 10. so that the problem is one of only absorption and reﬂection. T ) = ελ (λ. we can see that (10. 12. Ozi¸ik (1985) and Incropera and Dewitt (2002) contain summary data. independent of direction. while more comprehensive data are available in reference texts (e. Recall that such a material is called opaque.12. T ).g. like for emission. It follows that.10Manifested as heating at the surface. For “real” surfaces. T )Eλ. and a portion is transmitted10.3. we can quantify the characteristics of irradiation in terms of surface properties. a portion is reﬂected10. Wood et al.12Allowed to pass through to lower layers of the material.5 pp 724 I&D Ex. T ) = 2 0 ελ.b (λ.abs + Gλ.ref + Gλ. For the most part. RADIATION CHARACTERISTICS OF REAL SURFACES 128 denominator) π/2 (10.27) Gλ = Gλ.11. I&D Ex.

i (λ. Iλ. if α λ.13Although again. we will largely stress absorption and reﬂection over transmission. θ.13. from the previous deﬁnition G = 0 Gλ dλ and Eq.i (λ. The spectral directional absorptivity determines the fraction of irradiation absorbed by a surface (10. The corresponding parameter after directional averaging is the spectral hemispherical absorptivity which is deﬁned as (10. Also.28) αλ.i (λ. Note that if the incident radiation is diﬀuse.30) αλ (λ) = 2π π/2 αλ.θ (λ. θ. θ) cos θ sin θ dθ .abs (λ) . in an analogous manner as Eq.i (λ.i (λ. I λ. (10. RADIATION CHARACTERISTICS OF REAL SURFACES 129 often vanishes. φ) cos θ sin θ dθ dφ and Eq. φ) cos θ sin θ dθ dφ 0 0 .33) α = ∞ 0 αλ (λ) Gλ (λ) ∞ 0 Gλ (λ) dλ dλ . φ) . θ.3. φ) where these properties are not generally dependent upon surface temperature (as the corresponding parameters for emission were). The total hemispherical absorptivity is the integrated average over all directions and the entire wavelength spectrum and is deﬁned simply as the fraction of the total irradiation absorbed by the surface (10.i (λ) so this comes outside the integrals and cancels on top and bottom.29) which. (10. 10. G ∞ which. from the deﬁnition 2π π/2 αλ (λ) = Gλ. θ. φ) = Iλ. (10.29) can be expressed directly as (10. φ) → Iλ.θ Iλ. can be expressed directly as (10. we likewise now introduce parameters that characterize absorption.24) for the spectral emissivity.θ is independent of φ we see that the expression becomes π/2 (10.31) αλ (λ) = 2 0 αλ. θ. θ. and reﬂection10. transmission.θ (λ. Gλ (λ) Gλ = 0 0 Iλ. φ) cos θ sin θ dθ dφ 0 0 2π π/2 Iλ.32) α = Gabs . .i.abs (λ.28). As we introduced various parameters that characterize emission.10. θ.

ref (λ. For now. The two bodies are in thermal 10.4.14We assume here that the transmitted radiation vanishes. the spectral directional reﬂectivity is deﬁned as Iλ. θ. 12.7 pp 735 and. KIRCHHOFF’S LAW AND GRAY SURFACES 130 10. There are similar relationships for transmissivity τ . (10.θ (λ.38) ρ = ∞ 0 ρλ (λ) Gλ (λ) dλ ∞ 0 Gλ (λ) dλ ρλ (λ) = 2π π/2 ρλ.27). Accordingly. (10. if properties are averaged over the entire wavelength spectrum Therefore.i (λ. i. There is an additional set of relationships between absorbtivity and emission.θ Iλ. shown in Eqs.14 (10. θ. Consider an isothermal blackbody enclosure at temperature T s which contains a smaller object. Reﬂectivity.39) and (10. also at temperature Ts (Fig.40) ρ λ + αλ = 1 ρ + α = 1.34) ρλ. φ) cos θ sin θ dθ dφ 0 0 . Gλ (λ) and the total hemispherical reﬂectivity is deﬁned as Gref (10.ref (λ) (10.3. G We can derive similar relations as we did for absorptivity. φ) .i (λ. θ.3.i.36) ρ = . the directional dependence is simply associated with the incident radiation. (10. 10. θ. . we will avoid this problem by working with a form that represents the integrated average over the hemisphere associated with the reﬂected part of the radiation — thus.37) and (10. Kirchhoﬀ ’s Law and Gray Surfaces Energy conservation applied to irradiation gives rise to a relationship between absorbtivity and reﬂectivity. The complicating factor here is that the phenomenon is inherently bidirectional. 10. θ.35) ρλ (λ) = .4. so that G λ. φ) the spectral hemispherical reﬂectivity is deﬁned as Gλ.10.trans = 0. (10.40).3. φ) = Iλ. knowledge of one property implies the other.e.i (λ. which is derived as follows. From the energy balance of irradiation we wrote in Eq. That is. it depends both upon the direction of the incident radiation and the direction of the reﬂected radiation. Relationships.39) (10. 10. I&D Ex.8). φ) cos θ sin θ dθ dφ 0 0 π/2 2π Iλ. known as Kirchhoﬀ’s Law . it can be shown by dividing by the irradiation that 10. Reﬂectivity determines the fraction of incident radiation reﬂected by a surface.4.

43) (10. ελ.25). By the same reasoning.43) clearly imply because they are otherwise equivalent. (10. The small object experiences a diﬀuse irradiation ﬂux which is equal to the blackbody radiation ﬂux emitted by the enclosure G = E b (Ts ). while in Eq. (10. equilibrium.41).46) ε λ = αλ . we can thus write (10. which implies q emit = qabs . as quantiﬁed by Eq.44) qemit = ε Aobj Eb (Ts ) . (10. Combining this observation with Eq. both the spectral form of this law may be shown to be true (10. The amount of radiation absorbed by the object is then obtained simply by multiplying by its absorbtivity α and area A obj (10. In particular. From the emission standpoint.43) the blackbody emissive power applies to our generic blackbody object operating at temperature Ts .θ .10. the body must emit radiation equal to the rate it is absorbed in order to satisfy thermal equilibrium. Converting these ﬂuxes into absolute quantities based on the area of the small body.θ = αλ. (10. Note that in Eq. However. (10.42).4. KIRCHHOFF’S LAW AND GRAY SURFACES 131 Ts Ts Figure 10.44).42) qabs = α Aobj Eb (Ts ) = qemit .42) and (10. Radiative transfer between two bodies at thermal equilibrium. the emissivity of the small object is its actual emissive power divided by the emissive power of a blackbody operating at the same temperature.45) (10. the blackbody emissive power Eb (Ts ) applies to the walls of the enclosure. we can write (10. ε = α Eqs. Therefore.41) qabs = α Aobj G = α Aobj Eb (Ts ) .8. This equation is one form of Kirchhoﬀ’s Law. (10. we recall that emissivity is deﬁned as the ratio of the actual emissive power to the total emissive power. the restriction of thermal equilibrium is a primary requirement for the validity of Eq. and the spectral–directional version as well .

because ε λ. meaning that both ε λ and αλ are independent of wavelength λ — they both come outside their respective integrals.i (λ. θ.10 pp 744 ∞ 0 ∞ . 12. then G λ (λ) = Eλ. leaving the two sides equal since ελ. θ.46) is applicable to all cases. 12.b (λ. (10. T ) Eλ. φ) cos θ sin θ dθ dφ 0 0 2π π/2 Iλ. (10. T ) and G = Eb (T ). (10.i (λ. (10. θ.θ • If the surface is diﬀuse. in which case the two sides are equal — this was our original condition • If the surface is gray. T ) cos θ sin θ dθ dφ cos θ sin θ dθ dφ 2π π/2 0 0 = 2π π/2 αλ. and thus Eq. in which case the two sides are again equal Are there any other conditions in which Eq. we summarize these forms and their restrictions in Table 10. then they come outside the integrals. θ. let us recast Eq.44) in terms of its fundamental deﬁnitions for ε in Eq. (10.i (λ) so this comes outside the integrals and cancels.θ and αλ. which yields 2π π/2 0 0 ελ.45)? Are they as restrictive as those for Eq. (10.45) in terms of its respective deﬁnitions for ε λ in Eq. For I&D Ex.θ (λ.26) and α in Eq.i (λ.4. φ) is diﬀuse then Iλ. pp 742 I&D Ex.b (λ. (10. so that ελ. θ. We ﬁnd αλ (λ) Gλ (λ) dλ ελ (λ. that the irradiation is from a blackbody operating at the same temperature? Let us write Eq.θ are independent of their respective overall spectral and directional distributions.9 convenience. so that the expression is once again satisﬁed We see now that there are a number of forms of Kirchhoﬀ’s Law. φ) → Iλ.33).θ and αλ.44).i (λ. (10. (10. φ.30). i.θ Iλ.e. T ) dλ = 0 · Eb (T ) G Assuming ελ = αλ .1.44) will be satisﬁed? As with the spectral components.θ is always equal to αλ.45).θ are independent of direction. What about the constraints on Eq. KIRCHHOFF’S LAW AND GRAY SURFACES 132 Eq. φ) cos θ sin θ dθ dφ 0 0 · This relation. (10. (10. will be satisﬁed for either of the following two conditions • If the irradiation Iλ. this expression is satisﬁed for either of the following two conditions • If the irradiation is the result of blackbody emission.23) and αλ in Eq.10.

θ and irradiation is diﬀuse or surface is diﬀuse ελ = αλ and thermal equilibrium and black irradiation or gray surface . Forms of Kirchhoﬀ’s Law Form ελ.4.θ ελ = α λ ε = α Restrictions none ελ. KIRCHHOFF’S LAW AND GRAY SURFACES 133 Table 10.10.θ = αλ.θ = αλ.1.

1. That is. To derive F ij . diﬀerential areas under consideration are connected by a radius of length R. 11. not to mention their radiative properties and temperatures. i. which have respective diﬀerential areas dA i and dAj (Fig.1. The View Factor Radiation exchange depends on surface geometries and their orientations. The view factor. the medium has no aﬀect upon the radiation exchange. the surfaces may have curvature. Now we extend this treatment to consider radiation exchange between two or more ﬁnite bodies. Fij . Calculation of the view factor. 11. is deﬁned simply as the fraction of radiation leaving surface i that is intercepted by surface j. We will initially focus on the geometrical aspect by introducing the view factor concept 11.1. 11. We will still invoke the idealization that any two surfaces are separated by a non– participating medium. In general. and θj are not constant as we consider the entirety of these two surfaces.CHAPTER 11 Radiation Exchange In Chapter 10. R. we assume arbitrary surfaces Ai and Aj . as with a vacuum. we described some of the characteristics of thermal radiation.e. which forms polar angles θi and θj with the respective unit normal vectors.1The terms “conﬁguration factor” and “shape factor” used in some texts are synonymous.1). for example. etc. θi . The θj R θi d Ai d Aj Tj Aj Ti Ai Figure 11. 134 .

1) over both surfaces.i = R2 Substituting. from the deﬁnition of view factor. which gives cos θi cos θj dAi dAj qi→j = Ji πR2 Ai Aj (11. the total rate at which radiation leaves surface i and is intercepted by surface j can be found simply by integrating Eq. We can then cast dqi→j as cos θi cos θj dAi dAj .5) on pp.i . Now we make an important assumption about radiation emanating from dAi . (11. Now. where the extra subscripts indicate emission and reﬂection. the view factor is radiation from i that hits j qi→j (11.1. Now recall the deﬁnition of solid angle is dAnormal /R2 .i is the solid angle subtended by dAj when viewed from dAi .3) Fij = 2 A i Ai Aj πR Eq. taking the projection of dA j . Ii should be written more exactly as Ii → Ii. by deﬁnition. where Ii is the intensity of the radiation leaving dA i and dωj.1 pp 798 cos θi cos θj 1 dAi dAj . so that the total radiation is given by the radiosity relationship J i = πIi. 13. we can deduce the rate at which radiation leaves dAi and strikes dAj as dqi→j = Ii dAi cos θi dωj. the radiation which leaves surface i and is intercepted by surface j is q i→j and the total radiation that leaves surface i (emitted plus reﬂected) is A i Ji . 120. with the assumptions we have made.3) is remarkable in the sense that. (11. (11.e.2) Fij = · = total radiation from i Ai Ji By inspection. i. therefore.e+r .11.1) dqi→j = Ji = Ji Ai Aj cos θi cos θj dAi dAj . πR2 We now make another critical assumption: J i is taken to be uniform over surface i. (10. gives dAj cos θj .e+r . Then. THE VIEW FACTOR 135 From the form of Eq. we ﬁnd cos θi cos θj dqi→j = Ii dAi dAj . πR2 Uniformity in Ji allows us to take it outside the integral. we see that view factor can be calculated as I&D Ex. R2 The total radiation coming from dAi is that which is emitted plus that which is reﬂected. We do not require . the view factor is dependent strictly on geometry. which means that. dωj. We assume that this surface emits and reﬂects diﬀusely.

2.4) Fji = dAi dAj .5) is termed the reciprocity rule and is useful for ﬁnding one view factor when the other is known. and the remaining surfaces in the enclosure 2.5) Fij Ai = Fji Aj . This relation is the ﬁrst result in a system of algebra we will construct in order to minimize the number of times that the view factor integral actually has to be computed for a speciﬁc radiation problem. or convex. be concave. VIEW FACTOR ALGEBRA 136 any particular knowledge of the radiative quantities to calculate it. 3. Fji = total radiation from j Aj Jj from which we ﬁnd cos θi cos θj 1 (11. . N surfaces may be “virtual” in the sense that they represent an unbounded area. . certain identities can be immediately deduced. Note that one or more of the 2. 11. Enclosures for radiation exchange. the important assumptions we have made in deriving Eq.3) and (11. The total radiation emanating from surface 1 is A 1 J1 .2. This surface is denoted by cross– hatching in Fig. 3. some of the emanating radiation will be self–intercepted because this surface can “see” itself.2. which implies (11. the complementary view factor F ji can be represented as qj→i radiation from j that hits i = . View Factor Algebra Based upon the deﬁnitions in Eqs. ﬂat. which may. . Imagine an enclosure involving a particular surface. (11. in general.2. In a proper accounting of how energy is conserved. . Again. • radiosity of surface i is uniform By a similar derivation. Eq. (11. • surface i emits and reﬂects diﬀusely. 1. all of this radiation must be intercepted by the other surfaces. both F ij and Fji depend upon the same integral.3) are • the medium does not participate. In cases where surface 1 is concave. Let us now consider view factors from the standpoint of conservation of energy. . we label this surface as concave flat convex Figure 11.4). . .11. A j Ai Aj πR2 11. N . . . (11. Without loss of generality. For example.

FN 1 FN 2 FN 3 · · · F N N Each of these view factors is deﬁned by the view factor integral.6) clearly imply that not all of the factors has to be calculated directly.3). .e. the term Fii represents self–interception of radiation for that particular surface. Also. Using the summation rule. (11.11. Note according to the above discussion that F 11 = 0 for ﬂat and convex surfaces. the right hand side simply represents the sum of all the view factors. . . which is called the summation rule. (11. For any of these equations. VIEW FACTOR ALGEBRA 137 In cases where the surface is ﬂat or convex. In general. Generalizing the above observation. the surface does not intercept any of its own emanating radiation. as given by Eq. we can write a simple conservation law for the radiation from surface 1 as A1 J1 = q1→1 + q1→2 + q1→3 + · · · + q1→N .6) j=1 Fij = 1 . With these observations. We can write such an equation for each of the N surfaces in the enclosure. . N view factors can be obtained from the N equations derived from the summation rule applied to each surface of the enclosure. Once again. 1 ≤ i ≤ N equations. but Fii = 0 for concave surfaces. the total number of view factors that characterize a radiation problem is N 2 . which can be expressed as the matrix F11 F12 F13 · · · F1N F21 F22 F23 · · · F2N F31 F32 F33 · · · F3N . . . the view factor integral is not trivial to evaluate. ..2. we ﬁnd q1→1 q1→2 q1→3 q1→N A1 J1 = 1 = + + + ··· + . Based on the observation in Eq. We can write this in compact form for surface i = 1 as N (11.6) that there are N view factors associated with each surface and there are N surfaces.e. the summation rule is a simple statement of conservation of radiative energy. N (N − 1)/2 of the factors can be obtained by N (N − 1)/2 applications of the reciprocity relation. . However. . (11. i. i. Dividing by A1 J1 . . Eqs. 1 = F11 + F12 + F13 + · · · + F1N . . A1 J1 A1 J1 A1 J1 A1 J1 A1 J1 Of course. F ii = 0 for ﬂat and convex surfaces. . This number is derived as follows: as .5) and (11. but F11 = 0 for concave surfaces. . .

we see F11 + F12 = 1 → F11 = 0 . (11.11. 11. (11. 11. while the 1 2 Figure 11. In this case. we skipped having to evaluate Eq. only half of these are independent. From reciprocity.2That is. Therefore. The other 6 factors can be calculated using the algebraic relationships in Eqs. therefore by inspection. However. The smaller sphere has an outer surface area of A 1 . A2 A2 From summation. Example 11.5) and (11.1: Consider a simple 2–surface enclosure of a sphere within a sphere (Fig. larger has an inner surface area of A 2 .3.2 = N! N × (N − 1) × (N − 2)! N (N − 1) = = · (N − 2)! 2! (N − 2)! × 2 × 1 2 .3). thus giving N (N − 1) relationships.3. only N (N −1)/2 = 2·1/2 = 1 of which has to actually be calculated directly. There is no meaningful reciprocity relationship between a surface and itself. only N 2 − N − N (N − 1)/2 = N (N − 1)/2 view factors actually have to be calculated directly.6). we see A1 A1 F21 = F12 = . for a 3–surface enclosure there are 32 = 9 view factors. by evaluating the view factor integral. From combinatorics. we ﬁnd CN. all radiation leaving the inner sphere is intercepted by the outer sphere.e. there is a reciprocity relationship to every other surface besides the one in question. we conclude F 12 = 1. Determine the view factors characterizing this problem.3An even more direct proof is to realize that this problem is also quantiﬁed by the number of combinations of N entities taken 2 at a time.2. The rest of the problem is trivial.2. and this can be applied N times. i. Two concentric spheres exchanging radiation.3). For example. 11. only 3 · 2/2 = 3 of which have to be computed directly. There are N 2 = 22 = 4 relevant view factors. VIEW FACTOR ALGEBRA 138 applied to a given surface there are N − 1 reciprocity relations 11. giving N (N − 1)/2 relations 11. The trick is to intelligently pick the view factor that must be calculated! For example.

Turning this concept around via reciprocity.1.2) = Fi1 + Fi2 and A(j) = A(1. we can also determine a component–wise description of the surface that originates .g. it is evi- i 1 2 Figure 11.11. . Solutions have been obtained for a variety of conﬁgurations (e. This would have been the other easy starting point for the problem. ♦♦♦ Another important identity can be derived by considering the case where a surface is broken up into its component parts (Fig. k. we would write F i(j) = Fi(1. 2002. Also from summation. Incropera and Dewitt. Composite surfaces. VIEW FACTOR ALGEBRA 139 Of course. 2. 11. . §13.2. . this also could have been concluded by inspection. since the inner sphere is completely convex. The composite area is clearly n (11. n components. we see F21 + F22 = 1 → F22 = 1 − A1 . . where the parentheses around j indicate that it is a composite surface made up of 1.2). For example.7) Fi(j) = k=1 Fik .4. view factors may have to be calculated using the double–integral deﬁnition. in Fig.4).4.8) A(j) = k=1 Ak . 11. First. A2 For more complex geometries. dent that radiation reaching a composite surface is the sum of the radiation reaching each of its parts n (11. . . . .2) = A1 +A2 .

5 shows two examples for N = 3. (11. F(1. e. . such relations are problem speciﬁc and will not necessarily exist for every conﬁguration. Multiplying Eq.2 pp 799 A1 F1i + A2 F2i . For 3 2 3 1 1 2 Figure 11. any geometric symmetry also implies symmetry in the corresponding view factors. depending upon the speciﬁc problem. (11.g. k=1 We can also write an “overall” reciprocity equation A i Fi(j) = A(j) F(j)i . Radiation enclosures with N = 3 surfaces.9) F(j)i 1 = A(j) n Ak Fki . 11. we see that N (N − 1)/2 is actually the upper bound for the number of view factors that have to be calculated directly. Many problems are such that the view factor integral never actually has to be evaluated. In the triangular duct F 12 = F13 . so that we ﬁnally conclude (11. k=1 Referring again to Fig. Dotted lines indicate planes of symmetry. Unlike Eqs. we ﬁnd I&D Ex. the cylinder. Any extra relations that we can deduce.2. For example.7) by A i . because we have already shown that the view factor integral in Eq.11. by inspection of ﬂat or convex surfaces and by symmetry observations. Fig. so that again F12 = F13 . 13.2)i = A1 + A 2 Finally. decreases this number. surface 1 is taken as the entire inside surface.4 as an example. we obtain n Ai Fi(j) = = = = = Ai k=1 Fik Ai Fi1 + Fi2 + · · · + Fin Ai Fi1 + Ai Fi2 + · · · + Ai Fin A1 F1i + A2 F2i + · · · + An Fni n (reciprocity) Ak Fki .3) depends only upon geometry. 11. In retrospect. other view factor relations may exist.5.5) and (11. VIEW FACTOR ALGEBRA 140 the radiation. (11.6).

j Ai Fij σ Ti4 − Tj4 .10) is the net rate at which radiation leaves surface i (is lost from surface i) as a result of interacting with surface j.e. 11. Blackbody Radiation Exchange In the general problem. Now. i. it is the net rate at which surface j gains energy. A similar treatment to the I&D Ex. so that qi→j = Eb.j Aj Fji Eb. Likewise. For radiation exchange between two arbitrary blackbody surfaces. it may be reﬂected and absorbed.j Ai Fij Ai Fij Eb.3.4.i Ai Fij . invoking the blackbody assumption. all maintained at various temperatures.10) qij = qi→j − qj→i Eb. Similarly.j Aj Fji . The reality of this situation is that “packets” of radiation will interact with many surfaces consecutively.i − Eb.11. Energy only leaves a surface via emission and all incident radiation is absorbed at the target surface.i Ai Fij − Eb. for blackbodies the situation is greatly simpliﬁed since there is no reﬂection.2). However. but we have already seen that real surfaces often reﬂect radiation.11) qi = j=1 Ai Fij σ Ti4 − Tj4 = σ Ai j=1 Fij Ti4 − Tj4 as the net transfer of radiation from surface i as a result of interacting with all of the other N − 1 surfaces of the enclosure. (11. radiosity equals the emissive power for a blackbody. radiation departs from a surface via both emission and reﬂection.11) is interesting from a conceptual standpoint. ρ > 0 and α < 1. The net exchange between the two surfaces can be written simply as the diﬀerence between these two quantities qij = = = = (11. each which might absorb some portion and reﬂect the remainder.i Ai Fij − Eb. (11.3 above yields pp 801 N N (11. (reciprocity) Eq.4. we can write the radiation transfer in the opposite direction as qj→i = Eb. 13. This concept can easily be extended to an enclosure of N blackbody surfaces. EXCHANGE AMONG DIFFUSE GRAY SURFACES 141 11. (11. Two surfaces will therefore exchange energy at many . At the target. we can write qi→j = Ji Ai Fij directly from the view factor deﬁnition in Eq. Exchange Among Diﬀuse Gray Surfaces Eq.

12) qi = = = = A i Ji − G i Ai Ei + ρ i Gi − G i A i Ei + G i ρi − 1 A i Ei − G i 1 − ρ i A i Ei − α i Gi . diﬀuse.4. we ﬁnd Gi = Ji − εi Ebi . while the form based on emission implicitly accounts for reﬂection. we will model enclosures having the following properties for each surface • isothermal (uniform temperature) • uniform radiosity and irradiation • opaque (τ = 0). between emission and absorption (Fig. we will relax somewhat the assumption of a blackbody. In this section. 11. we can write radiosity as Ji = εi Ebi + (1 − εi ) Gi . Using Ei = εi Ebi and ρi = 1 − αi = 1 − εi . Let us focus on the radiosity Ji = Ei + ρi Gi .6. Conservation of energy in two equivalent forms. either in terms of the diﬀerence between radiosity and irradiation. In particular. we can write qi according to conservation of energy at the radiative surface. EXCHANGE AMONG DIFFUSE GRAY SURFACES 142 “levels”. This bouncing eﬀect complicates matters. (11. or equivalently. 1 − εi . Speciﬁcally.11. (11. where q is the net loss from the surface. Solving for Gi . and gray (ε = α) and will then develop relations for the net rate at which radiation leaves a surface i. We have ρ *G*A J*A G*A E*A α*G*A G*A q q Figure 11.6). deﬁned as qi .13) qi = Notice that the form containing radiosity implicitly includes absorption. as the radiation bounces back and forth.

(11. This must be calculated based on interaction with the other N − 1 surfaces of the problem. when substituted into qi above.7. 11.4. For εi < 1. the results expressed thus far are incomplete because we do not know the value of the radiosity J i in Eq. Conceptually. (11.14).7 illustrates this circuit analog. Circuit analogy for radiative exchange at a surface as characterized by Eq. which a real surface diﬀers from the ideal blackbody radiator. EXCHANGE AMONG DIFFUSE GRAY SURFACES 143 which. so that it is described by Eq.14). the radiosity approaches the blackbody emissive power — the surface is then equivalent to the ideal blackbody surface.14) as 1 − εi qi = Ebi − Ji . the surface is not ideal. if we write Eq. We readily notice the analogy to circuits. as the emissivity goes to unity.11. i. while q i is heat ﬂow (analogous to ﬂow of electrical current) and (1 − ε i ) / (Ai εi ) is a radiative surface “resistance”.14) qi = Ji − εi Ebi 1 − εi Ji − εi Ebi 1 − εi − A i Ji 1 − εi 1 − εi Ji (1 − εi ) − Ji + εi Ebi Ai 1 − εi εi Ebi − εi Ji Ai 1 − εi Ai εi (Ebi − Ji ) 1 − εi Ebi − Ji (1 − εi ) / (Ai εi ) Ai Ji − This expression is the net radiative energy from a surface.e. In other words.14) as quantifying the amount by (1 − ε i ) / ( A i ε i ) Ei qi Ji Figure 11. for which ε i = αi = 1 (perfect absorptivity) and ρi = 0 (no reﬂection). (11. Ebi − Ji represents driving potential. the radiosities for these surfaces then come into play as . Fig. yields qi = = = = = (11. Ai εi it is clear that εi → 1 implies Ji → Ebi . (11. However. In other words. Unfortunately. we can think of Eq.14). (11.

(11. qi is ﬂow. Surface i thus comprises the node for this circuit.4. 11. which yields N qi = Ai Ji − j=1 Jj Fij N = Ai Ji × 1 − Ai Ji Ai Ai j=1 j=1 = N Jj Fij N j=1 N (multiply Ji by 1) j=1 Fij − = N Jj Fij (Eq. We write this as Ai Gi = = = = = q1→i + q2→i + · · · + qN →i A1 J1 F1i + A2 J2 F2i + · · · + AN JN FN i (apply Eq.15) qi = Fij (Ji − Jj ) Eq.11.2)) J1 A1 F1i + J2 A2 F2i + · · · + JN AN FN i J1 Ai Fi1 + J2 Ai Fi2 + · · · + JN Ai FiN (reciprocity) Ai (J1 Fi1 + J2 Fi2 + · · · + JN FiN ) . Let us now consider the conservation of energy for the irradiation of surface i.8). Furthermore. it should be clear that in a given problem of N 11.6)) j=1 Fij Ji − j=1 N Jj Fij (take Ji into Σ) (11.4. we can substitute this into Eq.15) represents the net radiation leaving surface i written in terms of the interaction with radiosities of the other surfaces.12) for the net rate of radiation leaving surface i. (11.6) were based on the conservation of energy of the radiation leaving surface i.14). and (Ai Fij )−1 is a resistance term11.4This quantity is usually referred to as the spatial resistance. N Canceling Ai from both sides. this conﬁguration represents a resistor for each surface interacting with the given surface i (Fig. or shape resistance. EXCHANGE AMONG DIFFUSE GRAY SURFACES 144 well. (11. (11. (11. that is. (11. Recalling the developments that led to the summation rule in Eq. . Unlike the single resistor implied by Eq. We again notice a clear analogy to linear circuits where J i − Jj is the potential. the total irradiation is the sum of all net radiation transfers to surface i. we can write the irradiation as Gi = j=1 Jj Fij . geometric resistance. In turn.

each of which represents one surface of the problem.8. (11. Circuit analogy for radiative exchange at a surface as characterized by Eq. canceling Ai . (11. Eq. so in an actual problem. (11. Like Eq. This same concept appears in Fig.16) is written for a speciﬁc surface i. where the nodes go from 1 to N .15) to obtain Ebi − Ji = Ai (1 − εi ) / (Ai εi ) N j=1 N j=1 Or. we can readily set Eq. In fact. there will be N such circuits of the type shown in Fig.e. −1 JN q i −> N Fij (Ji − Jj ) .5. there is insuﬃcient information in Eq. Let us examine this equation closely. i.8.14) equal to Eq. 11. .15) to solve the typical problem. This equation is simply the conservation of energy for each node (surface) in the equation. (11. However.11. (11. 11. it is really nothing more than Kirchhoﬀ’s Circuit Law .16) Ebi − Ji = (1 − εi ) /εi Fij (Ji − Jj ) . The Graybody Matrix Problem You have probably already deduced from the above discussion that the problem must ultimately be cast as a matrix equation. (11. we can write more simply (11. That is. 11. the sum of the currents (radiative transfers) for a node must be zero. surfaces.15).14). there would be N such equations for i : 1 → N . there will be such a circuit for each node.8. because we generally do not know the values for q i . THE GRAYBODY MATRIX PROBLEM 145 q i F i 1 ) −1 i −> 1 J1 J2 (A i Fi2 ) −1 q i −> 2 q (A i J 3 q Ji ) FiN (A i i −> 3 (A i Fi 3 ) −1 Figure 11.5.

9. For example. (11. such diagrams quickly become too diﬃcult to reasonably draw.I&D Ex. the circuit representation for N = 3 is shown in Fig.16) for each surface as ε1 Eb1 − J1 = F11 J1 − J1 + F12 J1 − J2 + F13 J1 − J3 1 − ε1 ε2 Eb2 − J2 = F21 J2 − J1 + F22 J2 − J2 + F23 J2 − J3 1 − ε2 ε3 Eb3 − J3 = F31 J3 − J1 + F32 J3 − J2 + F33 J3 − J3 1 − ε3 where the unknowns are J1 . ε2 = ε2 / (1 − ε2 ). Conﬁgu. 1988). This problem reduces to the simple series of resistors (Fig. THE GRAYBODY MATRIX PROBLEM 146 You have probably further deduced that the circuit analogy for this problem becomes too unwieldy for large N .10). 13. where ε1 = ε1 / (1 − ε1 ). we would write a form of Eq.5. The matrix R R R E e1 Eb3 e3 J s13 3 R b1 J s23 1 R s12 J2 R e2 Eb2 Circuit analogy for radiative exchange among 3 surfaces showing emissive powers. J2 . For the same N = 3 problem.11. 11. Of course. representation is rather more general. as are the view factors. and J3 . pp 808 One conﬁguration where the circuit analogy is preferred is the case of N = 2. radiosity nodes. Figure 11. 11. and ε3 = ε3 / (1 − ε3 ) are short¯ ¯ ¯ hand notations. Resistors with subscript “e” are emissive resistors.14) on pp. and all resistances. but for higher values of N . These equations can be written in matrix form as ε1 Eb1 ¯ J1 F12 + F13 + ε1 ¯ − F12 − F13 J2 = ε2 Eb2 ¯ − F21 F21 + ε2 + F23 ¯ − F23 ε3 Eb3 ¯ J3 − F31 ¯ − F32 F31 + F32 + ε3 . this particular system can be solved using any suitable matrix iteration or inversion procedure (Kreyszig. 124. The emissive powers are considered known because they can be calculated from the Stefan–Boltzmann Law in Eq.9.4 rations having N > 3 lead to commensurately larger matrix problems. while those with subscript “s” are shape resistors. (10. Emissivities are also considered to be known.

Aε it is clear that R will be large if the emissivity is small.10 with a commensurate decrease in q12 . we know the potential at the two termini from the Stefan–Boltzmann (1 − ε 1 ) / (Α 1ε 1) q 1 (A 1 F1 2 ) −1 J 1 (1 − ε 2 ) / (Α 2ε 2) J E b2 −q 2 E b1 2 q 12 Figure 11. (11.14). 11.11. 11. ADDITIONAL CONFIGURATIONS 147 Here. This provides a basis for using low emissivity materials as radiation shields to decrease the heat transfer between two bodies 11. This would result in additional high–resistance elements in Fig. a low–ε surface can be placed between two bodies between which heat transfer is to be decreased. q12 . In other words.6. For gray surfaces we have α + ρ = ε + ρ = 1. and can thus write (11. How does this eﬀectively change the problem? Let us carefully examine the example of a 3 surface enclosure. because there is no radiative transfer through resistor R e3 . The circuit is thus reduced to a simpler parallel arrangement where one of the legs is Rs12 and the other is Rs13 +Rs23 . . we see that qi = 0 implies Ebi = Ji . the net rate of transfer from surface 1 to surface 2. where one of the surfaces is a re–radiating surface (Fig.17) q12 = 4 4 σ T1 − T 2 · (1 − ε1 ) / (ε1 A1 ) + 1/ (A1 F12 ) + (1 − ε2 ) / (ε2 A2 ) Moreover. 13. Series circuit for the N = 2 problem. Additional conﬁgurations There are several interesting conﬁgurations related to radiation exchange. −q 2 .5. so that the the radiosity at node i will be known. 11.14) 1 − ε . For example. because there are only 2 surfaces. (11. q1 . q i = 0. Law. q3 = 0 because this is a re–radiating surface. so that low–ε implies that the surface is highly reﬂective of radiation. That is. so–called low–ε glass is used in this capacity. From Eq. This is a reasonable model when the surface is well–insulated on the opposite side.11).5For example. Another interesting conﬁguration is the re–radiating surface. must be equal to the net rate of transfer from surface 1.6 pp 815 R = 11. Also. J 3 = Eb3 is known. N = 3. The circuit can be solved I&D Ex. which is characterized by zero net radiation transfer.10. if we examine the form of the emissive resistance in Eq. and thus the net rate of transfer to surface 2.6. It is clear that q13 = q23 .

= Re1 + .11. whose form is 1 − ε3 Re3 = · A3 ε3 In turn.e. ADDITIONAL CONFIGURATIONS 148 R R R E e1 e3 s13 J = E b3 3 q 13 R q 23 b1 J s23 1 R s12 J2 R e2 Eb2 Figure 11. Rs12 + Rs13 + Rs23 from which we can write the solution in the form Eb1 − Eb2 q1 = − q 2 = .6. we can apply Eq. this means that the problem is independent of the emissivity of surface 3. Circuit for N = 3 enclosure with surface 3 acting as a re–radiating surface.e. (11. Using standard circuit analysis. except we simply set q i = 0 for any re–radiating surface i. i. by formulating the overall resistance between E b1 and Eb2 . i. N > 3.11. the total resistance R t is found to be 1 Rt = Re1 + + Re2 1 1 Rs13 + Rs23 + Rs12 Rs12 (Rs13 + Rs23 ) + Re2 . In a more general problem. Once q 1 is known. standard circuit theory can again be applied to ﬁnd the potentials J 1 and J2 . the emissivity of a re– radiating surface is irrelevant.15) in the standard fashion to formulate the matrix problem. This observation is true in general. Rt Notice that the problem is independent of resistor R e3 .

consider the imaginary case T = (x2 −1)t. There are a number of ways to approach this problem. 149 . Moreover. A. i. we introduce a more generalized one–dimensional problem where spatial gradients do not vanish and the Fourier number is such that the one term approximation is not necessarily valid.g. We will focus on the case where boundary conditions are of the ﬁrst kind (Dirichlet boundary conditions). where Ψ = (x2 − 1) and Γ = t. however. Conversely. there were appreciable limitations upon their applicability. e. Recall that this equation is a linear partial diﬀerential equation.1) T (x.e. This equation clearly represents a “separable” √ problem. To complete the description of a problem. ∂t ∂x2 where T is only a function of x and t. We focus on homogeneous boundary conditions of the ﬁrst kind. the lumped capacitance method. t) = 0. Initial conditions are given by a function T (x.1As opposed to non–linear problems which often cannot be solved analytically. Here. Eq. It is assumed that speciﬁc non–homogeneous cases can be cast in homogeneous form using a suitable transformation. we will require both boundary conditions and initial conditions. 0) = F (x). Separation of Variables Method The method begins with a conjecture that the solution can be written in the form (A. We take the problem domain to be a ﬁnite region in Cartesian space 0 ≤ x ≤ L. we will use the well–known method of Separation of Variables.APPENDIX A Transient Conduction Example: The Homogeneous Cooling Problem The concept of transient conduction was examined in Chapter 4. t) = Ψ(x) Γ(t) . we assume that the physical problem is such that the contribution related to temporal response can be separated from the contribution related to spatial variation (Carrier and Pearson. (4. t) = T (L. the case T = xt + A. 1976). For example. While certain idealizations were discussed.1) describes the physics of this problem ∂2T ∂T = α . so we suspect that we can treat speciﬁc problems strictly with theoretical methods A. That is. that is to make sure it is well–posed. T (0. we assume a temporal duration of t ≥ 0.1.1.

1976). Eq. These responses can be veriﬁed by substitution. Using the Chain Rule of Calculus. Therefore. Ψ(x) 1 Γ (t) = C0 α Γ(t) where C0 is a constant.4) would be contradicted.1).3) into the conduction equation to obtain (A. we can apply Chain Rule twice to ﬁnd (A. Therefore. Under the conjecture of Eq. either of x or t could be held ﬁxed while the other could be varied such that Eq. a phenomenon compatible with the type of boundary and initial conditions we will employ. It follows that each side must be equal to a constant. (A. However.4) must be valid for all x and t in the problem domain. ∂t ∂t ∂t where the prime symbol denotes the derivative of a univariate function. (A. according to principle.7) where λ > 0.4) 1 Γ (t) Ψ (x) = . This leads to behavior that decays exponentially in time. (A. we now substitute Eqs. it is known to work for the type of one–dimensional conﬁgurations we are interested in here.1. partial derivatives have certain forms. Similarly. Otherwise. we see (A. We therefore suspect that even this method may be limited in the types of problems that may be solved. SEPARATION OF VARIABLES METHOD 150 √ tanh(x2 t + x/t) is not readily separable.A. We are instead interested in the case where C 0 is negative. Notice that the derivative of Ψ(x) with respect to t vanishes because Ψ is only a function of x. . not of t.5) and (A. α Γ(t) Ψ(x) We have now cast the problem in a separated form where the left hand side is only a function of time t and the right hand side is only a function of the spatial coordinate x. (A. Fortunately.2) and (A. we deﬁne (A.2) ∂Ψ(x) ∂Γ(t) ∂T = Γ(t) + Ψ(x) = Ψ(x) Γ (t) . (A. C0 = −λ2 .6) Ψ (x) = C0 .3) ∂2T = Ψ (x) Γ(t) . Positive values for C 0 lead to exponentially increas√ ing behavior and imaginary values (involving i = −1 ) lead to periodic behavior (Carrier and Pearson. ∂x2 Proceeding.

9) as (A. A. Therefore we see that Ψ(0) and Ψ(L) must vanish instead.9) Ψ (x) + λ2 Ψ(x) = 0 0≤x≤L. (A.10). (A. The boundary conditions are therefore (A. Solution Procedure We are now faced with solving the individual problems in x and t. This is handled diﬀerently as discussed below. We must apply the same separation process to the boundary conditions. otherwise the whole solution would be trivial. t) has now been completely separated into two simpler problems: a spatial problem in x and a temporal problem in t.11) Ψ(L) = 0 .8) and (A.2. .1). Cases involving other combinations of boundary ¨ s conditions are more complex and require a generalized treatment ( Ozi¸ik.11) to obtain Ψ(L) = C1 sin λL = 0 . 2 Γ (t) + αλ2 Γ(t) = 0 t≥0 Ψ(0) = 0 This can be readily veriﬁed by substitution. SOLUTION PROCEDURE 151 We have now developed two individual ordinary diﬀerential equations from the single partial diﬀerential equation (A. These taken separately are each easier to solve than the original partial diﬀerential equation. The ﬁrst step is to realize that Eq. we see that the trigonometric functions can satisfy Eq. (A.10) and (A. Using Eq.8) has a solution of the form (A. We do not perform a similar reduction on the initial condition. where C1 and C2 are constants of integration. Now. Next. 1980). we are focusing speciﬁcally on homogeneous boundary conditions of the ﬁrst kind.A.13) Ψ(x) = C1 sin λx + C2 cos λx . As mentioned above. The problem in (x. Now apply Eq.12) Γ(t) = e−αλ t . (A. the two boundary conditions can be written as Ψ(0) Γ(t) = Ψ(L) Γ(t) = 0 . which implies that C2 = 0. (A. we get Ψ(0) = C1 sin 0 + C2 cos 0 . Γ(t) cannot vanish for arbitrary values of t. If we apply Eq.2.

where n = 1. we have yet to determine mode coeﬃcients C n such that the initial conditions are satisﬁed. First. we see that this problem boils down to one of expanding an arbitrary function F (x) into a series. where N (λn ) is the norm and is deﬁned simply as L N (λn ) = 0 sin2 λn x dx . A. In this case. That is.2Ozi¸ik (1980) discusses eigenvalue problems in detail.14) λL = nπ . the series will be a Fourier “sin” series (Boyce and DiPrima. otherwise the entire solution would once again be trivial. 3. However. we make use of the fact that the eigenfunctions are orthogonal. this is an eigenvalue problemA. Note. DETERMINING MODE COEFFICIENTS 152 It is clear that C1 = 0. A general solution is therefore obtained by the linear superposition of all modes n = 1 → ∞.3. that is they obey L sin λn x sin λm x dx = 0 0 for m = n and L sin λn x sin λm x dx = N (λn ) 0 for m = n. Therefore.15) T (x. Let us review how such a series is constructed. A. .e. so that (A. 2 Eq. 0) = F (x) = n=1 Cn sin λn x . (A.A. however. this appears to be a dead end at ﬁrst glance since there are an inﬁnite number of unknown Cn values and only one equation. 2. t) = n=1 Cn sin (λn x) e−αλn t . ¨ s . Determining Mode Coeﬃcients Directly plugging in initial conditions at t = 0 yields ∞ (A. we will now change the nomenclature to reﬂect the fact that there are many admissible eigen–related values. . i. Each mode n yields an elementary solution to the problem.15) now satisﬁes both the governing equation and the boundary conditions.3. Also note that in this case “sin λ n x” is called the eigenfunction. C1 → Cn . and λn = nπ/L.16) T (x. ¨ s Ozi¸ik (1980) has an extensive discussion of orthogonality. . In actuality. thus λ → λ n .2. it must instead be the case that sin λL = 0. 1977). Thus. the problem is only satisﬁed for certain values of λ. λ = nπ/L. called eigenvalues. This can be written as ∞ (A.

This can be better visualized if we write out the terms explicitly.18) 0 F (x) sin λn x dx = m=1 Cm 0 sin λm x sin λn x dx . The rest of the modes are trivial and the summation itself vanishes. (A. Note.21) Cn = 1 N (λn ) L F (x) sin λn x dx .3. (A. so Eq. We can then simplify Eq. (A. We obtain L C1 0 L sin λ1 x sin λn x dx + sin λ2 x sin λn x dx + 0 C2 L C3 0 sin λ3 x sin λn x dx + · · · + L Cn 0 L sin λn x sin λn x dx + sin λn+1 x sin λn x dx + 0 L Cn+1 Cn+2 0 sin λn+2 x sin λn x dx + · · · as the explicit representation of the series. we ﬁnd that the mode coeﬃcients are given by (A. Now we make the observation that the right hand side vanishes except in the case where m = n due to the orthogonality property. Clearly. . which can be written using the norm as (A. the mode number symbol is arbitrary and we changed n → m in the summation to avoid ambiguity. DETERMINING MODE COEFFICIENTS 153 Next. we operate on Eq.16) with L L 0 sin λn x L ∞ m=1 dx to obtain (A.17) 0 F (x) sin λn x dx = 0 Cm sin λm x sin λn x dx .A.20). only mode C n is non– zero.17) can be simpliﬁed to L ∞ L (A.19) 0 F (x) sin λn x dx = Cn 0 L sin λn sin λn x dx . 0 It is left as an exercise to the reader to show that N (λ n ) for this case is simply L/2. The summation sign and coeﬃcients have been taken outside of the integral.20) 0 F (x) sin λn x dx = Cn N (λn ) .18) to L L (A. (A. as governed by orthogonality. Solving Eq. We recall that the mode coeﬃcients are constants rather than functions of x.

. . .21) determines coeﬃcients such that the initial condition F (x) is satisﬁed. (A. If F (x) is very complicated.e. the temperature at any x at time t = 0 is unity.A. . Clearly. EXAMPLE: THE UNIT INITIAL CONDITION 154 Eq. all even–numbered modes drop out of the problem L 2 sin λn x dx L 0 2L nπx L = − cos Lnπ L 0 Table A. for which the cosine of nπ must correspondingly alternate between negative and positive 1. t) for the entire problem domain 0 ≤ x ≤ L and t ≥ 0.1). (A. 5. 3. i. . We can simplify Cn further by writing it only for the non– trivial odd modes as 2 4 Cn = 2 = where n = 1. Example: The Unit Initial Condition As an example of ﬁnishing the problem to obtain the exact solution.3Recall that you’ve already showed that N (λ ) = L/2. 3. Values of the alternating term: [1 − (−1) n ] 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 ··· n value 2 0 2 0 2 0 2 · · · because their resulting mode coeﬃcients are all 0.3 Cn = = = 1 N (λn ) 2 L − L 0 L F (x) sin λn x dx 0 1 sin λn x dx = L 2 cos λn x L λn 0 2 nπL = − cos − cos 0 nπ L 2 [1 − cos n π] = nπ 2 = [1 − (−1)n ] nπ The last result is obtained by noting that n varies as 1. We can therefore compute quantities of engineering interest such as heat ﬂux at any position and any time. A. 2. n . 7.21) asA. let us consider the unit initial condition F (x) = 1.15) satisﬁes the governing equation and the boundary conditions while Eq. We must now evaluate the mode coeﬃcients using Eq.4. we can construct a table of how the term in brackets varies with n (Table A. (A. this means that we know the temperature distribution T (x. However. (A. it can usually be handled with the aid of standard integral tables. evaluation of Eq.1. . Otherwise. These two equations give the ﬁnal solution to the problem speciﬁed above.4. In fact. odd–numbered modes remain. nπ nπ A. . Physically.21) may not be straightforward.

e.g.4. T (x.3.A. otherwise go to next mode .e. This expression can be used to evaluate temperature at any arbitrary (x.5. we can substitute Cn into the general solution in Eq. EXAMPLE: THE UNIT INITIAL CONDITION 155 Finally. t). t) is below user–speciﬁed convergence criterion.. t) to newly calculated value • stop if converged. t) = 0 • set n = 1 • evaluate current mode n and add to running total of T (x.. (A.. if change of T (x. t) = nπ n=1. i. t) • set T (x. by • choose desired (x. t) • compare old value of T (x.15) to obtain ∞ 4 2 sin (λn x) e−αλn t .

B. To show this. u r0 0 ¯ 2 156 . Volume Flow Rate Eq. Integration of Mean Temperature Equation Eq.APPENDIX B Laminar Forced Convection in a Pipe This appendix shows the long–hand derivation of a number of equations relevant to laminar forced convection in fully developed pipe ﬂow.4) gives the result for the volume ﬂow rate in laminar pipe ﬂow. which conﬁrms Eq. (7. (7. we formally show this starting from the deﬁnition of volume ﬂow rate as the integral over the ﬂow cross section r0 Q = A V · n dA = ˆ u 2πr dr 0 and the exact solution given by Eq.3). B.1. (7. (7.4). (7.22). which has the form r0 2 u θ r dr = 1 . Substituting this expression we ﬁnd r0 Q = = = = = = − 0 1 4µ dP dx dP dx dP dx dP dx dP dx dP dx r0 0 r0 0 2 r0 1− r r0 r3 2 r0 r r0 2 2 2πr dr r dr 2 π r0 − 2µ 1− r− − − 2 π r0 2µ 2 π r0 2µ dr r0 0 r2 r4 − 2 2 4 r0 2 r0 4 2 π r0 − 2µ 4 π r0 − 8µ . Here. we must integrate Eq.2.23) gives the result for the expression A in the case of constant wall heat ﬂux.

(7. INTEGRATION OF MEAN TEMPERATURE EQUATION 157 We substitute for u and θ to ﬁnd − 2 2 A r0 u r0 ¯ 2 r0 0 2u 1 − ¯ r0 r r0 2 1 3 + 16 16 r r0 4 − 1 4 r r0 2 r dr = 1 . Writing out terms in long hand. we ﬁnd 7 r3 3 5 r5 1 r7 r − + − 2 4 6 16 16 r0 16 r0 16 r0 0 Carrying out term–by–term integration yields −4A −4A dr = 1 .23). 11 which conﬁrms Eq. r 0 7 r4 5 r6 1 r8 3 r2 − + − 2 4 6 2 · 16 4 · 16 r0 6 · 16 r0 8 · 16 r0 0 36 − 42 + 20 − 3 2 −4A r0 24 · 16 11 2 −4A r0 24 · 16 11 2 −A r0 6 · 16 11 2 A r0 − 96 Solving.B.2. we ﬁnd 96 2 A r0 = − . = = = = = 1 1 .

b · · C /(λ T ) = 0.b + Eλ. Wien’s Displacement Law Eq. T ) dλ = − 5 C1 λ−6 eC2 /(λ T ) − 1 C1 λ−5 eC2 /(λ T ) − 1 = − λ5 = = − 0.b /λ.APPENDIX C Blackbody Radiation C. That is. (10. and solve the equation x ex = 5.b · · C /(λ T ) 2 λ Tλ e 2 − 1 which can be recast as C2 eC2 /(λ T ) 5 · Eλ. (10. We wish to determine the conditions for λ where E λ. T ) is a maximum.b + Eλ. we can let x = C2 /(λ T ).12) reports Wien’s Displacement Law as Here. λmax T = 2897. T ) = λ5 C1 C2 /(λ T ) e − 1 . we ﬁnd dEλ. we can now simplify this expression as − C2 eC2 /(λ T ) = 5. −2 −1 − − + 1 − 1 · C2 C2 /(λ T ) e T λ2 C2 −2 C2 /(λ T ) λ e T C1 5 · 5 C /(λ T ) λ λ e 2 − 1 C1 C2 /(λ T ) e − 1 · eC2 /(λ T ) 5 C2 eC2 /(λ T ) · Eλ. · C /(λ T ) Tλ e 2 − 1 Notice that the term C2 /(λ T ) appears as a uniﬁed variable.b (λ. we prove this assertion starting from the spectral blackbody emissive power in Eq.b (λ.8 µm · K . Diﬀerentiating with respect to λ and setting the result equal to zero. λ T λ2 e 2 − 1 Factoring out Eλ.1.b (λ. ex − 1 158 .11) Eλ.

Blackbody radiation functions λT 200 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 Iλ.0 0.1.10) and (10. where temperature appears to the minus ﬁfth power. Table 12. For example.9126e-14 2. RADIATION FUNCTIONS 159 With a little algebra we ﬁnd ex − 1 = 5 1 − e−x .0396e-05 2.8086e-05 2. various blackbody radiation properties were discussed. .b / σT 5 3. we ﬁnd C2 14390 λT ≈ = = 2897.4005e-05 f0→λ 0. 390 µm · K (Incropera and Dewitt. x = 5 C.1.833 . 411) indicates this value is f0→λ = 0. (2000. 4. See Dunkle (1954) and Siegel and Howell (2001) for more comprehensive data.000087 0. Eqs.b / σT 5 3.701046 for λT = 5.73779 0.0 0.0 0.2. 2002) and solving.e. is convenient for tabulation owing to the fact the wavelength appears as the negative ﬁfth power in Planck’s Distribution.0 0.11).0592e-07 1.C. . For example. while Arpaci et al.1855e-06 f0→λ 0. This form.9217e-05 2.0416e-09 1. a few iterations of the Bisection Method (Kreyszig. i.965782 4. 1988) shows C2 x = ≈ 4. (10.965782 which conﬁrms Wien’s Law in Eq. e.75411 0.g.76181 continued on next page .70102.0 0.1.9175e-08 4.74611 0.4812e-08 9. .4961e-05 2. pp.72013 0.000016 0. ex which is readily solved with a numerical procedure.7668e-28 4. we give a summary of these properties in terms of the combined variable λT in units of µm · K. Table C.7000e-05 2. Radiation Functions In §10. 716) shows f0→λ = 0.5959e-05 2.12).1422e-11 1. (10.2. Table 8. λT Substituting C2 = 14. Here. 600.000321 λT 5600 5700 5800 5900 6000 6100 6200 6300 Iλ. Incropera and Dewitt (2002.965782 .71077 0. References show some variations due to diﬀerences in which integration is performed.2. Units of the column containing the radiation intensity are (µm · K · sr)−1 .72914 0. pp.1624e-05 3.70102 0.

4039e-07 7.82443 0.98081 0.0065e-05 3.0113e-05 7.7178e-06 1.7043e-05 3.00213 0.3736e-06 1.3952e-08 4.1831e-06 2.84801 0.0200e-08 2.05211 0.4982e-05 4.81918 0.9299e-06 1.1227e-05 3.000911 0.81373 0.20536 0.16136 0.2298e-07 2.5610e-05 3.9458e-05 6.97149 0.2151e-05 5.99917 0.5901e-05 5.46241 0.68034 0.22789 0. RADIATION FUNCTIONS 160 λT 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100 2200 2300 2400 2500 2600 2700 2800 2898 2900 3000 3100 3200 3300 3400 3500 3600 3700 3800 3900 4000 4100 4200 4300 4400 4500 4600 4700 4800 4900 5000 5100 5200 5300 5400 5500 Iλ.6421e-06 3.9337e-05 5.62089 0.1441e-05 7.95401 0.94505 0.83910 0.53268 0.82949 0.4466e-05 5.25056 0.2212e-05 7.8324e-06 1.96285 0.6024e-06 4.97765 0.99217 0.02853 0.3088e-05 2.2336e-06 1.80808 0.5296e-06 5.1369e-05 2.5873e-05 6.2005e-05 7.79610 0.1654e-05 4.6640e-05 6.27323 0.0563e-05 1.85625 0.48087 0.3295e-05 6.b / σT 5 2.2210e-05 2.6396e-05 1.3293e-05 4.5017e-05 6.0306e-05 4.99695 0.12003 0.29578 0.98341 0.4682e-05 1.01972 0.97377 0.00432 0.1753e-06 1.C.7554e-05 4.90304 0.99991 1.25011 0.08305 0.5338e-06 1.b / σT 5 2.31810 0.1501e-05 5.9792e-05 1.97581 0.95509 0.87457 0.0103e-06 7.4913e-05 3.7785e-05 5.0 .2713e-05 1.8889e-05 2.8528e-05 3.9053e-05 1.63373 0.8308e-06 4.66936 0.99890 0.4879e-07 6.98555 0.95921 0.57926 0.93185 0.96893 0.7932e-06 2.2404e-06 8.92367 0.76920 0.3654e-05 4.7633e-07 1.60754 0.1109e-06 9.8132e-05 6.8492e-05 4.06673 0.7224e-06 5.5800e-05 1.64608 0.8955e-05 6.4230e-05 3.7364e-08 3.54878 0.0777e-07 7.36173 0.6496e-06 6.96607 0.99971 0.40360 0.34011 0.78976 0.91416 0.0150e-08 1.8312e-05 7.0672e-05 9.49873 0.1325e-05 7.2902e-05 f0→λ 0.03934 0.3656e-05 1.2.5229e-05 1.00779 0.9657e-05 5.8621e-08 4.51600 0.42376 0.2005e-05 7.7018e-05 1.99529 0.7667e-05 1.99852 0.2212e-05 7.10089 0.56430 0.83437 0.99792 0.80230 0.0576e-05 6.59367 0.14026 0.69088 λT 6400 6500 6600 6700 6800 6900 7000 7100 7200 7300 7400 7500 7600 7800 8000 8500 9000 9500 10000 10500 11000 11500 12000 12500 13000 13500 14000 14500 15000 15500 16000 16500 17000 18000 19000 20000 25000 30000 35000 40000 45000 50000 55000 75000 100000 ∞ Iλ.93892 0.77632 0.8345e-05 1.4019e-05 5.88999 0.4605e-06 2.3442e-05 1.01285 0.78317 0.1852e-06 3.6716e-05 4.38291 0.2760e-05 6.44337 0.1837e-09 1.3568e-09 0 f0→λ 0.18312 0.65795 0.

1 2005 some minor corrections and additions. added page references where appropriate for better navigation 161 . equation numbering.APPENDIX D Document History Version Year Remarks 1. references. and index 2. implementation of ﬁgures.0 1999 initial plain TEX implementation A 2. tables.0 2003 L TEX re–implementation using “amsbook” class.

g. Wendl’s research activity primarily focuses on analytical work.About the Author Michael C. and logical problem solving. Dr. incompressible ﬂow. and other areas of theoretical biology. conduction heat transfer. but also broader issues that arise in life. He is on the Faculties of Medicine (Genetics) and Engineering (Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering) at Washington University. Wendl holds Bachelor’s and Master’s Degrees in Mechanical Engineering and a Doctorate in Applied Science and Engineering from Washington University. His main teaching goal is to prepare and train students to think critically not only about science/engineering. especially in pure and applied mathematics. e. decision–making. 162 . random DNA processing. evaluating claims objectively.

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Clamp. L. G... L. W... J. Fulton. D. Agarwala. P. M. A. S.. E.. H. T. S. Fujiyama. Copley. Bork. M. R. S.. J.. Milne. Blocker. Sulston. D. Meldrim. F. Yu. Naylor... J. de la Bastide.. Hubbard. R.... Roe. J. S. Sakaki. G... C.. Cox.. L. A. S. Zody. R. H. Frazier. S. D. Olsen. J. Qin. P. Gu.. Lehrach. Burge. Z. A. J.. Athanasiou. Ross. J. McPherson.. Y. Doyle. Gish.. L. L. S.. S. Shimizu. Hawkins. H.. W. L... Proctor.. F. Hillier.. A... Heaford. Wang. A. S. C. Watanabe. R. Harris. Brown.. R. Chinwalla. Grimwood. Richardson. Bentley. Predki... D.. T.. R.. 6th edition. Rives. L.. Durbin.. Miner. R. .. Baldwin.. Yada. E. Cook. Santos. S. J. B. A. H. R. E. Kann.. Chen.. C. J. J. Wilson.. A. A. P.. T... Devon.. M. D. M. J. Subramanian. J.. Wendl.. R. S. Humphray.. M.. R. Davis. Lloyd. Sheridan. Chen. Chissoe. N..Bibliography 167 Kreyszig. J. Linton. L. Lehoczky. Miranda... W. M. S.. J... Delehaunty. Itoh. Elkin. Bruls... C. Heilig. M. Dunham. Wincker... A. Sodergren. E. A.. T. B.. A. R. L... Schmutz. M. Totoki. Hood... Pepin. M. E.. Raymond. Worley. Nordsiek.. 1988). Delehaunty. Weinstock..... M. P.. Eichler. Weissenbach. Doggett... A. S. C. McCombie.. E.. Uberbacher.. Y.. Burton. Huang. Platzer. Sougnez.. D.. M. B. K.. L. French. Madan. Abola. Kucherlapati.. B. T. P.. Morris. C.. Stojanovic. Hattori. Church. Deadman. L. K. Jones. N... Waterston. Hornischer.. L.. Y. Clifton. Doerks.. Minoshima. A. V.. Scherer. Eddy. Grafham.. Kawagoe. Reinhardt. M. M.. R. R.. Rowen... Kawasaki.. M... H. J. Clee.. Saurin.. K.. Mercer. K. S. Nusbaum. P. T. C.. C. Birney. Myers. Fulton. R. Nelson. Wenning. Dedhia... Rosenthal.. K.. R. J.... Taudien. Branscomb.... W. M. C. C. A. D.... M.. T. G... Deloukas. Lucas. R. Shownkeen. K. Johnson.. N. A. K. Mesirov. K.. Carter. N. J. Federspiel. Mungall... Schultz. L. R. Lander. A. A. Kramer. Cheng.. E. Bouck. Gorrell. A. S. Olson. R.. D. C.. Rogers. P. I. L... Nyakatura. Q.... C.. Robert. M. J. E.. C.. M. A. S.... D. Kaul. S.. D. R. Birren. T. M. K. Gage. Hunt.. Aravind... W. L... D. Advanced Engineering Mathematics (John Wiley & Sons.. J. G. Raymond.. T. Batzoglou... M. McMurray.. W. Bailey. J. W. C. Muzny. Sims. A... N.. M. R.. S. R.. J. F. P. Wyman. Plumb. S.. Naylor. N. Dunham. C. G. R... Rosetti.. A. McKernan. Mardis.. W.. LeVine. J.. A. Cerutti.... McEwan.. Ainscough.. L. Funke. Matthews. Ramser. A. R. R.. A. Coulson. Toyoda. H... Gregory. Howland.. Gibbs. T... L. Evans. Stange-Thomann. Slezak. Pan.. R. Pelletier.. Beck.. FitzHugh. Taylor. J. Bateman. N... P. Mullikin.. E. P. A... D. J.... C. Dewar. Minx.. Rump.. Brottier. Dickson. J. L. H. S. R. G. C. K. B. New York NY.. Marra. Artiguenave... Metzker.... H... R. M. Yang. H. J. M.

.... (1921)... Kasif.... 1985). K. G. F. 1979). R. (2003). L.. F. Pastukhov... A. J... Kulp. New York NY.. 860–921.. M. F. Panton. (2003). Galagan. G. Wetterstrand. K. D. S. Thierry-Mieg. 294–298. M. Lancet.. S. Korf.Bibliography 168 E.. Schuler. V. A. S. Mills. R. H. Jones.. L... and Howell. R. Schlichting. H... L. M. Zhong.. New York NY. Y. A. D. Wolf. F. Stupka. J. Hokamp. Slater.. J. J. M. R.. S. Gilbert.. J. J. F. T... Szustakowki. T. X. R. J. Wheeler... G. and Morrison. Kaspryzk. Heat Transfer (Prentice Hall. Harmon. Wolfe.. Lee. Yeh. Y. 1. S.. and Korukov.. and Quinn. Lowe. McLysaght. V.. 409. E.. I. 122.... ¨ ¸ Ozisik. Furey. A. Heat Conduction (John Wiley & Sons. Vershinin. (2001). J.. Ponting. P. Heat Transfer: A Basic Approach (McGraw–Hill. K. Nature. S. Yang. A. Thierry-Mieg. 1999).. Behnia. Moran. 2001). 1980). Y.. London. Hermjakob. C. Miniature loop heat pipes for electronics cooling.. P. D. 40. Kitts. S. M.. I. Wallis.. A. L. Patrinos. A. V. K. L. Jang. Maidanik.. Zur n¨herungsweise Integration der diﬀerential a u Gleichung der laminaren Reibungschicht. V. R. Guyer. J.. Journal of Solar Energy Engineering. Felsenfeld. Upper Saddle River NJ. E. Mulder. Hydrodynamic analysis of direct steam generation solar collectors. 4th edition. E. Zeitscrift f¨r angewandte Mathematik und Mechanik . Collins. R.. Pollara. T. J. L. Applied Thermal Engineering. Wagner. Kennedy.. G. Hypersonic aerodynamic heating prediction using weighted essentially nonoscillatory schemes. ... P. V. 23. D.. Mikkelsen. 1125–1135. N. W. ¨ ¸ Ozisik. Schultz. A. Williams. D... G. Odeh. Koonin. 14–22. 2nd edition. Hayashizaki.. Peterson. Kent. Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets. Siegel.. Boundary Layer Theory (McGraw–Hill. Initial sequencing and analysis of the human genome. 252–268. A. Incompressible Flow (John Wiley & Sons.. 1984). N. C. 7th edition. N. W. Gong.. Haussler. Pohlhausen. K. New York NY. and Morgan. A. Smit. A. (2000). H. C. T.. New York NY.. Thermal Radiation Heat Transfer (Taylor and Francis.. J... T. H. J.. M. Johnson. M.

Thermal Radiative Properties (Plenum Press. Energy Conversion and Management.. 169. New York NY. H. New York NY. 1964). Experimental investigation of heat losses in a ceramic coated diesel engine. S.. ¨ von Karman. F. (1998). (2003). 437–440.Bibliography 169 Sinha. and Mimaroglu. Uber laminare und turbulente Reibung.. D.. N. Surface and Coatings Technology. and Kumar. 1. 39. (1921). Deem.. . 1978). W. T. and Lucks. Kumar. Gur. S.. Standards of the Tubular Exchange Manufacturers Association (TEMA. C. A.. K. Cakir. I. Zeitscrift f¨r angewandte Mathematik und Mechanik . 6th edition. Taymaz. u Wood. W. TEMA. M.. 233–252. 168–170. Energy conservation in high–rise buildings: Changes in air conditioning load induced by vertical temperature and humidity proﬁle in Delhi.

55. 44 Bisection Method. 44. 97 circuit analogy. 2 equation. 12 cylindrical coordinates. 18. 55. 53. 99 correction factors. 100–102 heat generation. 14. 53–54 coeﬃcient. 7. 17. 103 inﬁnite. 23–27 hydraulic diameter. 57. 88 DNA. 152 emissive power. 99 thumbnail diagram. 91 boundary layer equations. 34 eﬃciency. 3 convection. 14 no–slip. 35 general equation. 23 Grashof number. 98 vertical plate. 71. 29 Fourier number. 149 Neumann. 13 irradiation. 66–67 internal. 90 Couette ﬂow. 93 heat exchanger. 6. 14. 50.Index Biot number. 159 boundary conditions. 13 adiabatic. 121 Kirchhoﬀ’s Circuit Law. 14 boundary layer approximation. 21 one–dimensional. 99–100 –NTU analysis. 59. 3 control volume. 44. 9–12 constant conductivity. 92 Boussinesq approximation. 90 Chain Rule of Calculus. 50 gel electrophoresis. 143 conduction. 47 external. 85 diﬀerential equation 170 separable. 81 Gaussian Error Function. 4–6 control surface. 23 Eckert number. 104 heat capacity rate. 13 . 17–23 continuum assumption. 150 characteristic length scale. 103 concentric tube. 14 Dirichlet. 16–17 circuit analogy. 110–115 coeﬃcient. 27. 27–36 eﬀectiveness. 145 L’Hospitals rule. 2. 92 buoyancy. 109 fouling factor. 30 Ideal Gas Law. 86 eigenvalues. 69. overall. 93 initial conditions. 38 Dittus–Boelter correlation. 111 LMTD analysis. 28. 149 Fourier’s Law. 77 natural. 85 Robbins. 11. 78. 40. 41 Churchill–Chu correlation horizontal cylinder. 17–23. 37. 120 ﬁns. 62 heat exchanger. 49. 45. 13 steady. 108 Laplacian operator. 104–109 shell–and–tube. 13 one–dimensional. 22. 89 hyperbolic trig functions.

103 Peclet number.INDEX 171 lumped capacitance analysis. 66 gradient. 95 Taylor series. 8. 149 M–16 riﬂe. 19 Reynolds number. 134 reciprocity rule. 81. 128 re–radiating surface. 63 overall heat transfer coeﬃcient. 8 contact resistance. 57. 122 Rayleigh number. 122 Planck’s Distribution. 38. 2. 60. 55 Nusselt number. 100–102 volumetric heat capacity. 128 view factor. 136 summation rule. 68. 64. 53. 2. 60. 37 resistance. 19 diﬀusivity. 28 temperature. 67. 126 gray body. 86 product solution. 88 similarity transform. 29. 22 Navier–Stokes Equations. 74 Prandtl number. 137 radiosity. 40. 117 stream function. 119 Kirchhoﬀ’s Law. 103 thermal expansion coeﬃcient. 124 Wien’s Displacement Law. 117. 132 intensity. 78 Reynolds–Colburn analogy. 147 semi–transparent body. 96 resistors in parallel. 121 emissivity. 63 Sieder–Tate correlation. 123 Stefan–Boltzmann Law. 9. 62. 27. 7. 7–8 thermal conductivity. 19 in series. 94 skin friction factor. 67. 17. 130 opaque body. 6 ﬁlm. 18. 8 . 1 absolute and relative. 73 solid angle. 33. 124 diﬀuse. 116–117 blackbody. 50 radiation. 48. 117. 56. 38. 85 Newton’s Law of Cooling. 105 Newton’s Law of Viscosity. 92 thumbnail diagram.

- Maths T Assignment Stpm 2013
- Conduction Heat Transfer Arpaci.
- Problemas Resolvidos I
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- Theory of Vortex Sound (Cambridge Texts in Applied Mathematics) by M. S. Howe
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